National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for related emissions including

  1. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Detailed Energy-Related Carbon Emissions All Industry Groups 1994 emissions Selected Industries Petroleum refining Chemicals Iron & Steel...

  2. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  3. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, by Industry, 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Page > Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions > Total Table Total Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for Manufacturing Industries, 1994 Carbon Emissions (million...

  4. Articles which include chevron film cooling holes, and related processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunker, Ronald Scott; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2014-12-09

    An article is described, including an inner surface which can be exposed to a first fluid; an inlet; and an outer surface spaced from the inner surface, which can be exposed to a hotter second fluid. The article further includes at least one row or other pattern of passage holes. Each passage hole includes an inlet bore extending through the substrate from the inlet at the inner surface to a passage hole-exit proximate to the outer surface, with the inlet bore terminating in a chevron outlet adjacent the hole-exit. The chevron outlet includes a pair of wing troughs having a common surface region between them. The common surface region includes a valley which is adjacent the hole-exit; and a plateau adjacent the valley. The article can be an airfoil. Related methods for preparing the passage holes are also described.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary V: Biofuels and Sustainability: Acknowledging Challenges and Confronting MisconceptionsQuantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG EmissionsJennifer B....

  6. EIA Energy Efficiency-Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Posted Date: May 2007 Page Last Modified: September 2010 EIA Links Disclaimer: These pages...

  7. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling (Bolton, CT); Bechtel, II, William Theodore (Scotia, NY); Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur (Scotia, NY); Black, Stephen Hugh (Duanesburg, NY); Bland, Robert James (Clifton Park, NY); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (Scotia, NY); Meyer, Stefan Martin (Troy, NY); Taura, Joseph Charles (Clifton Park, NY); Battaglioli, John Luigi (Glenville, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  8. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013 October 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 October 2014 U.S. Energy...

  9. NEW MASER EMISSION FROM NONMETASTABLE AMMONIA IN NGC 7538. II. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS INCLUDING WATER MASERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Seojin Kim, Stella

    2011-12-15

    We present new maser emission from {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (9,6) in NGC 7538. Our observations include the known spectral features near v{sub LSR} = -60 km s{sup -1} and -57 km s{sup -1} and several more features extending to -46 km s{sup -1}. In three epochs of observation spanning two months we do not detect any variability in the ammonia masers, in contrast to the >10-fold variability observed in other {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (9,6) masers in the Galaxy over comparable timescales. We also present observations of water masers in all three epochs for which emission is observed over the velocity range -105 km s{sup -1} < v{sub LSR} < -4 km s{sup -1}, including the highest velocity water emission yet observed from NGC 7538. Of the remarkable number of maser species in IRS 1, H{sub 2}O and, now, {sup 14}NH{sub 3} are the only masers known to exhibit emission outside of the velocity range -62 km s{sup -1} < v{sub LSR} < -51 km s{sup -1}. However, we find no significant intensity or velocity correlations between the water emission and ammonia emission. We also present a non-detection in the most sensitive search to date toward any source for emission from the CC{sup 32}S and CC{sup 34}S molecules, indicating an age greater than Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4} yr for IRS 1-3. We discuss these findings in the context of embedded stellar cores and recent models of the region.

  10. Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeWall, Kevin George (Pocatello, ID); Garcia, Humberto Enrique (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael George (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-04-17

    Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

  11. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31

    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel type and the 'sectoral' calculation of summing emissions across end-use sectors. Adjustments for the China-specific conventions of reporting foreign bunkers and domestic bunkers fueling abroad are made following IPCC definitions of international bunkers and EIA reporting conventions, while the sequestration of carbon in carbon steel is included as an additional adjustment. Under the sectoral approach, fuel consumption of bunkers and other transformation losses as well as gasoline consumption are reallocated to conform to EIA sectoral reporting conventions. To the extent possible, this study relies on official energy data from primary sources. A limited number of secondary sources were consulted to provide insight into the nature of consumption of some products and to guide the analysis of carbon sequestered in steel. Beyond these, however, the study avoided trying to estimate figures where directly unavailable, such as natural gas flaring. As a result, the basic calculations should be repeatable for other years with the core set of data from National Bureau of Statistics and Sinopec (or a similarly authoritative source of oil product data). This study estimates China's total energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2008 to be 6666 Mt CO{sub 2}, including 234.6 Mt of non-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions and 154 Mt of sequestered CO{sub 2}. Bunker fuel emissions in 2008 totaled 15.9 Mt CO{sub 2}, but this figure is underestimated because fuel use by Chinese ship and planes for international transportation and military bunkers are not included. Of emissions related to energy consumption, 82% is from coal consumption, 15% from petroleum and 3% from natural gas. From the sectoral approach, industry had the largest share of China's energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions with 72%, followed by residential at 11%, transport and telecommunications at 8%, and the other four (commerce, agriculture, construction and other public) sectors having a combined share of 9%. Thermal electricity and (purchased) heat (to a lesser degree) are major sources of fuel consumption behind sectoral emissions, responsible for 2533 Mt CO2 and 321 Mt CO{sub 2}, respec

  12. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Washington, DC 20585 November 2015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | U.S. ... two factors in the generation of electricity that have allowed emissions to ...

  13. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  14. Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by State (2000-2011)" "metric tons of carbon dioxide per person" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  15. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " ,"million metric tons of carbon dioxide",,,,,"shares" "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total",,"Coal","Petrol...

  16. Table 3. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportat...

  17. Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000-2011)" "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011" "State",2000,2001,2002,...

  18. Table 4. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector " "percent of total" ,"shares" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportation"...

  19. Key statistics related to CO/sub 2/ emissions: Significant contributing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellogg, M.A.; Edmonds, J.A.; Scott, M.J.; Pomykala, J.S.

    1987-07-01

    This country selection task report describes and applies a methodology for identifying a set of countries responsible for significant present and anticipated future emissions of CO/sub 2/ and other radiatively important gases (RIGs). The identification of countries responsible for CO/sub 2/ and other RIGs emissions will help determine to what extent a select number of countries might be capable of influencing future emissions. Once identified, those countries could potentially exercise cooperative collective control of global emissions and thus mitigate the associated adverse affects of those emissions. The methodology developed consists of two approaches: the resource approach and the emissions approach. While conceptually very different, both approaches yield the same fundamental conclusion. The core of any international initiative to control global emissions must include three key countries: the US, USSR, and the People's Republic of China. It was also determined that broader control can be achieved through the inclusion of sixteen additional countries with significant contributions to worldwide emissions.

  20. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ‹ Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview Diagram Notes [a] CO2 emissions related to petroleum consumption (includes 64 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [b] CO2 emissions related to coal consumption (includes 0.3 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [c] CO2 emissions related to natural gas consumption (includes 13 MMTCO2 of

  1. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    This analysis examines some of the factors that influence state-level carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels. These factors include: the fuel mix — especially in the generation of electricity; the state climate; the population density of the state; the industrial makeup of the state and whether the state is a net exporter or importer of electricity.

  2. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Appendix B. Other state-related links The underlying energy data upon which the state-level CO2 calculations are based: http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/. This is the State Energy Data System (SEDS), the main repository for all of EIA's state-based energy data. The state CO2 data that this analysis is based upon: http://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/state/ This data set contains CO2 emissions data for each state by sector and fuel based on SEDS. State Energy Profiles:

  3. "Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million metric tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",5060,5129.666667,5184.666667,5239.666667,5287.333333,5335,5379,5437.666667,5481.666667,5529.333333,5599,5657.666667,5694.333333,5738.333333,5797,5874,5925.333333,5984 "AEO

  4. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), this paper presents historical energy-related carbon dioxide emission estimates for energy-intensive sub-sectors and 23 industries. Estimates are based on surveys of more than 15,000 manufacturing plants in 1991, 1994, 1998, and 2002. EIA is currently developing its collection of manufacturing data for 2006.

  5. Emission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emission intensities and line ratios from a fast neutral helium beam J-W. Ahn a͒ Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA D. Craig, b͒ G. Fiksel, and D. J. Den Hartog Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA J. K. Anderson Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA M. G.

  6. Emissions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity Volume 1: Main Text ::_:_ii_i!!._i_!!!i_!!_!_!i!ii_!).._i!iiii!!_i!i_!!_iii!i!_ii_iii!!_i!i!ii_!i!!_!!!_ii!!_)i!i_i_i!!ii!i!_!!ii!!i_!i_!iii_!!i!i_i!i!!_!ii_i!i._!ii_i!i!_i!_!!!i!!_!_!!_!_!!!!i_!_!!!i_:``.!ii!!_i_i_i!!!_!_!_ii_i_!_i_i_!!i!i!i!!!ii:!i_i!_ii!_!!ii_! ,qh_...dllri" :._m..41W..- ,,mm,m_ - Centerfor TransportationResearch Argonne NationalLaboratory Operated by lhe University of Chicago, under

  7. Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million metric tons) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 5060 5130 5185 5240 5287 5335 5379 5438 5482 5529 5599 5658 5694 5738 5797 5874 5925 5984 AEO 1995 5137 5174 5188 5262 5309 5361 5394 5441 5489 5551 5621 5680 5727 5775 5841 5889 5944 AEO 1996 5182 5224 5295 5355 5417 5464 5525 5589 5660 5735 5812 5879 5925 5981 6030 6087 6142 6203

  8. Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850-2000 - article no. GB2018

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, T.C.; Bhardwaj, E.; Dong, R.; Jogani, R.; Jung, S.K.; Roden, C.; Streets, D.G.; Trautmann, N.M.

    2007-05-15

    We present an emission inventory of primary black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) aerosols from fossil fuel and biofuel combustion between 1850 and 2000. We reconstruct fossil fuel consumption and represent changes in technology on a national and sectoral basis. Our estimates rely on new estimates of biofuel consumption, and updated emission factors for old technologies. Emissions of black carbon increase almost linearly, totaling about 1000 Gg in 1850, 2200 Gg in 1900, 3000 Gg in 1950, and 4400 Gg in 2000. Primary organic carbon shows a similar pattern, with emissions of 4100 Gg, 5800 Gg, 6700 Gg, and 8700 Gg in 1850, 1900, 1950, and 2000, respectively. Biofuel is responsible for over half of BC emission until about 1890, and dominates energy-related primary OC emission throughout the entire period. Coal contributes the greatest fraction of BC emission between 1880 and 1975, and is overtaken by emissions from biofuel around 1975, and by diesel engines around 1990. Previous work suggests a rapid rise in BC emissions between 1950 and 2000. This work supports a more gradual increase between 1950 and 2000, similar to the increase between 1850 and 1925; implementation of clean technology is a primary reason.

  9. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Table 4. 2013 state energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector percent of total Shares State Commercial Electric Power Residential Industrial Transportation Alabama 1.5% 53.6% 1.8% 17.8% 25.3% Alaska 6.6% 7.3% 4.3% 48.4% 33.3% Arizona 2.5% 58.3% 2.6% 4.8% 31.8% Arkansas 4.2% 52.4% 3.3% 13.6% 26.5% California 4.5% 12.9% 7.9% 20.7% 54.0% Colorado 4.1% 42.6% 9.0% 15.3% 29.0% Connecticut 10.4% 19.8% 21.0% 6.8% 42.1% Delaware 5.7% 30.2% 7.0% 27.8% 29.3% District of Columbia 35.5% 0.0%

  10. State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2011...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    by sector" was revised to match the values given in Table 3. Paragraph entitled "Emissions by Sector" the following changes were made by state and sector: Vermont...

  11. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000-2013) million metric tons carbon dioxide Change (2000-2013) State 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 percent Absolute Alabama 142.1 133.5 138.3 139.1 141.3 142.9 145.1 146.5 138.9 119.4 131.8 128.9 122.2 119.8 -15.7% -22.3 Alaska 44.3 43.4 43.5 43.6 46.7 48.0 45.7 43.9 39.3 37.7 38.5 38.4 37.8 36.1 -18.5% -8.2 Arizona 86.0 88.3 87.6 89.4 96.2 96.3 99.2 100.9 101.2 92.2 93.9 91.9 89.9 93.8

  12. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Table 2. 2013 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel million metric tons of carbon dioxide Shares State Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Total Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Alabama 53.3 33.2 33.4 119.8 44.5% 27.7% 27.8% Alaska 1.4 17.1 17.7 36.1 3.9% 47.2% 48.9% Arizona 43.0 32.8 18.1 93.8 45.8% 34.9% 19.3% Arkansas 30.9 21.6 15.3 67.8 45.5% 31.9% 22.5% California 3.6 217.7 131.8 353.1 1.0% 61.7% 37.3% Colorado 34.3 30.6 25.6 90.5 37.9% 33.8% 28.2% Connecticut 0.7 20.8 12.7 34.3 2.1%

  13. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Table 3. 2013 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector million metric tons carbon dioxide State Commercial Electric Power Residential Industrial Transportation Total Alabama 1.8 64.2 2.2 21.3 30.3 119.8 Alaska 2.4 2.6 1.6 17.5 12.0 36.1 Arizona 2.4 54.7 2.4 4.5 29.8 93.8 Arkansas 2.8 35.5 2.2 9.3 18.0 67.8 California 16.0 45.7 27.7 72.9 190.8 353.1 Colorado 3.7 38.6 8.2 13.9 26.3 90.5 Connecticut 3.6 6.8 7.2 2.3 14.4 34.3 Delaware 0.8 4.1 0.9 3.7 3.9 13.4 District of Columbia

  14. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by state (2000-2013) metric tons carbon dioxide per person Change (2000-2013) State 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 percent Absolute Alabama 31.9 29.9 30.9 30.9 31.2 31.3 31.3 31.4 29.4 25.1 27.5 26.9 25.4 24.8 -22.4% -7.1 Alaska 70.6 68.4 67.8 67.3 70.9 72.0 67.7 64.6 57.2 53.9 53.9 53.1 51.8 49.0 -30.6% -21.6 Arizona 16.7 16.7 16.2 16.2 17.0 16.5 16.5 16.4 16.1 14.5 14.6 14.2 13.7 14.1 -15.2%

  15. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Table 9. Net electricity trade index and primary electricity source for states with least and most energy-related carbon dioxide emissions per capita (2000-2013) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Primary 2011 2012 2013 Source Least CO2 per capita New York 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 Natural Gas Vermont 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.6 3.0 3.2 Nuclear California 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 Natural Gas

  16. Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

  17. State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2012

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Hawaii, where a dominant share of emissions is also from petroleum, had a residential share of 0.3%-the lowest in the United States, because of minimal heating fuel requirements. ...

  18. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Hawaii, where a dominant share of emissions is also from petroleum, had a residential share of 0.3%-the lowest in the United States, because of minimal heating fuel requirements. ...

  19. Relating adatom emission to improved durability of Pt-Pd diesel oxidation catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johns, Tyne Richele; Goeke, Ronald S.; Ashbacher, Valerie; Thune, Peter C.; Niemantsverdriet, J. W.; Kiefer, Boris; Kim, Chang H.; Balogh, Michael P.; Datye, Abhaya K.

    2015-06-05

    Sintering of nanoparticles is an important contributor to loss of activity in heterogeneous catalysts, such as those used for controlling harmful emissions from automobiles. But mechanistic details, such as the rates of atom emission or the nature of the mobile species, remain poorly understood. Herein we report a novel approach that allows direct measurement of atom emission from nanoparticles. We use model catalyst samples and a novel reactor that allows the same region of the sample to be observed after short-term heat treatments (seconds) under conditions relevant to diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Monometallic Pd is very stable and does notmore » sinter when heated in air (T ≤ 800 °C). Pt sinters readily in air, and at high temperatures (≥800 °C) mobile Pt species emitted to the vapor phase cause the formation of large, faceted particles. In Pt–Pd nanoparticles, Pd slows the rate of emission of atoms to the vapor phase due to the formation of an alloy. However, the role of Pd in Pt DOCs in air is quite complex: at low temperatures, Pt enhances the rate of Pd sintering (which otherwise would be stable as an oxide), while at higher temperature Pd helps to slow the rate of Pt sintering. DFT calculations show that the barrier for atom emission to the vapor phase is much greater than the barrier for emitting atoms to the support. Thus, vapor-phase transport becomes significant only at high temperatures while diffusion of adatoms on the support dominates at lower temperatures.« less

  20. Pulsed-Laser Deposited Amorphous Diamond and Related Materials: Synthesis, Characterization, and Field Emission Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, L.R.; Geohegan, D.B.; Jellison, G.E., Jr.; Lowndes, D.H.; Merkulov, V.I.; Puretzky, A.A.

    1999-01-23

    Amorphous carbon films with variable sp{sup 3} content were produced by ArF (193nm) pulsed laser deposition. An in-situ ion probe was used to measure kinetic energy of C{sup +} ions. In contrast to measurements made as a function of laser fluence, ion probe measurements of kinetic energy are a convenient as well as more accurate and fundamental method for monitoring deposition conditions, with the advantage of being readily transferable for inter-laboratory comparisons. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements reveal that tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films with the most diamond-like properties are obtained at the C ion kinetic energy of {approximately}90 eV. Film properties are uniform within a 12-15{degree} angle from the plume centerline. Tapping-mode atomic force microscope measurements show that films deposited at near-optimum kinetic energy are extremely smooth, with rms roughness of only {approximately} 1 {angstrom} over distances of several hundred nm. Field emission (FE) measurements show that ta-C does not appear to be a good electron emitter. After conditioning of ta-C films deposited on n-type Si a rather high turn-on voltage of {approximately}50 V/{micro}m was required to draw current of {approximately}1 nA to the probe. The emission was unstable and typically ceased after a few minutes of operation. The FE tests of ta-C and other materials strongly suggest that surface morphology plays a dominant role in the FE process, in agreement with conventional Fowler-Nordheim theory.

  1. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20 Table 8. Carbon intensity of the economy by state (2000-2013) metric tons of energy-related carbon dioxide per million chained 2009 dollars of GDP Change (2000-2013) State 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 percent Absolute Alabama 947.5 881.6 889.4 873.7 839.2 825.8 827.1 833.3 791.5 704.6 759.5 734.5 691.6 661.8 -30.2% -285.7 Alaska 1,220.0 1,145.3 1,118.1 1,127.8 1,158.5 1,161.3 1,038.3 949.7 847.3 758.4 793.2 770.3 735.6 730.8 -40.1% -489.2 Arizona 424.8

  2. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Table 7. Carbon intensity by state (2000-2013) kilograms of energy-related carbon dioxide per million Btu Change (2000-2013) State 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 percent Absolute Alabama 58.6 58.2 58.0 57.7 57.0 57.8 58.0 58.3 56.1 51.4 53.7 52.1 50.2 49.0 -16.5% -9.6 Alaska 59.7 59.0 59.4 59.4 60.3 60.2 61.2 60.8 60.4 59.8 60.1 60.0 59.5 59.3 -0.7% -0.4 Arizona 55.0 56.0 54.8 55.8 56.1 56.9 57.5 56.3 55.3 54.1 54.7 53.8 52.9 53.9 -2.0% -1.1 Arkansas 57.2

  3. Linear and nonlinear physics of the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability of fusion-born ions in relation to ion cyclotron emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajal, L. Cook, J. W. S.; Dendy, R. O.; Chapman, S. C.; Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Troms, N-9037, Troms; Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, D-01187, Dresden

    2014-01-15

    The magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MCI) probably underlies observations of ion cyclotron emission (ICE) from energetic ion populations in tokamak plasmas, including fusion-born alpha-particles in JET and TFTR [Dendy et al., Nucl. Fusion 35, 1733 (1995)]. ICE is a potential diagnostic for lost alpha-particles in ITER; furthermore, the MCI is representative of a class of collective instabilities, which may result in the partial channelling of the free energy of energetic ions into radiation, and away from collisional heating of the plasma. Deep understanding of the MCI is thus of substantial practical interest for fusion, and the hybrid approximation for the plasma, where ions are treated as particles and electrons as a neutralising massless fluid, offers an attractive way forward. The hybrid simulations presented here access MCI physics that arises on timescales longer than can be addressed by fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations and by analytical linear theory, which the present simulations largely corroborate. Our results go further than previous studies by entering into the nonlinear stage of the MCI, which shows novel features. These include stronger drive at low cyclotron harmonics, the re-energisation of the alpha-particle population, self-modulation of the phase shift between the electrostatic and electromagnetic components, and coupling between low and high frequency modes of the excited electromagnetic field.

  4. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection The guide provides background information about various types of industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers along with discussion about the fuels that they burn and the emissions that they produce. Also included are discussions about emissions standards and compliance issues, technical details related to emissions control techniques, and

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GHG Emissions | Department of Energy Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions Plenary V: Biofuels and Sustainability: Acknowledging Challenges and Confronting Misconceptions Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions Jennifer B. Dunn, Energy Systems and Sustainability Analyst, Argonne National Laboratory PDF

  6. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3. Methane Emissions 3.1. Total emissions The major sources of U.S. methane emissions are energy production, distribution, and use; agriculture; and waste management (Figure 17). U.S. methane emissions in 2009 totaled 731 MMTCO2e, 0.9 percent higher than the 2008 total of 724 MMTCO2e (Table 17). Methane emissions declined steadily from 1990 to 2001, as emissions from coal mining and landfills fell, then rose from 2002 to 2009 as a result of moderate increases in emissions related to energy,

  7. A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Zhou, Yuyu; Kyle, G. Page; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Hongbin

    2015-04-21

    Historical emission estimates for anthropogenic aerosol and precursor compounds are key data needed for Earth system models, climate models, and atmospheric chemistry and transport models; both for general analysis and assessment and also for model validation through comparisons with observations. Current global emission data sets have a number of shortcomings, including timeliness and transparency. Satellite and other earth-system data are increasingly available in near real-time, but global emission estimates lag by 5-10 years. The CEDS project will construct a data-driven, open source framework to produce annually updated emission estimates. The basic methodologies to be used for this system have been used for SO2 (Smith et al. 2011, Klimont, Smith and Cofala 2013), and are designed to complement existing inventory efforts. The goal of this system is to consistently extend current emission estimates both forward in time to recent years and also back over the entire industrial era. The project will produce improved datasets for global and (potentially) regional model, allow analysis of trends across time, countries, and sectors of emissions and emission factors, and facilitate improved scientific analysis in general. Consistent estimation of uncertainty will be an integral part of this system. This effort will facilitate community evaluation of emissions and further emission-related research more generally.

  8. Carbon Emissions: Food Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct....

  9. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  10. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  11. Emissive sensors and devices incorporating these sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swager, Timothy M; Zhang, Shi-Wei

    2013-02-05

    The present invention generally relates to luminescent and/or optically absorbing compositions and/or precursors to those compositions, including solid films incorporating these compositions/precursors, exhibiting increased luminescent lifetimes, quantum yields, enhanced stabilities and/or amplified emissions. The present invention also relates to sensors and methods for sensing analytes through luminescent and/or optically absorbing properties of these compositions and/or precursors. Examples of analytes detectable by the invention include electrophiles, alkylating agents, thionyl halides, and phosphate ester groups including phosphoryl halides, cyanides and thioates such as those found in certain chemical warfare agents. The present invention additionally relates to devices and methods for amplifying emissions, such as those produced using the above-described compositions and/or precursors, by incorporating the composition and/or precursor within a polymer having an energy migration pathway. In some cases, the compositions and/or precursors thereof include a compound capable of undergoing a cyclization reaction.

  12. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  13. Emission Abatement System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  14. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  15. MHK technology developments include current

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technology developments include current energy conversion (CEC) devices, for example, hydrokinetic turbines that extract power from water currents (riverine, tidal, and ocean) and wave energy conversion (WEC) devices that extract power from wave motion. Sandia's MHK research leverages decades of experience in engineering, design, and analysis of wind power technologies, and its vast research complex, including high- performance computing (HPC), advanced materials and coatings, nondestructive

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Efficiency & Emissions » Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports research and development of aftertreatment technologies to control advanced combustion engine exhaust emissions. All engines that enter the vehicle market must comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's emissions regulations. Harmful pollutants in these emissions include: Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides Unburned

  17. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  18. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyer, K.-U. Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 1824 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000135,000 t CO{sub 2-eq.}/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government.

  19. Emission Market Opportunities for Federal Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Shah, C.

    2005-06-01

    This document assists federal agencies in incorporating emissions market opportunities in their energy projects, including emission reduction credit markets and cap and trade. It looks at how potential emissions costs/revenues can be incorporated into project proposals, how groups can apply for emissions allowances, and how agencies can sell emissions allowances and receive the financial benefit. The fact sheet also outlines how FEMP can provide assistance throughout the process.

  20. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CLOSE) Project Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project Extensive ... to evaluate relative contributions of fuel and lubricating oil on tailpipe emissions. ...

  1. Green, red and infrared Er-related emission in implanted GaN:Er and GaN:Er,O samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monteiro, T.; Soares, J.; Correia, M. R.; Alves, E.

    2001-06-01

    Er-related luminescence near 1.54 {mu}m ({similar_to}805 meV) is observed under below band gap excitation at 4.2 K in GaN:Er and GaN:Er,O implanted samples. The spectrum of the recovered damage samples is a multiline structure. So far, these lines are the sharpest ones reported for GaN. Well-resolved green and red luminescences are observed in implanted samples. The dependence of luminescence on the excitation energy as well as the influence of different nominal fluence and annealing conditions is discussed. Combining the results obtained from photoluminescence and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, different lattice sites for the optical active Er-related centers are identified. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2008-02-05

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties

  3. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  4. Study Pinpoints Sources of Polluting Vehicle Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Unburned lubricant produces 60%-90% of organic carbon emissions. While diesel fuel is often viewed as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more significantly degrade air quality. Gasoline exhaust is at least as toxic on a per-unit-mass basis as diesel exhaust, and contributes up to 10 times more particulate matter (PM) to the emission inventory. Because emissions from both fuels can gravely impact health and the environment, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched a study to understand how these pollutants relate to fuels, lubricants, and engine operating conditions. NREL's Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project tested a variety of vehicles over different drive cycles at moderate (72 F) and cold (20 F) temperatures. Testing included: (1) Normal and high-emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles; (2) Gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles; (3) New and aged lubricants representative of those currently on the market; and (4) Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel fuel, biodiesel, and CNG. The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel vehicles without aftertreatment emission control systems exhibited OC emissions approximately one order of magnitude higher than gasoline vehicles. High-emitter gasoline vehicles produced OC emissions similar to diesel vehicles without exhaust aftertreatment emission control. Exhaust catalysts combusted or converted more than 75% of lubricating oil components in the exhaust gases. Unburned crankcase lubricant made up 60%-90% of OC emissions. This OC represented 20%-50% of emitted PM in all but two of the vehicles. Three-way catalysts proved effective at reducing most of the OC. With high PM emitters or vehicles with deteriorated aftertreatment, high-molecular-weight fuel components and unburned lubricant were emitted at higher rates than in vehicles in good repair, with functioning emissions systems. Light-duty gasoline, medium-duty diesel, and heavy-duty natural gas vehicles produced more particles with fresh oil than with aged oil. The opposite trend was observed in light- and medium-duty high PM emitters. This effect was not readily apparent with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, perhaps because the lubricant represented a much smaller fraction of the total PM in those trucks.

  5. Production, Energy, and Carbon Emissions: A Data Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  6. Biological Air Emissions Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological Air Emissions Control Biological Air Emissions Control Innovative Technology Enables Low-Cost, Energy-Efficient Treatment of Industrial Exhaust Streams Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol, formaldehyde, acetylaldehyde, and acrolein) during production of wood products must be tightly controlled. Conventional VOCs and HAPs emission

  7. Power plant emissions reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  8. Labor Relations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Labor Relations Act prohibits unfair labor practices, including discrimination in employment to discourage (or encourage) membership in a union, and engaging in bad faith collective bargaining.

  9. Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride, that are transparent to solar (short-wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave radiation, thus preventing long-wave...

  10. Characterization of emissions from advanced automotive power plant concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montalvo, D.A.; Hare, C.T.

    1984-11-01

    Emissions from three diesel cars using two fuel formulations were assessed. The three diesel cars included a prototype naturally-aspirated Fiat 131, a prototype turbocharged Fiat 131, and a 1981 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme. Each Fiat was tested with and without a prototype catalytic trap. Vehicle operating procedures used for test purposes included the 1981 Federal Test Procedures as well as the Highway Fuel Economy Test, the New York City Cycle, and an 85 km/hr steady-state cruise. Both regulated and unregulated gaseous and particulate emissions were measured. Organic solubles in particulate were analyzed for various constituents and characteristics including fractionation by relative polarity, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and mutagenic activity by Ames bioassay. Application of the catalytic trap oxidizer system to the Fiat prototypes resulted in significant reductions of organic and carbon monoxide emissions under all transient driving conditions examined. Total particulate emissions were reduced an average of 55 percent with the turbocharged engine and 65 percent with the naturally-aspirated engine. The Ames assay mutagenic response (revertants/microgram) of the particulate-phase organics was elevated by the catalytic exhaust aftertreatment device, however the emission rates (revertants/km) were reduced an average of 66 percent with the turbocharged and 73 percent with the naturally-aspirated engines.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Benefits of Workplace Charging |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Benefits of Workplace Charging Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Benefits of Workplace Charging Reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from employees' commutes, also known as Scope 3 emissions, is a top priority for many organizations interested in minimizing their carbon footprint. Scope 3 emissions are indirect GHG emissions from sources not owned or directly controlled by the organization but are related to their activities,

  12. Organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2012-03-27

    An organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers is provided. Each emissive layer may define an exciton formation region, allowing exciton formation to occur across the entire emissive region. By aligning the energy levels of each emissive layer with the adjacent emissive layers, exciton formation in each layer may be improved. Devices incorporating multiple emissive layers with multiple exciton formation regions may exhibit improved performance, including internal quantum efficiencies of up to 100%.

  13. Secretary of Energy Memorandum on DOE Greenhouse Gas Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    including strategies for: reducing greenhouse gas emissions; using water more efficiently; promoting pollution prevention and eliminating waste; constructing high performance ...

  14. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, CB

    2002-05-06

    Boiler owners and operators who need additional generating capacity face a number of legal, political, environmental, economic, and technical challenges. Their key to success requires selection of an adequately sized low-emission boiler and combustion equipment that can be operated in compliance with emission standards established by state and federal regulatory agencies. Recognizing that many issues are involved in making informed selection decisions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsored efforts at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a guide for use in choosing low-emission boilers and combustion equipment. To ensure that the guide covers a broad range of technical and regulatory issues of particular interest to the commercial boiler industry, the guide was developed in cooperation with the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA), the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The guide presents topics pertaining to industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers. Background information about various types of commercially available boilers is provided along with discussions about the fuels that they burn and the emissions that they produce. Also included are discussions about emissions standards and compliance issues, technical details related to emissions control techniques, and other important selection considerations. Although information in the guide is primarily applicable to new ICI boilers, it may also apply to existing boiler installations.

  15. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  16. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.; Dorsey, George F.; West, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  17. Biogenic sulfur emissions in the SURE region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude of biogenic sulfur emissions from the northeastern United States - defined as the EPRI Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) study area. Initial laboratory efforts developed and validated a portable sulfur sampling system and a sensitive, gas chromatographic analytical detection system. Twenty-one separate sites were visited in 1977 to obtain a representative sulfur emission sampling of soil orders, suborders, and wetlands. The procedure determined the quantity of sulfur added to sulfur-free sweep air by the soil flux as the clean air was blown through the dynamic enclosure set over the selected sampling area. This study represents the first systematic sampling for biogenic sulfur over such a wide range of soils and such a large land area. The major impacts upon the measured sulfur flux were found to include soil orders, temperature, sunlight intensity, tidal effects along coastal areas. A mathematical model was developed for biogenic sulfur emissions which related these field variables to the mean seasonal and annual ambient temperatures regimes for each SURE grid and the percentage of each soil order within each grid. This model showed that at least 53,500 metric tons (MT) of biogenic sulfur are emitted from the SURE land surfaces and approximately 10,000 MT are emitted from the oceanic fraction of the SURE grids. This equates to a land sulfur flux of nearly 0.02 gram of sulfur per square meter per yr, or about 0.6% of the reported anthropogenic emissions withn the SURE study area. Based upon these data and the summertime Bermuda high clockwise circulation of maritime air across Florida and the Gulf Coast states northward through the SURE area, the total land biogenic sulfur emission contribution to the SURE area atmospheric sulfur burden might approach 1 to 2.5% of the anthropogenic.

  18. Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

  19. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

  20. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  1. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  2. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Outputs include: The tool outputs greenhouse gas emissions (including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide equivalent, and biogenic carbon dioxide) for each...

  3. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors

  4. Topic A Note: Includes STEPS Subtopic

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Topic A Note: Includes STEPS Subtopic 33 Total Projects Developing and Enhancing Workforce Training Programs

  5. President's FY 2017 Budget Includes $878 Million for Fossil Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Programs | Department of Energy President's FY 2017 Budget Includes $878 Million for Fossil Energy Programs President's FY 2017 Budget Includes $878 Million for Fossil Energy Programs February 9, 2016 - 2:33pm Addthis President Obama's Fiscal Year (FY) 2017 Budget includes a programmatic level of $878 million for the Office of Fossil Energy (FE), including the use of $240 million in prior year funds, to advance technologies related to the reliable, efficient, affordable and environmentally

  6. Emissions trading: principles and practice. 2nd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tietenberg, T.H.

    2006-02-15

    The author demonstrates how emissions trading became an attractive alternative to command-and-control policies that would have required the EPA to disallow the opening of new plants in the middle of the recession-burdened 1970s. His examination of the evolution of this system includes, among other applications, the largest multinational trading system ever conceived, the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EUETG), and the use of emissions trading in the Kyoto Protocol.

  7. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  8. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  9. Emissions from US waste collection vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maimoun, Mousa A.; Reinhart, Debra R.; Gammoh, Fatina T.; McCauley Bush, Pamela

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ? Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ? Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ? Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 610% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving.

  10. Microsoft Word - Energy and Emissions Benefit Table Instructions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    known air emissions from the production site related to the manufacturing process (i.e. NOx from a boiler, emissions from a diesel forklift or volatization of a solvent). If there...

  11. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  12. INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interval technical basis document Chiaro, P.J. Jr. 44 INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION DETECTORS; RADIATION MONITORS; DOSEMETERS;...

  13. Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkulov, V.I.; Lowndes, D.H.; Baylor, L.R.

    1999-11-29

    The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbon films with both high and low sp3 contents are poor field emitters. This is similar to the results obtained for smooth nanocrystalline, sp2-bonded carbon films. In contrast, carbon films prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HE-CVD) exhibit very good field emission properties, including low emission turn-on fields, high emission site density, and excellent durability. HF-CVD carbon films were found to be predominantly sp2-bonded. However, surface morphology studies show that these films are thoroughly nanostructured, which is believed to be responsible for their promising field emission properties.

  14. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  15. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  16. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  17. Communications circuit including a linear quadratic estimator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Dennis D.

    2015-07-07

    A circuit includes a linear quadratic estimator (LQE) configured to receive a plurality of measurements a signal. The LQE is configured to weight the measurements based on their respective uncertainties to produce weighted averages. The circuit further includes a controller coupled to the LQE and configured to selectively adjust at least one data link parameter associated with a communication channel in response to receiving the weighted averages.

  18. Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers April 24, 2013 - 4:37pm Addthis Joining Director Dot Harris (second from left) were Marlene Kaplan, the Deputy Director of Education and director of EPP, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Claudia Rankins, a Program Officer with the National Science Foundation and Jim Stith, the past Vice-President of the American Institute of

  19. Positron emission tomography wrist detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); O'Connor, Paul (Bellport, NY); Woody, Craig (Setauket, NY); Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang (Sound Beach, NY); Radeka, Veljko (Bellport, NY); Vaska, Paul (Sound Beach, NY); Pratte, Jean-Francois (Stony Brook, NY)

    2006-08-15

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal representing a time-of-occurrence of an annihilation event, generating an address signal representing a channel detecting the annihilation event, and generating a channel signal including the time and address signals. The method also includes generating a composite signal including the channel signal and another similarly generated channel signal concerning another annihilation event. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information includes a time signal generator, address signal generator, channel signal generator, and composite signal generator. The time signal is asynchronous and the address signal is synchronous to a clock signal. A PET scanner includes a scintillation array, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoders include the time signal generator, address signal generator, channel signal generator, and composite signal generator.

  20. Positron emission imaging device and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Philip R.; Mullens, James Allen

    2013-01-15

    An imaging system and method of imaging are disclosed. The imaging system can include an external radiation source producing pairs of substantially simultaneous radiation emissions of a picturization emission and a verification emissions at an emission angle. The imaging system can also include a plurality of picturization sensors and at least one verification sensor for detecting the picturization and verification emissions, respectively. The imaging system also includes an object stage is arranged such that a picturization emission can pass through an object supported on said object stage before being detected by one of said plurality of picturization sensors. A coincidence system and a reconstruction system can also be included. The coincidence can receive information from the picturization and verification sensors and determine whether a detected picturization emission is direct radiation or scattered radiation. The reconstruction system can produce a multi-dimensional representation of an object imaged with the imaging system.

  1. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maynard, John D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hendee, Shonn P. (Albuquerque, NM); Rohrscheib, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Nunez, David (Albuquerque, NM); Alam, M. Kathleen (Cedar Crest, NM); Franke, James E. (Franklin, TN); Kemeny, Gabor J. (Madison, WI)

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  2. Scramjet including integrated inlet and combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutschenreuter, P.H. Jr.; Blanton, J.C.

    1992-02-04

    This patent describes a scramjet engine. It comprises: a first surface including an aft facing step; a cowl including: a leading edge and a trailing edge; an upper surface and a lower surface extending between the leading edge and the trailing edge; the cowl upper surface being spaced from and generally parallel to the first surface to define an integrated inlet-combustor therebetween having an inlet for receiving and channeling into the inlet-combustor supersonic inlet airflow; means for injecting fuel into the inlet-combustor at the step for mixing with the supersonic inlet airflow for generating supersonic combustion gases; and further including a spaced pari of sidewalls extending between the first surface to the cowl upper surface and wherein the integrated inlet-combustor is generally rectangular and defined by the sidewall pair, the first surface and the cowl upper surface.

  3. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the worlds roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the worlds roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the worlds roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  4. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  5. MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) Model | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website: dspace.mit.eduhandle1721.129790 Cost: Free Related Tools Global Atmospheric Pollution Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory ClearPath Global Relationship Assessment...

  6. Pulse transmission transmitter including a higher order time derivate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-23

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission transmitter includes: a clock; a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to the clock, the pseudorandom polynomial generator having a polynomial load input; an exclusive-OR gate coupled to the pseudorandom polynomial generator, the exclusive-OR gate having a serial data input; a programmable delay circuit coupled to both the clock and the exclusive-OR gate; a pulse generator coupled to the programmable delay circuit; and a higher order time derivative filter coupled to the pulse generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  7. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

    2005-08-15

    Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the MAGHG project is to support developing countries assess and report their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, including assessment of mitigation options for...

  9. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Outputs include: The tool outputs greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide equivalent) for each facility as well as total...

  10. Harmonized Emissions Analysis Tool (HEAT) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to support local governments in planning, implementing and monitoring greenhouse gas and air pollution emission reduction programs. LEDSGP green logo.png This tool is included in...

  11. Air Quality/Emissions Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Quality/Emissions Resources Air Quality/Emissions Resources Federal agencies and certain state governments are required to acquire alternative fuel vehicles as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, though they are also entitled to choose a petroleum reduction path as an alternative to the mandate. Find air quality/emissions resources below. Emission-Related Information for Heavy Trucks, Buses, and Engines National Clean Diesel Campaign: Sector Programs. Back to Transportation Policies and

  12. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy CLOSE) Project Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project Extensive chemical and physical characterization performed on emissions from normal and high emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles to evaluate relative contributions of fuel and lubricating oil on tailpipe emissions. PDF icon deer08_lawson.pdf More Documents & Publications Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project) Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on

  13. 2002 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 2 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations 2002 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations August 25-29, 2002 San Diego, California The following documents are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. Download Adobe Reader. Session 1: Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction Strategies Session 7: Emissions-Related Technologies and Regulations Session 2: Applied Thermoelectric Generator R&D Session 8: Emerging Diesel Engine Technology

  14. Subterranean barriers including at least one weld

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

    2007-01-09

    A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

  15. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  16. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  17. Power generation method including membrane separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  18. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouse, Carl A. (Del Mar, CA); Simnad, Massoud T. (La Jolla, CA)

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  19. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  20. Anisotropic Lyman-alpha emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Zheng; Wallace, Joshua

    2014-10-20

    As a result of resonant scatterings off hydrogen atoms, Ly? emission from star-forming galaxies provides a probe of the (hardly isotropic) neutral gas environment around them. We study the effect of the environmental anisotropy on the observed Ly? emission by performing radiative transfer calculations for models of neutral hydrogen clouds with prescriptions of spatial and kinematic anisotropies. The environmental anisotropy leads to corresponding anisotropy in the Ly? flux and spectral properties and induces correlations among them. The Ly? flux (or observed luminosity) depends on the viewing angle and shows an approximate correlation with the initial Ly? optical depth in the viewing direction relative to those in all other directions. The distribution of Ly? flux from a set of randomly oriented clouds is skewed to high values, providing a natural contribution to the Ly? equivalent width (EW) distribution seen in observation. A narrower EW distribution is found at a larger peak offset of the Ly? line, similar to the trend suggested in observation. The peak offset appears to correlate with the line shape (full width at half-maximum and asymmetry), pointing to a possibility of using Ly? line features alone to determine the systemic redshifts of galaxies. The study suggests that anisotropies in the spatial and kinematic distributions of neutral hydrogen can be an important ingredient in shaping the observed properties of Ly? emission from star-forming galaxies. We discuss the implications of using Ly? emission to probe the circumgalactic and intergalactic environments of galaxies.

  1. Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffin, J.W.; Olsen, K.B.

    1992-02-04

    A method is described of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species. The method uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having an electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has an optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited in the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis. Optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis. 18 figs.

  2. Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffin, Jeffrey W. (Kennewick, WA); Olsen, Khris B. (West Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A method of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis and optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis.

  3. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of electric vehicles under varying driving cycles in various counties and US cities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.; Marr, W.W.

    1994-02-10

    Electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, relative to emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles. However, those studies have not considered all aspects that determine greenhouse gas emissions from both gasoline vehicles (GVs) and EVs. Aspects often overlooked include variations in vehicle trip characteristics, inclusion of all greenhouse gases, and vehicle total fuel cycle. In this paper, we estimate greenhouse gas emission reductions for EVs, including these important aspects. We select four US cities (Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C.) and six countries (Australia, France, Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and analyze greenhouse emission impacts of EVs in each city or country. We also select six driving cycles developed around the world (i.e., the US federal urban driving cycle, the Economic Community of Europe cycle 15, the Japanese 10-mode cycle, the Los Angeles 92 cycle, the New York City cycle, and the Sydney cycle). Note that we have not analyzed EVs in high-speed driving (e.g., highway driving), where the results would be less favorable to EVs; here, EVs are regarded as urban vehicles only. We choose one specific driving cycle for a given city or country and estimate the energy consumption of four-passenger compact electric and gasoline cars in the given city or country. Finally, we estimate total fuel cycle greenhouse gas emissions of both GVs and EVs by accounting for emissions from primary energy recovery, transportation, and processing; energy product transportation; and powerplant and vehicle operations.

  4. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  5. Secondary Emission Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winn, David Roberts

    2015-03-24

    This report describes R&D on a new type of calorimeter using secondary emission to measure the energy of radiation, particularly high energy particles.

  6. Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994...

  7. Laser diode assembly including a cylindrical lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, J.J.; Reichert, P.

    1992-01-14

    The present invention provides a diffraction limited, high numerical aperture (fast) cylindrical microlens. The method for making the microlens is adaptable to produce a cylindrical lens that has almost any shape on its optical surfaces. The cylindrical lens may have a shape, such as elliptical or hyperbolic, designed to transform some particular given input light distribution into some desired output light distribution. In the method, the desired shape is first formed in a glass preform. Then, the preform is heated to the minimum drawing temperature and a fiber is drawn from it. The cross-sectional shape of the fiber bears a direct relation to the shape of the preform from which it was drawn. During the drawing process, the surfaces become optically smooth due to fire polishing. 11 figs.

  8. Laser diode assembly including a cylindrical lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, James J. (San Jose, CA); Reichert, Patrick (Hayward, CA)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a diffraction limited, high numerical aperture (fast) cylindrical microlens. The method for making the microlens is adaptable to produce a cylindrical lens that has almost any shape on its optical surfaces. The cylindrical lens may have a shape, such as elliptical or hyperbolic, designed to transform some particular given input light distribution into some desired output light distribution. In the method, the desired shape is first formed in a glass preform. Then, the preform is heated to the minimum drawing temperature and a fiber is drawn from it. The cross-sectional shape of the fiber bears a direct relation to the shape of the preform from which it was drawn. During the drawing process, the surfaces become optically smooth due to fire polishing.

  9. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-03-06

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  10. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSanto, Leonard (Dunkirk, MD); Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    2007-11-20

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  11. Drapery assembly including insulated drapery liner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cukierski, Gwendolyn (Ithaca, NY)

    1983-01-01

    A drapery assembly is disclosed for covering a framed wall opening, the assembly including drapery panels hung on a horizontal traverse rod, the rod having a pair of master slides and means for displacing the master slides between open and closed positions. A pair of insulating liner panels are positioned behind the drapery, the remote side edges of the liner panels being connected with the side portions of the opening frame, and the adjacent side edges of the liner panels being connected with a pair of vertically arranged center support members adapted for sliding movement longitudinally of a horizontal track member secured to the upper horizontal portion of the opening frame. Pivotally arranged brackets connect the center support members with the master slides of the traverse rod whereby movement of the master slides to effect opening and closing of the drapery panels effects simultaneous opening and closing of the liner panels.

  12. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

    2004-04-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  13. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  14. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  15. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  16. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter (Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  17. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah; Liu, Xiaoguang; Irshad, Wasim; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib

    2015-10-20

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  18. Minimising greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freund, P.

    1997-07-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels is the main anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas. Generation of electricity is the single largest user of fossil fuels, world-wide. If there is international agreement about the need to make substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, then having access to suitable, effective technology would be important. This would help avoid the need for precipitate action, such as radical changes in the energy supply systems. Capture and disposal of greenhouse gases from flue gases can achieve substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. This can be realized with known technology. In this paper, the range of options will be summarized and steps needed to achieve further progress will be identified. Emissions of other gases, such as methane, are also expected to influence the climate. Methane is emitted from many anthropogenic sources; the IEA Greenhouse Gas programme is investigating ways of reducing these emissions. Opportunities for abatement of methane emissions associated with coal mining will be described. Reduction in emissions from drainage gas is relatively straightforward and can, in appropriate circumstances, generate useful income for the none operator. More substantial amounts of methane are discharged in mine ventilation air but these are more difficult to deal with. In this paper, a summary will be given of recent progress in reducing methane emissions. Opportunities will be examined for further research to progress these technologies.

  19. Measurement of emission fluxes from Technical Area 54, Area G and L. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eklund, B.

    1995-03-15

    The emission flux (mass/time-area) of tritiated water from TA-54 was measured to support the characterization of radioactive air emissions from waste sites for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program and for the Area G Performance Assessment. Measurements were made at over 180 locations during the summers of 1993 and 1994, including randomly selected locations across Area G, three suspected areas of contamination at Area G, and the property surrounding TA-54. The emission fluxes of radon were measured at six locations and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at 30 locations. Monitoring was performed at each location over a several-hour period using the U.S. EPA flux chamber approach. Separate samples for tritiated water, radon, and VOCs were collected and analyzed in off-site laboratories. The measured tritiated water emission fluxes varied over several orders of magnitude, from background levels of about 3 pCi/m{sup 2}-min to 9.69 x 10{sup 6} pCi/m{sup 2}-min near a disposal shaft. Low levels of tritiated water were found to have migrated into Pajarito Canyon, directly south of Area G. The tritium flux data were used to generate an estimated annual emission rate of 14 Curies/yr for all of Area G, with the majority of this activity being emitted from relatively small areas adjacent to several disposal shafts. The estimated total annual release is less than 1% of the total tritium release from all LANL in 1992 and results in a negligible off-site dose. Based on the limited data available, the average emission flux of radon from Area G is estimated to be 8.1 pCi/m{sup 2}-min. The measured emission fluxes of VOCs were < 100 {mu}g/m{sup 2}-min, which is small compared with fluxes typically measured at hazardous waste landfills. The air quality impacts of these releases were evaluated in a separate report.

  20. Electrodes including a polyphosphazene cyclomatrix, methods of forming the electrodes, and related electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L; Stewart, Frederick F; Wilson, Aaron D; Stone, Mark L

    2014-10-28

    An electrode comprising a polyphosphazene cyclomatrix and particles within pores of the polyphosphazene cyclomatrix. The polyphosphazene cyclomatrix comprises a plurality of phosphazene compounds and a plurality of cross-linkages. Each phosphazene compound of the plurality of phosphazene compounds comprises a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units, and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. Each phosphorus-nitrogen unit is bonded to an adjacent phosphorus-nitrogen unit. Each cross-linkage of the plurality of cross-linkages bonds at least one pendant group of one phosphazene compound of the plurality of phosphazene compounds with the at least one pendant group of another phosphazene compound of the plurality of phosphazene compounds. A method of forming a negative electrode and an electrochemical cell are also described.

  1. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  2. Evaluation of Partial Oxidation Reformer Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unnasch, Stefan; Fable, Scott; Waterland, Larry

    2006-01-06

    In this study, a gasoline fuel processor and an ethanol fuel processor were operated under conditions simulating both startup and normal operation. Emissions were measured before and after the AGB in order to quantify the effectiveness of the burner catalyst in controlling emissions. The emissions sampling system includes CEM for O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and THC. Also, integrated gas samples are collected in evacuated canisters for hydrocarbon speciation analysis via GC. This analysis yields the concentrations of the hydrocarbon species required for the California NMOG calculation. The PM concentration in the anode burner exhaust was measured through the placement of a filter in the exhaust stream. The emissions from vehicles with fully developed on board reformer systems were estimated.

  3. Device for collecting emissions from kerosene heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilloti, N.J.

    1984-09-04

    An apparatus for both improving the heat distribution throughout a room from a portable kerosene heater and for collecting undesirable emissions resulting from the burning of the kerosene, includes a base adapted to be mounted on the top of the heater, the base supporting a vertically extending shaft on which is mounted a heat-driven fan formed of either paper or metal, and a disposable disk mounted a spaced distance above the fan on the same shaft, the disk serving as a collector for the undesirable emissions. When the device is placed on an operating kerosene heater, the rising hot air and gases from the heater cause the fan to rotate, which in turn causes emissions from the burning fuel to move upwardly in a more or less cylindrical path. As the products of combustion move upwardly, certain emissions therein such as soot, oily vapors, etc. deposit or condense onto the surface of the spinner and disposable disk.

  4. Metal tritides helium emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavis, L.C.

    1980-02-01

    Over the past several years, we have been measuring the release of helium from metal tritides (primarily erbium tritide). We find that qualitatively all tritides of interest to us behave the same. When they are first formed, the helium is released at a low rate that appears to be related to the amount of surface area which has access to the outside of the material (either film or bulk). For example, erbium tritide films initially release about 0.3% of the helium generated. Most tritide films emit helium at about this rate initially. At some later time, which depends upon the amount of helium generated, the parent occluding element and the degree of tritium saturation of the dihydride phase the helium emission changes to a new mode in which it is released at approximately the rate at which it is generated (for example, we measure this value to be approx. = .31 He/Er for ErT/sub 1/./sub 9/ films). If erbium ditritide is saturated beyond 1.9 T/Er, the critical helium/metal ratio decreases. For example, in bulk powders ErT/sub 2/./sub 15/ reaches critical release concentration at approx. = 0.03. Moderate elevation of temperature above room temperature has little impact on the helium release rate. It appears that the process may have approx. = 2 kcal/mol activation energy. The first helium formed is well bound. As the tritide ages, the helium is found in higher energy sites. Similar but less extensive measurements on scandium, titanium, and zirconium tritides are also described. Finally, the thermal desorption of erbium tritides of various ages from 50 days to 3154 days is discussed. Significant helium is desorbed along with the tritium in all but the youngest samples during thermodesorption.

  5. Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG EmissionsReduction in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn

    2005-06-01

    Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG emissions taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG emissions tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG emissions to meet specific reduction targets, are an essential first step towards GHG emissions trading programs.

  6. Field emission electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  7. Combustion and Emissions Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion and Emissions Modeling This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - Computational Fluid Dynamics Project Leader Background Modern transportation engines are designed to use the available fuel resources efficiently and minimize harmful emissions. Optimization of these designs is based on a wealth of practical design, construction and operating experiences, and use of modern testing facilities and sophisticated analyses of the combustion

  8. Spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation in turbulent plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Yoon, P. H.; Simes, F. J. R.; Pavan, J.; Gaelzer, R.; Instituto de Fsica e Matemtica, UFPel, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul

    2014-01-15

    Known radiation emission mechanisms in plasmas include bremmstrahlung (or free-free emission), gyro- and synchrotron radiation, cyclotron maser, and plasma emission. For unmagnetized plasmas, only bremmstrahlung and plasma emissions are viable. Of these, bremmstrahlung becomes inoperative in the absence of collisions, and the plasma emission requires the presence of electron beam, followed by various scattering and conversion processes. The present Letter proposes a new type of radiation emission process for plasmas in a state of thermodynamic quasi-equilibrium between particles and enhanced Langmuir turbulence. The radiation emission mechanism proposed in the present Letter is not predicted by the linear theory of thermal plasmas, but it relies on nonlinear wave-particle resonance processes. The electromagnetic particle-in-cell numerical simulation supports the new mechanism.

  9. NMOG Emissions Characterization and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott; West, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

  10. NMOG Emissions Characterizations and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott; West, Brian H

    2011-10-01

    Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

  11. Dissertation: Precompound Emission of Energetic Light Fragments in Spallation Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerby, Leslie Marie

    2015-08-04

    Emission of light fragments (LF) from nuclear reactions is an open question. Different reaction mechanisms contribute to their production; the relative roles of each, and how they change with incident energy, mass number of the target, and the type and emission energy of the fragments is not completely understood. None of the available models are able to accurately predict emission of LF from arbitrary reactions. However, the ability to describe production of LF (especially at energies ? 30 MeV) from many reactions is important for different applications, such as cosmic-ray-induced Single Event Upsets (SEUs), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and heavy-ion beams, to name just a few. The Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) version 03.03 and the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) version 03.03 event generators in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code version 6 (MCNP6) describe quite well the spectra of fragments with sizes up to ?He across a broad range of target masses and incident energies (up to ~ 5 GeV for CEM and up to ~ 1 TeV/A for LAQGSM). However, they do not predict the high energy tails of LF spectra heavier than ?He well. Most LF with energies above several tens of MeV are emitted during the precompound stage of a reaction. The current versions of the CEM and LAQGSM event generators do not account for precompound emission of LF larger than ?He. The aim of our work is to extend the precompound model in them to include such processes, leading to an increase of predictive power of LF-production in MCNP6. This entails upgrading the Modified Exciton Model currently used at the preequilibrium stage in CEM and LAQGSM. It also includes expansion and examination of the coalescence and Fermi break-up models used in the precompound stages of spallation reactions within CEM and LAQGSM. Extending our models to include emission of fragments heavier than ?He at the precompound stage has indeed provided results that have much better agreement with experimental data.

  12. A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions Historical emission estimates for anthropogenic aerosol and precursor compounds are key data needed for Earth system models, climate models, and atmospheric chemistry and transport models; both for general analysis and assessment and also for

  13. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  14. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  15. NREL: Technology Deployment - Cities-LEAP Energy Profile Tool Includes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Data on More than 23,400 U.S. Cities Cities-LEAP Energy Profile Tool Includes Energy Data on More than 23,400 U.S. Cities News NREL Report Examines Energy Use in Cities and Proposes Next Steps for Energy Innovation Publications Citi-Level Energy Decision Making: Data Use in Energy Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation in U.S. Cities Sponsors DOE's Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Policy and Analysis Office Related Stories Hawaii's First Net-Zero Energy

  16. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-06-01

    Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately reflect year to year changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index would provide Registry participants with a means for demonstrating improvements in their energy and GHG emissions per unit of production without divulging specific values. For the second research area, Berkeley Lab evaluated various methods used to calculate baselines for documentation of energy consumption or GHG emissions reductions, noting those that use industry-specific metrics. Accounting for actions to reduce GHGs can be done on a project-by-project basis or on an entity basis. Establishing project-related baselines for mitigation efforts has been widely discussed in the context of two of the so-called ''flexible mechanisms'' of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto Protocol) Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

  17. A LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF CLASSICAL NOVAE: FREE-FREE EMISSION VERSUS PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko E-mail: mariko@educ.cc.keio.ac.jp

    2015-01-10

    We analyzed light curves of seven relatively slower novae, PW Vul, V705 Cas, GQ Mus, RR Pic, V5558 Sgr, HR Del, and V723 Cas, based on an optically thick wind theory of nova outbursts. For fast novae, free-free emission dominates the spectrum in optical bands rather than photospheric emission, and nova optical light curves follow the universal decline law. Faster novae blow stronger winds with larger mass-loss rates. Because the brightness of free-free emission depends directly on the wind mass-loss rate, faster novae show brighter optical maxima. In slower novae, however, we must take into account photospheric emission because of their lower wind mass-loss rates. We calculated three model light curves of free-free emission, photospheric emission, and their sum for various white dwarf (WD) masses with various chemical compositions of their envelopes and fitted reasonably with observational data of optical, near-IR (NIR), and UV bands. From light curve fittings of the seven novae, we estimated their absolute magnitudes, distances, and WD masses. In PW Vul and V705 Cas, free-free emission still dominates the spectrum in the optical and NIR bands. In the very slow novae, RR Pic, V5558 Sgr, HR Del, and V723 Cas, photospheric emission dominates the spectrum rather than free-free emission, which makes a deviation from the universal decline law. We have confirmed that the absolute brightnesses of our model light curves are consistent with the distance moduli of four classical novae with known distances (GK Per, V603 Aql, RR Pic, and DQ Her). We also discussed the reason why the very slow novae are about ∼1 mag brighter than the proposed maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relation.

  18. Fugitive Emissions | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fugitive Emissions Fugitive Emissions Fugitive emissions refers to the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from pressurized systems. The Fugitive Emissions Working Group (FEWG) is a network of scientists, engineers, technicians, and environmental professionals representing more than 20 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, power marketing administrations, program offices, and National Nuclear Security Administration facilities that are working to reduce emissions of high-impact fugitive

  19. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  20. Plasma emission spectroscopy method of tumor therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Kevin J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for performing photon diagnostics using a portable and durable apparatus which incorporates the use of a remote sensing probe in fiberoptic communication with an interferometer or spectrometer. Also disclosed are applications for the apparatus including optically measuring high velocities and analyzing plasma/emission spectral characteristics.

  1. Plasma emission spectroscopy method of tumor therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, K.J.

    1997-03-11

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for performing photon diagnostics using a portable and durable apparatus which incorporates the use of a remote sensing probe in fiberoptic communication with an interferometer or spectrometer. Also disclosed are applications for the apparatus including optically measuring high velocities and analyzing plasma/emission spectral characteristics. 6 figs.

  2. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN THE X-RAY EMISSION-LINE GAS IN NGC1068

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraemer, S. B. [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Sharma, N.; Turner, T. J.; George, Ian M. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Crenshaw, D. Michael, E-mail: kraemer@yancey.gsfc.nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed, photoionization modeling analysis of XMM-Newton/Reflection Grating Spectrometer observations of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC1068. The spectrum, previously analyzed by Kinkhabwala et al., reveals a myriad of soft X-ray emission lines, including those from H- and He-like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon, and M- and L-shell iron. As noted in the earlier analysis, based on the narrowness of the radiative recombination continua, the electron temperatures in the emission-line gas are consistent with photoionization, rather than collisional ionization. The strengths of the carbon and nitrogen emission lines, relative to those of oxygen, suggest unusual elemental abundances, which we attribute to the star formation history of the host galaxy. Overall, the emission lines are blueshifted with respect to systemic, with radial velocities ?160kms{sup 1}, similar to that of [O III] ?5007, and thus consistent with the kinematics and orientation of the optical emission-line gas and, hence, likely part of an active galactic nucleus driven outflow. We were able to achieve an acceptable fit to most of the strong emission lines with a two-component photoionization model, generated with CLOUDY. The two components have ionization parameters and column densities of logU = 0.05 and 1.22 and logN {sub H} = 20.85 and 21.2 and covering factors of 0.35 and 0.84, respectively. The total mass of the X-ray gas is roughly an order of magnitude greater than the mass of ionized gas determined from optical and near-IR spectroscopy, which indicates that it may be the dominant component of the narrow-line region. Furthermore, we suggest that the medium that produces the scattered/polarized optical emission in NGC1068 possesses similar physical characteristics to those of the more highly ionized of the X-ray model components.

  3. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

  4. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  5. Compact conscious animal positron emission tomography scanner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schyler, David J. (Bellport, NY); O'Connor, Paul (Bellport, NY); Woody, Craig (Setauket, NY); Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang (Sound Beach, NY); Radeka, Veljko (Bellport, NY); Vaska, Paul (Sound Beach, NY); Pratte, Jean-Francois (Stony Brook, NY); Volkow, Nora (Chevy Chase, MD)

    2006-10-24

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal for an event, generating an address signal representing a detecting channel, generating a detector channel signal including the time and address signals, and generating a composite signal including the channel signal and similarly generated signals. The composite signal includes events from detectors in a block and is serially output. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information from a block includes time signal generators for detectors in a block and an address and channel signal generator. The PET scanner includes a ring tomograph that mounts onto a portion of an animal, which includes opposing block pairs. Each of the blocks in a block pair includes a scintillator layer, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoder includes time signal generators and an address signal and channel signal generator.

  6. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of nitrogen only in regions with sufficient rainfall or irrigation, include below-ground crop residues while omitting biological fixation of nitrogen, and transfer...

  7. Production of extremely low volatile organic compounds from biogenic emissions: Measured yields and atmospheric implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jokinen, Tuija; Berndt, Torsten; Makkonen, Risto; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Junninen, Heikki; Paasonen, Pauli; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Guenther, Alex B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, M.; Ehn, Mikael K.; Sipila, Mikko

    2015-06-09

    Extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) are suggested to promote aerosol particle formation and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production in the atmosphere. We show that the capability of biogenic VOC (BVOC) to produce ELVOC depends strongly on their chemical structure and relative oxidant levels. BVOC with an endocyclic double bond, representative emissions from, e.g., boreal forests, efficiently produce ELVOC from ozonolysis. Compounds with exocyclic double bonds or acyclic compounds including isoprene, emission representative of the tropics, produce minor quantities of ELVOC, and the role of OH radical oxidation is relatively larger. Implementing these findings into a global modeling framework shows that detailed assessment of ELVOC production pathways is crucial for understanding biogenic secondary organic aerosol and atmospheric CCN formation.

  8. Environmental Emissions from Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Martin, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide.

  9. Environmental Emissions From Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Martin, Robert L.

    1989-04-01

    This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide. (DJE 2005)

  10. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5. High-GWP gases 5.1. Total emissions Greenhouse gases with high global warming potential (high-GWP gases) are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which together represented 3 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The estimates for emissions of HFCs not related to industrial processes or electric transmission are derived from the EPA

  11. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.4 Commercial Environmental Emissions

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 2009 Methane Emissions for U.S. Commercial Buildings Energy Production, by Fuel Type (1) Fuel Type Petroleum 0.5 Natural Gas 26.8 Coal 0.3 Wood 0.4 Electricity (2) 50.5 Total 78.5 Note(s): Source(s): MMT CO2 Equivalent 1) Sources of emissions include oil and gas production, processing, and distribution; coal mining; and utility and site combustion. Carbon Dioxide equivalent units are calculated by converting methane emissions to carbon dioxide emissions (methane's global warming potential is

  12. Preventive techniques of pollution control, the reliability and safety in core sectors including thermal power plant installations and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, J.K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on a study of pollution control techniques, thermal power plant reliability and safety, and economics. Included are some illustrative examples dealing with pollution control. Topics include environmental planning, prevention strategy, pesticide use, food pollution, soil pollution, water pollution, thermal power plant emissions, and pollution control equipment.

  13. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1.1 Total emissions Total U.S. anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 were 5.8 percent below the 2008 total (Table 1). The decline in total emissions-from 6,983 million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO2e) in 2008 to 6,576 MMTCO2e in 2009-was the largest since emissions have been tracked over the 1990-2009 time frame. It was largely the result of a 419-MMTCO2e drop in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (7.1 percent). There was a

  14. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 7, vehicle emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from Clean Fleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combination of vehicle manufacturer and fuel were tested at the California Air Resources Board (ARB) as they accumulated mileage in the demonstration. Data are presented on regulated emissions, ozone precursors, air toxics, and greenhouse gases. The emissions tests provide information on in-use emissions. That is, the vans were taken directly from daily commercial service and tested at the ARB. The differences in alternative fuel technology provide the basis for a range of technology options. The emissions data reflect these differences, with classes of vehicle/fuels producing either more or less emissions for various compounds relative to the control gasoline.

  15. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

    2004-01-25

    A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

  16. Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark; Levine, Mark D.; Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2008-05-01

    China's annual energy-related carbon emissions surpassed those of the United States in In order to build a more robust understanding of China's energy-related carbon emissions, emissions after 2001? The divergence between actual and forecasted carbon emissions international trade, and central government policies in driving emissions growth. so greatly in error and what drove the rapid growth of China's energy-related carbon this article reviews the role of economic restructuring, urbanization, coal dependence, underscores the rapid changes that have taken place in China's energy system since 2001.

  17. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  18. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  19. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Customer Choice and Electric Reliability Act of 2000 (P.A. 141) requires electric suppliers to disclose to customers details related to the fuel mix and emissions, in pounds...

  20. Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Non-OECD Countries

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    Presents world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries (including the current and former centrally planned economies).

  1. Fuel cell repeater unit including frame and separator plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yamanis, Jean; Hawkes, Justin R; Chiapetta, Jr., Louis; Bird, Connie E; Sun, Ellen Y; Croteau, Paul F

    2013-11-05

    An example fuel cell repeater includes a separator plate and a frame establishing at least a portion of a flow path that is operative to communicate fuel to or from at least one fuel cell held by the frame relative to the separator plate. The flow path has a perimeter and any fuel within the perimeter flow across the at least one fuel cell in a first direction. The separator plate, the frame, or both establish at least one conduit positioned outside the flow path perimeter. The conduit is outside of the flow path perimeter and is configured to direct flow in a second, different direction. The conduit is fluidly coupled with the flow path.

  2. Particulate and Gaseous Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Gaseous Emissions - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  3. National Emission Standards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999 June 2000 June 2000 U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office Las Vegas, Nevada U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office Las Vegas, Nevada DOE/NV/11718--442 DOE/NV/11718--442 DISCLAIMER Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

  4. GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GHG Emissions GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions EERE Presentation of Greenhouse Gas EmissionsResource Potential gbtlworkshopghgemissions.pdf More Documents & Publications GBTL...

  5. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.

    1991-12-01

    This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field ion microscopy (FIM), field emission (FE), ion sources, and field desorption mass microscopy (FDMM). Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. The bibliography covers the period 1990. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications. To reduce the length of this document, the references have been reduced to the minimum necessary to locate the articles. The references, listed alphabetically by authors, are subdivided into the categories listed in paragraph one above. An Addendum of references missed in previous bibliographies is included.

  6. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl; Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Dr. Anthony

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  7. Chemical Emissions of Residential Materials and Products: Review of Available Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willem, Henry; Singer, Brett

    2010-09-15

    This report is prepared in the context of a larger program whose mission is to advance understanding of ventilation and indoor air quality in U.S. homes. A specific objective of this program is to develop the scientific basis ? through controlled experiments, monitoring and analysis ? for health risk-based ventilation standards. Appropriate and adequate ventilation is a basic element of a healthy home. Ventilation provides outdoor air and in the process removes indoor odors and contaminants including potentially unhealthful chemicals emitted by indoor materials, products and activities. Ventilation traditionally was assured to occur via infiltration of outdoor air through cracks and other leakage pathways in the residential building envelope. As building air tightness is improved for energy efficiency, infiltration can be reduced to inadequate levels. This has lead to the development of standards requiring mechanical ventilation. Though nominally intended to ensure acceptable indoor air quality, the standards are not explicitly tied to health risk or pollutant exposure targets. LBNL is currently designing analyses to assess the impact of varying ventilation standards on pollutant concentrations, health risks and energy use. These analyses require information on sources of chemical pollutant emissions, ideally including emission rates and the impact of ventilation on emissions. Some information can be obtained from recent studies that report measurements of various air contaminants and their concentrations in U.S. residences. Another way to obtain this information is the bottom-up approach of collecting and evaluating emissions data from construction and interior materials and common household products. This review contributes to the latter approach by summarizing available information on chemical emissions from new residential products and materials. We review information from the scientific literature and public sources to identify and discuss the databases that provide information on new or low-emission materials and products. The review focuses on the primary chemical or volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from interior surface materials, furnishings, and some regularly used household products; all of these emissions are amenable to ventilation. Though it is an important and related topic, this review does not consider secondary pollutants that result from reactions of ozone and unsaturated organics bound to or emitted from material surfaces. Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) have been largely excluded from this review because ventilation generally is not an effective way to control SVOC exposures. Nevertheless, health concerns about exposures to SVOCs emitted from selected materials warrant some discussion.

  8. Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Cynthia Chaffin; Weber, Phillip Anthony; Khair, Magdi K.

    2004-06-01

    Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions, including, for example, oxides of nitrogen emissions, particulate matter emissions, and the like. The emission control system according to this invention is provided in the exhaust passageway of a diesel engine and includes a catalyst-based particulate filter; and first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems coupled to the catalyst-based particulate filter. The first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems are arranged in a parallel flow configuration with each other. Each of the first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems include a carbon monoxide generating catalyst device, a sulfur trap device, a lean NO.sub.x device, a supplemental fuel injector device, and a plurality of flow diverter devices.

  9. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni (Shoreham, NY); Ben-Zvi, Ilan (Setauket, NY)

    2009-10-13

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  10. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni (Shoreham, NY); Ben-Zvi, Ilan (Setauket, NY); Kewisch, Jorg (Wading River, NY); Chang, Xiangyun (Middle Island, NY)

    2007-06-05

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  11. Nuclear Arms Control R&D Consortium includes Los Alamos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Arms Control R&D Consortium includes Los Alamos Nuclear Arms Control R&D Consortium includes Los Alamos A consortium led by the University of Michigan that includes LANL as ...

  12. A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

  13. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, Donald W. (Knoxville, TN); Whittaker, Jerry W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  14. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  15. Integrated field emission array for ion desorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Resnick, Paul J; Hertz, Kristin L; Holland, Christopher; Chichester, David; Schwoebel, Paul

    2013-09-17

    An integrated field emission array for ion desorption includes an electrically conductive substrate; a dielectric layer lying over the electrically conductive substrate comprising a plurality of laterally separated cavities extending through the dielectric layer; a like plurality of conically-shaped emitter tips on posts, each emitter tip/post disposed concentrically within a laterally separated cavity and electrically contacting the substrate; and a gate electrode structure lying over the dielectric layer, including a like plurality of circular gate apertures, each gate aperture disposed concentrically above an emitter tip/post to provide a like plurality of annular gate electrodes and wherein the lower edge of each annular gate electrode proximate the like emitter tip/post is rounded. Also disclosed herein are methods for fabricating an integrated field emission array.

  16. Trends and challenges when including microstructure in materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Trends and challenges when including microstructure in materials modeling: Examples of ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Trends and challenges when including ...

  17. Newport News in Review, ch. 47, segment includes TEDF groundbreaking...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.jlab.orgnewsarticlesnewport-news-review-ch-47-segment-includes-tedf-groundbreaking-event Newport News in Review, ch. 47, segment includes TEDF groundbreaking event...

  18. FEMP Expands ESPC ENABLE Program to Include More Energy Conservation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Expands ESPC ENABLE Program to Include More Energy Conservation Measures FEMP Expands ESPC ENABLE Program to Include More Energy Conservation Measures November 13, 2013 - 12:00am...

  19. Property:Number of Plants included in Capacity Estimate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plants included in Capacity Estimate Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Number of Plants included in Capacity Estimate Property Type Number Retrieved from "http:...

  20. Property:Number of Plants Included in Planned Estimate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number of Plants Included in Planned Estimate Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Number of Plants Included in Planned Estimate Property Type String Description Number of...

  1. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer ...

  2. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reader, Part II. Sun story. Includes glossary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. Includes glossary You are ...

  3. Prevention of Harassment (Including Sexual Harassment) and Retaliation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prevention of Harassment (Including Sexual Harassment) and Retaliation Policy Statement Prevention of Harassment (Including Sexual Harassment) and Retaliation Policy Statement DOE...

  4. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in North Carolina (Including...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in North Carolina (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun...

  5. Study on neutron emission from 2.2?kJ plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talukdar, N.; Neog, N. K.; Borthakur, T. K.

    2014-06-15

    The neutron emission from a low energy (2.2?kJ) plasma focus device operated in deuterium medium has been investigated by employing photo-multiplier tube (PMT) and bubble dosimeter. The neutron emission is found to be pressure dependent and anisotropic in nature. In most cases of plasma focus shots, the PMT signal shows double pulses of neutron emission with different intensities and widths. An interesting relation between intensity of hard X-ray and neutron emission is also observed.

  6. Emission of Visible Light by Hot Dense Metals (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Conference: Emission of Visible Light by Hot Dense Metals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Emission of Visible Light by Hot Dense Metals We consider the emission of visible light by hot metal surfaces having uniform and non-uniform temperature distributions and by small droplets of liquid metal. The calculations employ a nonlocal transport theory for light emission, using the Kubo formula to relate microscopic current fluctuations to the dielectric function of the material.

  7. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies...

  8. Fact #686: August 1, 2011 Emissions and Energy Use Model - GREET |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 6: August 1, 2011 Emissions and Energy Use Model - GREET Fact #686: August 1, 2011 Emissions and Energy Use Model - GREET The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emission, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model is a full life-cycle model for evaluating the energy and emission impacts of various vehicle and fuel combinations. The first version of the GREET model was released in 1996. Since then, the model has been updated and expanded to include additional vehicle types

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Use

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Use within the Natural Gas Supply Chain - Sankey Diagram Methodology James Bradbury, Zachary Clement, and Adrian Down Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis U.S. Department of Energy July, 2015 2 Acknowledgements The authors are grateful for excellent technical reviews and other contributions provided by several individuals. Within the Department of Energy, input was provided by Judi Greenwald, Elke Hodson and Diana Bauer. External reviewers included the

  10. Elastic emission polishing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  11. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  12. Is predictive emission monitoring an acceptable low cost alternative to continuous emission monitoring for complying with enhanced monitoring requirements?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jernigan, J.R.

    1995-12-01

    Title VII of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (the {open_quotes}Act{close_quotes}) expanded and clarified the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) enforcement capabilities under the Act. Section 702 of the 1990 Amendments clarified EPA`s ability to require sources to provide information. Additionally, Section 702(b) required EPA to promulgate rules on enhanced monitoring and compliance certifications by adding a new section 114(a)(3) of the Act which states in part: {open_quotes}The Administrator shall in the case of any person which is the owner or operator of a major stationary source, and any in the case of any other person, require enhanced monitoring and submission of compliance certifications. Compliance certifications shall include (A) identification of the applicable requirement that is the basis of the certification, (B) the method used for determining the compliance status of the source, (C) the compliance status, (D) whether compliance is continuous or intermittent, (E) such other facts as the Administrator may require...{close_quotes} The 1990 Amendments contained several other changes that either relate directly to section 114(a)(3) or provide additional indications of the intent behind the new section. First, section 504(b) of the Amendments permits the Administrator to promulgate appropriate tests methods and monitoring requirements for determining compliance. That section states that {open_quotes}continuous emissions monitoring need not be required if alternative methods are available that provide sufficiently reliable and timely information for determining compliance.{close_quotes} This paper will describe Predictive Emission Systems (PEMS) and how the applications of PEMS may be a low cost, accurate, and acceptable alternative to Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) for complying with Enhanced Monitoring requirements.

  13. Developing the model of laser ablation by considering the interplay between emission and expansion of aluminum plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezaei, F.; Tavassoli, S. H.

    2013-01-15

    In the present study, the ablation behavior of aluminum target and its plasma radiation in noble ambient gases by a laser pulse with wavelength of 266 nm and pulse duration of 10 ns are numerically studied. A thermal model of laser ablation considering heat conduction, Euler equations, Saha-Eggert equations, Knudsen layer, mass and energy balance relations and optical shielding effects are used for calculation of plasma parameters. Effects of excitation energy on plasma expansion and its emissivity are investigated. Time and spatial-resolved plasma emission including bremsstrahlung, recombination and spectral emission at early delay times after laser irradiation is obtained. Effects of two ambient gases (He and Ar) as well as different gas pressures of 100, 300, 500, and 760 Torr on plasma expansion and its spectrum are studied. Results illustrate that at initial delay times, especially at high noble gas pressures, ionic lines have the maximum intensities, while at later times neutral lines dominate. When the pressure of ambient gas increases, a confinement of the plasma plume is predicted and the intensity of neutral lines decreases. Continuous emission increases with wavelength in both ambient gases. Spatially resolved analysis shows that an intense continuous emission is predicted next to the sample surface decreasing with distance from the latter.

  14. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

    2011-03-16

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  15. On the impact of CO{sub 2} emission-trading on power generation emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Dijkema, G.P.J.

    2009-03-15

    In Europe one of the main policy instruments to meet the Kyoto reduction targets is CO{sub 2} emission-trading (CET), which was implemented as of January 2005. In this system, companies active in specific sectors must be in the possession of CO{sub 2} emission rights to an amount equal to their CO{sub 2} emission. In Europe, electricity generation accounts for one-third of CO{sub 2} emissions. Since the power generation sector has been liberalized, reregulated and privatized in the last decade, around Europe autonomous companies determine the sectors' CO{sub 2} emission. Short-term they adjust their operation, long-term they decide on (dis) investment in power generation facilities and technology selection. An agent-based model is presented to elucidate the effect of CET on the decisions of power companies in an oligopolistic market. Simulations over an extensive scenario-space show that there CET does have an impact. A long-term portfolio shift towards less-CO{sub 2} intensive power generation is observed. However, the effect of CET is relatively small and materializes late. The absolute emissions from power generation rise under most scenarios. This corresponds to the dominant character of current capacity expansion planned in the Netherlands (50%) and in Germany (68%), where companies have announced many new coal based power plants. Coal is the most CO{sub 2} intensive option available and it seems surprising that even after the introduction of CET these capacity expansion plans indicate a preference for coal. Apparently in power generation the economic effect of CO{sub 2} emission-trading is not sufficient to outweigh the economic incentives to choose for coal.

  16. Title V Semi-Annual Emissions Report for Permit P100R1 July 1, 2011 - December 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whetham, Walter

    2012-03-15

    Reports of actual emissions from permitted sources in Section 2.0 shall be submitted on a 6 month basis. Reports shall not include emissions from insignificant activities. Emission estimates of criteria pollutants NOx, CO, SO2, PM and VOCs shall not include fugitive emissions. Emission estimates of HAPs shall include fugitive emissions. The reports shall include a comparison of actual emissions that occurred during the reporting period with the facility-wide allowable emission limits specified in Section 2.11 of this permit. The report required by Condition 4.1 shall be submitted within 90 days from the end of the reporting period. The semiannual report required by Condition 4.2 shall be submitted within 45 days from the end of the reporting period. The reporting periods are January 1st to June 30th and July 1st to December 31st. This condition is pursuant to 20.2.70.302.E.1 NMAC.

  17. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  18. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electricity suppliers and electricity companies must also provide a fuel mix report to customers twice annually, within the June and December billing cycles. Emissions information must be disclos...

  19. Biodiesel and Pollutant Emissions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Hayes, B.

    2006-09-28

    Presents the results from three methods of testing--engine, chassis, and PEM--for testing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from B20.

  20. Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-04-01

    This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  1. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J.

    1993-06-14

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

  2. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  3. Modeling electron emission and surface effects from diamond cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dimitrov, D. A.; Smithe, D.; Cary, J. R.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wang, E.

    2015-02-05

    We developed modeling capabilities, within the Vorpal particle-in-cell code, for three-dimensional (3D) simulations of surface effects and electron emission from semiconductor photocathodes. They include calculation of emission probabilities using general, piece-wise continuous, space-time dependent surface potentials, effective mass and band bending field effects. We applied these models, in combination with previously implemented capabilities for modeling charge generation and transport in diamond, to investigate the emission dependence on applied electric field in the range from approximately 2 MV/m to 17 MV/m along the [100] direction. The simulation results were compared to experimental data. For the considered parameter regime, conservation of transversemore » electron momentum (in the plane of the emission surface) allows direct emission from only two (parallel to [100]) of the six equivalent lowest conduction band valleys. When the electron affinity χ is the only parameter varied in the simulations, the value χ = 0.31 eV leads to overall qualitative agreement with the probability of emission deduced from experiments. Including band bending in the simulations improves the agreement with the experimental data, particularly at low applied fields, but not significantly. In this study, using surface potentials with different profiles further allows us to investigate the emission as a function of potential barrier height, width, and vacuum level position. However, adding surface patches with different levels of hydrogenation, modeled with position-dependent electron affinity, leads to the closest agreement with the experimental data.« less

  4. Labor Relations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Relations also provides technical assistance to, and coordination of, the Partnership Council and other labor-management forums. Collective Bargaining Agreements BPA AFGE...

  5. Related Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  6. Investor Relations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and related services at cost. BPA Overview for Investors - as of September 24, 2015 Credit Ratings Latest Rating Agency Reports Full Reports: Fitch Full Report, March 2014...

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciucci, John

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration of each detected radionuclide at each of these locations is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. At any one location, if multiple radionuclides are detected, then compliance with NESHAP is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclides concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2009, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NTS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was a maximum of 1.69 mrem/yr, well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all six critical receptor stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NTS, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000044 mrem/yr, 230,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  8. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2013, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from 0.2% to a maximum of 10.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000011 mrem/yr, more than 900,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  9. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2012, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 0.5% to a maximum of 11.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2011, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1% to a maximum of 12.2% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  11. Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-27

    Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

  12. Climate Change Technology Scenarios: Energy, Emissions, and Economic Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Placet, Marylynn; Humphreys, Kenneth K.; Mahasenan, N Maha

    2004-08-15

    This report describes three advanced technology scenarios and various illustrative cases developed by staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program. These scenarios and illustrative cases explore the energy, emissions and economic implications of using advanced energy technologies and other climate change related technologies to reduce future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The cases were modeled using the Mini Climate Assessment Model (MiniCAM) developed by PNNL. The report describes the scenarios, the specifications for the cases, and the results. The report also provides background information on current emissions of GHGs and issues associated with stabilizing GHG concentrations.

  13. Near Zero Emissions at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-31

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a 10 year DOE sponsored heavy-duty truck engine program, hereafter referred to as the NZ-50 program. This program was split into two major phases. The first phase was called ??Near-Zero Emission at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency,? and was completed in 2007. The second phase was initiated in 2006, and this phase was named ??Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems to Enable High-Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engines.? This phase was completed in September, 2010. The key objectives of the NZ-50 program for this first phase were to: ? Quantify thermal efficiency degradation associated with reduction of engine-out NOx emissions to the 2007 regulated level of ~1.1 g/hp-hr. ? Implement an integrated analytical/experimental development plan for improving subsystem and component capabilities in support of emerging engine technologies for emissions and thermal efficiency goals of the program. ? Test prototype subsystem hardware featuring technology enhancements and demonstrate effective application on a multi-cylinder, production feasible heavy-duty engine test-bed. ? Optimize subsystem components and engine controls (calibration) to demonstrate thermal efficiency that is in compliance with the DOE 2005 Joule milestone, meaning greater than 45% thermal efficiency at 2007 emission levels. ? Develop technology roadmap for meeting emission regulations of 2010 and beyond while mitigating the associated degradation in engine fuel consumption. Ultimately, develop technical prime-path for meeting the overall goal of the NZ-50 program, i.e., 50% thermal efficiency at 2010 regulated emissions. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the NZ-50 program. The most noteworthy achievements in this program are summarized as follows: ? Demonstrated technologies through advanced integrated experiments and analysis to achieve the technical objectives of the NZ-50 program with 50.2% equivalent thermal efficiency under EPA 2010 emissions regulations. ? Experimentally demonstrate brake efficiency of 48.5% at EPA 2010 emission level at single steady-state point. ? Analytically demonstrated additional brake efficiency benefits using advanced aftertreatment configuration concept and air system enhancement including, but not limited to, turbo-compound, variable valve actuator system, and new cylinder head redesign, thus helping to achieve the final program goals. ? Experimentally demonstrated EPA 2010 emissions over FTP cycles using advanced integrated engine and aftertreatment system. These aggressive thermal efficiency and emissions results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. It used integrated analytical and experimental tools for subsystem component optimization encompassing advanced fuel injection system, increased EGR cooling capacity, combustion process optimization, and advanced aftertreatment technologies. Model based controls employing multiple input and output techniques enabled efficient integration of the various subsystems and ensured optimal performance of each system within the total engine package. . The key objective of the NZ-50 program for the second phase was to explore advancements in engine combustion systems using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) techniques to minimize cylinder-out emissions, targeting a 10% efficiency improvement. The most noteworthy achievements in this phase of the program are summarized as follows: ? Experimentally and analytically evaluated numerous air system improvements related to the turbocharger and variable valve actuation. Some of the items tested proved to be very successful and modifications to the turbine discovered in this program have since been incorporated into production hardware. ? The combustion system development continued with evaluation of various designs of the 2-step piston bowl. Significant improvements in engine emissions have been obtained, but fuel economy improvements have been tougher to realize. ? Development of a neural network control system progressed to the point that the system was fully functional and showing significant fuel economy gains in transient engine testing. ? Development of the QuantLogic injector with the capability of both a hollow cone spray during early injection and conventional diesel injection at later injection timings was undertaken and proved to be problematic. This injector was designed to be a key component in a PCCI combustion system, but this innovative fuel injector required significantly more development effort than this program??s resources or timing would allow.

  14. Example Retro-Commissioning Scope of Work to Include Services...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retro-Commissioning Scope of Work to Include Services as Part of an ESPC Investment-Grade Audit Example Retro-Commissioning Scope of Work to Include Services as Part of an ESPC...

  15. SWS Online Tool now includes Multifamily Content, plus a How...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SWS Online Tool now includes Multifamily Content, plus a How-To Webinar SWS Online Tool now includes Multifamily Content, plus a How-To Webinar This announcement contains...

  16. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in Texas (Including Vehicle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Texas (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in Texas (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug...

  17. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in New Mexico (Including Vehicle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mexico (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in New Mexico (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul...

  18. Bichromatic emission and multimode dynamics in bidirectional ring lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Serrano, Antonio; Javaloyes, Julien; Balle, Salvador

    2010-04-15

    The multimode dynamics of a two-level ring laser is explored numerically using a bidirectional traveling wave model retaining the spatial effects due to the presence of counter-propagating electric fields in the population inversion. Dynamical regimes where the emission in each direction occurs at different wavelengths are studied. Mode-locked unidirectional emission for large gain bandwidth and relatively small detuning is reported.

  19. Surface Plasmon Instability Leading to Emission of Radiation. (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Surface Plasmon Instability Leading to Emission of Radiation. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface Plasmon Instability Leading to Emission of Radiation. Abstract not provided. Authors: Gumbs, Godfrey ; Iurov, Andrii ; Huang, Danhong ; Pan, Wei Publication Date: 2014-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 1184587 Report Number(s): SAND2014-19499J 541018 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Physical Review

  20. A simple model for amplified spontaneous emission in dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.C.; Hong, Chung Ki; Nathel, H.

    1990-01-09

    Amplified spontaneous emission in dyes is modelled by replacing the actual molecular spectrum by an effective four-level atom which includes the levels involved in pumping and stimulated emission. Propagation of the signal and pump waves is described in the slowly varying envelope approximation. It is shown that the saturation intensity of the signal depends on the pump intensity, and reciprocally that the pump saturation intensity depends on the signal intensity. 1 fig.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on

  2. ARM - Related Data Sets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govDataRelated Data Sets Related Data Sets Numerous ARM collaborators compile and share similar types of data from their own research efforts. The links below provide a lengthy selection of these related data sets. AmeriFlux network, 120 sites-including ACRF-operating across North, Central, and South America CAGEX Database, from the cooperative program between CERES, ARM, and GEWEX CEPEX Integrated Data System (CIDS), from the Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate (C4). An interactive access

  3. Controlling NOx emission from industrial sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, R.K.; Nueffer, W.; Grano, D.; Khan, S.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other bills in the Congress are focusing on additional reductions of NOx. Industrial combustion sources accounted for about 18016 of NOx emissions in the United States in 2000 and constituted the second largest emitting source category within stationary sources, only behind electric utility sources. Based on these data, reduction of NOx emissions from industrial combustion sources is an important consideration in efforts undertaken to address the environmental concerns associated with NOx. This paper discusses primary and secondary NOx control technologies applicable to various major categories of industrial sources. The sources considered in this paper include large boilers, furnaces and fired heaters, combustion turbines, large IC engines, and cement kilns. For each source category considered in this paper, primary NOx controls are discussed first, followed by a discussion of secondary NOx controls.

  4. PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM STRATIFIED JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ono, Masaomi; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong; Yamada, Shoichi; Pe'er, Asaf; Mizuta, Akira; Harikae, Seiji

    2013-11-01

    We explore photospheric emissions from stratified two-component jets, wherein a highly relativistic spine outflow is surrounded by a wider and less relativistic sheath outflow. Thermal photons are injected in regions of high optical depth and propagated until the photons escape at the photosphere. Because of the presence of shear in velocity (Lorentz factor) at the boundary of the spine and sheath region, a fraction of the injected photons are accelerated using a Fermi-like acceleration mechanism such that a high-energy power-law tail is formed in the resultant spectrum. We show, in particular, that if a velocity shear with a considerable variance in the bulk Lorentz factor is present, the high-energy part of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) photon spectrum can be explained by this photon acceleration mechanism. We also show that the accelerated photons might also account for the origin of the extra-hard power-law component above the bump of the thermal-like peak seen in some peculiar bursts (e.g., GRB 090510, 090902B, 090926A). We demonstrate that time-integrated spectra can also reproduce the low-energy spectrum of GRBs consistently using a multi-temperature effect when time evolution of the outflow is considered. Last, we show that the empirical E{sub p}-L{sub p} relation can be explained by differences in the outflow properties of individual sources.

  5. Electrochemical sharpening of field emission tips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A method for sharpening field emitter tips by electroetching/polishing. In gated field emitters, it is very important to initiate electron emission at the lowest possible voltage and thus the composition of the emitter and the gate, as well as the emitter-gate structure, are important factors. This method of sharpening the emitter tips uses the grid as a counter electrode in electroetching of the emitters, which can produce extremely sharp emitter tips as well as remove asperities and other imperfections in the emitters, each in relation to the specific grid hole in which it resides. This has the effect of making emission more uniform among the emitters as well as lowering the turn-on voltage.

  6. Electrochemical sharpening of field emission tips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.

    1999-04-06

    A method is disclosed for sharpening field emitter tips by electroetching/polishing. In gated field emitters, it is very important to initiate electron emission at the lowest possible voltage and thus the composition of the emitter and the gate, as well as the emitter-gate structure, are important factors. This method of sharpening the emitter tips uses the grid as a counter electrode in electroetching of the emitters, which can produce extremely sharp emitter tips as well as remove asperities and other imperfections in the emitters, each in relation to the specific grid hole in which it resides. This has the effect of making emission more uniform among the emitters as well as lowering the turn-on voltage. 3 figs.

  7. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jr., Jeffrey L.; Hao, Wei Min; Holden, Amanda S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Malm, William C.; Moosmuller, Hans; Sullivan, Amy P.; Wold, Cyle E.

    2009-05-15

    We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly-burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern US (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2-4} hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed EF for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements often spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates for individual fuels of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions.

  8. Relational Blackboard

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    The Relational Blackboard (RBB) is an extension of the H2 Relational Database to support discrete events and timeseries data. The original motivation for RBB is as a knowledge base for cognitive systems and simulations. It is useful wherever there is a need for persistent storage of timeseries (i.e. samples of a continuous process generating numerical data) and semantic labels for the data. The RBB is an extension to the H2 Relational Database, which is open-source.more »RBB is a set of stored procedures for H2 allowing data to be labeled, queried, and resampled.« less

  9. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, R.D.; Lamb, K.M.; Matejka, L.A.; Nenni, J.A.

    2002-02-27

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

  10. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, Richard Doin; Lamb, Kenneth Mitchel; Matejka, Leon Anthony; Nenni, Joseph A

    2002-02-01

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

  11. Generalized local emission tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katsevich, Alexander J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Emission tomography enables locations and values of internal isotope density distributions to be determined from radiation emitted from the whole object. In the method for locating the values of discontinuities, the intensities of radiation emitted from either the whole object or a region of the object containing the discontinuities are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the isotope density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) knowing pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object. In the method for determining the location of the discontinuity, the intensities of radiation emitted from an object are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the density discontinuity and the location .GAMMA. of the attenuation coefficient discontinuity. Pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object need not be known in this case.

  12. Vehicle Emissions Review - 2011 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Vehicle Emissions Review - 2011 Reviews regulatory requirements and general technology approaches for heavy- and light-duty vehicle emissions control - filter technology, new catalysts, NOx control, diesel oxidation catalysts, gasoline particulate filters PDF icon deer11_johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Diesel Emission Control Review Review of Emerging Diesel Emissions and Control

  13. Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Reviews vehicle emission control highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art PDF icon deer12_johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Emission Control Review Review of Emerging Diesel Emissions and Control Diesel Emission Control Technology in Review

  14. Diesel Emission Control Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review Diesel Emission Control Review Reviews regulatory requirements and technology approaches for diesel emission control for heavy and light duty applications PDF icon deer10_tjohnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Review of Emerging Diesel Emissions and Control Diesel Emission Control Technology in Review Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012

  15. Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: Consultants Meeting on Recommended Input Parameters for Fission Cross-Section Calculation ; 2013-12-17 - 2013-12-18 ; Vienna, Austria Research Org: ...

  16. The following revisions are included in this modification:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nuclear weapons-related data. (iv) Failure to timely implement corrective actions stemming from the loss, compromise, or unauthorized disclosure of Top Secret Restricted Data...

  17. System Advisor Model Includes Analysis of Hybrid CSP Option ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concepts related to power generation have been missing in the System Advisor Model (SAM). One such concept, until now, is a hybrid integrated solar combined-cycle (ISCC)...

  18. [Article 1 of 7: Motivates and Includes the Consumer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    asset loadings is limited given the relatively limited penetration of distribution Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems (SCADA) and demand response into today's grid. ...

  19. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting

  20. DOE Releases Request for Information on Critical Materials, Including Fuel

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cell Platinum Group Metal Catalysts | Department of Energy Request for Information on Critical Materials, Including Fuel Cell Platinum Group Metal Catalysts DOE Releases Request for Information on Critical Materials, Including Fuel Cell Platinum Group Metal Catalysts February 17, 2016 - 3:03pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has released a Request for Information (RFI) on critical materials in the energy sector, including fuel cell platinum group metal catalysts. The RFI is

  1. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Commercial Deliveries included in Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S.

  2. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Industrial Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010

  3. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Industrial Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S.

  4. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Residential Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S.

  5. Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Contracts | Department of Energy Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts Document describes guidance on the importance of (and steps to) including retro-commissioning in federal energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs). PDF icon 11_2_includingretrocommissioning.pdf More Documents & Publications Enabling Mass-Scale Financing for Federal Energy, Water, and Sustainability

  6. A Roadmap to Success: Hiring, Retaining, and Including People with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Disabilities | Department of Energy A Roadmap to Success: Hiring, Retaining, and Including People with Disabilities A Roadmap to Success: Hiring, Retaining, and Including People with Disabilities January 20, 2016 9:00PM to 9:59PM MST Course Title and Description: "A Roadmap to Success: Hiring, Retaining and Including People with Disabilities" was released by OPM in connection with the 24th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). This course offers basic

  7. Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen Case Study) (Webinar) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems...

  8. Search for Earth-like planets includes LANL star analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    their interiors. Consortium team members at Los Alamos include Joyce Ann Guzik, Paul Bradley, Arthur N. Cox, and Kim Simmons. They will help interpret the stellar oscillation...

  9. Introduction to Small-Scale Wind Energy Systems (Including RETScreen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Case Study) (Webinar) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Introduction to Small-Scale Wind Energy Systems (Including RETScreen Case Study) (Webinar) Focus...

  10. Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including direct channels to validate statistical models Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical simulations for...

  11. Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    West Virginia (Million Cubic Feet) Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in West Virginia (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr...

  12. Systematic expansion of porous crystals to include large molecules | Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Systematic expansion of porous crystals to include large molecules

  13. METHOD OF FABRICATING ELECTRODES INCLUDING HIGH-CAPACITY, BINDER...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like This Return to Search METHOD OF FABRICATING ELECTRODES INCLUDING HIGH-CAPACITY, BINDER-FREE ANODES ...

  14. Energy Department Expands Gas Gouging Reporting System to Include...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Washington, DC - Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman announced today that the Department of Energy has expanded its gas gouging reporting system to include a toll-free telephone ...

  15. U-182: Microsoft Windows Includes Some Invalid Certificates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The operating system includes some invalid intermediate certificates. The vulnerability is due to the certificate authorities and not the operating system itself.

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Potential Impact Categories for Radiological Air Emission Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. M.

    2012-06-05

    In 2002, the EPA amended 40 CFR 61 Subpart H and 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 to include requirements from ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities for major emission points. Additionally, the WDOH amended the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 Radiation protection-air emissions to include ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements for major and minor emission points when new permitting actions are approved. A result of the amended regulations is the requirement to prepare a written technical basis for the radiological air emission sampling and monitoring program. A key component of the technical basis is the Potential Impact Category (PIC) assigned to an emission point. This paper discusses the PIC assignments for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Integrated Laboratory emission units; this revision includes five PIC categories.

  17. Prevention of Harassment (Including Sexual Harassment) and Retaliation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Policy Statement | Department of Energy Prevention of Harassment (Including Sexual Harassment) and Retaliation Policy Statement Prevention of Harassment (Including Sexual Harassment) and Retaliation Policy Statement DOE Policy for Preventing Harassment in the Workplace PDF icon Harassment Policy July 2011.pdf More Documents & Publications Policy Statement on Equal Employment Opportunity, Harassment and Retaliation Policy Statement on Equal Employment Opportunity, Harassment, and

  18. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, Anson V.; Sommer, Gregory j.; Singh, Anup K.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay

    2015-12-01

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  19. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  20. Emissions-critical charge cooling using an organic rankine cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-07-15

    The disclosure provides a system including a Rankine power cycle cooling subsystem providing emissions-critical charge cooling of an input charge flow. The system includes a boiler fluidly coupled to the input charge flow, an energy conversion device fluidly coupled to the boiler, a condenser fluidly coupled to the energy conversion device, a pump fluidly coupled to the condenser and the boiler, an adjuster that adjusts at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle subsystem to change a temperature of the input charge exiting the boiler, and a sensor adapted to sense a temperature characteristic of the vaporized input charge. The system includes a controller that can determine a target temperature of the input charge sufficient to meet or exceed predetermined target emissions and cause the adjuster to adjust at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle to achieve the predetermined target emissions.

  1. Trading Emissions PLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trading Emissions PLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Trading Emissions PLC Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: EC2N 4AW Product: Trading Emissions PLC is an investment fund...

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Vehicle Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle

  4. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  5. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-12-31

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  6. Turbomachine injection nozzle including a coolant delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC)

    2012-02-14

    An injection nozzle for a turbomachine includes a main body having a first end portion that extends to a second end portion defining an exterior wall having an outer surface. A plurality of fluid delivery tubes extend through the main body. Each of the plurality of fluid delivery tubes includes a first fluid inlet for receiving a first fluid, a second fluid inlet for receiving a second fluid and an outlet. The injection nozzle further includes a coolant delivery system arranged within the main body. The coolant delivery system guides a coolant along at least one of a portion of the exterior wall and around the plurality of fluid delivery tubes.

  7. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  8. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds, formaldehyde was the only one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 mu g m-2 h 1 in the morning and 257 to 347 mu g m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 mu g m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 mu g/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 mu g/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (material surface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde.

  9. NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

    2011-07-15

    We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

  10. Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors wereevaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature andrelative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using theheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Indoor temperatures during sampling ranged from 14o C to 33o C, and relative humidity (RH) varied between 35percentand 74percent. Ventilation rates were increased in some trailers using bathroom fans and vents during some of the sampling events. Ventilation rates measured during some aselection of sampling events varied from 0.14 to 4.3 h-1. Steady state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 10 mu g-m-3 to 1000 mu g-m-3. The formaldehyde concentrations in the trailers were of toxicological significance. The effects of temperature, humidity and ventilation rates were also studied. A linearregression model was built using log of percentage relative humidity, inverse of temperature (in K-1), and inverse log ACH as continuous independent variables, trailermanufacturer as a categorical independent variable, and log of the chemical emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients of inverse temperature, log relativehumidity, log inverse ACH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. The regression model wasfound to explain about 84percent of the variation in the dependent variable. Most VOC concentrations measured indoors in the Purvis THUs were mostly found to be belowvalues reported in earlier studies by Maddalena et al.,1,2 Hodgson et al.,3 and Hippelein4. Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found to be higher than values reported in comparable housing by Hodgson et al.,3. Emissions of phenol were also found to be slightly higher than values reported in earlier studies1,2,3. This study can assist in retrospective formaldehyde exposure assessments of THUs where estimates of the occupants indoor formaldehyde exposures are needed.

  11. Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

  12. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  13. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    grasslands 34 Net carbon dioxide sequestration in U.S. urban trees, yard trimmings, and food scraps 35 Emissions of carbon dioxide from biofuelbioenergy use by sector and fuel

  14. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ACES is a cooperative multi-party effort to characterize emissions and possible health effects of new, advanced heavy duty engine and control systems and fuels in the market 2007 - 2010.

  15. emissions | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cities CO2 emissions OpenEI suburbs US New research from the University of California-Berkeley shows that those who live in cities in the United States have significantly smaller...

  16. What To Include In The Whistleblower Complaint? | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    that you have included in your complaint are true and correct to the best of your knowledge and belief; and An affirmation, as described in Sec. 708.13 of this subpart, that...

  17. Demonstration of a 50% Thermal Efficient Diesel Engine - Including...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Including HTCD Program Overview Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st...

  18. Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the cost of the survey. Developing a detailed scope of work and a fixed price for this work is important to eliminate risk to the Agency and the ESCo. Including a detailed scope...

  19. Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mexico (Million Cubic Feet) Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in New Mexico (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul...

  20. T-603: Mac OS X Includes Some Invalid Comodo Certificates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The operating system includes some invalid certificates. The vulnerability is due to the invalid certificates and not the operating system itself. Other browsers, applications, and operating systems are affected.

  1. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) - Cooperative multi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    emissions and possible health effects of new advanced heavy ... to 2007 compliant diesel emissions PDF icon ... Tissue Response to Inhaled 2007-Compliant Diesel Exhaust

  2. IGES GHG Emissions Data | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GHG inventory Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.iges.or.jpencdmreportkyoto.html References: IGES GHG Emissions Data1 Summary "IGES GHG Emissions Data is aimed at...

  3. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction ...

  4. Zero Emissions Leasing LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zero Emissions Leasing LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zero Emissions Leasing LLC Place: Honolulu, Hawaii Zip: 96822 Sector: Solar Product: Honolulu-based developer of solar...

  5. Steinbeis Technology Transfer Centre for Emissions Trading |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Steinbeis Technology Transfer Centre for Emissions Trading Jump to: navigation, search Name: Steinbeis Technology Transfer Centre for Emissions Trading Place: Augsburg, Bavaria,...

  6. IPCC Emission Factor Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Emission Factor Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: IPCC Emission Factor Database AgencyCompany Organization: World Meteorological Organization,...

  7. How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    dioxide emissions are the main component of greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity. Carbon dioxide is emitted mostly as a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels...

  8. Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program - Bangladesh ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program - Bangladesh Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program Retrieved from...

  9. The Maritime Administration's Energy and Emissions Program -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Recent Diesel Engine Emission Mitigation Activities of the ... Emissions Program - Part 1 U.S. Navy Marine Diesel Engines and the Environment - ...

  10. IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios Get Javascript Other reports in this collection Special Report on Emissions Scenarios Foreword Preface Summary for policymakers Technical...

  11. Emission Factors (EMFAC) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The EMission FACtors (EMFAC) model is used to calculate emission rates from all motor vehicles, such as passenger cars to heavy-duty trucks, operating on highways, freeways...

  12. Radionuclide air emissions annual report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-04-04

    This report presents the results of the Pinellas Plant air sampling program for the year of 1994. Topics discussed include: site description; source description; air emissions data; dose assessments; description of dose model; summary of input parameters of dose model; unplanned releases; and diffuse emissions. Included in the attachments of this document are: non-radon individual dose assessment; non-radon population dose assessment; summary of stack flow rate measurements; HOTSPOT computer model run; and meteorological data for the Pinellas Plant for 1994.

  13. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary] × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and

  14. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    glossary] (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect energy: a background text. [Includes glossary] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary] × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  15. Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including direct

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    channels to validate statistical models (Conference) | SciTech Connect Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including direct channels to validate statistical models Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including direct channels to validate statistical models Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-01-08 OSTI

  16. Hybrid powertrain system including smooth shifting automated transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Nellums, Richard A.

    2006-10-24

    A powertrain system is provided that includes a prime mover and a change-gear transmission having an input, at least two gear ratios, and an output. The powertrain system also includes a power shunt configured to route power applied to the transmission by one of the input and the output to the other one of the input and the output. A transmission system and a method for facilitating shifting of a transmission system are also provided.

  17. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Renewable Energy Laboratory) (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain

  18. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Renewable Energy Laboratory) (Conference) | SciTech Connect Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a

  19. Comparison of Joint Modeling Approaches Including Eulerian Sliding

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interfaces (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Comparison of Joint Modeling Approaches Including Eulerian Sliding Interfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison of Joint Modeling Approaches Including Eulerian Sliding Interfaces Accurate representation of discontinuities such as joints and faults is a key ingredient for high fidelity modeling of shock propagation in geologic media. The following study was done to improve treatment of discontinuities (joints) in the Eulerian

  20. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science

  1. Demonstration of a 50% Thermal Efficient Diesel Engine - Including HTCD

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Overview | Department of Energy a 50% Thermal Efficient Diesel Engine - Including HTCD Program Overview Demonstration of a 50% Thermal Efficient Diesel Engine - Including HTCD Program Overview Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_milam.pdf More Documents & Publications The Path to a 50% Thermal Efficient Engine Heavy Truck Clean

  2. Trends and challenges when including microstructure in materials modeling:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Examples of problems studied at Sandia National Laboratories. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Trends and challenges when including microstructure in materials modeling: Examples of problems studied at Sandia National Laboratories. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Trends and challenges when including microstructure in materials modeling: Examples of problems studied at Sandia National Laboratories. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel Publication Date:

  3. Limited Personal Use of Government Office Equipment including Information Technology

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-01-07

    The Order establishes requirements and assigns responsibilities for employees' limited personal use of Government resources (office equipment and other resources including information technology) within DOE, including NNSA. The Order is required to provide guidance on appropriate and inappropriate uses of Government resources. This Order was certified 04/23/2009 as accurate and continues to be relevant and appropriate for use by the Department. Certified 4-23-09. No cancellation.

  4. DOE Revises its NEPA Regulations, Including Categorical Exclusions |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Revises its NEPA Regulations, Including Categorical Exclusions DOE Revises its NEPA Regulations, Including Categorical Exclusions September 30, 2011 - 2:30pm Addthis On September 27, 2011, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved revisions to its National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) regulations, and on September 28th, submitted the revisions to the Federal Register. The final regulations, which become effective 30 days after publication in the Federal Register, are

  5. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.C. Jr.

    1991-11-01

    To meet the emission goals set by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), Tecogen Inc. is developing a novel, integrated emission control system to control NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. In addition to controlling SO{sub 2} emissions, the reactor provides a means of extracting a substantial amount of the particulates present in the combustion gases. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor, including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. With SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions being dealt with by an emissions control reactor and bag filters, the control of NO{sub x} emissions needs to be addressed. Under a previous contract with PETC (contract No. AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emissions.

  6. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  7. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  8. Related Links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    home / Related Links Institute for Laser Science Applications The Institute for Laser Science Applications (ILSA) facilitates access for students and faculty to LLNL laser experimental facilities in order to support training and research for university students and faculty in research areas important to the Department of Energy (DOE) in high energy density (HED) science with lasers. National Ignition Facility The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest and most energetic laser

  9. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. M.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-04-08

    BattellePacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energys Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

  10. Emissions and performance evaluation of a dedicated compressed natural gas saturn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, J.W.; Taylor, J.D.

    1997-07-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as a transportation fuel has been identified as one strategy that can help ameliorate some problems, which include a growing dependence on imported oil (and all its ramifications) and the persistent contributions that mobile sources make to urban air pollution, associated with the use of conventional petroleum fuels. The attributes and limitations of CNG as a fuel for spark-ignition engines have been presented by others. The attributes are associated with its high octane rating, low cost relative to other alternative fuels, its availability, the absence of running and diurnal evaporative emissions, and its demonstrated potential for producing extremely low exhaust emissions-particularly if the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted are expressed in terms of reactivity adjusted non-methane organic gases (RANMOG). The limitations associated with the use of CNG include its limited refueling infrastructure, the cost of refueling facilities, the cost of on-board fuel storage tanks, and its relatively low energy density. Because one impediment to CNG use is the cost associated with producing a CNG-powered vehicle, a study was initiated at the University of Tennessee under sponsorship by the Saturn Corporation to determine how a CNG vehicle (specifically, a 1991 Saturn SL1) could be engineered so it could be produced with a minimal impact on the production of the base vehicle. The present study was undertaken to further investigate the emissions reduction potential of the Saturn CNG vehicle. In the previous study the role of exhaust gas recirculation was not thoroughly investigated. Those involved in the study agreed that the NO{sub x} levels could be brought down well below California ULEV levels without increasing either the non-methane organic gases or the CO levels.

  11. A model for heterogeneous materials including phase transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addessio, F.L.; Clements, B.E.; Williams, T.O.

    2005-04-15

    A model is developed for particulate composites, which includes phase transformations in one or all of the constituents. The model is an extension of the method of cells formalism. Representative simulations for a single-phase, brittle particulate (SiC) embedded in a ductile material (Ti), which undergoes a solid-solid phase transformation, are provided. Also, simulations for a tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) are included. In the WHA analyses a particulate composite, composed of tungsten particles embedded in a tungsten-iron-nickel alloy matrix, is modeled. A solid-liquid phase transformation of the matrix material is included in the WHA numerical calculations. The example problems also demonstrate two approaches for generating free energies for the material constituents. Simulations for volumetric compression, uniaxial strain, biaxial strain, and pure shear are used to demonstrate the versatility of the model.

  12. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Fearnside, P.M.

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  13. Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi-Chung (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    1989-03-28

    One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

  14. DOE Considers Natural Gas Utility Service Options: Proposal Includes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    30-mile Natural Gas Pipeline from Pasco to Hanford | Department of Energy Considers Natural Gas Utility Service Options: Proposal Includes 30-mile Natural Gas Pipeline from Pasco to Hanford DOE Considers Natural Gas Utility Service Options: Proposal Includes 30-mile Natural Gas Pipeline from Pasco to Hanford January 23, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Cameron Hardy, DOE , (509) 376-5365, Cameron.Hardy@rl.doe.gov RICHLAND, WASH. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering

  15. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  16. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, E.R.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-03-07

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube. 5 figs.

  17. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  18. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Namhai Chua; Kush, A.

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids.

  19. What To Include In The Whistleblower Complaint? | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration To Include In The Whistleblower Complaint? | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs

  20. Hydraulically actuated fuel injector including a pilot operated spool valve assembly and hydraulic system using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, Scott F. (Morton, IL)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to hydraulic systems including hydraulically actuated fuel injectors that have a pilot operated spool valve assembly. One class of hydraulically actuated fuel injectors includes a solenoid driven pilot valve that controls the initiation of the injection event. However, during cold start conditions, hydraulic fluid, typically engine lubricating oil, is particularly viscous and is often difficult to displace through the relatively small drain path that is defined past the pilot valve member. Because the spool valve typically responds slower than expected during cold start due to the difficulty in displacing the relatively viscous oil, accurate start of injection timing can be difficult to achieve. There also exists a greater difficulty in reaching the higher end of the cold operating speed range. Therefore, the present invention utilizes a fluid evacuation valve to aid in displacement of the relatively viscous oil during cold start conditions.

  1. Ion photon emission microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  2. Electricity price impacts of alternative Greenhouse gas emission cap-and-trade programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelston, Bruce; Armstrong, Dave; Kirsch, Laurence D.; Morey, Mathew J.

    2009-07-15

    Limits on greenhouse gas emissions would raise the prices of the goods and services that require such emissions for their production, including electricity. Looking at a variety of emission limit cases and scenarios for selling or allocating allowances to load-serving entities, the authors estimate how the burden of greenhouse gas limits are likely to be distributed among electricity consumers in different states. (author)

  3. Leak Detection/Fugitive Emissions Monitoring and Advanced Sensors, Controls, Models and Platforms Panel

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop Leak Detection/Fugitive Emissions Monitoring and Advanced Sensors, Controls, Models and Platforms Panel November 12, 2014 POUND FOR POUND METHANE TRAPS 84X MORE HEAT OVER 20 YEARS CO2 CH4 Methane is Money $1,800,000,000 Current technologies - economic and effective * Economic cost benefit analysis * Industry input included * Main finding: Cut emissions 40% at $0.01/McF reduced * OGI provides reliable and proven means of detecting leaks * EPA White Paper

  4. 2010-02 "Reducing All Outfalls at LANL, Including Sandia Canyon, Relating to Studies and Clean-up of Chromium"

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Approved March 31, 2010 The intent of this recommendation is to reduce or eliminate as much discharge from LANL into canyons as possible, in order to eliminate a possible mechanism for the spread of Chromium into the aquifer while other studies and remedies are underway. (Later information and remedies may have a different final end state for the Sandia Canyon wetland.)

  5. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  6. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  7. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  8. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W?s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  9. Measurement of directional thermal infrared emissivity of vegetation and soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, J.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Soil Science; Balick, L.K. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring directional thermal emissivity as a function of view angle for plant canopies and soils using two infrared thermometers each sensitive to a different wavelength band. By calibrating the two infrared thermometers to 0.1C consistency, canopy directional emissivity can be estimated with typical errors less than 0.005 in the 8--14 um wavelength band, depending on clarity of the sky and corrections for CO{sub 2} absorption by the atmosphere. A theoretical justification for the method is developed along with an error analysis. Laboratory measurements were used to develop corrections for CO{sub 2}, absorption and a field calibration method is used to obtain the necessary 0.1C consistency for relatively low cost infrared thermometers. The emissivity of alfalfa (LAI=2.5) and corn (LAI=3.2) was near 0.995 and independent of view angle. Individual corn leaves had an emissivity of 0.97. A wheat (LAI=3.0) canopy had an emissivity of 0.985 at nadir and 0.975 at 75 degree view angle. The canopy emissivity values tend to be higher than values in the literature, and are useful for converting infrared thermometer measurements to kinetic temperature and interpreting satellite thermal observations.

  10. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  11. Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, I.K.

    1993-12-31

    The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information.

  12. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  14. Human-computer interface including haptically controlled interactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2005-10-11

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing that provides haptic feedback to control interface interactions such as scrolling or zooming within an application. Haptic feedback in the present method allows the user more intuitive control of the interface interactions, and allows the user's visual focus to remain on the application. The method comprises providing a control domain within which the user can control interactions. For example, a haptic boundary can be provided corresponding to scrollable or scalable portions of the application domain. The user can position a cursor near such a boundary, feeling its presence haptically (reducing the requirement for visual attention for control of scrolling of the display). The user can then apply force relative to the boundary, causing the interface to scroll the domain. The rate of scrolling can be related to the magnitude of applied force, providing the user with additional intuitive, non-visual control of scrolling.

  15. Evaporative cooler including one or more rotating cooler louvers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerlach, David W

    2015-02-03

    An evaporative cooler may include an evaporative cooler housing with a duct extending therethrough, a plurality of cooler louvers with respective porous evaporative cooler pads, and a working fluid source conduit. The cooler louvers are arranged within the duct and rotatably connected to the cooler housing along respective louver axes. The source conduit provides an evaporative cooler working fluid to the cooler pads during at least one mode of operation.

  16. [Article 1 of 7: Motivates and Includes the Consumer]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 of 7: Research on the Characteristics of a Modern Grid by the NETL Modern Grid Strategy Team Accommodates All Generation and Storage Options Last month we presented the first Principal Characteristic of a Modern Grid, "Motivates and Includes the Consumer". This month we present a second characteristic, "Accommodates All Generation and Storage Options". This characteristic will fundamentally transition today's grid from a centralized model for generation to one that also has

  17. [Article 1 of 7: Motivates and Includes the Consumer]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Series on the Seven Principal Characteristics of the Modern Grid [Article 1 of 7: Motivates and Includes the Consumer] In October 2007, Ken Silverstein (Energy Central) wrote an editorial, "Empowering Consumers" that hit a strong, kindred chord with the DOE/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Modern Grid Strategy team. Through subsequent discussions with Ken and Bill Opalka, Editor- In-Chief, Topics Centers, we decided it would be informative to the industry if the Modern Grid

  18. Conversion of geothermal waste to commercial products including silica

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    2003-01-01

    A process for the treatment of geothermal residue includes contacting the pigmented amorphous silica-containing component with a depigmenting reagent one or more times to depigment the silica and produce a mixture containing depigmented amorphous silica and depigmenting reagent containing pigment material; separating the depigmented amorphous silica and from the depigmenting reagent to yield depigmented amorphous silica. Before or after the depigmenting contacting, the geothermal residue or depigmented silica can be treated with a metal solubilizing agent to produce another mixture containing pigmented or unpigmented amorphous silica-containing component and a solubilized metal-containing component; separating these components from each other to produce an amorphous silica product substantially devoid of metals and at least partially devoid of pigment. The amorphous silica product can be neutralized and thereafter dried at a temperature from about 25.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. The morphology of the silica product can be varied through the process conditions including sequence contacting steps, pH of depigmenting reagent, neutralization and drying conditions to tailor the amorphous silica for commercial use in products including filler for paint, paper, rubber and polymers, and chromatographic material.

  19. Multi-processor including data flow accelerator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, George S.; Pierce, Paul E.

    1990-01-01

    An accelerator module for a data flow computer includes an intelligent memory. The module is added to a multiprocessor arrangement and uses a shared tagged memory architecture in the data flow computer. The intelligent memory module assigns locations for holding data values in correspondence with arcs leading to a node in a data dependency graph. Each primitive computation is associated with a corresponding memory cell, including a number of slots for operands needed to execute a primitive computation, a primitive identifying pointer, and linking slots for distributing the result of the cell computation to other cells requiring that result as an operand. Circuitry is provided for utilizing tag bits to determine automatically when all operands required by a processor are available and for scheduling the primitive for execution in a queue. Each memory cell of the module may be associated with any of the primitives, and the particular primitive to be executed by the processor associated with the cell is identified by providing an index, such as the cell number for the primitive, to the primitive lookup table of starting addresses. The module thus serves to perform functions previously performed by a number of sections of data flow architectures and coexists with conventional shared memory therein. A multiprocessing system including the module operates in a hybrid mode, wherein the same processing modules are used to perform some processing in a sequential mode, under immediate control of an operating system, while performing other processing in a data flow mode.

  20. Electrolytes including fluorinated solvents for use in electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include ion-supplying salts and fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions with the salts at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and increase safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Fluorinated salts, such as fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6, fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salts, linear and cyclic imide salts as well as methide salts including fluorinated alkyl groups, may be used due to their solubility in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene or, more specifically, a cyclic phosphazene and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  1. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs that deal with passenger vehicles--and with transportation in general--do not address the climate change component explicitly, and thus there are few GHG reduction goals that are included in these programs. Furthermore, there are relatively few protocols that exist for accounting for the GHG emissions reductions that arise from transportation and, specifically, passenger vehicle projects and programs. These accounting procedures and principles gain increased importance when a project developer wishes to document in a credible manner, the GHG reductions that are achieved by a given project or program. Section four of this paper outlined the GHG emissions associated with NGVs, both upstream and downstream, and section five illustrated the methodology, via hypothetical case studies, for measuring these reductions using different types of baselines. Unlike stationary energy combustion, GHG emissions from transportation activities, including NGV projects, come from dispersed sources creating a need for different methodologies for assessing GHG impacts. This resource guide has outlined the necessary context and background for those parties wishing to evaluate projects and develop programs, policies, projects, and legislation aimed at the promotion of NGVs for GHG emission reduction.

  2. Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Western Research Institute

    2009-03-31

    Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental impacts associated with energy production and utilization. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the JSR Program.

  3. Software solutions for emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeFriez, H.; Schillinger, S.; Seraji, H.

    1996-12-31

    Industry and state and federal environmental regulatory agencies are becoming ever more conciliatory due to the high cost of implementing the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) for the operation of Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS). In many cases the modifications do nothing to reduce emissions or even to measure the pollution, but simply let the source owner or operator and the permitting authority agree on a monitoring method and/or program. The EPA methods and standards developed under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) have proven to be extremely costly and burdensome. Now, the USEPA and state agencies are making efforts to assure that emissions data has a strong technical basis to demonstrate compliance with regulations such as Title V.

  4. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

  5. China: Emissions pattern of the world leader in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregg, J; Andres, Robert Joseph; Marland, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    Release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture is the primary anthropogenic driver of climate change. Our best estimate is that China became the largest national source of CO2 emissions during 2006. Previously, the United States (US) had occupied that position. However, the annual emission rate in the US has remained relatively stable between 2001-2006 while the emission rate in China has more than doubled, apparently eclipsing that of the US in late 2006. Here we present the seasonal and spatial pattern of CO2 emissions in China, as well as the sectoral breakdown of emissions. Though our best point estimate places China in the lead position in terms of CO2 emissions, we qualify this statement in a discussion of the uncertainty in the underlying data (3-5% for the US; 15-20% for China). Finally, we comment briefly on the implications of China's new position with respect to international agreements to mitigate climate change.

  6. Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Vehicle Equipped with an Aftermarket Flexible-Fuel Conversion Kit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants Certificates of Conformity for alternative fuel conversion systems and also offers other forms of premarket registration of conversion kits for use in vehicles more than two model years old. Use of alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, and propane are encouraged by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) produce emissions-certified vehicles capable of using alternative fuels, and several alternative fuel conversion system manufacturers produce EPA-approved conversion systems for a variety of alternative fuels and vehicle types. To date, only one manufacturer (Flex Fuel U.S.) has received EPA certifications for ethanol fuel (E85) conversion kits. This report details an independent evaluation of a vehicle with a legal installation of a Flex Fuel U.S. conversion kit. A 2006 Dodge Charger was baseline tested with ethanol-free certification gasoline (E0) and E20 (gasoline with 20 vol % ethanol), converted to flex-fuel operation via installation of a Flex Box Smart Kit from Flex Fuel U.S., and retested with E0, E20, E50, and E81. Test cycles included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP or city cycle), the highway fuel economy test (HFET), and the US06 test (aggressive driving test). Averaged test results show that the vehicle was emissions compliant on E0 in the OEM condition (before conversion) and compliant on all test fuels after conversion. Average nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions exceeded the Tier 2/Bin 5 intermediate life NO{sub X} standard with E20 fuel in the OEM condition due to two of three test results exceeding this standard [note that E20 is not a legal fuel for non-flexible-fuel vehicles (non-FFVs)]. In addition, one E0 test result before conversion and one E20 test result after conversion exceeded the NOX standard, although the average result in these two cases was below the standard. Emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased with increasing ethanol, while nonmethane organic gas and CO emissions remained relatively unchanged for all fuels and cycles. Higher fraction ethanol blends appeared to decrease NO{sub X} emissions on the FTP and HFET (after conversion). As expected, fuel economy (miles per gallon) decreased with increasing ethanol content in all cases.

  7. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  8. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  9. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  10. Low emission internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  11. Fiber optic security seal including plural Bragg gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, P.R.

    1994-09-27

    An optical security system enables the integrity of a container seal to be remotely interrogated. A plurality of Bragg gratings is written holographically into the core of at least one optical fiber placed about the container seal, where each Bragg grating has a predetermined location and a known frequency for reflecting incident light. A time domain reflectometer is provided with a variable frequency light output that corresponds to the reflecting frequencies of the Bragg gratings to output a signal that is functionally related to the location and reflecting frequency of each of the Bragg gratings. 2 figs.

  12. Plasmon modes of metallic nanowires including quantum nonlocal effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-03-15

    The properties of electrostatic surface and bulk plasmon modes of cylindrical metallic nanowires are investigated, using the quantum hydrodynamic theory of plasmon excitation which allows an analytical study of quantum tunneling effects through the Bohm potential term. New dispersion relations are obtained for each type of mode and their differences with previous treatments based on the standard hydrodynamic model are analyzed in detail. Numerical results show by considering the quantum effects, as the value of wave number increases, the surface modes are slightly red-shifted first and then blue-shifted while the bulk modes are blue-shifted.

  13. Fiber optic security seal including plural Bragg gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, Peter R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An optical security system enables the integrity of a container seal to be remotely interrogated. A plurality of Bragg gratings is written holographically into the core of at least one optical fiber placed about the container seal, where each Bragg grating has a predetermined location and a known frequency for reflecting incident light. A time domain reflectometer is provided with a variable frequency light output that corresponds to the reflecting frequencies of the Bragg gratings to output a signal that is functionally related to the location and reflecting frequency of each of the Bragg gratings.

  14. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Tanioka, Seiichi

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  15. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a pu GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  16. Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

  17. Origin of multi-band emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jianfu; Lu, Jufu; Xu, Bing

    2014-06-20

    We study the origin of non-thermal emissions from the Galactic black hole X-ray binary Cygnus X-1, which is a confirmed high-mass microquasar. By analogy with the methods used in studies of active galactic nuclei, we propose a two-dimensional, time-dependent radiation model from the microquasar Cygnus X-1. In this model, the evolution equation for relativistic electrons in a conical jet are numerically solved by including escape, adiabatic, and various radiative losses. The radiative processes involved are synchrotron emission, its self-Compton scattering, and inverse Compton scatterings of an accretion disk and its surrounding stellar companion. This model also includes an electromagnetic cascade process of an anisotropic ?-? interaction. We study the spectral properties of electron evolution and its emission spectral characteristic at different heights of the emission region located in the jet. We find that radio data from Cygnus X-1 are reproduced by the synchrotron emission, the Fermi Large Area Telescope measurements by the synchrotron emission and Comptonization of photons of the stellar companion, and the TeV band emission fluxes by the Comptonization of the stellar photons. Our results show the following. (1) The radio emission region extends from the binary system scales to the termination of the jet. (2) The GeV band emissions should originate from the distance close to the binary system scales. (3) The TeV band emissions could be inside the binary system, and these emissions could be probed by the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array. (4) The MeV tail emissions, which produce a strongly linearly polarized signal, are emitted inside the binary system. The location of the emissions is very close to the inner region of the jet.

  18. Labor Relations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Addressing Poor Performance What Happens if an Employee’s Performance is Below the Meets Expectations (ME) level? Any time during the appraisal period an employee demonstrates that he/she is performing below the ME level in at least one critical element, the Rating Official should contact his/her Human Resources Office for guidance and: •If performance is at the Needs Improvement (NI) level; issue the employee a Performance Assistance Plan (PAP); or •If performance is at the Fails to Meet Expectations (FME) level; issue the employee a Performance Improvement Plan (PIP). Department of Energy Headquarters and The National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU) Collective Bargaining Agreement The National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU) is the exclusive representative of bargaining unit employees at the Department of Energy Headquarters offices in the Washington DC metropolitan area. The terms and conditions of this agreement have been negotiated by DOE and NTEU, and prescribe their respective rights and obligations in matters related to conditions of employment. Headquarters 1187 Request For Payroll Deductions For Labor Organization Dues The Request for Payroll Deduction for Labor Organization Dues (SF-1187) permits eligible employees, who are members of the National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU), to authorize voluntary allotments from their compensation. Headquarters 1188 Cancellation Of Payroll Deductions For Labor Organization Dues The Cancellation of Payroll Deductions for Labor Organizations Dues (SF-1188) permits eligible employees, who are members of the National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU), to cancel dues allotments. The National Treasury Employees Union, Collective Bargaining Agreement, Article 9 – Dues Withholding This article is for the purpose of permitting eligible employees, who are members of the National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU), to authorize voluntary allotments from their compensation.

  19. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ORAU's Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  20. Updated State Air Emissions Regulations (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is a program that includes 10 Northeast states that have agreed to curtail and reverse growth in their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The RGGI program includes all electricity generating units with a capacity of at least 25 megawatts and requires an allowance for each ton of CO2 emitted. The first year of mandatory compliance was in 2009.

  1. Difficulty of Measuring Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Equipped with SCR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and DPF | Department of Energy Difficulty of Measuring Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Equipped with SCR and DPF Difficulty of Measuring Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Equipped with SCR and DPF In reference to legacy heavy-duty vehicles, emissions and fuel use are less closely related to immediate engine load than was the case without the use of aftertreatments. PDF icon p-05_covington.pdf More Documents & Publications Can We Accurately Measure In-Use Emissions from Heavy-Duty

  2. Fission Particle Emission Multiplicity Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-27

    Simulates discrete neutron and gamma-ray emission from the fission of heavy nuclei that is either spontaneous or neutron induced. This is a function library that encapsulates the fission physics and is intended to be called Monte Carlo transport code.

  3. State-level Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Electricity Generation, Updated

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    To assist reporters in estimating emissions and emission reductions, The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has made available in the instructions to Forms EIA-1605 and EIA-1605EZ emission coefficients for most commonly used fossil fuels and electricity. These coefficients were based on 1992 emissions and generation data. In 1999, updated coefficients were prepared based on the most recent data (1998) then available; however, the updated coefficients were not included in the instructions for the 1999 data year. This year, they have been updated again, but based on three years worth of data (1997, 1998, and 1999) rather than a single year.

  4. Fact #783: June 10, 2013 Emissions and Energy Use Model - GREET |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3: June 10, 2013 Emissions and Energy Use Model - GREET Fact #783: June 10, 2013 Emissions and Energy Use Model - GREET The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emission, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model is a full life-cycle model for evaluating the energy and emission impacts of various vehicle and fuel combinations. The first version of the GREET model was released in 1996. Since then, the model has been updated and expanded to include additional vehicle types and

  5. Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Luck, C.F.

    1995-10-03

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C.

  6. Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Gruzalski, Greg R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Luck, Christopher F. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  7. Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marriott, Craig D

    2013-06-04

    A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

  8. Nijmegen soft-core potential including two-meson exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoks, V.G.J.; Rijken, T.A.

    1995-05-10

    We report on the progress of the construction of the extended soft-core (ESC) Nijmegen potential. Next to the standard one-boson-exchange parts, the model includes the pion-meson-exchange potentials due to the parallel and crossed-box diagrams, as well as the one-pair and two-pair diagrams, vertices for which can be identified with similar interactions appearing in chiral-symmetric Lagrangians. Although the ESC potential is still under construction, it already gives an excellent description of all {ital NN} scattering data below 350 MeV with {chi}{sup 2}/datum=1.3. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  9. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.

    2009-12-08

    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a 90.degree. angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a 90.degree. angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  10. Copper laser modulator driving assembly including a magnetic compression laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A laser modulator (10) having a low voltage assembly (12) with a plurality of low voltage modules (14) with first stage magnetic compression circuits (20) and magnetic assist inductors (28) with a common core (91), such that timing of the first stage magnetic switches (30b) is thereby synchronized. A bipolar second stage of magnetic compression (42) is coupled to the low voltage modules (14) through a bipolar pulse transformer (36) and a third stage of magnetic compression (44) is directly coupled to the second stage of magnetic compression (42). The low voltage assembly (12) includes pressurized boxes (117) for improving voltage standoff between the primary winding assemblies (34) and secondary winding (40) contained therein.

  11. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1999-05-11

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties is disclosed. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display. 3 figs.

  12. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downer Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display.

  13. Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel and PFI n-Butanol | Department of Energy Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI Biodiesel and PFI n-Butanol Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI Biodiesel and PFI n-Butanol Results from an idling strategy using PCCI coupled with LTC indicate that, when used with n-butanol, it can be very promising for extended idling including the LTC regimes. PDF icon p-07_duggan.pdf More Documents & Publications Path

  14. Carbon-containing cathodes for enhanced electron emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cao, Renyu (Cupertino, CA); Pan, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Vergara, German (Madrid, ES); Fox, Ciaran (Los Altos, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A cathode has electropositive atoms directly bonded to a carbon-containing substrate. Preferably, the substrate comprises diamond or diamond-like (sp.sup.3) carbon, and the electropositive atoms are Cs. The cathode displays superior efficiency and durability. In one embodiment, the cathode has a negative electron affinity (NEA). The cathode can be used for field emission, thermionic emission, or photoemission. Upon exposure to air or oxygen, the cathode performance can be restored by annealing or other methods. Applications include detectors, electron multipliers, sensors, imaging systems, and displays, particularly flat panel displays.

  15. U.S. DOE 2004 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.W. Jacobson

    2005-08-12

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2004.

  16. Thermodynamics of photon-enhanced thermionic emission solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reck, Kasper; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-13

    Photon-enhanced thermionic emission (PETE) cells in which direct photon energy as well as thermal energy can be harvested have recently been suggested as a new candidate for high efficiency solar cells. Here, we present an analytic thermodynamical model for evaluation of the efficiency of PETE solar cells including an analysis of the entropy production due to thermionic emission of general validity. The model is applied to find the maximum efficiency of a PETE cell for given cathode and anode work functions and temperatures.

  17. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values across the APCDs are 2.1% and 39.4% with standard deviations (STDs) of 1990 and 75%, respectively for the ICR and SEC tests. This clearly demonstrates that variability is an issue irrespective of using 'similar' fuels at the plants and the same source sampling team measuring the species. The study also concluded that elemental mercury is the main Hg specie that needs to be controlled. 2004 technologies such as activated carbon injection (ACI) may capture up to 60% with double digit lb/MMacf addition of sorbent. PRB coal-fired units have an Hg input of 7-15 lb/TBtu; hence, these units must operate at over 60% mercury efficiency in order to bring the emission level below 5.8 lb/TBtu. This was non-achievable with the best technology available as of 2004. Other key findings include: (1) Conventional particulate collectors, such as Cold-side Electro-Static Precipitators (CESPs), Hot-side Electro-Static Precipitator (HESP), and Fabric Filter (FF) remove nearly all of the particulate bound mercury; (2) CESPs perform better highlighting the flue gas temperature effect on the mercury removal. Impact of speciation with flue gas cooling is apparent; (3) SDA's do not help in enhancing adsorption of mercury vapor species; and (4) Due to consistently low chlorine values in fuels, it was not possible to analyze the impact of chlorine. In summary, it is difficult to predict the speciation at two plants that burn the same fuel. Non-fuel issues, such as flue gas cooling, impact the speciation and consequently mercury capture potential.

  18. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Fearnside, P.M. , Manaus, AM . Departmento de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  19. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO 2 concentration data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ogle, Stephen; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Schuh, Andrew E.; Cooley, Dan; West, Tristram O.; Heath, L.; Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Breidt, F. Jay; et al

    2015-03-10

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Verification could include a variety of evidence, but arguably the most convincing verification would be confirmation of a change in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere that is consistent with reported emissions to the UNFCCC. We report here on a case study evaluating this option based on a prototype atmospheric CO2 measurement network deployed in the Mid-Continent Region of themore » conterminous United States. We found that the atmospheric CO2 measurement data did verify the accuracy of the emissions inventory within the confidence limits of the emissions estimates, suggesting that this technology could be further developed and deployed more widely in the future for verifying reported emissions.« less

  20. Junction-based field emission structure for field emission display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N.; Balooch, Mehdi; McLean, II, William; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2002-01-01

    A junction-based field emission display, wherein the junctions are formed by depositing a semiconducting or dielectric, low work function, negative electron affinity (NEA) silicon-based compound film (SBCF) onto a metal or n-type semiconductor substrate. The SBCF can be doped to become a p-type semiconductor. A small forward bias voltage is applied across the junction so that electron transport is from the substrate into the SBCF region. Upon entering into this NEA region, many electrons are released into the vacuum level above the SBCF surface and accelerated toward a positively biased phosphor screen anode, hence lighting up the phosphor screen for display. To turn off, simply switch off the applied potential across the SBCF/substrate. May be used for field emission flat panel displays.

  1. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  2. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 11 figures.

  3. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 12 figs.

  4. CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  5. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2009-04-28

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  6. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  7. C -parameter distribution at N 3 LL ' including power corrections

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoang, André H.; Kolodrubetz, Daniel W.; Mateu, Vicent; Stewart, Iain W.

    2015-05-15

    We compute the e⁺e⁻ C-parameter distribution using the soft-collinear effective theory with a resummation to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-log prime accuracy of the most singular partonic terms. This includes the known fixed-order QCD results up to O(α3s), a numerical determination of the two-loop nonlogarithmic term of the soft function, and all logarithmic terms in the jet and soft functions up to three loops. Our result holds for C in the peak, tail, and far tail regions. Additionally, we treat hadronization effects using a field theoretic nonperturbative soft function, with moments Ωn. To eliminate an O(ΛQCD) renormalon ambiguity in the soft function, we switchmore » from the MS¯ to a short distance “Rgap” scheme to define the leading power correction parameter Ω1. We show how to simultaneously account for running effects in Ω1 due to renormalon subtractions and hadron-mass effects, enabling power correction universality between C-parameter and thrust to be tested in our setup. We discuss in detail the impact of resummation and renormalon subtractions on the convergence. In the relevant fit region for αs(mZ) and Ω1, the perturbative uncertainty in our cross section is ≅ 2.5% at Q=mZ.« less

  8. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared emission spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA); Jones, Roger W. (Ames, IA)

    1991-12-24

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a solid material (16, 42) by applying energy from an energy source (20, 70) top a surface region of the solid material sufficient to cause transient heating in a thin surface layer portion of the solid material (16, 42) so as to enable transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion, and by detecting with a spectrometer/detector (28, 58) substantially only the transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion of the solid material. The detected transient thermal emission of infrared radiation is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the solid material of emitted infrared radiation, so as to be indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the solid material.

  9. Emissions trading comes of age as a strategic tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pospisil, R.

    1996-03-01

    Trading of emissions credits has quickly evolved from a curiosity to a viable compliance strategy for electric utilities and power-generating industrial firms. A sure sign that emissions trading has matured is the entry of power marketers onto the scene; in bundling pollution allowances with their electricity offerings, they are making their product more attractive - and stealing a page from the coal companies` strategy book to boot. Although most current activity involves credits for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) trading is under way in certain areas as well, although NO{sub x} markets are local and thus slower to develop. However, utilities see economic development potential in this area; some are providing NO{sub x} credits to their industrial customers to help them comply with environmental regulations - and to retain their loyalty when deregulation affords them a choice of electricity suppliers. This paper briefly discusses the issues related to emissions trading.

  10. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

    2011-04-11

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.; Perlack, R.D.; Prasad, A.M.G.; Ranney, J.W.; Waddle, D.B.

    1990-11-01

    Current and future carbon emissions from land-use change and energy consumption were analyzed for Sub-Saharan Africa. The energy sector analysis was based on UN energy data tapes while the land-use analysis was based on a spatially-explicit land-use model developed specifically for this project. The impacts of different energy and land-use strategies on future carbon emissions were considered. (A review of anthropogenic emissions of methane, nitrous oxides, and chlorofluorocarbons in Sub-Saharan Africa indicated that they were probably minor in both a global and a regional context. The study therefore was focused on emissions of carbon dioxide.) The land-use model predicts carbon emissions from land use change and the amount of carbon stored in vegetation (carbon inventory) on a yearly basis between 1985 and 2001. Emissions and inventory are modeled at 9000 regularly-spaced point locations in Sub-Saharan Africa using location-specific information on vegetation type, soils, climate and deforestation. Vegetation, soils, and climate information were derived from continental-scale maps while relative deforestation rates(% of forest land lost each year) were developed from country-specific forest and deforestation statistics (FAO Tropical Forest Resources Assessment for Africa, 1980). The carbon emissions under different land use strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa were analyzed by modifying deforestation rates and altering the amount of carbon stored under different land uses. The considered strategies were: preservation of existing forests, implementation of agroforestry, and establishment of industrial tree plantations. 82 refs., 16 figs., 25 tabs.

  12. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disasterreadiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just thathelp strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  13. Assessment of the Emissions Behavior of Higher Mileage Class-8 Trucks and Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Study of in-use emission levels of trucks near the mid-point of their regulatory useful life, including PEMS (on-road) testing as well as engine dynamometer testing

  14. Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations and Emission Rates in New Manufactured and Site-Built Houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armin Rudd

    2008-10-30

    This study was conducted with the primary objective of characterizing and comparing the airborne concentrations and the emission rates of total VOCs and selected individual VOCs, including formaldehyde, among a limited number of new manufactured and site-built houses.

  15. Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cost effective reduction of legislated emissions (including CO2) is a major issue. NOx control must not be a limiting factor to the long term success of Diesel engines.

  16. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BATES, J.A.

    2000-05-01

    This NOC application is provided to update the description of amounts of material handled, and to update the calculation of potential for emissions and resultant calculation of offsite TEDE. This NOC also includes an updated description of the various emission units at WSCF, including use of portable tanks to receive and remove liquid waste contaminated with low levels of radioactive contamination. The resultant, adjusted estimate for TEDE to the hypothetical MEI due to all combined unabated emissions from WSCF is 1.4 E-02 millirem per year. The total adjusted estimate for all combined abated emissions is 2.8 E-03 millirem per year. No single emission unit at the WSCF Complex exceeds a potential (unabated) offsite dose of 2.7 E-03 millirem per year.

  17. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using a metal hydride.

  18. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-03-30

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using a metal hydride.

  19. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using, a metal hydride.

  20. Micro-column plasma emission liquid chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Don D. (Aiken, SC)

    1984-01-01

    In a direct current plasma emission spectrometer for use in combination with a micro-column liquid chromatograph, an improved plasma source unit. The plasma source unit includes a quartz capillary tube having an inlet means, outlet off gas means and a pair of spaced electrodes defining a plasma region in the tube. The inlet means is connected to and adapted to receive eluant of the liquid chromatograph along with a stream of plasma-forming gas. There is an opening through the wall of the capillary tube penetrating into the plasma region. A soft glass capillary light pipe is disposed at the opening, is connected to the spectrometer, and is adapted to transmit light passing from the plasma region to the spectrometer. There is also a source of electromotive force connected to the electrodes sufficient to initiate and sustain a plasma in the plasma region of the tube.

  1. Ion-induced electron emission microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vizkelethy, Gyorgy (Albuquerque, NM); Weller, Robert A. (Brentwood, TN)

    2001-01-01

    An ion beam analysis system that creates multidimensional maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the secondary electrons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted secondary electrons are collected in a strong electric field perpendicular to the sample surface and (optionally) projected and refocused by the electron lenses found in a photon emission electron microscope, amplified by microchannel plates and then their exact position is sensed by a very sensitive X Y position detector. Position signals from this secondary electron detector are then correlated in time with nuclear, atomic or electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these secondary electrons in the fit place.

  2. Organic light-emitting device with a phosphor-sensitized fluorescent emission layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen (Ann Arbor, MI); Kanno, Hiroshi (Osaka, JP)

    2009-08-25

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), and more specifically to OLEDS that emit light using a combination of fluorescent emitters and phosphorescent emitters. The emissive region of the devices of the present invention comprise at least one phosphor-sensitized layer which has a combined emission from a phosphorescent emitter and a fluorescent emitter. In preferred embodiments, the invention relates to white-emitting OLEDS (WOLEDs).

  3. Effects of Biodiesel on NOx Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.

    2005-06-01

    A presentation about the effects of biodiesel on nitrogen oxide emissions presented at the ARB Biodiesel Workshop June 8, 2005.

  4. School Bus Emissions Study | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    School Bus Emissions Study School Bus Emissions Study 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: international Truck and Engine Corporation PDF icon deer_2003_slodowske.pdf More Documents & Publications Investigation of the Effects of Fuels and Aftertreatment Devices on the Emission Profiles of Trucks and Buses ARB's Study of Emissions from Diesel and CNG Heavy-duty Transit Buses Diesel Health Impacts & Recent Comparisons to Other Fuels

  5. FUELS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; RADIOACTIVE EFFLUENTS; EMISSION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SRP radioactive waste releases. Startup through 1959 Ashley, C. 05 NUCLEAR FUELS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; RADIOACTIVE EFFLUENTS; EMISSION; ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIALS;...

  6. Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website: www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-estimating-historical Cost: Free Language: English Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation Screenshot...

  7. Vehicle Emission Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics November 22, 2013 - 2:07pm Addthis Vehicle emissions are the gases emitted by the tailpipes of internal combustion engine vehicles. These vehicles can run on gasoline, diesel, natural gas, or propane. Vehicle emissions are composed of varying amounts of: water vapor carbon dioxide (CO2) nitrogen oxygen pollutants such as: carbon monoxide (CO) nitrogen oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) particulate matter (PM) A

  8. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Contacts This report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009, was prepared under the general direction of John Conti, Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis, and Paul Holtberg, Team Leader, Analysis Integration Team. General questions concerning the content of this report may be directed to the Office of Communications at 202/586-8800. Technical information concerning the content of the report may be obtained from Perry Lindstrom at 202/586-0934 (email,

  9. Emissions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... combined with increased R&D on solar energy production ... and lt,tztstry, Organization for Economic Cooperation ... Journal of the Air ald Waste Managemert Association ...

  10. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and contaminant mixing in an exhaust system and may be useful to identify potential sampling locations in an exhaust system that are likely to meet criteria in the revised standard.

  11. Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves and Improved Stove Emission Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HATFIELD, MICHAEL; Still, Dean

    2013-04-15

    In developing countries, there is an urgent need for access to safe, efficient, and more affordable cooking technologies. Nearly 2.5 billion people currently use an open fire or traditional cookstove to prepare their meals, and recent models predict that use of biomass for cooking will continue to be the dominant energy use in rural, resource-poor households through 2030. For these families, cooking poses serious risks to health, safety, and income. An alarming 4 million people, primarily women and children, die prematurely each year from indoor and outdoor exposure to the harmful emissions released by solid fuel combustion. Use of traditional stoves can also have a significant impact on deforestation and climate change. This dire situation creates a critical need for cookstoves that significantly and verifiably reduce fuel use and emissions in order to reach protective levels for human health and the environment. Additionally, advances in the scientific equipment needed to measure and monitor stove fuel use and emissions have not kept pace with the significant need within the industry. While several testing centers in the developed world may have hundred thousand-dollar emissions testing systems, organizations in the field have had little more than a thermometer, a scale, and subjective observations to quantify the performance of stove designs. There is an urgent need for easy-to-use, inexpensive, accurate, and robust stove testing equipment for use by laboratory and field researchers around the world. ASAT and their research partner, Aprovecho Research Center (ARC), have over thirty years of experience addressing these two needs, improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment, with expertise spanning the full spectrum of development from conceptual design to product manufacturing and dissemination. This includes: 1) research, design, and verification of clean biomass cookstove technology and emissions monitoring equipment; 2) mass production of quality-controlled stove and emissions equipment at levels scalable to meet global demand; and 3) global distribution through a variety of channels and partners. ARC has been instrumental in designing and improving more than 100 stove designs over the past thirty years. In the last four years, ASAT and ARC have played a key role in the production and sales of over 200,000 improved stoves in the developed and developing world. The ARC-designed emissions equipment is currently used by researchers in laboratories and field studies on five continents. During Phase I of the DOE STTR grant, ASAT and ARC worked together to apply their wealth of product development experience towards creating the next generation of improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment. Highlights of Phase I for the biomass cookstove project include 1) the development of several new stove technologies that reached the DOE 50/90 benchmark; 2) fabrication of new stove prototypes by ASATs manufacturing partner, Shengzhou Stove Manufacturing (SSM); 3) field testing of prototype stoves with consumers in Puerto Rico and the US; and 4) the selection of three stove prototypes for further development and commercialization during Phase II. Highlights of Phase I for the emissions monitoring equipment project include: 1) creation of a new emissions monitoring equipment product, the Laboratory Emissions Monitoring System (LEMS 2) the addition of gravimetric PM measurements to the stove testing systems to meet International Standards Organization criteria; 3) the addition of a CO{sub 2} sensor and wireless 3G capability to the IAP Meter; and 4) and the improvement of sensors and signal quality on all systems. Twelve Regional Testing and Knowledge Centers purchased this equipment during the Phase I project period.

  12. Mercury Emission Measurement at a CFB Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-02-28

    In response to pending regulation to control mercury emissions in the United States and Canada, several projects have been conducted to perform accurate mass balances at pulverized coal (pc)-fired utilities. Part of the mercury mass balance always includes total gaseous mercury as well as a determination of the speciation of the mercury emissions and a concentration bound to the particulate matter. This information then becomes useful in applying mercury control strategies, since the elemental mercury has traditionally been difficult to control by most technologies. In this instance, oxidation technologies have proven most beneficial for increased capture. Despite many years of mercury measurement and control projects at pc-fired units, far less work has been done on circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) units, which are able to combust a variety of feedstocks, including cofiring coal with biomass. Indeed, these units have proven to be more problematic because it is very difficult to obtain a reliable mercury mass balance. These units tend to have very different temperature profiles than pc-fired utility boilers. The flexibility of CFB units also tends to be an issue when a mercury balance is determined, since the mercury inputs to the system come from the bed material and a variety of fuels, which can have quite variable chemistry, especially for mercury. In addition, as an integral part of the CFB operation, the system employs a feedback loop to circulate the bed material through the combustor and the solids collection system (the primary cyclone), thereby subjecting particulate-bound metals to higher temperatures again. Despite these issues, CFB boilers generally emit very little mercury and show good native capture. The Energy & Environmental Research Center is carrying out this project for Metso Power in order to characterize the fate of mercury across the unit at Rosebud Plant, an industrial user of CFB technology from Metso. Appropriate solids were collected, and flue gas samples were obtained using the Ontario Hydro method, mercury continuous emission monitors, and sorbent trap methods. In addition, chlorine and fluorine were determined for solids and in the flue gas stream. Results of this project have indicated a very good mercury mass balance for Rosebud Plant, indicating 105 {+-} 19%, which is well within acceptable limits. The mercury flow through the system was shown to be primarily in with the coal and out with the flue gas, which falls outside of the norm for CFB boilers.

  13. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crandall, David Lynn (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  14. Comparing Emissions Benefits from Regulating Heavy Vehicle Idling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Benefits from Regulating Heavy Vehicle Idling Comparing Emissions Benefits from Regulating Heavy Vehicle Idling 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  15. Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  16. Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL File Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL More Documents & Publications Attachment C

  17. Attachment C Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL Attachment C Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL File Attachment-C-Summary-GHG-Emissions-Data-FINAL.xlsx More Documents & Publications Attachment C -

  18. Catalyzing Cooperative Action for Low Emissions Development Agenda...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Emissions Development Agenda Jump to: navigation, search Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership Advancing climate-resilient, low-emission development around the...

  19. Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction ...

  20. 2010 Emissions from an Electronics Perspective | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions from an Electronics Perspective 2010 Emissions from an Electronics Perspective 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon ...

  1. Optimization of an Advanced Passive/Active Diesel Emission Control...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Diesel Particulate Filters and NO2 Emission Limits Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration Units Active Diesel Emission ...

  2. Rigorous HDD Emissions Capabilities of Shell GTL Fuel | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rigorous HDD Emissions Capabilities of Shell GTL Fuel Rigorous HDD Emissions Capabilities of Shell GTL Fuel 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations...

  3. How Exhaust Emissions Drive Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How Exhaust Emissions Drive Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency How Exhaust Emissions Drive Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  4. Module: Emission Factors for Deforestation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-emission-factors-defo Cost: Free Language: English Module: Emission Factors for Deforestation Screenshot Logo: Module: Emission...

  5. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Fischer, Marc

    2008-06-11

    This report allocates California's 2004 statewide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions are allocated to counties using several different methods, based on the availability of data for each sector. Data on natural gas use in all sectors are available by county. Fuel consumption by power and combined heat and power generation plants is available for individual plants. Bottom-up models were used to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft. All other sources of CO2 emissions were allocated to counties based on surrogates for activity. CO2 emissions by sector were estimated for each county, as well as for the South Coast Air Basin. It is important to note that emissions from some sources, notably electricity generation, were allocated to counties based on where the emissions were generated, rather than where the electricity was actually consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported from other states and international marine bunker fuels, were not included in the analysis. California Air Resource Board (CARB) does not include CO2 emissions from interstate and international air travel, in the official California greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, so those emissions were allocated to counties for informational purposes only. Los Angeles County is responsible for by far the largest CO2 emissions from combustion in the state: 83 Million metric tonnes (Mt), or 24percent of total CO2 emissions in California, more than twice that of the next county (Kern, with 38 Mt, or 11percent of statewide emissions). The South Coast Air Basin accounts for 122 MtCO2, or 35percent of all emissions from fuel combustion in the state. The distribution of emissions by sector varies considerably by county, with on-road motor vehicles dominating most counties, but large stationary sources and rail travel dominating in other counties.The CO2 emissions data by county and source are available upon request.

  6. Methane emissions from rice fields: The effects of climatic and agricultural factors. Final report, March 1, 1994--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, M.A.K.; Rasmussen, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    The work reported was performed for the purpose of refining estimates of methane emissions from rice fields. Research performed included methane flux measurements, evaluation of variables affecting emissions, compilation of a data base, and continental background measurements in China. The key findings are briefly described in this report. Total methane emissions, seasonal patterns, and spatial variability were measured for a 7-year periods. Temperature was found to be the most important variable studies affecting methane emissions. The data archives for the research are included in the report. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuchi, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  8. Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C. (Woodinville, WA); Edmonds, Ryan G. (Renton, WA); Williams, Joseph T. (Kirkland, WA); Baldwin, Stephen P. (Winchester, MA)

    2009-10-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  9. Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

    2012-11-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  10. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  11. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  12. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  13. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trexler, E.C. Jr.; Shannon, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  14. Volatile organic compound emissions from usaf wastewater treatment plants in ozone nonattainment areas. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouellette, B.A.

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), this research conducts an evaluation of the potential emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from selected Air Force wastewater treatment plants. Using a conservative mass balance analysis and process specific simulation models, volatile organic emission estimates are calculated for four individual facilities--Edwards AFB, Luke AFB, McGuire AFB, and McClellan AFB--which represent a cross section of the current inventory of USAF wastewater plants in ozone nonattainment areas. From these calculations, maximum facility emissions are determined which represent the upper limit for the potential VOC emissions from these wastewater plants. Based on the calculated emission estimates, each selected wastewater facility is evaluated as a potential major stationary source of volatile organic emissions under both Title I of the 1990 CAAA and the plant's governing Clean Air Act state implementation plan. Next, the potential impact of the specific volatile organics being emitted is discussed in terms of their relative reactivity and individual contribution to tropospheric ozone formation. Finally, a relative comparison is made between the estimated VOC emissions for the selected wastewater facilities and the total VOC emissions for their respective host installations.

  15. Estimates of the Global Indirect Energy-Use Emission Impacts of USA Biofuel Policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the indirect energy-use emission implications of increases in the use of biofuels in the USA between 2001 and 2010 as mandates within a dynamic global computable general equilibrium model. The study incorporates explicit markets for biofuels, petroleum and other fossil fuels, and accounts for interactions among all sectors of an 18-region global economy. It considers bilateral trade, as well as the dynamics of capital allocation and investment. Simulation results show that the biofuel mandates in the USA generate an overall reduction in global energy use and emissions over the simulation period from 2001 to 2030. Consequently, the indirect energy-use emission change or emission leakage under the mandate is negative. That is, global emission reductions are larger than the direct emission savings from replacing petroleum with biofuels under the USA RFS2 over the last decade. Under our principal scenario this enhanced the direct emission reduction from biofuels by about 66%. The global change in lifecycle energy-use emissions for this scenario was estimated to be about 93 million tons of CO2e in 2010, 45 million tons of CO2e in 2020, and an increase of 5 million tons of CO2e in 2030, relative to the baseline scenario. Sensitivity results of six alternative scenarios provided additional insights into the pattern of the regional and global effects of biofuel mandates on energy-use emissions.

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R and D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  17. Emissions inventory report summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for calendar year 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2009-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory’s potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2008. LANL’s 2008 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  18. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Stockton

    2005-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), ''Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements''. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2004. LANL's 2004 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  19. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Environmental Stewardship Group

    2010-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2009. LANL's 2009 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  20. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2007-09-28

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. Modification Number 1 to this Title V Operating Permit was issued on June 15, 2006 (Permit No P-100M1) and includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2006. LANL's 2006 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  1. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  2. Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2003-04-22

    A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle and imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure thereby adjusting flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

  3. Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle, which imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure to adjust flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

  4. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    Analysis of the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Maine, including economic benefits, CO2 emissions reductions, and water conservation.

  5. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    Analysis of the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arizona, including economic benefits, CO2 emissions reductions, and water conservation.

  6. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS - ASH BEHAVIOR IN POWER SYSTEMS. INCLUDES THE SEMIANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JANUARY 01, 1998 - JUNE 30, 1998.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The overall goal of this initiative is to develop fundamental knowledge of ash behavior in power systems for the purpose of increasing power production efficiency, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The specific objectives of this initiative focus primarily on ash behavior related to advanced power systems and include the following: Determine the current status of the fundamental ash interactions and deposition formation mechanisms as already reported through previous or ongoing projects at the EERC or in the literature; Determine sintering mechanisms for temperatures and particle compositions that are less well known and remain for the most part undetermined; Identify the relationship between the temperature of critical viscosity (T{sub cv}) as measured in a viscometer and the crystallization occurring in the melt; Perform a literature search on the use of heated-stage microscopy (HSM) for examining in situ ash-sintering phenomena and then validate the use of HSM in the determination of viscosity in spherical ash particles; Ascertain the formation and stability of specific mineral or amorphous phases in deposits typical of advanced power systems; and Evaluate corrosion for alloys being used in supercritical combustion systems.

  7. Emissions Technology Gives Company Clean Win as Energy Innovator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Umpqua Energy produced an emission control system that can potentially reduce the emissions from vehicles by 90 percent.

  8. Diesel Emission Control Technology in Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Review Diesel Emission Control Technology in Review Review of light- and heavy-duty diesel emission regulations and state-of-the-art emission control technologies and strategies to meet them. PDF icon deer08_johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Emission Control Review Review of Emerging Diesel Emissions and Control Diesel Emission Control in Review

  9. REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS FROM A HIGH SPEED FERRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson,G.; Gautam, M; Clark, N; Lyons, D; Carder, D; Riddle, W; Barnett, R; Rapp, B; George, S

    2003-08-24

    Emissions from marine vessels are being scrutinized as a major contributor to the total particulate matter (TPM), oxides of sulfur (SOx) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) environmental loading. Fuel sulfur control is the key to SOx reduction. Significant reductions in the emissions from on-road vehicles have been achieved in the last decade and the emissions from these vehicles will be reduced by another order of magnitude in the next five years: these improvements have served to emphasize the need to reduce emissions from other mobile sources, including off road equipment, locomotives, and marine vessels. Diesel-powered vessels of interest include ocean going vessels with low- and medium-speed engines, as well as ferries with high speed engines, as discussed below. A recent study examined the use of intake water injection (WIS) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to reduce the emissions from a high-speed passenger ferry in southern California. One of the four Detroit Diesel 12V92 two-stroke high speed engines that power the Waverider (operated by SCX, inc.) was instrumented to collect intake airflow, fuel flow, shaft torque, and shaft speed. Engine speed and shaft torque were uniquely linked for given vessel draft and prevailing wind and sea conditions. A raw exhaust gas sampling system was utilized to measure the concentration of NOx, carbon dioxide (CO2), and oxygen (O2) and a mini dilution tunnel sampling a slipstream from the raw exhaust was used to collect TPM on 70 mm filters. The emissions data were processed to yield brake-specific mass results. The system that was employed allowed for redundant data to be collected for quality assurance and quality control. To acquire the data, the Waverider was operated at five different steady state speeds. Three modes were in the open sea off Oceanside, CA, and idle and harbor modes were also used. Data have showed that the use of ULSD along with water injection (WIS) could significantly reduce the emissions of NOx and PM while not affecting fuel consumption or engine performance compared to the baseline marine diesel. The results showed that a nominal 40% reduction in TPM was realized when switching from the marine diesel to the ULSD. A small reduction in NOx was also shown between the marine fuel and the ULSD. The implementation of the WIS showed that NOx was reduced significantly by between 11% and 17%, depending upon the operating condition. With the WIS, the TPM was reduced by a few percentage points, which was close to the confidence in measurement.

  10. CNG and Diesel Transit Bus Emissions in Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, A.; Kado, N.; Okamoto, R.; Gebel, M. Rieger, P.; Kobayashi, R.; Kuzmicky, P.

    2003-08-24

    Over the past three years, the California Air Resources Board (CARB), in collaboration with the University of California and other entities, has investigated the tailpipe emissions from three different latemodel, in-use heavy-duty transit buses in five different configurations. The study has focused on the measurement of regulated emissions (NOX, HC, CO, total PM), other gaseous emissions (CO2, NO2, CH4, NMHC), a number of pollutants of toxic risk significance (aromatics, carbonyls, PAHs, elements), composition (elemental and organic carbon), and the physical characterization (size-segregated number count and mass) of the particles in the exhaust aerosol. Emission samples are also tested in a modified Ames assay. The impact of oxidation catalyst control for both diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) buses and a passive diesel particulate filter (DPF) were evaluated over multiple driving cycles (idle, 55 mph cruise, CBD, UDDS, NYBC) using a chassis dynamometer. For brevity, only CBD results are discussed in this paper and particle sizing results are omitted. The database of results is large and some findings have been reported already at various forums including last year's DEER conference. The goal of this paper is to offer an overview of the lessons learned and attempt to draw overall conclusions and interpretations based on key findings to date.

  11. PNNL: About: Air Emissions (Radioactive) Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Emissions (Radioactive) Reports At PNNL, we value the environment and strive to protect it and the public from unacceptable risks resulting from its operations. These reports document PNNL Campus and Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest dose to a member of the public. The reports have been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for

  12. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Scanning

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Scanning Resources with Additional Information Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanner Courtesy Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 'Positron Emission Tomography ... [is a medical imaging technique that] can track chemical reactions in living tissues and merges chemistry with biological imaging. Its strength has been in studies of the brain where there has been significant progress in investigations of drug addiction, aging, mental illness,

  13. Fine Structure Studies in Proton Emission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure Studies in Proton Emission In order to understand the evolution of single particle wave functions and deformations beyond the proton drip line, a program has been initiated to study fine structure decay in proton emission. Fine structure in the proton emission spectrum allows one not only to define low energy states in the daughter, but from a comparison of the proton energies and partial half-lives, enables determination of the composition of the single-particle proton states in the

  14. Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technology | Department of Energy Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology January 12, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An innovative technology that could potentially help some coal-based power generation facilities comply with anticipated new mercury emissions standards was successfully demonstrated in a recently concluded milestone project at a Michigan power

  15. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources. Case study of Murmansk

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Evans, M.; Kholod, N.; Malyshev, V.; Tretyakova, S.; Gusev, E.; Yu, S.; Barinov, A.

    2015-07-27

    Black carbon (BC) is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in the Murmansk Region and Murmansk City, the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle. In this study we developed a detailed inventory of diesel sources including on-road vehicles, off-road transport (mining, locomotives, construction and agriculture), ships and diesel generators. For on-road transport, we conducted several surveys tomore » understand the vehicle fleet and driving patterns, and, for all sources, we also relied on publicly available local data sets and analysis. We calculated that BC emissions in the Murmansk Region were 0.40 Gg in 2012. The mining industry is the largest source of BC emissions in the region, emitting 69 % of all BC emissions because of its large diesel consumption and absence of emissions controls. On-road vehicles are the second largest source, emitting about 13 % of emissions. Old heavy duty trucks are the major source of emissions. Emission controls on new vehicles limit total emissions from on-road transportation. Vehicle traffic and fleet surveys show that many of the older cars on the registry are lightly or never used. We also estimated that total BC emissions from diesel sources in Russia were 50.8 Gg in 2010, and on-road transport contributed 49 % of diesel BC emissions. Agricultural machinery is also a significant source Russia-wide, in part because of the lack of controls on off-road vehicles.« less

  16. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources. Case study of Murmansk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, M.; Kholod, N.; Malyshev, V.; Tretyakova, S.; Gusev, E.; Yu, S.; Barinov, A.

    2015-07-27

    Black carbon (BC) is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in the Murmansk Region and Murmansk City, the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle. In this study we developed a detailed inventory of diesel sources including on-road vehicles, off-road transport (mining, locomotives, construction and agriculture), ships and diesel generators. For on-road transport, we conducted several surveys to understand the vehicle fleet and driving patterns, and, for all sources, we also relied on publicly available local data sets and analysis. We calculated that BC emissions in the Murmansk Region were 0.40 Gg in 2012. The mining industry is the largest source of BC emissions in the region, emitting 69 % of all BC emissions because of its large diesel consumption and absence of emissions controls. On-road vehicles are the second largest source, emitting about 13 % of emissions. Old heavy duty trucks are the major source of emissions. Emission controls on new vehicles limit total emissions from on-road transportation. Vehicle traffic and fleet surveys show that many of the older cars on the registry are lightly or never used. We also estimated that total BC emissions from diesel sources in Russia were 50.8 Gg in 2010, and on-road transport contributed 49 % of diesel BC emissions. Agricultural machinery is also a significant source Russia-wide, in part because of the lack of controls on off-road vehicles.

  17. Community Relations Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Stewardship Environmental Protection Community Relations Plan Community Relations Plan Consultations, communications, agreements, and disagreements...

  18. PLASMA EMISSION BY WEAK TURBULENCE PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, P. H.; Pavan, J. E-mail: rudi.gaelzer@ufrgs.br E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br

    2014-11-10

    The plasma emission is the radiation mechanism responsible for solar type II and type III radio bursts. The first theory of plasma emission was put forth in the 1950s, but the rigorous demonstration of the process based upon first principles had been lacking. The present Letter reports the first complete numerical solution of electromagnetic weak turbulence equations. It is shown that the fundamental emission is dominant and unless the beam speed is substantially higher than the electron thermal speed, the harmonic emission is not likely to be generated. The present findings may be useful for validating reduced models and for interpreting particle-in-cell simulations.

  19. Urban Transportation Emission Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Calculator (UTEC) is a user-friendly tool for estimating annual emissions from personal, commercial, and public transit vehicles. It estimates greenhouse gas (GHG) and...

  20. Planetary Emissions Management | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Management Jump to: navigation, search Name: Planetary Emissions Management Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts Sector: Carbon Product: US-based, company offering measurements of...

  1. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon ace045storey2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated...

  2. The Maritime Administration's Energy and Emissions Program -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy and Emissions Program - Part 1 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Maritime Administration PDF icon 2002deergore1.pdf More Documents & Publications Recent Diesel Engine...

  3. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace30storey.pdf More Documents & Publications Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies Synergies...

  4. Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Poster presented at the ...

  5. Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS): Technical, Institutional...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, Land Topics: Low emission development planning Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learnedbest practices Website: www.oecd.orgdataoecd325846553489.pdf Low...

  6. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  7. EVIDENCE OF NON-THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM HH 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lpez-Santiago, J.; Peri, C. S.; Benaglia, P.; Bonito, R.; Miceli, M.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; De Castro, E.

    2013-10-20

    Protostellar jets appear at all stages of star formation when the accretion process is still at work. Jets travel at velocities of hundreds of km s{sup 1}, creating strong shocks when interacting with the interstellar medium. Several cases of jets have been detected in X-rays, typically showing soft emission. For the first time, we report evidence of hard X-ray emission possibly related to non-thermal processes not explained by previous models of the post-shock emission predicted in the jet/ambient interaction scenario. HH 80 is located at the south head of the jet associated with the massive protostar IRAS 18162-2048. It shows soft and hard X-ray emission in regions that are spatially separated, with the soft X-ray emission region situated behind the region of hard X-ray emission. We propose a scenario for HH 80 where soft X-ray emission is associated with thermal processes from the interaction of the jet with denser ambient matter and hard X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation at the front shock.

  8. Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefohn, A.S.; Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B.; Brimblecombe, P.

    1996-07-19

    Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

  9. Energy use and CO2 emissions of Chinas industrial sector from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick W.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-07-10

    The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of Chinas final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of Chinas per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095.

  10. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl; Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Dr. Anthony

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Arthur J; Mosher, Jennifer J; Mulholland, Patrick J; Fortner, Allison M; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

  13. Universal cell frame for high-pressure water electrolyzer and electrolyzer including the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Edwin W.; Norman, Timothy J.

    2013-01-08

    Universal cell frame generic for use as an anode frame and as a cathode frame in a water electrolyzer. According to one embodiment, the universal cell frame includes a unitary annular member having a central opening. Four trios of transverse openings are provided in the annular member, each trio being spaced apart by about 90 degrees. A plurality of internal radial passageways fluidly interconnect the central opening and each of the transverse openings of two diametrically-opposed trios of openings, the other two trios of openings lacking corresponding radial passageways. Sealing ribs are provided on the top and bottom surfaces of the annular member. The present invention is also directed at a water electrolyzer that includes two such cell frames, one being used as the anode frame and the other being used as the cathode frame, the cathode frame being rotated 90 degrees relative to the anode frame.

  14. Structures including network and topology for identifying, locating and quantifying physical phenomena

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, John G.; Moore, Karen A.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2006-04-25

    A method and system for detecting, locating and quantifying a physical phenomena such as strain or a deformation in a structure. A plurality of laterally adjacent conductors may each include a plurality of segments. Each segment is constructed to exhibit a unit value representative of a defined energy transmission characteristic. A plurality of identity groups are defined with each identity group comprising a plurality of segments including at least one segment from each of the plurality of conductors. The segments contained within an identity group are configured and arranged such that each of their associated unit values may be represented by a concatenated digit string which is a unique number relative to the other identity groups. Additionally, the unit values of the segments within an identity group maintain unique ratios with respect to the other unit values in the identity group.

  15. Pipeline including network and topology for identifying, locating and quantifying physical phenomena

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, John G.; Moore, Karen A.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2006-02-14

    A method and system for detecting, locating and quantifying a physical phenomena such as strain or a deformation in a structure. A plurality of laterally adjacent conductors may each include a plurality of segments. Each segment is constructed to exhibit a unit value representative of a defined energy transmission characteristic. A plurality of identity groups are defined with each identity group comprising a plurality of segments including at least one segment from each of the plurality of conductors. The segments contained within an identity group are configured and arranged such that each of their associated unit values may be represented by a concatenated digit string which is a unique number relative to the other identity groups. Additionally, the unit values of the segments within an identity group maintain unique ratios with respect to the other unit values in the identity group.

  16. Assessment of the feasibility of reducing emissions from gasoline and LPG industrial equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekken, M.; Wood, M.S.

    1997-12-31

    In 1994, the California Air Resources Board (ARB) approved a State Implementation Plan (SIP) to bring California`s South Coast Air Basin into compliance with federal ozone standards. The plan includes the adoption of emission controls for previously un(der)regulated off-road vehicles and equipment. Off-road industrial equipment in the 25 to 175 horsepower range has been designed to meet power and fuel economy priorities, with little effort going to emission reductions. California`s plan requires substantial emission reductions for such equipment. The application of catalysts or other emission control technologies to spark-ignited industrial equipment can feasibly and cost-effectively achieve the emission reductions required in the SIP. The paper discusses off-road catalyst application, availability, and packaging. In addition, other technologies to reduce emissions are addressed, including engine, fuel system, and exhaust system modifications, and the use of alternate fuels. Anticipated costs are also discussed. There is good reason to presume that spark-ignited industrial equipment will be able to achieve the required emission reductions in the time frame indicated in the SIP.

  17. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E; Franzese, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  18. THE SUBMILLIMETER AND MILLIMETER EXCESS OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD: MAGNETIC DIPOLE EMISSION FROM MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draine, B. T.; Hensley, Brandon

    2012-09-20

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) has surprisingly strong submillimeter- and millimeter-wavelength emission that is inconsistent with standard dust models, including those with emission from spinning dust. Here, we show that the emission from the SMC may be understood if the interstellar dust mixture includes magnetic nanoparticles, emitting magnetic dipole radiation resulting from thermal fluctuations in the magnetization. The magnetic grains can be metallic iron, magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, or maghemite {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The required mass of iron is consistent with elemental abundance constraints. The magnetic dipole emission is predicted to be polarized orthogonally to the normal electric dipole radiation if the nanoparticles are inclusions in larger grains. We speculate that other low-metallicity galaxies may also have a large fraction of the interstellar Fe in magnetic materials.

  19. California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (Update) (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The state of California was given authority under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) to set emissions standards for light-duty vehicles that exceed federal standards. In addition, other states that do not comply with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) set by the Environmental Protection Agency under CAAA90 were given the option to adopt Californias light-duty vehicle emissions standards in order to achieve air quality compliance. CAAA90 specifically identifies hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and NOx as vehicle-related air pollutants that can be regulated. California has led the nation in developing stricter vehicle emissions standards, and other states have adopted the California standards.

  20. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Numerous transportation strategies are directed at reducing energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by changing the behavior of individual drivers or travelers. These behavioral changes may have the effect of reducing travel, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing travel. Since the 1970s, federal, regional, state and municipal agencies have tried to reduce energy use, emissions, and congestion by influencing travel behavior. This report reviews and summarizes the literature on relationships between these strategies and transportation-related energy use and GHG emissions to examine how changes to travel behavior can reduce transportation energy use and discuss the potential for federal actions to affect travel behavior.