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1

Mercury Vapor Pressure Correlation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparent difference between the historical mercury vapor concentration equations used by the mercury atmospheric measurement community ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

2

VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

LOW PRESSURE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF POLYSILICON  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THEORY The mass transport processes in low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) are similar to those occuring in catalytic reactors

Gieske, R.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Vapor Pressure Measurement of Supercooled Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new dewpoint hygrometer was developed for subfreezing temperature application. Vapor pressure of supercooled water was determined by measuring temperatures at the dew-forming surface and the vapor source ice under the flux density balance, and ...

N. Fukuta; C. M. Gramada

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

NREL: Energy Sciences - Obadiah Reid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Obadiah Reid Obadiah Reid Postdoctoral Researcher Photo of Obadiah Reid Phone: (303) 384-6588 Email: obadiah.reid@nrel.gov At NREL Since: 2010 Obadiah Reid earned a PhD in Physical Chemistry from the University of Washington in 2010. While at UW, he worked under the guidance of Prof. David Ginger studying the optoelectronic properties of nanostructured organic photovoltaic composites. He contributed to the development and application of photoconductive atomic force microscopy (pcAFM), a unique tool for mapping local photocurrent collection in solar cells with nanoscale resolution. He also developed numerical models to describe conductive and photoconductive AFM experiments, resulting in quantitative local measurements of charge carrier mobility made using conductive AFM,

6

Multicomponent fuel vaporization at high pressures.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We extend our multicomponent fuel model to high pressures using a Peng-Robinson equation of state, and implement the model into KIVA-3V. Phase equilibrium is achieved by equating liquid and vapor fugacities. The latent heat of vaporization and fuel enthalpies are also corrected for at high pressures. Numerical simulations of multicomponent evaporation are performed for single droplets for a diesel fuel surrogate at different pressures.

Torres, D. J. (David J.); O'Rourke, P. J. (Peter J.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Reid Industries | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reid Industries Reid Industries Jump to: navigation, search Name Reid Industries Address PO Box 503 Place San Francisco, CA Zip 94104 Phone number 415-947-1050 Coordinates 37.7923058°, -122.4021273° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.7923058,"lon":-122.4021273,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

8

Polynomial Fits to Saturation Vapor Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe eighth- and sixth-order polynomial fits to Wexler's and Hyland-Wexler's saturation-vapor-pressure expressions. Fits are provided in both least-squares and relative-error norms. Error analysis is presented. The authors show ...

Piotr J. Flatau; Robert L. Walko; William R. Cotton

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Vapor Pressures and Heats of Vaporization of Primary Coal Tars  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

/ PC92544-18 / PC92544-18 VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS FINAL REPORT Grant Dates: August, 1992 - November, 1996 Principal Authors: Eric M. Suuberg (PI) and Vahur Oja Report Submitted: April, 1997 Revised: July, 1997 Grant Number: DE-FG22-92PC92544 Report Submitted by: ERIC M. SUUBERG DIVISION OF ENGINEERING BROWN UNIVERSITY PROVIDENCE, RI 02912 TEL. (401) 863-1420 Prepared For: U. S. DEPT. OF ENERGY FEDERAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER P.O. BOX 10940 PITTSBURGH, PA 15236 DR. KAMALENDU DAS, FETC, MORGANTOWN , WV TECHNICAL PROJECT OFFICER "US/DOE Patent Clearance is not required prior to the publication of this document" ii United States Government Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any

10

Vapor-pressure lowering in geothermal systems  

SciTech Connect

The water vapor-pressure lowering phenomenon in porous media was investigated for a range of temperatures by measuring vapor pressure vs. mass of water adsorbed in consolidated sandstone cores and unconsolidated silica sands. Experimental results showed that the mass of water adsorbed on the rock surface is much more than the amount of pore steam. Results also revealed that the water adsorption is caused mainly by micropores in the porous medium. Measurement of the mass of methane and ethane adsorbed on dry rocks showed that the amount of adsorption is not great in comparison with the pore gas. It was found that adsorption data for water/sandstone core studies could be normalized with respect to temperature. Although this appears not to have been reported previously, it does agree in principle with findings for solid powders with micropores. Another interesting result was that reanalysis of previous studies of capillarity in sandstones indicates that experimental data probably were influenced mostly by adsorption.

Hsieh, C.H.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Measurements of Vapor Pressures and PVT Properties for n ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Measurements of Vapor Pressures and PVT Properties for n-Butane from 280 to 440 K at Pressures to 200 MPa ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

12

Determination of the Vapor Pressure of Lanthanum Fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary experiments have been made to determine the vapor pressure of lanthanum fluoride between 0.001 and 0.1 millimeter of mercury by means of the Knudsen effusion method. A tantalum cell for this purpose is described. Only preliminary results were obtained and they were all in a relatively high pressure region. However, a plot of the vapor pressure against the reciprocal of absolute temperature approximates a straight line such as would be predicted from theoretical considerations.

Stone, B. D.

1954-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

13

Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

15

High temperature vapor pressure and the critical point of potassium  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressure of potassium was experimentally determined from 2100 deg F up to-its critical temperature. An empirical equation of the form ln P = A + B/T + C ln T + DT/sup 1.5/ was found to best fit the data. A critical pressure of 2378.2 plus or minus 4.0 psia (161.79 plus or minus 0.27 ata) was measured. The corresponding critical temperature, extrapolated from the pressure-- temperature curve, is 4105.4 plus or minus 5 deg R (2280.8 plus or minus 3 deg K). The technique employed was tae pressure tube method developed earlier in this laboratory and used for determining the vapor pressure of rubidium and cesium. This method measures tae critical pressure directly, as well as the vapor pressure st lower temperatures. (4 tables, 6 figures, 26 references) (auth)

Jerez, W.R.; Bhise, V.S.; Das Gupta, S.; Bonilla, C.F.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Improved Magnus Form Approximation of Saturation Vapor Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Algorithms, based on Magnus's form equations, are described that minimize the difference between several relationships between temperature and water vapor pressure at saturation that are commonly used in archiving data. The work was initiated in ...

Oleg A. Alduchov; Robert E. Eskridge

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

New Equations for Computing Vapor Pressure and Enhancement Factor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Equations are presented which relate saturation vapor pressure to temperature for moist air. The equations are designed to be easily implemented on a calculator or computer and can be used to convert in either direction. They are more accurate ...

Arden L. Buck

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Reid, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reid, Wisconsin: Energy Resources Reid, Wisconsin: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 44.811725°, -89.436391° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.811725,"lon":-89.436391,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

19

Interfacial instability induced by lateral vapor pressure fluctuation in bounded thin liquid-vapor layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study an instability of thin liquid-vapor layers bounded by rigid parallel walls from both below and above. In this system, the interfacial instability is induced by lateral vapor pressure fluctuation, which is in turn attributed to the effect of phase change: evaporation occurs at the hotter portion of the interface and condensation at the colder one. The high vapor pressure drives the liquid away and the low one pulls it up. A set of equations describing the temporal evolution of the interface of the liquid-vapor layers is derived. This model neglects the effect of mass loss or gain at the interface and guarantees the mass conservation of the liquid layer. The result of linear stability analysis of the model shows that the presence of the pressure dependence of the local saturation temperature suppresses the growth of long-wave disturbances. We find the stability criterion, which suggests that only slight temperature gradients are sufficient to overcome the stabilizing gravitational effect for a water an...

Kanatani, Kentaro

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Biblarz, Oscar (Swampscott, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Influence of a Tropical Island Mountain on Solar Radiation, Air Temperature and Vapor Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measured solar radiation, air temperature, and water vapor pressure at 17 stations on the northwest flank of Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii are compared with modeled clear day solar radiation and free atmosphere air temperature and water vapor pressure. ...

Dennis Nullet

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Measurements of the Vapor Pressure of Supercooled Water Using Infrared Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements are presented of the vapor pressure of supercooled water utilizing infrared spectroscopy, which enables unambiguous verification that the authors data correspond to the vapor pressure of liquid water, not a mixture of liquid water ...

Will Cantrell; Eli Ochshorn; Alexander Kostinski; Keith Bozin

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Secretary Chu, Senator Reid Announce Department of Energy Conditional...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Announce Department of Energy Conditional Commitment for a Loan Guarantee for Nevada Geothermal Project Secretary Chu, Senator Reid Announce Department of Energy Conditional...

24

Secretary Chu, Senator Reid, Rep. Berkley Announce Conditional Commitment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chu, Senator Reid, Rep. Berkley Announce Conditional Chu, Senator Reid, Rep. Berkley Announce Conditional Commitment for Loan Guarantee to Fotowatio Solar Project Near Las Vegas, Nevada Secretary Chu, Senator Reid, Rep. Berkley Announce Conditional Commitment for Loan Guarantee to Fotowatio Solar Project Near Las Vegas, Nevada June 2, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis Washington D.C. -- U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid and Nevada Congresswoman Shelley Berkley today announced the offer of a conditional commitment for a $45.6 million loan guarantee by the Department of Energy to support a 20 megawatt AC photovoltaic (PV) solar generating facility. The project, sponsored by Fotowatio Renewable Ventures, Inc., is being supported by DOE with funding from the 2009 Recovery Act. It will be developed approximately 25 miles northeast of Las

25

Secretary Chu, Senator Reid Announce Department of Energy Conditional  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chu, Senator Reid Announce Department of Energy Chu, Senator Reid Announce Department of Energy Conditional Commitment for a Loan Guarantee for Nevada Geothermal Project Secretary Chu, Senator Reid Announce Department of Energy Conditional Commitment for a Loan Guarantee for Nevada Geothermal Project June 9, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid today announced the offer of a conditional commitment to provide a partial guarantee for a $350 million loan for a geothermal power generation project. The project, sponsored by Ormat Nevada, Inc., is expected to produce a total of 121 megawatts (MW) of clean, baseload power from three geothermal power facilities and will increase geothermal power production in Nevada by nearly 25 percent. The facilities are Jersey

26

Secretary Chu, Senator Reid Announce Department of Energy Conditional  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chu, Senator Reid Announce Department of Energy Chu, Senator Reid Announce Department of Energy Conditional Commitment for a Loan Guarantee for Nevada Geothermal Project Secretary Chu, Senator Reid Announce Department of Energy Conditional Commitment for a Loan Guarantee for Nevada Geothermal Project June 9, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid today announced the offer of a conditional commitment to provide a partial guarantee for a $350 million loan for a geothermal power generation project. The project, sponsored by Ormat Nevada, Inc., is expected to produce a total of 121 megawatts (MW) of clean, baseload power from three geothermal power facilities and will increase geothermal power production in Nevada by nearly 25 percent. The facilities are Jersey Valley

27

Secretary Chu, Senator Reid, Rep. Berkley Announce Conditional...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

clearly shows that Nevada is well on its way to becoming a global leader in clean energy job creation," said Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid. "Thanks to public-private...

28

Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process. 2 figures.

Grossman, M.W.; Biblarz, O.

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Crude oil storage caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are solution-mined from subsurface salt domes along the U.S. Gulf Coast. While these salt domes exhibit many attractive characteristics for large-volume, long-term storage of oil such as low cost for construction, low permeability for effective fluids containment, and secure location deep underground, they also present unique technical challenges for maintaining oil quality within delivery standards. The vapor pressures of the crude oils stored at SPR tend to increase with storage time due to the combined effects of geothermal heating and gas intrusion from the surrounding salt. This presents a problem for oil delivery offsite because high vapor-pressure oil may lead to excessive atmospheric emissions of hydrocarbon gases that present explosion hazards, health hazards, and handling problems at atmospheric pressure. Recognizing this potential hazard, the U.S. Department of Energy, owner and operator of the SPR, implemented a crude oil vapor pressure monitoring program that collects vapor pressure data for all the storage caverns. From these data, DOE evaluates the rate of change in vapor pressures of its oils in the SPR. Moreover, DOE implemented a vapor pressure mitigation program in which the oils are degassed periodically and will be cooled immediately prior to delivery in order to reduce the vapor pressure to safe handling levels. The work described in this report evaluates the entire database since its origin in 1993, and determines the current levels of vapor pressure around the SPR, as well as the rate of change for purposes of optimizing both the mitigation program and meeting safe delivery standards. Generally, the rate of vapor pressure increase appears to be lower in this analysis than reported in the past and, problematic gas intrusion seems to be limited to just a few caverns. This being said, much of the current SPR inventory exceeds vapor pressure delivery guidelines and must be degassed and cooled in order to meet current delivery standards.

Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Vapor Pressure Committee 2009 annual report.  

SciTech Connect

This report comprises an annual summary of activities under the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Vapor Pressure Committee in FY2009. The committee provides guidance to senior project management on the issues of crude oil vapor pressure monitoring nd mitigation. The principal objectives of the vapor pressure program are, in the event of an SPR drawdown, to minimize the impact on the environment and assure worker safety and public health from crude oil vapor emissions. The annual report reviews key program areas ncluding monitoring program status, mitigation program status, new developments in measurements and modeling, and path forward including specific recommendations on cavern sampling for the next year. The contents of this report were first presented to SPR senior anagement in December 2009, in a deliverable from the vapor pressure committee. The current SAND report is an adaptation for the Sandia technical audience.

Allen, Ray (Allen Energy Services, Inc., Longview, TX); Eldredge, Lisa (DynMcDermott Petroleum Operations, Harahan, LA); DeLuca, Charles (DynMcDermott Petroleum Operations, Harahan, LA); Mihalik, Patrick (DynMcDermott Petroleum Operations, Harahan, LA); Maldonado, Julio (U.S. Department of Energy, Harahan, LA); Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Berndsen, Gerard (U.S. Department of Energy, Harahan, LA)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Single- and few-layer graphene by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition on nickel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process is used to fabricate graphene based films consisting of one to several graphene layers across their area. Polycrystalline Ni thin films are used and the graphene ...

Reina Ceeco, Alfonso

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Tropospheric Water Vapor Profiles Retrieved from Pressure-Broadened Emission Spectra at 22 GHz  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present the analysis and the evaluation of the retrieval of tropospheric water vapor profiles from pressure-broadened emission spectra at 22 GHz measured with a ground-based microwave spectroradiometer. The spectra have a bandwidth of ...

Alexander Haefele; Niklaus Kmpfer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Surface Water Vapor Pressure and Temperature Trends in North America during 19482010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over one-quarter billion hourly values of temperature and relative humidity observed at 309 stations located across North America during 19482010 were studied. The water vapor pressure was determined and seasonal averages were computed. Data were ...

V. Isaac; W. A. van Wijngaarden

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Optimal design of a high pressure organometallic chemical vapor deposition reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A team composed of material scientists, physicists, and applied mathematicians have used computer simulations as a fundamental design tool in developing a new prototype High Pressure Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use ...

K. J. Bachmann; H. T. Banks; C. Hpfner; G. M. Kepler; S. Lesure; S. D. Mccall; J. S. Scroggs

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

Linker, Kevin L

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

36

Observations on vapor pressure in SPR caverns : sources.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The oil of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) represents a national response to any potential emergency or intentional restriction of crude oil supply to this country, and conforms to International Agreements to maintain such a reserve. As assurance this reserve oil will be available in a timely manner should a restriction in supply occur, the oil of the reserve must meet certain transportation criteria. The transportation criteria require that the oil does not evolve dangerous gas, either explosive or toxic, while in the process of transport to, or storage at, the destination facility. This requirement can be a challenge because the stored oil can acquire dissolved gases while in the SPR. There have been a series of reports analyzing in exceptional detail the reasons for the increases, or regains, in gas content; however, there remains some uncertainty in these explanations and an inability to predict why the regains occur. Where the regains are prohibitive and exceed the criteria, the oil must undergo degasification, where excess portions of the volatile gas are removed. There are only two known sources of gas regain, one is the salt dome formation itself which may contain gas inclusions from which gas can be released during oil processing or storage, and the second is increases of the gases release by the volatile components of the crude oil itself during storage, especially if the stored oil undergoes heating or is subject to biological generation processes. In this work, the earlier analyses are reexamined and significant alterations in conclusions are proposed. The alterations are based on how the fluid exchanges of brine and oil uptake gas released from domal salt during solutioning, and thereafter, during further exchanges of fluids. Transparency of the brine/oil interface and the transfer of gas across this interface remains an important unanswered question. The contribution from creep induced damage releasing gas from the salt surrounding the cavern is considered through computations using the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, suggesting a relative minor, but potentially significant, contribution to the regain process. Apparently, gains in gas content can be generated from the oil itself during storage because the salt dome has been heated by the geothermal gradient of the earth. The heated domal salt transfers heat to the oil stored in the caverns and thereby increases the gas released by the volatile components and raises the boiling point pressure of the oil. The process is essentially a variation on the fractionation of oil, where each of the discrete components of the oil have a discrete temperature range over which that component can be volatized and removed from the remaining components. The most volatile components are methane and ethane, the shortest chain hydrocarbons. Since this fractionation is a fundamental aspect of oil behavior, the volatile component can be removed by degassing, potentially prohibiting the evolution of gas at or below the temperature of the degas process. While this process is well understood, the ability to describe the results of degassing and subsequent regain is not. Trends are not well defined for original gas content, regain, and prescribed effects of degassing. As a result, prediction of cavern response is difficult. As a consequence of this current analysis, it is suggested that solutioning brine of the final fluid exchange of a just completed cavern, immediately prior to the first oil filling, should be analyzed for gas content using existing analysis techniques. This would add important information and clarification to the regain process. It is also proposed that the quantity of volatile components, such as methane, be determined before and after any degasification operation.

Munson, Darrell Eugene

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Secretaries Chu and Salazar will Join Senator Reid to Make Solar Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Secretaries Chu and Salazar will Join Senator Reid to Make Solar Secretaries Chu and Salazar will Join Senator Reid to Make Solar Energy Announcement Secretaries Chu and Salazar will Join Senator Reid to Make Solar Energy Announcement July 7, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON - Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid will make an announcement regarding job creation and solar energy development at the Nevada Test Site. Nevada stands to be the leading state for solar energy production and green energy jobs. This announcement will encourage increased development of solar energy technology in the Silver State. WHO: Secretary of Energy Steven Chu Secretary of Interior Ken Salazar Nevada Senator Harry Reid UNLV President Neal Smatresk Nevada Development Authority President Somer Hollingsworth

38

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria in the propane-1-propanol system  

SciTech Connect

High-pressure isothermal vapor liquid equilibrium data were measured for the propane-1-propanol system at 81.6, 105.2, and 120.1 C in a static equilibrium cell with liquid-phase sampling by a piston-driven sampling rod and homogenizing the sample with a static jet mixer. The vapor phase was sampled by releasing it into an evacuated manifold, and the gas chromatograph was calibrated with a new variable volumetric device. Satisfactory modeling was achieved with the combined method using the UNIQUAC equation with equations of sate: the group contribution EOS, Peng-Robinson EOS, or the two-parameter Virial EOS. Differences between the measured and calculated vapor-phase mole fractions, however, were significant for the lower pressure regions of the 81.6 and 120.1 C isotherms. UNIQUAC parameters, hitherto unavailable, with fairly strong temperature dependence in the 81.6 to 120.1 C range are proposed for the system. The covariance matrix indicated a significant correlation among the parameters. The classical mixing rule interaction parameters required for the original Peng-Robinson EOS in the combined method were obtained using the direct method and were temperature-independent for the isotherms for which the propane was supercritical. The possibility of propane/1-propanol immiscibility was theoretically examined according to the criteria of Baker et al. The plots of Gibbs energy of mixing vs. phase mole fractions did not indicate liquid-phase splitting, but the inferences are EOS-dependent and must await visual confirmation. The authors earlier vapor-phase thermodynamic consistency test indicated the data for all three data sets not to be inconsistent.

Muehlbauer, A.L.; Raal, J.D. (Univ. of Natal, Durban (South Africa))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Secretaries Chu and Salazar will Join Senator Reid to Make Solar...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Salazar and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid will make an announcement regarding job creation and solar energy development at the Nevada Test Site. Nevada stands to be the leading...

40

Gas-phase reaction study of disilane pyrolysis: Applications to low pressure chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

The gas-phase thermal reactions during disilane decomposition at low pressure chemical vapor deposition conditions were studied from 300 to 1,000 K using resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and multiphoton ionization (MPI). REMPI of gas-phase Si, mass 28, was detected from 640 to 840 K and 1 to 10 Torr, with a maximum signal intensity between 700 to 720 K. During disilane decomposition, no SiH (427.8 nm), SiH[sub 2] (494-515 nm), or SiH[sub 3] (419.0 nm) was detected. MPI of higher silanes, silenes, and silylenes were detected through mass fragments 2, 32, and 60; these species reached a maximum signal intensity 20 degrees prior to the mass-28 maximum. Modeling studies that included a detailed low pressure gas-phase kinetic scheme predict relative gas-phase partial pressures generated during disilane pyrolysis. The model predicted experimental trends in the Si partial pressure and the higher silane, silene, and silylene partial pressures.

Johannes, J.E.; Ekerdt, J.G. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Lateral steam flow revealed by a pressure build-up test at the Matsukawa vapor-dominated geothermal field, Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results and discussion of a pressure build-up test at the Matsukawa vapor-dominated geothermal field in north-east Japan are reported. Pressure build-up behavior of three dry steam wells was monitored at the wellhead in October 1986. The observed pressure gradient clearly shows the existence of a lateral steam flow from south-west to north-east in the reservoir. This result suggests that the vapor-dominated reservoir extends further south-west than it is currently being developed. These conclusions are supported by production records and chemical data.

Hanano, M. Sakagawa, Y. (Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., 24-Ukai, Takizawa-mura, Iwate 020-01 (JP))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

The separation and characterization of a hydrogen getter product mixture: Part 2, measurement of product vapor pressures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

HCPB is the acronym of an organic hydrogen getter compound used in weapon systems. When this material scavenges hydrogen by reacting with it, a number of compounds are formed, each of which is more volatile than HCPB. It is desirable to know the vapor pressure of these products in order to assess their migration potential within the weapon. In this study, individual compounds from a reacted HCPB mixture were isolated and their vapor pressures were measured. Three of the four fractions examined with a modified capacitance manometer were found to have vapor pressures under 1 mtorr; the fourth was measured at 92 +- 15 mtorr. An attempt was made to obtain boiling point data on the two liquid components of the getter mixture, but they decomposed before reaching their boiling points.

Fircish, D.W.; Shell, T.R.

1987-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

43

Generalization of vapor pressure lowering effects in an existing geothermal simulator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermodynamic properties of pore water are shown to be different from those of bulk water because of interfacial forces between the aqueous and solid phases. This {open_quotes}vapor-pressure lowering{close_quotes} (VPL) effect is described through Kelvin`s equation, which relates VPL to properties of the liquid phase. An algorithm that accounts for VPL had previously been implented in the geothermal simulator TETRAD. This algorithm applies to a narrow range of reservoir properties, and in some cases leads in inconsistencies. This report presents a generalization of the VPL algorithm which removes many of its limitations. The governing equations for the generalization are presented, assumptions and limitations of the method are discussed, and the modifications are validated.

Shook, G.M.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Iron Pyrite Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Iron pyrite (cubic FeS{sub 2}) is a promising candidate absorber material for earth-abundant thin-film solar cells. In this report, single-phase, large-grain, and uniform polycrystalline pyrite thin films are fabricated on glass and molybdenum-coated glass substrates by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) using the reaction of iron(III) acetylacetonate and tert-butyl disulfide in argon at 300 C, followed by sulfur annealing at 500--550 C to convert marcasite impurities to pyrite. The pyrite-marcasite phase composition depends strongly on the concentration of sodium in the growth substrate and the sulfur partial pressure during annealing. Phase and elemental composition of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The in-plane electrical properties are surprisingly insensitive to phase and elemental impurities, with all films showing p-type, thermally activated transport with a small activation energy ({approx}30 meV), a room- temperature resistivity of {approx}1 {Omega} cm, and low mobility. These ubiquitous electrical properties may result from robust surface effects. These CVD pyrite thin films are well suited to fundamental electrical studies and the fabrication of pyrite photovoltaic device stacks.

Berry, Nicholas; Cheng, Ming; Perkins, Craig L.; Limpinsel, Moritz; Hemminger, John C.; Law, Matt (NREL); (UCI)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

45

A fixed granular-bed sorber for measurement and control of alkali vapors in PFBC (pressurized fluidized-bed combustion)  

SciTech Connect

Alkali vapors (Na and K) in the hot flue gas from the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) of coal could cause corrosion problems with the gas turbine blades. In a laboratory-scale PFBC test with Beulah lignite, a fixed granular bed of activated bauxite sorbent was used to demonstrate its capability for measuring and controlling alkali vapors in the PFBC flue gas. The Beulah lignite was combusted in a bed of Tymochtee dolomite at bed temperatures ranging from 850 to 875{degrees}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. The time-averaged concentration of sodium vapor in the PFBC flue gas was determined from the analysis of two identical beds of activated bauxite and found to be 1.42 and 1.50 ppmW. The potassium vapor concentration was determined to be 0.10 ppmW. The sodium material balance showed that only 0.24% of the total sodium in the lignite was released as vapor species in the PFBC flue gas. This results in an average of 1.56 ppmW alkali vapors in the PFBC flue gas. This average is more than 1.5 orders of magnitude greater than the currently suggested alkali specification limit of 0.024 ppm for an industrial gas turbine. The adsorption data obtained with the activated bauxite beds were also analyzed mathematically by use of a LUB (length of unused bed)/equilibrium section concept. Analytical results showed that the length of the bed, L{sub o} in centimeters, relates to the break through time, {theta}{sub b} in hours, for the alkali vapor to break through the bed as follows: L{sub o} = 33.02 + 1.99 {theta}{sub b}. This formula provides useful information for the engineering design of fixed-bed activated bauxite sorbers for the measurement and control of alkali vapors in PFBC flue gas. 26 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Optimization of multi-pressure himidification-dehumidification desalination using thermal vapor compression and hybridization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humidification-dehumidification (HD or HDH) desalination, and specifically HD driven by a thermal vapor compressor (TVC), is a thermal desalination method that has the potential to produce potable water efficiently in order ...

Mistry, Karan Hemant

48

Release of LNG vapor from large-volume, low-pressure LNG storage. Letter report, September 30, 1981-September 30, 1982  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project involves development of practical release prevention measures by developing design and operating procedures beyond current practice. The objective of the program is to obtain the quantitative field data necessary to model the physics of the tank vapor space pressure response to boil-off compressor operation and atmospheric pressure changes. This work will lead to the development of guides to LNG storage tank operation and equipment specification that will limit the possibility of vapor venting or rollover of the stored LNG.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Very long single- and few-walled boron nitride nanotubes via the pressurized vapor/condenser method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are desired for their exceptional mechanical, electronic, thermal, structural, textural, optical, and quantum properties. A new method for producing long, small-diameter, single- and few-walled, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in macroscopic quantities is reported. The pressurized vapor/condenser (PVC) method produces, without catalysts, highly crystalline, very long, small-diameter, BNNTs. Palm-sized, cotton-like masses of BNNT raw material were grown by this technique and spun directly into centimeters-long yarn. Nanotube lengths were observed to be 100 times that of those grown by the most closely related method. Self-assembly and growth models for these long BNNTs are discussed.

Michael W. Smith, Kevin Jordan, Cheol Park, Jae-Woo Kim, Peter Lillehei, Roy Crooks, Joycelyn Harrison

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam (Revised0  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

53

Organic vapor jet printing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

Forrest, Stephen R

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

54

Abstract: Apparatus for Measuring Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Measurements of the vapor pressures and saturated liquid densities of ethanol and the vapor pressure of an ethanol water mixture (ethanol=0.6743 ...

55

Vapor pressure measurements on non-aqueous electrolyte solutions. Part 2. Tetraalkylammonium salts in methanol. Activity coefficients of various 1-1 electrolytes at high concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Precise vapor pressure data for solutions of Et/sub 4/NBr, Bu/sub 4/NBr, Bu/sub 4/Nl, Bu/sub 4/NClO/sub 4/, and Am/sub 4/NBr in methanol at 25/sup 0/C in the concentration range 0.04 < m(mol-(kg of solvent)/sup -1/) < 1.6 are communicated and discussed. Polynomials in molalities are given which may be used for calculating precise vapor pressure depressions of these solutions. Osmotic coefficients are calculated by taking into account the second virial coefficient of methanol vapor. Discussion of the data at low concentrations is based on the chemical model of electrolyte solutions taking into account non-coulombic interactions; ion-pair association constants are compared to those of conductance measurements. Pitzer equations are used to reproduce osmotic and activity coefficient at high concentrations; the set of Pitzer parameters b = 3.2, ..cap alpha../sub 1/ = 2.0 and ..cap alpha../sub 2/ = 20.0 is proposed for methanol solutions.

Barthel, J.; Lauermann, G.; Neueder, R.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Vaporization at supercritical pressures and counterflow condensing of pure and mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids for geothermal power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Heat Cycle Research Program has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. Current testing involves supercritical vaporization and counterflow in-tube condensing in an organic Rankine cycle. Results of the experiments are given for both pure and mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids. The heater and condenser behavior predicted by the Heat Transfer Research, Inc. computer codes used for correlation of the data was in excellent agreement with experimental results. A special series of tests, conducted with propane and up to approximately 40% isopentane concentration indicated that a close approach to ''integral'' condensation was occurring in the vertically-oriented condenser.

Bliem, C.J.; Demuth, O.J.; Mines, G.L.; Swank, W.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

The New Reid Hospital and Health Care Services Physical Plant: An Analysis of Prospective Roles for Richmond Power & Light in Plant Privatization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Richmond Power & Light Company (RP&L) is a community-owned electric utility serving the City of Richmond, Indiana, and other customers. As the largest municipal utility in Indiana, RP&L maintains a keen focus on and strong commitment to the health and vitality of the community it serves. Reid Hospital and Healthcare Services (Reid), the facility that provides health care to Richmond and the surrounding community, is planning the construction of a new health care center to replace the current facility. Li...

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)] [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

59

Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices. Annual technical progress report, 1 May 1984-30 April 1985  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Intrinsic and doped a-Si:H films were deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for disilane. Intrinsic layers were deposited at growth rates as high as 50 A/s. A chemical reaction engineering model that quantitatively describes the CVD reactor behavior has been developed. CVD intrinsic material was characterized by measurements of impurities, optical band gap, photoconductivity, activation energy, diffusion length, and density of states. Photovoltaic cells of the p-i-n type with efficiencies of 4% and 3.6% were fabricated using CVD intrinsic layers deposited at 1 A/s and 9 A/s, respectively. A maximum short-circuit current of 11 mA/cm/sup 2/ under 87.5 MW/cm/sup 2/ ELH illumination was obtained with boron-compensated CVD intrinsic material. Efficiency-limiting mechanisms in CVD cells were quantitatively analyzed and related to fundamental properties.

Baron, B.N.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Hegedus, S.S.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Vapor Degreasing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 6   Applications of vapor degreasing by vapor-spray-vapor systems...hardware Brass 2270 5000 Buffing compound; rouge Lacquer spray Racked work on continuous monorail Acoustic ceiling tile Steel 2720 6000 Light oil (stamping lubricant) Painting Monorail conveyor Gas meters Terneplate 4540 10,000 Light oil Painting Monorail conveyor Continuous strip, 0.25??4.1 mm...

62

Vapor Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... thermodynamics (that is, vapor liquid equilibrium) as ... of solids and low volatility liquids is extraordinarily ... such situations is the gas saturation method ...

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

63

Vapor--liquid equilibria of nitrogen, methane, ethane, and propane binary mixtures at LNG temperatures from total pressure measurements. [For use in design of equipment for storage and handling of LNG  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data have been measured on four binary mixtures relative to the calculation of phase equilibria at temperatures of liquid natural gas. Measurements at -260/sup 0/F were made by a total pressure method for mixtures of nitrogen-methane, nitrogen-ethane, methane-ethane, and methane-propane. Interaction coefficients were derived for the P-V-T, Inc. Mark V computer program. Good agreement is found with literature data where comparisons can be made.

Wilson, G.M.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Fuel vapor canister  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses an improved fuel vapor storage canister for use in a vehicle emission system of the type utilizing an enclosure with an interior communicated with a source of fuel vapor. The improved canister comprises: the enclosure having a mixture including particles of activated charcoal and many pieces of foam rubber, the pieces of foam rubber in the mixture being randomly and substantially evenly dispersed whereby substantially all the charcoal particles are spaced relatively closely to at least one foam rubber piece; the mixture being packed into the enclosure under pressure so that the pieces of foam rubber are compressed enough to tightly secure the charcoal particles one against another to prevent a griding action therebetween.

Moskaitis, R.J.; Ciuffetelli, L.A.

1991-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

65

Urania vapor composition at very high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Due to the chemically unstable nature of uranium dioxide its vapor composition at very high temperatures is, presently, not sufficiently studied though more experimental knowledge is needed for risk assessment of nuclear reactors. We used laser vaporization coupled to mass spectrometry of the produced vapor to study urania vapor composition at temperatures in the vicinity of its melting point and higher. The very good agreement between measured melting and freezing temperatures and between partial pressures measured on the temperature increase and decrease indicated that the change in stoichiometry during laser heating was very limited. The evolutions with temperature (in the range 2800-3400 K) of the partial pressures of the main vapor species (UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 3}, and UO{sub 2}{sup +}) were compared with theoretically predicted evolutions for equilibrium noncongruent gas-liquid and gas-solid phase coexistences and showed very good agreement. The measured main relative partial pressure ratios around 3300 K all agree with calculated values for total equilibrium between condensed and vapor phases. It is the first time the three main partial pressure ratios above stoichiometric liquid urania have been measured at the same temperature under conditions close to equilibrium noncongruent gas-liquid phase coexistence.

Pflieger, Rachel [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Marcoule Institute for Separation Chemistry (ICSM), UMR 5257, CEA-CNRS-UMII-ENSCM, Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Colle, Jean-Yves [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Iosilevskiy, Igor [Joint Institute for High Temperature, Russian Academy of Science, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, State University, 141700 Moscow (Russian Federation); Extreme Matter Institute (EMMI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Sheindlin, Michael [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Joint Institute for High Temperature, Russian Academy of Science, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Effects of capillarity and vapor adsorption in the depletion of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs in natural (undisturbed) conditions contain water as both vapor and liquid phases. The most compelling evidence for the presence of distributed liquid water is the observation that vapor pressures in these systems are close to saturated vapor pressure for measured reservoir temperatures (White et al., 1971; Truesdell and White, 1973). Analysis of natural heat flow conditions provides additional, indirect evidence for the ubiquitous presence of liquid. From an analysis of the heat pipe process (vapor-liquid counterflow) Preuss (1985) inferred that effective vertical permeability to liquid phase in vapor-dominated reservoirs is approximately 10{sup 17} m{sup 2}, for a heat flux of 1 W/m{sup 2}. This value appears to be at the high end of matrix permeabilities of unfractured rocks at The Geysers, suggesting that at least the smaller fractures contribute to liquid permeability. For liquid to be mobile in fractures, the rock matrix must be essentially completely liquid-saturated, because otherwise liquid phase would be sucked from the fractures into the matrix by capillary force. Large water saturation in the matrix, well above the irreducible saturation of perhaps 30%, has been shown to be compatible with production of superheated steam (Pruess and Narasimhan, 1982). In response to fluid production the liquid phase will boil, with heat of vaporization supplied by the reservoir rocks. As reservoir temperatures decline reservoir pressures will decline also. For depletion of ''bulk'' liquid, the pressure would decline along the saturated vapor pressure curve, while for liquid held by capillary and adsorptive forces inside porous media, an additional decline will arise from ''vapor pressure lowering''. Capillary pressure and vapor adsorption effects, and associated vapor pressure lowering phenomena, have received considerable attention in the geothermal literature, and also in studies related to geologic disposal of heat generating nuclear wastes, and in the drying of porous materials. Geothermally oriented studies were presented by Chicoine et al. (1977), Hsieh and Ramey (1978, 1981), Herkelrath et al. (1983), and Nghiem and Ramey (1991). Nuclear waste-related work includes papers by Herkelrath and O'Neal (1985), Pollock (1986), Eaton and Bixler (1987), Pruess et al. (1990), Nitao (1990), and Doughty and E'ruess (1991). Applications to industrial drying of porous materials have been discussed by Hamiathy (1969) arid Whitaker (1977). This paper is primarily concerned with evaluating the impact of vapor pressure lowering (VPL) effects on the depletion behavior of vapor-dominated reservoirs. We have examined experimental data on vapor adsorption and capillary pressures in an effort to identify constitutive relationships that would be applicable to the tight matrix rocks of vapor-dominated systems. Numerical simulations have been performed to evaluate the impact of these effects on the depletion of vapor-dominated reservoirs.

Pruess, Karsten; O'Sullivan, Michael

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Misting of Low Vapor Pressure Halocarbons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... introduction and dispersion method based on well established nebulizer ... Concentration Induced by Alpha-Adrenergic Stimulation in Freshly ...

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

68

Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Simulation and Optimization of the Stabilizer Tower Operation at Catalytic Reforming of Esfahan Oil Refining Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Production of gasoline with low RVP specifications have made the operators of the catalytic reforming unit of Esfahan Oil refining company in Iran to apply new operating conditions. RVP is an abbreviation for Reid Vapor Pressure which is the vapor pressure ... Keywords: RVP, platformate, initial boiling point, catalytic reforming, distillation curve

Ali Izadyar; Bahram Hashemi Shahraki; Ahmad Shariati

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Vapor spill monitoring method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Numerical analysis of vapor flow in a micro heat pipe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The vapor flow in a flat plate micro heat pipe with both uniform and linear heat flux boundary conditions has been numerically analyzed. For both types of boundary conditions, the Navier-Stokes equations with steady incompressible two-dimensional flow were solved using the SIMPLE method. The results indicate that the pressure, shear stress, and friction factor under linear heat flux boundary conditions are considerably smoother, and hence, more closely approximate the real situation. As the heat flux increases, the pressure drop increases, but the friction factor demonstrates only a slight change for different heat flux conditions. The size and shape of the micro heat pipe vapor space was shown to have a significant influence on the vapor flow behavior for micro heat pipes. When the vapor space area decreases, the pressure drop, shear stress, and friction factor all significantly increase.

Liu, Xiaoqin

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Low temperature photochemical vapor deposition of alloy and mixed metal oxide films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for formation of an alloy thin film, or a mixed metal oxide thin film, on a substrate at relatively low temperatures. Precursor vapor(s) containing the desired thin film constituents is positioned adjacent to the substrate and irradiated by light having wavelengths in a selected wavelength range, to dissociate the gas(es) and provide atoms or molecules containing only the desired constituents. These gases then deposit at relatively low temperatures as a thin film on the substrate. The precursor vapor(s) is formed by vaporization of one or more precursor materials, where the vaporization temperature(s) is selected to control the ratio of concentration of metals present in the precursor vapor(s) and/or the total precursor vapor pressure.

Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

OPERATIONAL TESTS OF EBWR VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

A description of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor vapor-recovery system is given. The seal air operating pressures, temperatures, and moisture content were measured. Air flow through the seals was measured and seal wear was assessed. Assuming direct-cycle D/sub 2/ operation, the seals were evaluated relative to the amount of D/sub 2/ leakage that would be controlled (C.J.G.)

Gariboldi, R.J.; Jacobson, D.R.

1960-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Passive vapor transport solar heating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the systems under consideration, refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector and condensed in thermal storage for space or water heating located within the building at a level below that of the collector. Condensed liquid is lifted to an accumulator above the collector by the vapor pressure generated in the collector. Tests of two systems are described, and it is concluded that one of these systems offers distinct advantages.

Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

77

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Vapor concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

Bayly, John G. (Deep River, CA); Booth, Ronald J. (Deep River, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important considerations for a realistic modeling of injection effects. An example of detailed three-dimensional modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers is given.

Pruess, K.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Definition: Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Mercury Vapor Mercury is discharged as a highly volatile vapor during hydrothermal activity and high concentrations in...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Analysis of binary vapor turbines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect the binary mixture has on the turbine is examined in terms of design and cost. Several flow theories for turbines and turbine blading are reviewed. The similarity method, which uses dimensionless parameters, is used in determining rotative speeds and diameters for a variety of inlet temperatures and exit pressures. It is shown that the ratio of exit to inlet specific volume for each component in the mixture is the same for each specie. The specific volume ratio constraints are combined with the temperature equalities, the condenser pressure, and the total inlet entropy to form the constraints necessary to determine the exit state uniquely in an isentropic expansion. The non-isentropic exit state is found in a similar manner. The expansion process is examined for several cases and compared with the expansion of a single component vapor. Finally, in order to maintain high efficiency and to meet the criteria which makes the similarity method valid at high inlet temperatures, turbine multistaging is examined and a sample case is given for a two stage turbine.

Bliss, R.W.; Boehm, R.F.; Jacobs, H.R.

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Stacked vapor fed amtec modules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention pertains to a stacked AMTEC module. The invention includes a tubular member which has an interior. The member is comprised of a ion conductor that substantially conducts ions relative to electrons, preferably a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, positioned about the interior. A porous electrode for conducting electrons and allowing sodium ions to pass therethrough, and wherein electrons and sodium ions recombine to form sodium is positioned about the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte. The electrode is operated at a temperature and a pressure that allows the recombined sodium to vaporize. Additionally, an outer current collector grid for distributing electrons throughout the porous electrode is positioned about and contacts the porous electrode. Also included in the invention is transporting means for transporting liquid sodium to the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte of the tubular member. A transition piece is positioned about the interior of the member and contacts the transporting means. The transition piece divides the member into a first cell and a second cell such that each first and second cell has a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, a first and second porous electrode and a grid. The transition piece conducts electrons from the interior of the tubular member. There is supply means for supplying sodium to the transporting means. Preferably the supply means is a shell which surrounds the tubular member and is operated at a temperature such that the vaporized sodium condenses thereon. Returning means for returning the condensed sodium from the shell to the transporting means provides a continuous supply of liquid sodium to the transporting means. Also, there are first conducting means for conducting electric current from the transition piece which extends through the shell, and second conducting means for conducting electric current to the grid of the first cell which extends through the shell.

Sievers, Robert K. (North Huntingdon, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Ethanol production by vapor compression distillation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a one gallon per hour vapor compression distillation unit for fuel ethanol production that can be profitably manufactured and economically operated by individual family units. Vapor compression distillation is already an industrially accepted process and this project's goal is to demonstrate that it can be done economically on a small scale. Theoretically, the process is independent of absolute pressure. It is only necessary that the condenser be at higher pressure than the evaporator. By reducing the entire process to a pressure of approximately 0.1 atmosphere, the evaporation and condensation can occur at near ambient temperature. Even though this approach requires a vacuum pump, and thus will not represent the final cost effective design, it does not require preheaters, high temperature materials, or as much insulation as if it were to operate a near ambient pressure. Therefore, the operation of the ambient temperature unit constitutes the first phase of this project. Presently, the ambient temperature unit is fully assembled and has begun testing. So far it has successfully separated ethanol from a nine to one diluted input solution. However the production rate has been very low.

Ellis, G.S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Mercury Vapor Details Activities (23) Areas (23) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Anomalously high concentrations can indicate high permeability or conduit for fluid flow Hydrological: Field wide soil sampling can generate a geometrical approximation of fluid circulation Thermal: High concentration in soils can be indicative of active hydrothermal activity Dictionary.png Mercury Vapor: Mercury is discharged as a highly volatile vapor during hydrothermal

85

Stratified vapor generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

86

Method and apparatus for producing thermal vapor stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for producing a thermal vapor stream for injecting into a subterranean formation for the recovery of liquefiable minerals therefrom, including a pressure vessel containing a high pressure combustion chamber for producing a heating gas for introduction into a heating gas injector. The heating gas injector is partly immersed in a steam generating section of the pressure vessel such that the heating gas is passed through the steam generating section to produce steam and combustion products which are directed between the pressure vessel and the combustion chamber for simultaneously cooling of the combustion chamber by further heating of the steam and combustion gases.

Cradeur, Robert R. (Spring, TX); Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Sugar Land, TX)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Photochemical studies of alkali halide vapors  

SciTech Connect

Thesis. An apparatus has been constructed for studying the photodissociation of alkali halides to produce excited alkali metal atoms. The key component is a low pressure H/sub 2/ arc continuum uv source. Radiation from this source, modulated by a chopping wheel and analyzed by a monochromator, enters a cell containing the alkali halide vapor. In the appropriate wavelength range, photodissociation occurs to produce the alkali atom in an excited /sup 2/p state, the flourescence from which is detected by a photomultiplier-lock-in amplifier combination. (auth)

Earl, B.L.

1973-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Vapor spill pipe monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

89

Desalination-of water by vapor-phase transport through hydrophobic nanopores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new approach to desalination of water whereby a pressure difference across a vapor-trapping nanopore induces selective transport of water by isothermal evaporation and condensation across the pore. Transport ...

Lee, Jongho

90

Cesium vapor cycle for an advanced LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

A review indicates that a cesium vapor topping cycle appears attractive for use in the intermediate fluid circuit of an advanced LMFBR designed for a reactor outlet temperature of 1250$sup 0$F or more and would have the following advantages: (1) it would increase the thermal efficiency by about 5 to 10 points (from approximately 40 percent to approximately 45 to 50 percent) thus reducing the amount of waste heat rejected to the environment by 15 to 30 percent. (2) the higher thermal efficiency should reduce the overall capital cost of the reactor plant in dollars per kilowatt. (3) the cesium can be distilled out of the intermediate fluid circuit to leave it bone-dry, thus greatly reducing the time and cost of maintenance work (particularly for the steam generator). (4) the large volume and low pressure of the cesium vapor region in the cesium condenser-steam generator greatly reduces the magnitude of pressure fluctuations that might occur in the event of a leak in a steam generator tube, and the characteristics inherent in a condenser make it easy to design for rapid concentration of any noncondensibles that may form as a consequence of a steam leak into the cesium region so that a steam leak can be detected easily in the very early stages of its development. (auth)

Fraas, A.P.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Arnold Schwarzenegger Preserving California's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Natural Gas · Appendix K: Biofuels (Ethanol from Corn and Ethanol, Methanol, and SNG from Wood) · Appendix Reid vapor pressure SNG synthetic natural gas SRIC short-rotation intensive cultivation VMT vehicle, and SNG from Wood) · L: Hydrogen · M: Emissions of Methane from Vehicles, Natural Gas Operations, Oil

92

Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations (Released in the STEO June 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the summer Reid vapor pressure (RVP) restrictions and oxygenate blending requirements. This analysis uses published EIA survey data and linear regression equations from the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the Short-Term Energy Outlook.

Information Center

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Vapor sampling of the headspace of radioactive waste storage tanks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper recants the history of vapor sampling in the headspaces of radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The first two tanks to receive extensive vapor pressure sampling were Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-C-103. At various times, a gas chromatography, on-line mass spectrometer, solid state hydrogen monitor, FTIR, and radio acoustic ammonia monitor have been installed. The head space gas sampling activities will continue for the next few years. The current goal is to sample the headspace for all the tanks. Some tank headspaces will be sampled several times to see the data vary with time. Other tanks will have continuous monitors installed to provide additional data.

Reynolds, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

94

VAPOR SHIELD FOR INDUCTION FURNACE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a water-cooled vapor shield for an inductlon furnace that will condense metallic vapors arising from the crucible and thus prevent their condensation on or near the induction coils, thereby eliminating possible corrosion or shorting out of the coils. This is accomplished by placing, about the top, of the crucible a disk, apron, and cooling jacket that separates the area of the coils from the interior of the cruclbIe and provides a cooled surface upon whlch the vapors may condense.

Reese, S.L.; Samoriga, S.A.

1958-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

95

Vapor adsorption process  

SciTech Connect

The removal of undesirable acid components from sour natural gas is often accomplished by a vapor adsorption process wherein a bed of solid adsorbent material is contacted with an inlet gas stream so that desired components contained in the gas stream are adsorbed on the bed, then regenerated by contact with a heated regeneration gas stream. Adsorbed components are desorbed from the bed and the bed is cooled preparatory to again being contacted with the inlet gas stream. By this process, the bed is contacted, during the regeneration cycle, with a selected adsorbable material. This material has the property of being displaced from the bed by the desired components and has a heat of desorption equal to or greater than the heat of adsorption of the desired components. When the bed is contacted with the inlet gas stream, the selected adsorbable material is displaced by the desired components resulting in the temperature of the bed remaining relatively constant, thereby allowing the utilization of the maximum bed adsorption capacity. (4 claims)

Snyder, C.F.; Casad, B.M.

1973-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

96

Atmospheric Water Vapor over China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chinese radiosonde data from 1970 to 1990 are relatively homogeneous in time and are used to examine the climatology, trends, and variability of Chinas atmospheric water vapor content. The climatological distribution of precipitable water (PW) ...

Panmao Zhai; Robert E. Eskridge

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Vapor deposition of hardened niobium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

98

NESHAP Subpart W Activities Reid J. Rosnick  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or depleted uranium" (Available at: #12; Page 10 http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp150.html EPA Review of Standards for Uranium and Thorium Milling Facilities @ 40 CFR Parts 61 of EPA standards for Uranium and Thorium Milling Facilities @ 40 CFR Parts 61 and 192. I have been

99

NESHAP Subpart W Activities Reid J. Rosnick  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of uranium from any ore processed primarily for its source material content. Ore bodies depleted by uranium;2 Overview General requirements applicable to Subpart W EPA regulatory requirements for operating uranium;4 EPA Regulatory Requirements for Operating Uranium Mill Tailings (Subpart W) #12;5 EPA Regulatory

100

NESHAP Subpart W Activities Reid J. Rosnick  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

uranium mines include: · Applies to 10,000 tons/yr ore production, or 100,000 tons/mine lifetime · Ambient 27, 2010 Uranium Recovery Workshop 2010 #12;2 Overview EPA regulatory requirements for operating uranium mill tailings (Subpart W) General requirements applicable to Subpart W Status Update on Subpart W

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Tahira N. Reid1 Postdoctoral Fellow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as the Toyota Prius or do you start with new ideas? Unlike luxury and sportiness, the concept of green does

Papalambros, Panos

102

Chemical vapor deposition sciences  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a widely used method for depositing thin films of a variety of materials. Applications of CVD range from the fabrication of microelectronic devices to the deposition of protective coatings. New CVD processes are increasingly complex, with stringent requirements that make it more difficult to commercialize them in a timely fashion. However, a clear understanding of the fundamental science underlying a CVD process, as expressed through computer models, can substantially shorten the time required for reactor and process development. Research scientists at Sandia use a wide range of experimental and theoretical techniques for investigating the science of CVD. Experimental tools include optical probes for gas-phase and surface processes, a range of surface analytic techniques, molecular beam methods for gas/surface kinetics, flow visualization techniques and state-of-the-art crystal growth reactors. The theoretical strategy uses a structured approach to describe the coupled gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer of a CVD process. The software used to describe chemical reaction mechanisms is easily adapted to codes that model a variety of reactor geometries. Carefully chosen experiments provide critical information on the chemical species, gas temperatures and flows that are necessary for model development and validation. This brochure provides basic information on Sandia`s capabilities in the physical and chemical sciences of CVD and related materials processing technologies. It contains a brief description of the major scientific and technical capabilities of the CVD staff and facilities, and a brief discussion of the approach that the staff uses to advance the scientific understanding of CVD processes.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

103

Vaporization behavior of non-stoichiometric refractory carbide materials and direct observations of the vapor phase using laser diagnostics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transition metal and actinide carbides, such as ZrC or NbC and UC or ThC, exhibit a wide range of stoichiometry, and therefore vaporize incongruently. At long times, steady state vaporization can be achieved where relative concentrations of atomic species on solid surface equals that in the gas phase. The surface composition under these steady state conditions is termed the congruently vaporizing composition, (CVC). Modeling the vaporization or corrosion behavior of this dynamic process is complex and requires an understanding of how the surface composition changes with time and a knowledge of CVC, which is both temperature and atmosphere dependent. This paper describes vaporization and corrosion behavior of non-stoichiometric refractory carbide materials and, as an example, describes a thermokinetic model that characterizes the vaporization behavior of the complex carbide U{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}C{sub y} in hydrogen at 2500 to 3200 K. This model demonstrates that steady state corrosion of U{sub x}Zr{sub l-x}C{sub y} is rate limited by gaseous transport of Zr where partial pressure of Zr is determined by CVC. This paper also briefly describes efforts to image and characterize the vapor phase above the surface of ZrC in static and flowing gas environments using planar laser induced fluorescence. We have developed the method for monitoring and controlling the corrosion behavior of nuclear fuels in nuclear thermal rockets. However, the techniques described can be used, to image boundary layers, and could be used verifying corrosion models.

Butt, D.P.; Wantuck, P.J.; Rehse, S.J.; Wallace, T.C. Sr.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger savings, as much as 80%, may be obtained by using a direct vapor recompression (VRC) heat pump instead of the conventional column operation with a steam heated reboiler. A main criterion of the suitability of a distillation for VRC is a low temperature difference across the column. VRC uses hot compressed overhead vapors, instead of steam, to heat the reboiler. Cost savings are highest when the pressure ratio for the compressor is low. The pressure ratio depends on the boiling point difference of top and bottom products, the reboiler-condenser driving force temperature and the column pressure drop. Structured packing has a low pressure drop; thus increasing the savings obtained with VRC - for retrofits or new columns - and increasing the range of applications where VRC is suitable for distillations. For low pressure distillation application, a column with a small pressure drop is especially important. An example of a vacuum distillation which is made suitable for VRC with use of structured packing is separation of styrene and ethyl benzene. "

Hill, J.H.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources. 4 figs.

Weidner, J.R.; Downs, W.C.; Kaser, T.G.; Hall, H.J.

1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

106

Image Storage in Hot Vapors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We theoretically investigate image propagation and storage in hot atomic vapor. A $4f$ system is adopted for imaging and an atomic vapor cell is placed over the transform plane. The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of an object in the object plane can thus be transformed into atomic Raman coherence according to the idea of ``light storage''. We investigate how the stored diffraction pattern evolves under diffusion. Our result indicates, under appropriate conditions, that an image can be reconstructed with high fidelity. The main reason for this procedure to work is the fact that diffusion of opposite-phase components of the diffraction pattern interfere destructively.

Zhao, L; Xiao, Y; Yelin, S F

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Image Storage in Hot Vapors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We theoretically investigate image propagation and storage in hot atomic vapor. A $4f$ system is adopted for imaging and an atomic vapor cell is placed over the transform plane. The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of an object in the object plane can thus be transformed into atomic Raman coherence according to the idea of ``light storage''. We investigate how the stored diffraction pattern evolves under diffusion. Our result indicates, under appropriate conditions, that an image can be reconstructed with high fidelity. The main reason for this procedure to work is the fact that diffusion of opposite-phase components of the diffraction pattern interfere destructively.

L. Zhao; T. Wang; Y. Xiao; S. F. Yelin

2007-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

108

Combustion chamber and thermal vapor stream producing apparatus and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new and improved method and apparatus for burning a hydrocarbon fuel for producing a high pressure thermal vapor stream comprising steam and combustion gases for injecting into a subterranean formation for the recovery of liquefiable minerals therefrom, wherein a high pressure combustion chamber having multiple refractory lined combustion zones of varying diameters is provided for burning a hydrocarbon fuel and pressurized air in predetermined ratios injected into the chamber for producing hot combustion gases essentially free of oxidizing components and solid carbonaceous particles. The combustion zones are formed by zones of increasing diameters up a final zone of decreasing diameter to provide expansion zones which cause turbulence through controlled thorough mixing of the air and fuel to facilitate complete combustion. The high pressure air and fuel is injected into the first of the multiple zones where ignition occurs with a portion of the air injected at or near the point of ignition to further provide turbulence and more complete combustion.

Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Sugar Land, TX); Cradeur, Robert R. (Spring, TX)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

1990-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

110

Distribution of Tropical Tropospheric Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilizing a conceptual model for tropical convection and observational data for water vapor, the maintenance of the vertical distribution of the tropical tropospheric water vapor is discussed. While deep convection induces large-scale subsidence ...

De-Zheng Sun; Richard S. Lindzen

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Atmospheric Water Vapor Characteristics at 70N  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using an extensive rawinsonde archive, characteristics of Arctic water vapor and its transports at 70N are examined for the period 19741991. Monthly-mean profiles and vertically integrated values of specific humidity and meridional vapor fluxes ...

Mark C. Serreze; Roger G. Barry; John E. Walsh

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Means and method for vapor generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Enhanced frequency up-conversion in Rb vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate highly efficient generation of coherent 420 nm light via up-conversion of near-infrared lasers in a hot rubidium vapor cell. By optimizing pump polarizations and frequencies we achieve a single-pass conversion efficiency of 260%/W, significantly higher than in previous experiments. A full 2D exploration of the coherent light generation and fluorescence as a function of the pump frequencies reveals that coherent blue light is generated at 85Rb two-photon resonances, as predicted by theory, but at high vapor pressure it is suppressed in spectral regions that don't support phase matching or exhibit single-photon Kerr refraction. Favorable scaling of our current 1 mW blue beam power with additional pump power is predicted. Infrared pump polarization could be used for future intensity switching experiments.

Vernier, A; Riis, E; Arnold, A S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Vapor phase heat transport systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vapor phase heat-transport systems are being tested in two of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The systems consist of an active fin-and-tube solar collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by a pump or by a self-pumping scheme. In one of the test cells the liquid was self-pumped to the roof-mounted collector 17 ft above the condenser. A mechanical valve was designed and tested that showed that the system could operate in a completely passive mode. Performance comparisons have been made with a passive water wall test cell.

Hedstrom, J.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous semiconductor films. Final subcontract report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from higher order silanes has been studied for fabricating amorphous hydrogenated silicon thin-film solar cells. Intrinsic and doped a-Si:H films were deposited in a reduced-pressure, tubular-flow reactor, using disilane feed-gas. Conditions for depositing intrinsic films at growth rates up to 10 A/s were identified. Electrical and optical properties, including dark conductivity, photoconductivity, activation energy, optical absorption, band-gap and sub-band-gap absorption properties of CVD intrinsic material were characterized. Parameter space for depositing intrinsic and doped films, suitable for device analysis, was identified.

Rocheleau, R.E.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Passive space heating with a self-pumping vapor system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this system, which should be useful for space or water heating, a refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector and condensed within thermal storage located in the building below the collector. The vapor pressure generated in the collector periodically forces the condensed liquid upward to the location of the collector. This paper reports results of an operational test, in which this system provided passive space heating for an outdoor test cell during a winter season. The daily average energy yield and the elevation of collector temperature caused by self-pumping are reported, as well as observations on failure modes, system reliability, and suggestions for a practical configuration.

Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

Ball, D.G.; Miller, J.L.

1993-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

119

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Surface soil-mercury surveys are an inexpensive and useful exploration tool for geothermal resources. ---- Surface geochemical surveys for mercury were conducted in 16 areas in 1979-1981 by ARCO Oil and Gas Company as part of its geothermal evaluation program. Three techniques used together have proved satisfactory in evaluating surface mercury data. These are contouring, histograms and cumulative frequency plots of the data. Contouring geochemical data and constructing histograms are standard

120

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, B.K.

1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Thermoplastic Composite with Vapor Grown Carbon Fiber.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) is a new class of highly graphitic carbon nanofiber and offers advantages of economy and simpler processing over continuous-fiber composites. (more)

Lee, Jaewoo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO) In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor...

123

Water Vapor Fields Deduced from METEOSAT-1 Water Vapor Channel Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quasi-operational process for the determination of water vapor fields from METEPSAT-1 water vapor channel data is described. Each count of the WV picture is replaced by the corresponding mean relative humidity value using both the calibration ...

M. M. Poc; M. Roulleau

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Experimental Determination of Water Vapor Profiles from Ground-Based Radiometer Measurements at 21.0 and 31.4 GHz.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor profiles have been obtained from radiometer measurements at 21.0 and 31.4 GHz and ground values of humidity, temperature and pressure. The inversion technique was based on minimum variance estimation, including constraints derived ...

B. G. Skoog; J. I. H. Askne; G. Elgered

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.

Mark J. Bergander

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

126

Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE flowchart provides a structured process to determine if the technology is, or is not, reasonable and defensible for a particular site. The central basis for that decision is the expected performance of PSVE under the site specific conditions. Will PSVE have sufficient mass removal rates to reduce the release, or flux, of contamination into the underlying groundwater so that the site can meet it overall remedial objectives? The summary technical information, case study experiences, and structured decision process provided in this 'user guide' should assist environmental decision-makers, regulators, and engineers in selecting and successfully implementing PSVE at appropriate sites.

Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF) cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. As an alternative to RO and MSF, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K (331oF) and 722 kPa (105 psia) for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water and seawater feeds using optimum conditions considered as 25 and 20 stages, respectively. For brackish water at a temperature difference of 0.96 K (1.73oF), the energy requirement is 2.0 kWh/m3 (7.53 kWh/kgal). At this condition, the estimated water cost is $0.39/m3 ($1.48/kgal) achieved with 10,000,000 gal/day distillate, 30-year bond, 5% interest rate, and $0.05/kWh electricity. For seawater at a temperature difference of 0.44 K (0.80oF), the energy requirement is 3.97 kWh/m3 (15.0 kWh/kgal) and the estimated water cost is $0.61/m3 ($2.31/kgal). Greater efficiency of the vapor compression system is achieved by connecting multiple evaporators in series, rather than the traditional parallel arrangement. The efficiency results from the gradual increase of salinity in each stage of the series arrangement in comparison to parallel. Calculations using various temperature differences between boiling brine and condensing steam show the series arrangement has the greatest improvement at lower temperature differences. The following table shows the improvement of a series flow arrangement compared to parallel: ?T (K) Improvement (%)*1.111 2.222 3.333 15.21 10.80 8.37 * Incoming salt concentration: 3.5% Outgoing salt concentration: 7% Temperature: 450 K (350oF) Pressure: 928 kPa (120 psig) Stages: 4

Lubis, Mirna R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product  

SciTech Connect

The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

130

Pressure Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 8   Specifications for carbon and alloy steel pressure tubes (ASTM)...medium-strength carbon-molybdenum alloy

131

Dynamic Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The higher pressure range will cover the important application of gas turbine engine testing. Gas turbines are used for propulsion on aircraft and ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A New Global Water Vapor Dataset  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive and accurate global water vapor dataset is critical to the adequate understanding of water vapor's role in the earth's climate system. To begin to satisfy this need, the authors have produced a blended dataset made up of global, 5-...

David L. Randel; Thomas J. Greenwald; Thomas H. Vonder Haar; Graeme L. Stephens; Mark A. Ringerud; Cynthia L. Combs

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation  

SciTech Connect

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

1985-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

136

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 2000.09.18 - 2000.10.08 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb Data Availability Yes For data sets, see below. Description Scientific hypothesis: 1. Microwave radiometer (MWR) observations of the 22 GHz water vapor line can accurately constrain the total column amount of water vapor (assuming a calibration accuracy of 0.5 degC or better, which translates into 0.35 mm PWV). 2. Continuous profiling by Raman lidar provides a stable reference for handling sampling problems and observes a fixed column directly above the site only requiring a single height- independent calibration factor. 3. Agreement between the salt-bath calibrated in-situ probes, chilled

137

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

Grigorian, Leonid (Raymond, OH); Hornyak, Louis (Evergreen, CO); Dillon, Anne C (Boulder, CO); Heben, Michael J (Denver, CO)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

139

EQUILIBRIUM P-V-T RELATIONS FOR EXPANDING LIQUID-VAPOR SYSTEMS IN A CONTAINMENT SHELL  

SciTech Connect

From a time-independent standpoint, formulas are developed for determining a containment shell for a reactor plant should an unforeseen malfunction, where a compressed liquid, liquid-vapor, or vapor system is liberated and expands, occur. From the thermal equilibrium states, the pressure build-up inside a containment shell of known free volume is obtained, or for a specified containment shell pressure the required free volume is evolved. For the pressure build-up inside a containment shell due to ancident on a time- dependent basis, formulas are evolved from an open-system aspect. A table and graphs fur various initial states expanding into a containment shell have been prepared, where timeis not considered. Examples illustrating the usage of the developed time-independent equations are given. (auth)

Heap, J.C.

1958-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp[sup 3]-bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprises: (a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H[sub 2] reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and (b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm[sup 2] through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750 C to about 950 C to activate deposition of the film on said substrate. 11 figs.

Pitts, J.R.; Tracy, C.E.; King, D.E.; Stanley, J.T.

1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks. First quarterly report, January--March 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp.sup.3 -bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprising: a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H.sub.2 reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm.sup.2 through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. to activate deposition of the film on said substrate.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Stanley, James T. (Beaverton, OR)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Intermediate-depth circulation of the Indian and South Pacific Oceans measured by autonomous floats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the equator sepa- rating tropical cyclones is found in bothnorth Indian tropical gyre, forming separate cyclones in thecyclones separated by a pressure ridge along the equator supporting eastward equatorial flow. Reids tropical

Davis, Russ E

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area...

145

Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area...

146

Mercury Vapor At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Mccoy Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not...

147

Water vapor retrieval over many surface types  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a study of of the water vapor retrieval for many natural surface types which would be valuable for multi-spectral instruments using the existing Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) for the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature. An atmospheric code (6S) and 562 spectra were used to compute the top of the atmosphere radiance near the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature in steps of 2.5 nm as a function of precipitable water (PW). We derive a novel technique called ``Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption`` (APDA) and show that APDA performs better than the CIBR over many surface types.

Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.C.; Johnson, J.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption (more)

Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

PRESSURE TRANSDUCER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure or mechanical force transducer particularly adaptable to miniature telemetering systems is described. Basically the device consists of a transistor located within a magnetic field adapted to change in response to mechanical force. The conduction characteristics of the transistor in turn vary proportionally with changes in the magnetic flux across the transistor such that the output (either frequency of amplitude) of the transistor circuit is proportional to mechanical force or pressure.

Sander, H.H.

1959-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Direct Calculation of Thermodynamic Wet-Bulb Temperature as a Function of Pressure and Elevation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple analytical method was developed for directly calculating the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature from air temperature and the vapor pressure (or relative humidity) at elevations up to 4500 m above MSL was developed. This methodology was ...

Sayed-Hossein Sadeghi; Troy R. Peters; Douglas R. Cobos; Henry W. Loescher; Colin S. Campbell

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Direct Calculation of Thermodynamic Wet Bulb Temperature as a Function of Pressure and Elevation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple analytical method was developed for directly calculating the thermodynamic wet bulb temperature from air temperature and the vapor pressure (or relative humidity) at any desired elevation. This methodology was based on the fact that the ...

Sayed-Hossein Sadeghi; Troy R. Peters; Douglas R. Cobos; Henry W. Loescher; Colin S. Campbell

152

Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

Dietz, Russell N. (Shoreham, NY); Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators  

SciTech Connect

A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

1981-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

154

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Title Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1995 Authors Hunt, Arlon J., Michael R. Ayers, and Wanqing Cao Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 185 Pagination 227-232 Abstract A new method to produce novel composite materials based on the use of aerogels as a starting material is described. Using chemical vapor infiltration, a variety of solid materials were thermally deposited into the open pore structure of aerogel. The resulting materials possess new and unusual properties including photoluminescence, magnetism and altered optical properties. An important characteristic of this preparation process is the very small size of the deposits that gives rise to new behaviors. Silicon deposits exhibit photoluminescence, indicating quantum confinement. Two or more phases may be deposited simultaneously and one or both chemically or thermally reacted to produce new structures.

155

Chemical vapor depositing of metal fluorides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Purity BeF2 and BeF2AlF3glasses have been deposited by the chemical vapor deposition technique using beryllium and aluminum 1

A. Sarhangi; J. M. Power

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Chemical vapor deposition of antimicrobial polymer coatings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is large and growing interest in making a wide variety of materials and surfaces antimicrobial. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a solventless low-temperature process, is used to form thin films of polymers ...

Martin, Tyler Philip, 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

Olsson, Ylva Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Tropospheric Water Vapor and Climate Sensitivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates are made of the effect of changes in tropospheric water vapor on the climate sensitivity to doubled carbon dioxide (CO2), using a coarse resolution atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean. The ...

Edwin K. Schneider; Ben P. Kirtman; Richard S. Lindzen

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Laia, J.R.; Barbero, R.S.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

160

Helium Adsorption in Silica Aerogel near the Liquid-Vapor Critical Point  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated the adsorption and desorption of helium near its liquid-vapor critical point in silica aerogels with porosities between 95 % and 98%. We used a capacitive measurement technique which allowed us to probe the helium density inside the aerogel directly, even though the samples were surrounded by bulk helium. The aerogels very low thermal conductivity resulted in long equilibration times so we monitored the pressure and the helium density, both inside the aerogel and in the surrounding bulk, and waited at each point until all had stabilized. Our measurements were made at temperatures far from the critical point, where a well defined liquid-vapor interface exists, and at temperatures up to the bulk critical point. Hysteresis between adsorption and desorption isotherms persisted to temperatures close to the liquid-vapor critical point and there was no sign of an equilibrium liquid-vapor transition once the hysteresis disappeared. Many features of our isotherms can be described in terms of capillary condensation, although this picture becomes less applicable as the liquid-vapor critical point is approached and it is unclear how it can be applied to aerogels, whose tenuous structure includes a wide range of length scales. I.

Tobias Herman; James Day; John Beamish

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Helium adsorption in silica aerogel near the liquid-vapor critical point  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated the adsorption and desorption of helium near its liquid-vapor critical point in silica aerogels with porosities between 95% and 98%. We used a capacitive measurement technique which allowed us to probe the helium density inside the aerogel directly, even though the samples were surrounded by bulk helium. The aerogel's very low thermal conductivity resulted in long equilibration times so we monitored the pressure and the helium density, both inside the aerogel and in the surrounding bulk, and waited at each point until all had stabilized. Our measurements were made at temperatures far from the critical point, where a well defined liquid-vapor interface exists, and at temperatures up to the bulk critical point. Hysteresis between adsorption and desorption isotherms persisted to temperatures close to the liquid-vapor critical point and there was no sign of an equilibrium liquid-vapor transition once the hysteresis disappeared. Many features of our isotherms can be described in terms of capillary condensation, although this picture becomes less applicable as the liquid-vapor critical point is approached and it is unclear how it can be applied to aerogels, whose tenuous structure includes a wide range of length scales.

Tobias Herman; James Day; John Beamish

2005-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

162

Measurement of gas transport properties for chemical vapor infiltration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process for fabricating ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), transport of gas phase reactant into the fiber preform is a critical step. The transport can be driven by pressure or by concentration. This report describes methods for measuring this for CVI preforms and partially infiltrated composites. Results are presented for Nicalon fiber cloth layup preforms and composites, Nextel fiber braid preforms and composites, and a Nicalon fiber 3-D weave composite. The results are consistent with a percolating network model for gas transport in CVI preforms and composites. This model predicts inherent variability in local pore characteristics and transport properties, and therefore, in local densification during processing; this may lead to production of gastight composites.

Starr, T.L.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface lines.This report reviews thermodynamic andhydrogeologic conditions and mechanisms that play an important role inreservoir response to water injection. An existing general-purposereservoir simulator has been enhanced to allow modeling of injectioneffects in heterogeneous fractured reservoirs in three dimensions,including effects of non-condensible gases of different solubility.Illustrative applications demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfermechanisms that are considered crucial for developing approaches to insitu abatement of NCGs.

Pruess, Karsten

2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

164

Chemical vapor deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon from disilane  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films deposited at growth rates of 1 to 30 A/s by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane source gas at 24 torr total pressure in a tubular reactor. The effects of substrate temperature and gas holding time (flow rate) on film growth rate and effluent gas composition were measured at temperatures ranging from 360{sup 0} to 485{sup 0}C and gas holding times from 3 to 62s. Effluent gases determined by gas chromatography included silane, disilane and other higher order silanes. A chemical reaction engineering model, based on a silylene (SiH/sub 2/) insertion gas phase reaction network and film growth from both SiH/sub 2/ and high molecular weight silicon species, Si/sub n/H/sub 2n/, was developed. The model predictions were in good agreement with experimentally determined growth rates and effluent gas compositions.

Bogaert, R.J.; Russell, T.W.F.; Klein, M.T. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Rocheleau, R.E.; Baron, B.N. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Inst. of Energy Conversion)

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Variable pressure power cycle and control system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable pressure power cycle and control system that is adjustable to a variable heat source is disclosed. The power cycle adjusts itself to the heat source so that a minimal temperature difference is maintained between the heat source fluid and the power cycle working fluid, thereby substantially matching the thermodynamic envelope of the power cycle to the thermodynamic envelope of the heat source. Adjustments are made by sensing the inlet temperature of the heat source fluid and then setting a superheated vapor temperature and pressure to achieve a minimum temperature difference between the heat source fluid and the working fluid.

Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

166

Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

Andrews, E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

A comparison of diamond growth rate using in-liquid and conventional plasma chemical vapor deposition methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to make high-speed deposition of diamond effective, diamond growth rates for gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition and in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition are compared. A mixed gas of methane and hydrogen is used as the source gas for the gas-phase deposition, and a methanol solution of ethanol is used as the source liquid for the in-liquid deposition. The experimental system pressure is in the range of 60-150 kPa. While the growth rate of diamond increases as the pressure increases, the amount of input microwave energy per unit volume of diamond is 1 kW h/mm{sup 3} regardless of the method used. Since the in-liquid deposition method provides a superior cooling effect through the evaporation of the liquid itself, a higher electric input power can be applied to the electrodes under higher pressure environments. The growth rate of in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process is found to be greater than conventional gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process under the same pressure conditions.

Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Toyota, Hiromichi; Nomura, Shinfuku; Mukasa, Shinobu [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Inoue, Toru [Geodynamics Research Center, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Characteristics of Gd2-xLaxO3 high-k films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gd"2"-"xLa"xO"3 high-k films were deposited on (100) Si substrates by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The metal-organic precursors we used were Gd and La @b-diketonates. The structure, band gap, composition and electrical ... Keywords: Gd2-xLaxO3, High- k, MOCVD

Liu-Ying Huang; Ai-Dong Li; Ying-Ying Fu; Wen-Qi Zhang; Xiao-Jie Liu; Di Wu

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

An advanced vapor-compression desalination system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Currently, the two dominant desalination methods are reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF). RO requires large capital investment and maintenance, whereas MSF is too energy intensive. An innovative vapor-compression desalination system is developed in this study. A comprehensive mathematical model for the heat exchanger/evaporator is described. The literature indicates that extraordinarily high overall heat transfer coefficients for the evaporator are possible at selected operating conditions that employ dropwise condensation in the steam side and pool boiling in the liquid side. A smooth titanium surface is chosen to promote dropwise condensation and to resist corrosion. To maximize energy efficiency, a combined-cycle cogeneration scheme is employed composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery boiler, and a steam turbine that drive a compressor. The combined-cycle power source is oversized relative to the needs of the compressor. The excess power is converted to electricity and sold to the open market. A three-effect evaporator is employed. It is fed with seawater, assumed to be 3.5% salt. Boiling brine (7% salt) is in the low pressure side of the heat exchanger and condensing steam is in the high-pressure side of the heat exchanger. The condensing steam flows at 1.52 m/s (5 ft/s), which maximizes the heat transfer coefficient. The plant is sized to produce 37,854 m3/d (10 mill gal/day) and is assumed to be financed with a 5%, 30-yr municipal bond. Two economic cases were emphasized: the United States and the Middle East. For the United States, the fuel costs $5/GJ ($5.27/mill Btu) with the latent heat exchanger at ( ) 1.11 K 2.00 F T ? = ° . The required compressor energy is 14 MJ/m3 (14.7 kW h/thous gal). The capital cost for the U.S. is $884 d/m3 ($3,342/thous gal) and the delivered water selling price is $0.47/m3 ($1.79/thous/gal). For the Middle East, the fuel costs $0.5/GJ ($0.53/mill Btu) with the latent heat exchanger at K T 33 . 3 = ? ( ) F 00 . 6 ° . The required compressor energy is 26 MJ/m3 (27.3 kW h/thous gal). ). The capital cost for the Middle East is $620 d/m3 ($2,344/thous gal), and the delivered water selling price is $0.25/m3 ($0.95/thous/gal). In all cases, the water selling price is attractive relative to competing technologies.

Lara Ruiz, Jorge Horacio Juan

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Commercial Alloys for Sulfuric Acid Vaporization in Thermochemical Hydrogen Cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most thermochemical cycles being considered for producing hydrogen include a processing stream in which dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated, vaporized and then decomposed over a catalyst. The sulfuric acid vaporizer is exposed to highly aggressive conditions. Liquid sulfuric acid will be present at a concentration of >96 wt% (>90 mol %) H2SO4 and temperatures exceeding 400oC [Brown, et. al, 2003]. The system will also be pressurized, 0.7-3.5 MPa, to keep the sulfuric acid in the liquid state at this temperature and acid concentration. These conditions far exceed those found in the commercial sulfuric acid generation, regeneration and handling industries. Exotic materials, e.g. ceramics, precious metals, clad materials, etc., have been proposed for this application [Wong, et. al., 2005]. However, development time, costs, reliability, safety concerns and/or certification issues plague such solutions and should be considered as relatively long-term, optimum solutions. A more cost-effective (and relatively near-term) solution would be to use commercially-available metallic alloys to demonstrate the cycle and study process variables. However, the corrosion behavior of commercial alloys in sulfuric acid is rarely characterized above the natural boiling point of concentrated sulfuric acid (~250oC at 1 atm). Therefore a screening study was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of various commercial alloys for concentration and vaporization of high-temperature sulfuric acid. Initially alloys were subjected to static corrosion tests in concentrated sulfuric acid (~95-97% H2SO4) at temperatures and exposure times up to 200oC and 480 hours, respectively. Alloys with a corrosion rate of less than 5 mm/year were then subjected to static corrosion tests at a pressure of 1.4 MPa and temperatures up to 375oC. Exposure times were shorter due to safety concerns and ranged from as short as 5 hours up to 144 hours. The materials evaluated included nickel-, iron- and cobalt-based commercial alloys. The corrosion rates in these tests are reported and how they may or may not relate to the corrosion behavior in an operating thermochemical cycle is discussed.

Thomas M. Lillo; Karen M. Delezene-Briggs

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

atmospheric water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmospheric water vapor atmospheric water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 247.8 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 370.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

172

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 1996.09.10 - 1996.09.30 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary SCHEDULE This IOP will be conducted from September 10 - 30, 1996 (coincident with the Fall ARM-UAV IOP). Instruments that do not require supervision will be operated continuously during this period. Instruments that do require supervision are presently planned to be operated for 8-hour periods each day. Because it is necessary to cover as broad a range of environmental conditions as possible, the daily 8-hour period will be shifted across the diurnal cycle as deemed appropriate during the IOP (but will be maintained as a contiguous 8-hour block).

173

atmoshperic water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmoshperic water vapor atmoshperic water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for China. Source NREL Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmoshperic water vapor China GEF GIS NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 625.6 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 704.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 01/01/1985 - 12/31/1991 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access

174

Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself.

Alger, Terry (Tracy, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

176

Low Temperature Direct Growth of Graphene Films on Transparent Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Few- Layer Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition",Liu, W. , et al. (2010). "Chemical vapor deposition of large5 1.3.3. Chemical Vapor

Antoine, Geoffrey Sandosh Jeffy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Profiling Atmospheric Water Vapor by Microwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-altitude microwave radiometric observations at frequencies near 92 and 183.3 GHz were used to study the potential of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles over both land and water. An algorithm based on an extended Kaiman-Bucy filter ...

J. R. Wang; J. L. King; T. T. Wilheit; G. Szejwach; L. H. Gesell; R. A. Nieman; D. S. Niver; B. M. Krupp; J. A. Gagliano

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Vaporization of synthetic fuels. Final report. [Thesis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The problem of transient droplet vaporization in a hot convective environment is examined. The main objective of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the droplet vaporization which is simple enough to be feasibly incorporated into a complete spray combustion analysis and yet will also account for the important physics such as liquid-phase internal circulation, unsteady droplet heating and axisymmetric gas-phase convection. A simplified liquid-phase model has been obtained based on the assumption of the existence of a Hill's spherical vortex inside the droplet together with some approximations made in the governing diffusion equation. The use of the simplified model in a spray situation has also been examined. It has been found that droplet heating and vaporization are essentially unsteady and droplet temperature is nonuniform for a significant portion of its lifetime. It has also been found that the droplet vaporization characteristic can be quite sensitive to the particular liquid-phase and gas-phase models. The results of the various models are compared with the existing experimental data. Due to large scattering in the experimental measurements, particularly the droplet diameter, no definite conclusion can be drawn based on the experimental data. Finally, certain research problems which are related to the present study are suggested for future studies.

Sirignano, W.A.; Yao, S.C.; Tong, A.Y.; Talley, D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

A Water Vapor Index from Satellite Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for deriving a water vapor index is presented. An important feature of the index is the fact that it does not rely on radiosondes. Thus, it is not influenced by problems associated with radiosondes and the extent to which the horizontal ...

Larry M. McMillin; David S. Crosby; Mitchell D. Goldberg

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition of nano-composite...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

plasma chemical vapor deposition of nano-composite CPt thin-films Title Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition of nano-composite CPt thin-films Publication Type Journal...

182

Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Depositon of Nano-Structured...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plasma Chemical Vapor Depositon of Nano-Structured SnC Composite Thin-Film anodes for Li-ion Battteries Title Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Depositon of Nano-Structured SnC...

183

The Effect of vapor subcooling on film condensation of metals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work presents an analysis of the interfacial "vapor-condensate" temperature distribution, which includes the effect of subcooling (supersaturation) in the vapor. Experimental data from previous investigators for ...

Fedorovich, Eugene D.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Waste tank headspace gas and vapor characterization reference guide  

SciTech Connect

This document is to serve as a reference guide for gas and vapor sample results presented in tank characterization reports. It describes sampling equipment, devices, and protocols, and sample collection and analysis methods common to all vapor samples.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Atmospheric Solar Heating Rate in the Water Vapor Bands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear atmosphere is parameterized as a simple function of the scaled water vapor amount. For applications to cloudy and hazy atmospheres, the flux-weighted k-distribution functions are ...

Ming-Dah Chou

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Estimating the Atmospheric Water Vapor Content from Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The differential absorption technique for estimating columnar water vapor values from the analysis of sunphotometric measurements with wide- and narrowband interferential filters centered near 0.94 ?m is discussed and adapted. Water vapor line ...

Artemio Plana-Fattori; Michel Legrand; Didier Tanr; Claude Devaux; Anne Vermeulen; Philippe Dubuisson

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

Not Available

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Improved Retrieval of Integrated Water Vapor from Water Vapor Radiometer Measurements Using Numerical Weather Prediction Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor radiometer (WVR) retrieval algorithms require a priori information on atmospheric conditions along the line of sight of the radiometer in order to derive opacities from observed brightness temperatures. This paper's focus is the mean ...

Steven R. Chiswell; Steven Businger; Michael Bevis; Fredrick Solheim; Christian Rocken; Randolph Ware

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon films from disilane  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous silicon films for fabrication of solar cells have been deposited by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/) using a tubular flow reactor. A mathematical description for the CVD reactor was developed and solved by a numerical procedure. The proposed chemical reaction network for the model is based on silylene (SiH/sub 2/) insertion in the gas phase and film growth from SiH/sub 2/ and silicon polymers (Si/sub n/N/sub 2n/, n approx. 10). Estimates of the rate constants have been obtained for trisilane decomposition, silicon polymer formation, and polymer dehydrogenation. The silane unimolecular decomposition rate constants were corrected for pressure effects. The model behavior is compared to the experimental results over the range of conditions: reactor temperature (360 to 485/sup 0/C), pressures (2 to 48 torr), and gas holding time (1 to 70 s). Within the above range of conditions, film growth rate varies from 0.01 to 30 A/s. Results indicate that silicon polymers are the main film precursors for gas holding times greater than 3 s. Film growth by silylene only becomes important at short holding times, large inert gas dilution, and positions near the beginning of the reactor hot zone.

Bogaert, R.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of several ...

Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

The effects of atmospheric pressure plasma on the synthesis of carbon nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we investigated the effects of atmospheric plasma on the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) forests. Tall and high CNTs forests have been successfully grown on a large scale using a newly developed system called atmospheric pressure ... Keywords: Atmospheric pressure, Carbon nanotubes, Mass production, Plasma effects, Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

Seok Seung Shin; Bum Ho Choi; Young Mi Kim; Jong Ho Lee; Dong Chan Shin

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Case study covering Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. and its membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling.

193

Hydrocarbon pool and vapor fire data analysis  

SciTech Connect

The flame geometry and thermal radiation data from a series of large scale experiments involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline spills on water were analyzed. The experiments were conducted at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California. Two types of fires have been studied; namely, pool fires and vapor fires. The spill quantity varied from 4 m/sup 3/ to approximately 6 m/sup 3/. The LPG pool fire flame height to diameter ratio were between 3.5 and 4.5. The gasoline flame height was about 2. The flame emissive powers for LPG pool fires ranged from 78 kW/m/sup 2/ to 115 kW/m/sup 2/. The average surface emissive power for gasoline pool fire was 40 kW/m/sup 2/. The LPG vapor fire emissive power ranged from 159 to 269 kW/m/sup 2/. 63 figures, 13 tables.

Mudan, K.S.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH&Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations.

MOORE, T.L.

2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

197

Transport properties of fission product vapors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Kinetic theory of gases is used to calculate the transport properties of fission product vapors in a steam and hydrogen environment. Provided in tabular form is diffusivity of steam and hydrogen, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the gaseous mixture, and diffusivity of cesium iodide, cesium hydroxide, diatomic tellurium and tellurium dioxide. These transport properties are required in determining the thermal-hydraulics of and fission product transport in light water reactors.

Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

Jackson, Scott C. (Wilmington, DE); Rocheleau, Richard E. (Wilmington, DE)

1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

199

A NORMETEX MODEL 15 M3/HR WATER VAPOR PUMPING TEST  

SciTech Connect

Tests were performed using a Model 15 m{sup 3}/hr Normetex vacuum pump to determine if pump performance degraded after pumping a humid gas stream. An air feed stream containing 30% water vapor was introduced into the pump for 365 hours with the outlet pressure of the pump near the condensation conditions of the water. Performance of the pump was tested before and after the water vapor pumping test and indicated no loss in performance of the pump. The pump also appeared to tolerate small amounts of condensed water of short duration without increased noise, vibration, or other adverse indications. The Normetex pump was backed by a dual-head diaphragm pump which was affected by the condensation of water and produced some drift in operating conditions during the test.

Klein, J.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

200

Chemical vapor deposition of ZrC in small bore carbon-composite tubes  

SciTech Connect

Process conditions are described for the chemical vapor deposition of ZrC from ZrCl/sub 4/--CH/sub 4/--HCl--H/sub 2/--Ar vapor over the temperature range 1320 to 1775 deg K. From an analysis of the process conditions (initial composition of coating gas, axial temperature profile along the tubes, total pressure, and length of deposition time), the subsequent ZrC coat thickness profiles and thermodynamic data, an equation expressing the variation of the axial rate of ZrC deposition is derived. This expression can be used for the estimation of process conditions required to yield a specified ZrC coat profile. Variations of the chlorine and oxygen contents, lattice pararmeter, microstructure of the ZrC deposit and thermal expansion coefficient as a function of deposition temperature are described. (11 figures, 3 tables) (auth)

Wallace, T.C.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Liquid-phase dispersion during injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The behavior of water injection plumes in vapor-dominated reservoirs is examined. Stressing the similarity to water infiltration in heterogeneous soils, we suggest that ever-present heterogeneities in individual fractures and fracture networks will cause a lateral broadening of descending injection plumes. The process of lateral spreading of liquid phase is viewed in analogy to transverse dispersion in miscible displacement. To account for the postulated ``phase dispersion`` the conventional two-phase immiscible flow theory is extended by adding a Fickian-type dispersive term. The validity of the proposed phase dispersion model is explored by means of simulations with detailed resolution of small-scale heterogeneity. We also present an illustrative application to injection into a depleted vapor zone. It is concluded that phase dispersion effects will broaden descending injection plumes, with important consequences for pressure support and potential water breakthrough at neighboring production wells.

Pruess, K.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Quantitative model of vapor dominated geothermal reservoirs as heat pipes in fractured porous rock  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present a numerical model of vapor-dominated reservoirs which is based on the well-known conceptual model of White, Muffler, and Truesdell. Computer simulations show that upon heat recharge at the base, a single phase liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir in fractured rock with low matrix permeability will evolve into a two-phase reservoir with B.P.D. (boiling point-for-depth) pressure and temperature profiles. A rather limited discharge event through cracks in the caprock, involving loss of only a few percent of fluids in place, is sufficient to set the system off to evolve a vapor-dominated state. The attributes of this state are discussed, and some features requiring further clarification are identified. 26 refs., 5 figs.

Pruess, K.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Compound nuclear decay and the liquid to vapor phase transition: a physical picture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analyses of multifragmentation in terms of the Fisher droplet model (FDM) and the associated construction of a nuclear phase diagram bring forth the problem of the actual existence of the nuclear vapor phase and the meaning of its associated pressure. We present here a physical picture of fragment production from excited nuclei that solves this problem and establishes the relationship between the FDM and the standard compound nucleus decay rate for rare particles emitted in first-chance decay. The compound thermal emission picture is formally equivalent to a FDM-like equilibrium description and avoids the problem of the vapor while also explaining the observation of Boltzmann-like distribution of emission times. In this picture a simple Fermi gas thermometric relation is naturally justified and verified in the fragment yields and time scales. Low energy compound nucleus fragment yields scale according to the FDM and lead to an estimate of the infinite symmetric nuclear matter critical temperature between 18 a...

Moretto, L G; Phair, L

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

A molecular view of vapor deposited glasses  

SciTech Connect

Recently, novel organic glassy materials that exhibit remarkable stability have been prepared by vapor deposition. The thermophysical properties of these new ''stable'' glasses are equivalent to those that common glasses would exhibit after aging over periods lasting thousands of years. The origin of such enhanced stability has been elusive; in the absence of detailed models, past studies have discussed the formation of new polyamorphs or that of nanocrystals to explain the observed behavior. In this work, an atomistic molecular model of trehalose, a disaccharide of glucose, is used to examine the properties of vapor-deposited stable glasses. Consistent with experiment, the model predicts the formation of stable glasses having a higher density, a lower enthalpy, and higher onset temperatures than those of the corresponding ''ordinary'' glass formed by quenching the bulk liquid. Simulations reveal that newly formed layers of the growing vapor-deposited film exhibit greater mobility than the remainder of the material, thereby enabling a reorganization of the film as it is grown. They also reveal that ''stable'' glasses exhibit a distinct layered structure in the direction normal to the substrate that is responsible for their unusual properties.

Singh, Sadanand; Pablo, Juan J. de [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

205

Metal film deposition by laser breakdown chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dielectric breakdown of gas mixtures can be used to deposit homogeneous thin films by chemical vapor deposition with appropriate control of flow and pressure conditions to suppress gas phase nucleation and particle formation. Using a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser operating at 10.6 microns where there is no significant resonant absorption in any of the source gases, we have succeeded in depositing homogeneous films from several gas phase precursors by gas phase laser pyrolysis. Nickel and molybdenum from the respective carbonyls and tungsten from the hexafluoride have been examined to date. In each case the gas precursor is buffered to reduce the partial pressure of the reactants and to induce breakdown. The films are spectrally reflective and uniform over a large area. Films have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, pull tests, and resistivity measurements. The highest quality films have resulted from the nickel depositions. Detailed x-ray diffraction analysis of these films yields a very small domain size (approx. 50 A) consistent with rapid quenching from the gas phase reaction zone. This analysis also shows nickel carbide formation consistent with the temperature of the reaction zone and the Auger electron spectroscopy results which show some carbon and oxygen incorporation (8% and 1% respectively). Gas phase transport and condensation of the molybdenum carbonyl results in substantial carbon and oxygen contamination of the molybdenum films requiring heated substrates, a requirement not consistent with the goals of the program to maximize the quench rate of the deposition. Results from tungsten deposition experiments representing a reduction chemistry instead of the decomposition chemistry involved in the carbonyl experiments are also reported.

Jervis, T.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Decline curve analysis of vapor-dominated reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal Program activities at the INEEL include a review of the transient and pseudosteady state behavior of production wells in vapor-dominated systems with a focus on The Geysers field. The complicated history of development, infill drilling, injection, and declining turbine inlet pressures makes this field an ideal study area to test new techniques. The production response of a well can be divided into two distinct periods: transient flow followed by pseudo-steady state (depletion). The transient period can be analyzed using analytic equations, while the pseudo-steady state period is analyzed using empirical relationships. Yet by reviewing both periods, a great deal of insight can be gained about the well and reservoir. An example is presented where this approach is used to determine the permeability thickness product, kh, injection and production interference, and estimate the empirical Arps decline parameter b. When the production data is reinitialized (as may be required by interference effects), the kh determined from the new transient period is repeatable. This information can be used for well diagnostics, quantification of injection benefits, and the empirical estimation of remaining steam reserves.

Faulder, D.D.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Vapor port and groundwater sampling well  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

208

Vapor port and groundwater sampling well  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

Galkowski, J.J.

1986-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

210

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Vapor IOP Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary The Water Vapor IOP was conducted as a follow-up to a predecessor IOP on water vapor held in September 1996. This IOP relied heavily on both ground-based guest and CART instrumentation and in-situ aircraft and tethered sonde/kite measurements. Primary operational hours were from 6 p.m. Central until at least midnight, with aircraft support normally from about 9 p.m. until midnight when available. However, many daytime measurements were made to support this IOP. The first Water Vapor IOP primarily concentrated on the atmosphere's lowest

211

Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures.

Jang, J.H.; Faghri, A. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States); Chang, W.S. [Wright Research and Development Center, Wright-Patterson, OH (United States)

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Method and apparatus for concentrating vapors for analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pre-concentration device and a method are disclosed for concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the pre-concentration device are thermally desorbed, achieving at least partial separation of the vapor mixtures. The pre-concentration device is suitable, e.g., for pre-concentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable.

Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

213

Definitions common to all certification and test procedures are in: D-200 Definitions for Certification Procedures and Test Procedures for Vapor Recovery Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the purpose of this procedure, the term "ARB " refers to the State of California Air Resources Board, and the term "ARB Executive Officer " refers to the Executive Officer of the ARB or his or her authorized representative or designate. 1.1 General Applicability This procedure applies to the determination of the one minute static pressure performance of a vapor recovery system of a cargo tank by fluid mechanical principles. This procedure applies to any vapor emissions associated with the dispensing of any fluid, although it is written to reflect application to the hydrocarbon vapors associated with the dispensing of gasoline. 1.2 Determinations of Compliance and Violation Determinations of certain modes of compliance with and violation of certification specifications is outlined in 9. 1.3 Modifications Modification of this procedure may be necessary for vapors and fluids other than the hydrocarbon vapors associated with the dispensing of gasoline. Any modification of this method shall be subject to approval by the ARB Executive Officer. 2 PRINCIPLE AND SUMMARY OF TEST PROCEDURE Upon completion of loading operations at the bulk gasoline distribution facility, the gasoline cargo tank is pressurized, with nitrogen, to 18 inches water column. By using the total cargo California Air Resources Board March 17, 1999 TP-204.2, Page 1tank shell capacity, post-loading headspace volume, and the Ideal Gas Law, a one-minute maximum allowable pressure decay is calculated. The pressure decay is monitored for one minute and compliance is determined by comparison with the maximum allowable calculated value. The leak rate through the cargo tank internal vapor vent valve is similarly obtained. 3

unknown authors

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Jump to:...

215

Mercury Vapor At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Mercury Vapor At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Jump to: navigation,...

216

Mercury Vapor At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity...

217

Mercury Vapor At Vale Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Mercury Vapor At Vale Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Jump to: navigation, search...

218

Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Haleakala Volcano Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The field survey program on the northwest rift zone consisted of soil mercury and radon emanometry surveys, groundwater temperature and chemistry studies, Schlumberger resistivity soundings and self-potential profiles. Geophysical and geochemical surveys along this rift (southwest) were limited by difficult field conditions and access limitations. The geophysical program consisted of one Schlumberger sounding, one

219

Interaction of sodium vapor and graphite studied by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The kinetics of the reaction between graphite and sodium vapor is analyzed with support ... High temperature compression test to determine the anode paste...

220

Optimal Control of Vapor Extraction of Heavy Oil.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Vapor extraction (Vapex) process is an emerging technology for viscous oil recovery that has gained much attention in the oil industry. However, the oil production (more)

Muhamad, Hameed

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

ARM - Field Campaign - ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Order Data Browell, Edward LASE Order Data Gutman, Seth GPS Order Data Richardson, Scott Chilled Mirror Order Data Sachse, G. Water Vapor Order Data Schmidlin, Francis CM Sondes...

222

Molecular restrictions for human eye irritation by chemical vapors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and reactive airborne chemicals. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1998;WL. Chemesthesis: The Common Chemical Sense. In: Finger TE,MH. Quantification of chemical vapors in chemosensory

Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique; Cain, William S.; Abraham, Michael H.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton,...

224

Reactions of atmospheric vapors with lunar soil  

SciTech Connect

Detailed experimental data have been acquired for the hydration of the surfaces of lunar fines. Inert vapor adsorption has been employed to measure the surface properties (surface energy, surface area, porosity, etc.) and changes wrought in the hydration-dehydration processes. Plausible mechanisms have been considered and the predominant process involves hydration of the metamict metallosilicate surfaces to form a hydrated laminar structure akin to terrestrial clays. Additional credence for this interpretation is obtained by comparison to existing geochemical literature concerning terrestrial weathering of primary metallosilicates. The surface properties of the hydrated lunar fines are compared favorably to those of terrestrial clay minerals. In addition, experimental results are given to show that fresh disordered surfaces of volcanic sand react with water vapor in a manner virtually identical to the majority of the lunar fines. The results show that ion track etching and/or grain boundary attack are minor contributions in the weathering of lunar fines in the realm of our microgravimetric experimental conditions. 14 references. (auth)

Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Agron, P.A.

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

pressure_measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... piston gauges, ball gages, pressure transducers, pressure gauges, non-mercurial barometers, and manometers in both gas and oil media using ...

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

226

Gas pressure reduction circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note describes passive pressure reduction devices for use with sensitive instruments. Two gas circuits are developed which not only provide a pressure reduction under flow demand

D. W. Guillaume; D. DeVries

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

VACUUM SEALING MEANS FOR LOW VACUUM PRESSURES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

S>A vacuum seal is designed in which the surface tension of a thin layer of liquid metal of low vapor pressure cooperates with adjacent surfaces to preclude passages of gases across pressure differentials as low as 10/sup -8/ mm Hg. Mating contiguous surfaces composed of copper, brass, stainless steel, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, glass, quartz, and/or synthetic mica are disposed to provide a maximum tolerance, D, expressed by 2 gamma /P/sub 1/, where gamma is the coefflcient of the surface tension of the metal sealant selected in dynes/cm/sub 2/. Means for heating the surfaces remotely is provided where temperatures drop below about 250 deg C. A sealant consisting of an alloy of gallium, indium, and tin, among other combinations tabulated, is disposed therebetween after treating the surfaces to improve wettability, as by ultrasonic vibrations, the surfaces and sealants being selected according to the anticipated experimental conditions of use. (AEC)

Milleron, N.

1962-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

228

Pressurized release of liquefied fuel gases (LNG and LPG). Topical report, May 1993-February 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report is an important contribution to the behavior of pressurized liquefied gases when accidentally released into the atmosphere. LNG vehicle fueling stations and LPG storage facilities operate at elevated pressures. Accidental releases could result in rainout and the formation of an aerosol in the vapor cloud. These factors must be considered when estimating the extent of the hazard zone of the vapor cloud using a heavier-than-air gas dispersion model such as DEGADIS (or its Windows equivalent DEGATEC). The DOS program PREL has been incorporated in the Windows program LFGRISK.

Atallah, S.; Janardhan, A.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates V. Mattioli and P. Basili Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction In recent years the Global Positioning System (GPS) has proved to be a reliable instrument for measuring precipitable water vapor (PWV) (Bevis et al. 1992), offering an independent source of information on water vapor when compared with microwave radiometers (MWRs), and/or radiosonde

230

Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents sampling data resulting from the June 8, 1995, sampling of SST 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-SX-106 using the vapor sampling system  

SciTech Connect

This document presents sampling data resulting from the March 24, 1995, sampling of SST 241-SX-106 using the vapor sampling system.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

232

Calculation of two-phase dispersed droplet-in-vapor flows including normal shock waves  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method for calculating quasi-one-dimensional, steady-state, two-phase dispersed droplet-in-vapor flow has been developed. The technique is applicable to both subsonic and supersonic single component flow in which normal shock waves may occur, and is the basis for a two-dimensional model. The flow is assumed to be inviscid except for droplet drag. Temperature and pressure equilibrium between phases is assumed, although this is not a requirement of the technique. Example calculations of flow in one-dimensional nozzles with and without normal shocks are given and compared with experimentally measured pressure profiles for both low quality and high quality two-phase steam/water flow.

Comfort, W.J.; Alger, T.W.; Giedt, W.H.; Crowe, C.T.

1976-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

233

RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR By SCOTT RUSSELL WAITUKAITIS A Thesis Submitted: #12;Abstract I describe a study of Faraday rotation in a hot lithium vapor. I begin by dis- cussing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 The Lithium Oven and Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Theoretical Framework

Cronin, Alex D.

234

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SCIENTIFIC REPORT SCIENTIFIC REPORT Title Page Project Title: New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration DOE Award Number: DE-FG36-04GO14327 Document Title: Final Scientific Report Period Covered by Report: September 30, 2004 to September 30, 2005 Name and Address of Recipient Organization: Magnetic Development, Inc., 68 Winterhill Road, Madison, CT 06443, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Contact Information: Mark J. Bergander, Ph.D., P.E., Principal Investigator, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Project Objective (as stated in the proposal): The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient

235

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Bulletin 627 Bulletin 627 BUREAU o b MINES FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS By Michael G. Zabetakis DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

236

Gas transport model for chemical vapor infiltration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A node-bond percolation model is presented for the gas permeability and pore surface area of the coarse porosity in woven fiber structures during densification by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). Model parameters include the number of nodes per unit volume and their spatial distribution, and the node and bond radii and their variability. These parameters relate directly to structural features of the weave. Some uncertainty exists in the proper partition of the porosity between ``node`` and ``bond`` and between intra-tow and inter-tow, although the total is constrained by the known fiber loading in the structure. Applied to cloth layup preforms the model gives good agreement with the limited number of available measurements.

Starr, T.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245 (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

How solvent vapors can improve steam floods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal recovery methods depend for their success on the viscosity reduction of heavy crude oils at high temperatures. The viscosity of a heavy oil can also be reduced if it is diluted with a low-viscosity solvent, such as one of the lighter hydrocarbons. It is not surprising that there has been considerable interest in combining the two methods. The process of injecting vaporized solvent with the steam for a gravity drainage type recovery is described here along with a description of the particular phase behavior of steam/solvent mixtures which is beneficial to the process. And computer simulations which compare steam-only and steam/solvent floods under Athabasca-type conditions are overviewed.

Vogel, J. [Vogel, (Jack), Seabrook, TX (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

None

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

239

Worker Protection from Chemical Vapors: Hanford Tank Farms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank head-spaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns, risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits (OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors. (authors)

Anderson, T.J. [CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. / Environmental Health, Richland, WA (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

The Effects of Water Vapor on the Oxidation of Nickel-Base ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

water vapor are compared at temperatures from 700C to 1100C. It is shown that water vapor affects the oxidation of such alloys in different ways. Water vapor...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Water Vapor Flux Measurements from Ground-Based Vertically Pointed Water Vapor Differential Absorption and Doppler Lidars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the first time, two lidar systems were used to measure the vertical water vapor flux in a convective boundary layer by means of eddy correlation. This was achieved by combining a water vapor differential absorption lidar and a heterodyne wind ...

Andreas Giez; Gerhard Ehret; Ronald L. Schwiesow; Kenneth J. Davis; Donald H. Lenschow

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · CoalTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL · Indiana Coal Forecasting · Under-Ground Coal Gasification · Benefits of Oxyfuel Combustion · Economic

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

243

Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Gloucester, MA); Marcucci, Rudolph V. (Danvers, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Mercury Vapor At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness useful...

245

EA-0881: Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

881: Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization and Supporting Activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington EA-0881: Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid...

246

Does EIA report water vapor emissions data? - FAQ - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Does EIA report water vapor emissions data? No. Water vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas, but most scientists believe that human activity has a very small ...

247

Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale water injection at The Geysers, California, hasgenerated substantial benefits in terms of sustaining reservoir pressuresand production rates, as well as improving steam composition by reducingthe content of non-condensible gases (NCGs). Two effects have beenrecognized and discussed in the literature as contributing to improvedsteam composition, (1) boiling of injectate provides a source of "clean"steam to production wells, and (2) pressurization effects induced byboiling of injected water reduce upflow of native steam with large NCGconcentrations from depth. In this paper we focus on a possibleadditional effect that could reduce NCGs in produced steam by dissolutionin a condensed aqueous phase.Boiling of injectate causes pressurizationeffects that will fairly rapidly migrate outward, away from the injectionpoint. Pressure increases will cause an increase in the saturation ofcondensed phase due to vapor adsorption on mineral surfaces, andcapillary condensation in small pores. NCGs will dissolve in theadditional condensed phase which, depending upon their solubility, mayreduce NCG concentrations in residual steam.We have analyzed thepartitioning of HCl between vapor and aqueous phases, and have performednumerical simulations of injection into superheated vapor zones. Oursimulations provide evidence that dissolution in the condensed phase canindeed reduce NCG concentrations in produced steam.

Pruess, Karsten; Spycher, Nicolas; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

2007-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

248

Simple microwave field imaging technique using hot atomic vapor cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate a simple technique for microwave field imaging using alkali atoms in a vapor cell. The microwave field to be measured drives Rabi oscillations on atomic hyperfine transitions, which are detected in a spatially resolved way using a laser beam and a CCD camera. Our vapor cell geometry enables single-shot recording of two-dimensional microwave field images with 350 {\\mu}m spatial resolution. Using microfabricated vapor cell arrays, a resolution of a few micrometers seems feasible. All vector components of the microwave magnetic field can be imaged. Our apparatus is simple and compact and does not require cryogenics or ultra-high vacuum.

Bhi, Pascal

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Simple microwave field imaging technique using hot atomic vapor cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate a simple technique for microwave field imaging using alkali atoms in a vapor cell. The microwave field to be measured drives Rabi oscillations on atomic hyperfine transitions, which are detected in a spatially resolved way using a laser beam and a camera. Our vapor cell geometry enables single-shot recording of two-dimensional microwave field images with 350 {\\mu}m spatial resolution. Using microfabricated vapor cell arrays, a resolution of a few micrometers seems feasible. All vector components of the microwave magnetic field can be imaged. Our apparatus is simple and compact and does not require cryogenics or ultra-high vacuum.

Pascal Bhi; Philipp Treutlein

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

250

Preliminary assessment of halogenated alkanes as vapor-phase tracers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New tracers are needed to evaluate the efficiency of injection strategies in vapor-dominated environments. One group of compounds that seems to meet the requirements for vapor-phase tracing are the halogenated alkanes (HCFCs). HCFCs are generally nontoxic, and extrapolation of tabulated thermodynamic data indicate that they will be thermally stable and nonreactive in a geothermal environment. The solubilities and stabilities of these compounds, which form several homologous series, vary according to the substituent ratios of fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen. Laboratory and field tests that will further define the suitability of HCFCs as vapor-phase tracers are under way.

Adams, Michael C.; Moore, Joseph N.; Hirtz, Paul

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kooten, 1987) Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location Medicine Lake Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown References Gerald K. Van Kooten (1987) Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Mercury_Vapor_At_Medicine_Lake_Area_(Kooten,_1987)&oldid=386431" Category: Exploration Activities What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation:

252

Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

253

Dynamics of nucleation in chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the evolution of layer morphology during the early stages of metal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto Si(100) via pyrolysis of Fe(CO){sub 5} below 250{degrees}C. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) shows that nuclei formation is limited by precursor dissociation which occurs on terraces, not at step sites. Also, the average size of clusters formed during CVD is larger than for Fe growth by evaporation (a random deposition process). Based on STM data and Monte Carlo simulations, we conclude that the CVD-growth morphology is affected by preferential dissociation of Fe(CO){sub 5} molecules at existing Fe clusters -- an autocatalytic effect. We demonstrate that nucleation kinetics can be used to control formation of metal nanostructures on chemically tailored surfaces. Reactive sites on Si (001) are first passivated by hydrogen. H atoms are locally removed by electron stimulated desorption using electrons emitted from the STM tip. Subsequent pyrolysis of Fe(CO){sub 5} leads to selective nucleation and growth of Fe films in the areas where H has been removed.

Mayer, T.M.; Adams, D.P.; Swartzentruber, B.S.; Chason, E.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, a source term model for estimating the rate of spreading and vaporization of LNG on land and sea is introduced. The model takes into account the composition changes of the boiling mixture, the varying thermodynamic properties due to preferential boiling within the mixture and the effect of boiling on conductive heat transfer. The heat, mass and momentum balance equations are derived for continuous and instantaneous spills and mixture thermodynamic effects are incorporated. A parameter sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effect of boiling heat transfer regimes, friction, thermal contact/roughness correction parameter and VLE/mixture thermodynamics on the pool spreading behavior. The aim was to provide a better understanding of these governing phenomena and their relative importance throughout the pool lifetime. The spread model was validated against available experimental data for pool spreading on concrete and sea. The model is solved using Matlab for two continuous and instantaneous spill scenarios and is validated against experimental data on cryogenic pool spreading found in literature.

Basha, Omar 1988-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Occupational Exposure Evaluation of Complex Vapor Mixtures at the Hanford Nuclear Waste Site, Washington Work-site Vapor Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Extensive sampling and analysis has been done over the years to characterize the radioactive and chemical properties of hazardous waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford site in eastern Washington State. The purpose of these analyses was to evaluate safety and environmental concerns related to tank stability. More recently, characterization studies have broadened to evaluate potential health hazards of chemical vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. The extensive sampling done during this campaign evaluated vapor concentrations of more than 100 different chemical at 70 sites in and around one section of the tank farms. Sampling identified only four vapors (ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitrosodimethylamine, and nitrosomethylethylamine) that were present above occupational exposure limits. These elevated concentrations were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors were measured above 10% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. This suggests that vapor controls can be focused on limited hazard zones around sources. (authors)

Anderson, T. J. [CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. / Environmental Health, P.O. Box 1000, S7-70, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

PRESSURE WELDING--BIBLIOGRAPHY  

SciTech Connect

A bibliography containing 117 references from the years 1944 to 1961 on pressure welding is presented. (N.W.R.)

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Speciation of inorganic and organometallic compounds in solid biological samples by thermal vaporization and plasma emission spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By means of thermal vaporization, inorganic, organic, and metallorganic species are separated and elemental emission in a microwave plasma is detected as a function of vaporization temperature. Solid samples of 250 mg or more are used to avoid problems with sample heterogeneity. The precision of characteristic appearance temperatures is +/-2/sup 0/C. The single electrode atmosphere pressure microwave plasma system is extremely tolerant to the introduction of water, organic solvents, and air. The measurement system contained a repetition wavelength scan device to allow background correction. The plasma temperature was 5500 K. The system was used to measure C, H, N, O, and Hg in orchard leaves and in tuna fish. 9 figures, 5 tables.

Hanamura, S.; Smith, B.W.; Winefordner, J.D.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Effects of Water Vapor on Oxidation Behavior of Ferritic Stainless Steels Under Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Exposure Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidation of ferritic stainless steels has been studied under solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect ''dual'' exposure conditions, i.e. simultaneous exposure to air on one side of the sample, and fuel (hydrogen) on the other. It was found that, under the dual exposures, the oxidation behavior of the stainless steels at the airside differed significantly from that observed during exposure to air at both sides. Increased water vapor partial pressure in the air at the airside further accelerated the anomalous oxidation, resulting in nucleation and growth of hematite in the scale that led to a localized attack. The accelerated oxidation and growth of the hematite nodules was a result of combined effects of hydrogen transport from the fuel side to the airside and the presence of increased water vapor.

Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Electro-Osmosis and Water Uptake in Polymer Electrolytes in Equilibrium with Water Vapor at Low Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measurements of the electro-osmotic drag coefficient for Nafion{reg_sign} and both random and multi-block co-polymer sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (BPSH) chemistries are reported for vapor equilibrated samples below 0 C. No significant change in the drag coefficient behavior for Nafion from that reported above 0 C is found. However BPSH is found to have a drag coefficient of 0.4. The implication of a drag coefficient less than unity in the interpretation of conduction mechanisms is discussed. Measurements of water sorption isotherms below 0 C are also presented. A significant reduction in the capacity of polymer electrolytes to store water below 0 C is found. This reduced water content is a result of the lower vapor pressure of ice compared to supercooled liquid.

Gallagher, K. G.; Pivovar, B. S.; Fuller, T. F.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Industrial Heat Pumps Using Solid/Vapor Working Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial heat pumps have the potential to reduce the operating costs of chemical and heat treating processes in the chemical, petroleum, paper, dairy, and many other industries. The cost development of fossil fuel and other prime energy require excellent efficiency/cost ratios and hardware designs adaptable to specific process needs, in order to compete with vapor re-compression recovery systems. The state-of-the-art heat pump equipment employing liquid/vapor working fluids fulfills the requirements only in some applications. The employment of solid/vapor complex compounds leads to more cost effective heat recovery, which is due to simple hardware with no moving parts, extraordinary low maintenance effort, excellent temperature lifts avoiding the need of two-stage systems, and low first cost. This paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of solid/vapor working media.

Rockenfeller, U.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Broadband Water Vapor Transmission Functions for Atmospheric IR Flux Computations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transmission functions associated with water vapor molecular line and e-type absorption in the IR spectral regions are presented in the form of simple analytical functions and small tables, from which atmospheric IR fluxes and cooling rates can ...

Ming-Dah Chou

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Characterization of Advanced Avalanche Photodiodes for Water Vapor Lidar Receivers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of advanced differential absorption lidar (DIAL) receivers is very important to increase the accuracy of atmospheric water vapor measurements. A major component of such receivers is the optical detector. In the near-infrared wavelength range ...

Refaat Tamer F.; Halama Gary E.; DeYoung Russell J.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsArctic Winter Water Vapor IOP govCampaignsArctic Winter Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP 2004.03.09 - 2004.04.09 Lead Scientist : Ed Westwater Data Availability http://www.etl.noaa.gov/programs/2004/wviop/data will contain quicklooks of all of the data. For data sets, see below. Summary During the IOP, the Ground-based Scanning Radiometer of NOAA/ETL, and the ARM MicroWave Radiometer and Microwave Profiler, yielded excellent data over a range of conditions. In all, angular-scanned and calibrated radiometric data from 22.345 to 380 GHz were taken. The Precipitable Water Vapor varied about an order of magnitude from 1 to 10 mm, and surface temperatures varied from about -10 to -40 deg. Celcius. Vaisala RS90

264

Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) D. C. Tobin, H. E. Revercomb, and D. D. Turner University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Introduction An overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) is given. This field experiment was conducted during November-December 2000 near the central ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in north central Oklahoma, and was sponsored jointly by the ARM, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE), and the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) programs. Its primary goal was to collect accurate measurements of upper-level (~8 to 12 km) water vapor near the ground-based ARM site. These data are being used to determine the accuracy of measurements that are

265

Intercomparison of Four Commercial Analyzers for Water Vapor Isotope Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ?18O and ?D of atmospheric water vapor are important tracers in hydrological and ecological studies. Isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS) provides an in situ technology for measuring ?18O and ?D in ambient conditions. An intercomparison ...

Xue-Fa Wen; Xuhui Lee; Xiao-Min Sun; Jian-Lin Wang; Ya-Kun Tang; Sheng-Gong Li; Gui-Rui Yu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Moisture Vertical Structure, Column Water Vapor, and Tropical Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical structure of the relationship between water vapor and precipitation is analyzed in 5 yr of radiosonde and precipitation gauge data from the Nauru Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site. The first vertical principal component of ...

Christopher E. Holloway; J. David Neelin

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured in forms analogous to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place restrictive working fluid requirements on others, but two thermodynamically feasible systems have significant potential advantage over conventional technology. An electric drive reactive heat pump can use smaller heat exchangers and compressor than a vapor-compression machine, and have more flexible operating characteristics. A waste heat driven heat pump (temperature amplifier) using liquid-vapor chemical reactions- can operate with higher coefficient of performance and smaller heat exchangers than an absorption temperature amplifying heat pump. Higher temperatures and larger temperature lifts should also be possible.

Kirol, L.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor from UARS MLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Initial results of upper-tropospheric water vapor obtained from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented. MLS is less affected by clouds than infrared or visible techniques, and the UARS ...

W. G. Read; J. W. Waters; D. A. Flower; L. Froidevaux; R. F. Jarnot; D. L. Hartmann; R. S. Harwood; R. B. Rood

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Ice Growth from the Vapor at ?5C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are summarized and illustrated from a long series of experiments on ice growth from the vapor, nearly all in a very small range of conditions: ?5C, slightly below liquid water saturation, with minimal environmental gradients and no ...

Charles A. Knight

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Solar Radiation Absorption due to Water Vapor: Advanced Broadband Parameterizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate parameterizations for calculating solar radiation absorption in the atmospheric column due to water vapor lines and continuum are proposed for use in broadband shortwave radiative transfer codes. The error in the absorption values is ...

Tatiana A. Tarasova; Boris A. Fomin

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Water vapor and the dynamics of climate changes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water vapor is not only Earth's dominant greenhouse gas. Through the release of latent heat when it condenses, it also plays an active role in dynamic processes that shape the global circulation of the atmosphere and thus ...

Schneider, Tapio

272

Heat transfer during film condensation of a liquid metal vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The object of this investigation is to resolve the discrepancy between theory and experiment for the case of heat transfer durirnfilm condensation of liquid metal vapors. Experiments by previous investigators have yielded ...

Sukhatme, S. P.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Heat transfer during film condensation of potassium vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The object of this work is to investigate theoretically and experimentally the following two phases of heat transfer during condensation of potassium vapore, a. Heat transfer during film condensation of pure saturated ...

Kroger, Detlev Gustav

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Photoinitiated chemical vapor depostion [sic] : mechanism and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition (piCVD) is developed as a simple, solventless, and rapid method for the deposition of swellable hydrogels and functional hydrogel copolymers. Mechanistic experiments show that piCVD ...

Baxamusa, Salmaan Husain

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon and sacrificial polymer thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) produced films for a wide array of applications from a variety of organosilicon and organic precursors. The structure and properties of thin films were controlled by varying processing ...

Casserly, Thomas Bryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

The Arm Program's Water Vapor Intensive Observation Periods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of water vapor intensive observation periods (WVIOPs) were conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Oklahoma between 1996 and 2000. The goals of these WVIOPs are to characterize the accuracy of the operational ...

H. E. Revercomb; D. D. Turner; D. C. Tobin; R. O. Knuteson; W. F. Feltz; J. Barnard; J. Bsenberg; S. Clough; D. Cook; R. Ferrare; J. Goldsmith; S. Gutman; R. Halthore; B. Lesht; J. Liljegren; H. Linn; J. Michalsky; V. Morris; W. Porch; S. Richardson; B. Schmid; M. Splitt; T. Van Hove; E. Westwater; D. Whiteman

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Column Water Vapor Content in Clear and Cloudy Skies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With radiosonde data from 15 Northern Hemisphere stations, surface-to-400-mb column water vapor is computed from daytime soundings for 19881990. On the basis of simultaneous surface visual cloud observations, the data are categorized according ...

Dian J. Gaffen; William P. Elliott

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

Mao, Yu, 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Kawaihae Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The soil geochemistry yielded quite complex patterns of mercury concentrations and radonemanation rates within the survey area (Cox and Cuff, 1981c). Mercury concentrations (Fig. 38) showed a general minimum along the Kawaihae-Waimea roads and a broad trend of increasing mercury concentrations toward both the north and south. There is no correlation apparent between the mercury patterns and either the resistivity sounding data or the surface geology in the area. The radon emanometry data (Fig.

280

Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Lualualei Valley Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Soil mercury and radon emanation surveys were performed over much of the accessible surface of Lualualei Valley (Cox and Thomas, 1979). The results of these surveys (Figs 7 and 8) delineated several areas in which soil mercury concentrations or radon emanation rates were substantially above normal background values. Some of these areas were apparently coincident with the mapped fracture systems associated with the caldera boundaries.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Raman Lidar Profiling of Tropospheric Water Vapor over Kangerlussuaq, Greenland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new measurement capability has been implemented in the Arctic Lidar Technology (ARCLITE) system at the Sondrestrom upper-atmosphere research facility near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland (67.0N, 50.9W), enabling estimates of atmospheric water vapor ...

Ryan Reynolds Neely III; Jeffrey P. Thayer

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Lidar Monitoring of the Water Vapor Cycle in the Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The water vapor mixing ratio distribution in the lower and middle troposphere has been continuously monitored, using an active lidar system. The methodology of the differential absorption laser method used for these measurements is summarized and ...

C. Cahen; G. Megie; P. Flamant

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers  

SciTech Connect

An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant reduction in distillation tower energy requirements can be achieved by mechanical vapor recompression. Three design approaches for heating a distillation tower reboiler by mechanical vapor recompression are presented. The advantages of using a screw compressor are discussed in detail. An example of a xylene extraction tower is sited, illustrating the economic attractiveness in which a simple payback period of less than two years is achievable.

Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

NETL: Oxy-Fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (Oxy-PFBC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-Fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (Oxy-PFBC) Oxy-Fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (Oxy-PFBC) Project No.: DE-FE0009448 Oxy-PFBC Layout. Oxy-PFBC Layout. Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is developing an oxy-fired pressurized fluidized bed combustor (Oxy-PFBC). Pressurized combustion with oxygen enables high efficiency through staged combustion, which results in reduced oxygen use, as well as through recovery of high quality heat from exhaust water vapor. In addition, the process can result in reduced costs for utilization or storage of CO2 because the CO2 is available at increased pressure, reducing compression requirements. Overall, pressurized fluidized bed combustion can result in electricity production from coal with near-zero emissions. PWR will be testing a novel process for pressurized oxy-combustion in a

286

Pressure reducing regulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

287

Effect of ethanol denaturant on gasoline RVP (revised). Topical report, June 21, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 require further reduction in gasoline Reid vapor pressure (RVP) to reduce pollution. This research focused on characterizing the effect of ethanol denaturant and water on the RVP of the final ethanol-blended fuel. Anectdotal stories tell of up to a 0.5-psi effect of ethanol denaturant on the RVP of the finished ethanol-blended gasoline. Additionally, earlier Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) data indicated water could have a significant effect on the RVP. It was necessary to scientifically verify these effects using acceptable laboratory protocols.

Wu, L.; Timpe, R.C.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

Maria Cadeddu

289

Low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxide films using disilane and nitrous oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: disilane, low temperature, nitrous oxide, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, silicon oxide

Juho Song; G. S. Lee; P. K. Ajmera

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

High efficiency vapor-fed AMTEC system for direct conversion. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) is a high temperature, high efficiency system for converting thermal to electrical energy, with no moving parts. It is based on the unique properties of {beta}{double_prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE), which is an excellent conductor of sodium ions, but an extremely poor conductor of electrons. When the inside of the BASE is maintained at a higher temperature and pressure, a concentration gradient is created across the BASE. Electrons and sodium atoms cannot pass through the BASE. However, the sodium atoms are ionized, and the sodium ions move through the BASE to the lower potential (temperature) region. The electrons travel externally to the AMTEC cell, providing power. There are a number of potential advantages to a wick-pumped, vapor-fed AMTEC system when compared with other designs. A wick-pumped system uses capillary forces to passively return liquid to the evaporator, and to distribute the liquid in the evaporator. Since the fluid return is self-regulating, multiple BASE tubes can use a single remote condenser, potentially improving efficiency in advanced AMTEC designs. Since the system is vapor-fed, sodium vapor is supplied at a uniform temperature and flux to the BASE tube, even with non-uniform heat fluxes and temperatures at the evaporator. The primary objective of the Phase 2 program was to develop wick-pumped AMTEC cells. During the program, procedures to fabricate wicks with smaller pore sizes were developed, to allow operation of an AMTEC cell at 800 C. A revised design was made for a High-Temperature, Wick-Fed AMTEC cell. In addition to the smaller wick pore size, several other changes were made to increase the cell efficiency: (1) internal artery return of condensate; (2) high temperature electrical feedthrough; and (3) separate heat pipe for providing heat to the BASE.

Anderson, W.G.; Bland, J.J.

1997-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

291

The effect of the operation modes of a gas discharge low-pressure amalgam lamp on the intensity of generation of 185 nm UV vacuum radiation  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the discharge current, mercury vapor pressure, and the inert gas pressure on the intensity and efficiency of the 185 nm line generation are considered. The spectra of the UV radiation (vacuum ultraviolet) transmission by protective coatings from the oxides of rare earth metals and aluminum are investigated.

Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute of High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Drozdov, L. A., E-mail: lit@npo.lit.ru; Kostyuchenko, S. V.; Sokolov, D. V. [ZAO LIT (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, N. N.; Sobur, D. A., E-mail: soburda@gmail.com [Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

High-pressure binary phase equilibria of aromatic hydrocarbons with CO/sub 2/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 6/  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria of several binary systems containing aromatic hydrocarbons as one component and supercritical carbon dioxide or ethane as the other component measured by using a dynamic system in which both vapor and liquid phases were circulated. The aromatic hydrocarbons that were used in this study are anisole, benzaldehyde, tetralin, and 1-methylnaphthalene. The phase equilibria of binary systems containing carbon dioxide were measured at two different temperatures, 343 and 373 K, and pressures up to 22 MPa. For ethane binary systems, equilibrium measurements were made at 373 K and pressures up to 12 MPa. In addition to measuring temperature, pressure, and phase compositions, the vapor- and liquid-phase densities also were determined for both carbon dioxide and ethane binary systems.

Kim, C.H.; Clark, A.B.; Vimalchand, P.; Donohue, M.D. (The Johns Hopkins Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Baltimore, MD (US))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Chemical Vapor Deposition of Fluoroalkylsilane Monolayer Films for Adhesion Control in Microelectromechanical Systems  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new process for applying a hydrophobic, low adhesion energy coating to microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices. Monolayer films are synthesized from tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyltrichlorosilane (FOTS) and water vapor in a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition process at room temperature. Film thickness is self-limiting by virtue of the inability of precursors to stick to the fluorocarbon surface of the film once it has formed. We have measured film densities of {approx}3 molecules nm{sup 2} and film thickness of {approx}1 nm. Films are hydrophobic, with a water contact angle >110{sup o}. We have also incorporated an in-situ downstream microwave plasma cleaning process, which provides a clean, reproducible oxide surface prior to film deposition. Adhesion tests on coated and uncoated MEMS test structures demonstrate superior performance of the FOTS coatings. Cleaned, uncoated cantilever beam structures exhibit high adhesion energies in a high humidity environment. An adhesion energy of 100 mJ m{sup -2} is observed after exposure to >90% relative humidity. Fluoroalkylsilane coated beams exhibit negligible adhesion at low humidity and {<=} 20 {micro}J m{sup -2} adhesion energy at >90% relative humidity. No obvious film degradation was observed for films exposed to >90% relative humidity at room temperature for >24 hr.

MAYER,THOMAS M.; DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; SHINN,NEAL D.; CLEWS,PEGGY J.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.

2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

294

Compound nuclear decay and the liquid to vapor phase transition: a physical picture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analyses of multifragmentation in terms of the Fisher droplet model (FDM) and the associated construction of a nuclear phase diagram bring forth the problem of the actual existence of the nuclear vapor phase and the meaning of its associated pressure. We present here a physical picture of fragment production from excited nuclei that solves this problem and establishes the relationship between the FDM and the standard compound nucleus decay rate for rare particles emitted in first-chance decay. The compound thermal emission picture is formally equivalent to a FDM-like equilibrium description and avoids the problem of the vapor while also explaining the observation of Boltzmann-like distribution of emission times. In this picture a simple Fermi gas thermometric relation is naturally justified and verified in the fragment yields and time scales. Low energy compound nucleus fragment yields scale according to the FDM and lead to an estimate of the infinite symmetric nuclear matter critical temperature between 18 and 27 MeV depending on the choice of the surface energy coefficient of nuclear matter.

L. G. Moretto; J. B. Elliott; L. Phair

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

295

A thermokinetic model describing the vaporization behavior of U[sub x]Zr[sub 1-x]C[sub 1-y] in hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the thermodynamics and kinetics of the corrosion of U[sub x]Zr[sub 1-x]C[sub 1-y] in hydrogen gas. It describes how corrosion rates are influenced by variables such as pressure, temperature, and gas flow rate. A model is developed which agrees with experimental steady-state corrosion rates at 1 atm between 2670 and 3100 K. It is shown that under steady-state conditions the corrosion flux is rate limited by the vapor phase transport of Zr(g) away from the solid surface to the bulk gas stream where the partial pressure of Zr(g) is determined by the congruently vaporizing surface composition. Extrapolation of the model to higher pressures indicates that Zr(g) transport should also be rate limiting at higher pressures but the corrosion rate should decrease slightly with increased hydrogen pressure due to reduced gaseous diffusion rates. The model predicts that the corrosion rate will increase as the square root of gas velocity for a given temperature and pressure. Calculations demonstrating the effects of gas velocity are in agreement with experimental studies.

Butt, D.P.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

A thermokinetic model describing the vaporization behavior of U{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}C{sub 1-y} in hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the thermodynamics and kinetics of the corrosion of U{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}C{sub 1-y} in hydrogen gas. It describes how corrosion rates are influenced by variables such as pressure, temperature, and gas flow rate. A model is developed which agrees with experimental steady-state corrosion rates at 1 atm between 2670 and 3100 K. It is shown that under steady-state conditions the corrosion flux is rate limited by the vapor phase transport of Zr(g) away from the solid surface to the bulk gas stream where the partial pressure of Zr(g) is determined by the congruently vaporizing surface composition. Extrapolation of the model to higher pressures indicates that Zr(g) transport should also be rate limiting at higher pressures but the corrosion rate should decrease slightly with increased hydrogen pressure due to reduced gaseous diffusion rates. The model predicts that the corrosion rate will increase as the square root of gas velocity for a given temperature and pressure. Calculations demonstrating the effects of gas velocity are in agreement with experimental studies.

Butt, D.P

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Capillary Pressure and Contact Line Force on a Soft Solid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The surface free energy, or surface tension, of a liquid interface gives rise to a pressure jump when the interface is curved. Here we show that a similar capillary pressure arises at the interface of soft solids. We present experimental evidence that immersion of a thin elastomeric wire into a liquid induces a substantial elastic compression due to the solid capillary pressure at the bottom. We quantitatively determine the effective surface tension from the elastic displacement field, and find a value comparable to the liquid-vapor surface tension. Most importantly, these results also reveal the way the liquid pulls on the solid close to the contact line: the capillary force is not oriented along the liquid-air interface, nor perpendicularly to the solid surface, as previously hypothesized, but towards the interior of the liquid.

Marchand, Antonin; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Andreotti, Bruno

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Capillary Pressure and Contact Line Force on a Soft Solid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The surface free energy, or surface tension, of a liquid interface gives rise to a pressure jump when the interface is curved. Here we show that a similar capillary pressure arises at the interface of soft solids. We present experimental evidence that immersion of a thin elastomeric wire into a liquid induces a substantial elastic compression due to the solid capillary pressure at the bottom. We quantitatively determine the effective surface tension from the elastic displacement field, and find a value comparable to the liquid-vapor surface tension. Most importantly, these results also reveal the way the liquid pulls on the solid close to the contact line: the capillary force is not oriented along the liquid-air interface, nor perpendicularly to the solid surface, as previously hypothesized, but towards the interior of the liquid.

Antonin Marchand; Siddhartha Das; Jacco H. Snoeijer; Bruno Andreotti

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

299

Pressurized fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Pressurized fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

Isaksson, J.

1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

CC Pressure Test  

SciTech Connect

The inner vessel heads including bypass and beam tubes had just been welded into place and dye penetrant checked. The vacuum heads were not on at this time but the vacuum shell was on covering the piping penetrating into the inner vessel. Signal boxes with all feed through boards, the instrumentation box, and high voltage boxes were all installed with their pump outs capped. All 1/4-inch instrumentation lines were terminated at their respective shutoff valves. All vacuum piping used for pumping down the inner vessel was isolated using o-ring sealed blind flanges. PV215A (VAT Series 12), the 4-inch VRC gate valve isolating the cyropump, and the rupture disk had to be removed and replaced with blind flanges before pressurizing due to their pressure limitations. Stresses in plates used as blind flanges were checked using Code calcualtions. Before the CC test, vacuum style blanks and clamps were hydrostatically pressure tested to 150% of the maximum test pressure, 60 psig. The Code inspector and Research Division Safety had all given their approval to the test pressure and procedure prior to filling the vessel with argon. The test was a major success. Based on the lack of any distinguishable pressure drop indicated on the pressure gages, the vessel appeared to be structurally sound throughout the duration of the test (approx. 3 hrs.). A major leak in the instrumentation tubing was discovered at half of the maximum test pressure and was quickly isolated by crimping and capping with a compression fitting. There were some slight deviations in the actual procedure used. The 44 psig relief valve located just outside the cleanroom had to be capped until the pressure in the vessel indicated 38 psi. This was to allow higher supply pressures and hence, higher flows through the pressurizing line. Also, in order to get pressure readings at the cryostat without exposing any personnel to the potentially dangerous stored energy near the maximum test pressure, a camera was installed at the top of the vessel to view the indicator mounted there. The monitor was viewed at the ante room adjacent to the cleanroom. The holding pressure of 32 psig (4/5 of the maximum test pressure) was only maintained for about 20 minutes instead of the half hour recommendation in the procedure. We felt that this was sufficient time to Snoop test and perform the pressure drop test. After the test was completed, the inspector for CBI Na-Con and the Research Divison Safety Officer signed all of required documentation.

Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

1990-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

302

Hydrostatic Pressure Retainment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??There is a great deal of attention being concentrated on reducing the weight of pressure vessels and fuel/oxidizer tanks (tankage) by 10% to 20%. Most (more)

Setlock, Robert J., Jr.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Grid orientation effects in the simulation of cold water injection into depleted vapor zones  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A considerable body of field experience with injection has been accumulated at Larderello, Italy and The Geysers, California; the results have been mixed. There are well documented cases where injection has increased flow rates of nearby wells. Return of injected fluid as steam from production wells has been observed directly through chemical and isotopic changes of produced fluids (Giovannoni et al., 1981; Nuti et al., 1981). In other cases injection has caused thermal interference and has degraded the temperature and pressure of production wells. Water injection into depleted vapor zones gives rise to complex two-phase fluid flow and heat transfer processes with phase change. These are further complicated by the fractured-porous nature of the reservoir rocks. An optimization of injection design and operating practice is desirable; this requires realistic and robust mathematical modeling capabilities.

Pruess, K.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Fabrication of commercial-scale fiber-reinforced hot-gas filters by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Goal was to fabricate a filter for removing particulates from hot gases; principal applications would be in advanced utility processes such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion or coal gasification combined cycle systems. Filters were made in two steps: make a ceramic fiber preform and coat it with SiC by chemical vapor infiltration (CVD). The most promising construction was felt/filament wound. Light, tough ceramic composite filters can be made; reinforcement by continuous fibers is needed to avoid brittleness. Direct metal to filter contact does not damage the top which simplifies installation. However, much of the filter surface of felt/filament wound structures is closed over by the CVD coating, and the surface is rough and subject to delamination. Recommendations are given for improving the filters.

White, L.R. [Minnesota Mining and Mfg. Co., St. Paul, MN (United States). New Products Dept.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A filter for enriching the .sup.196 Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The .sup.196 Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Gloucestor, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A filter is described for enriching the [sup 196]Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The [sup 196]Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is, less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter. 9 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1989-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

307

Dynamic modeling of plasma-vapor interactions during plasma disruptions  

SciTech Connect

Intense deposition of energy in short times on fusion reactor components during a plasma disruption may cause severe surface erosion due to ablation of these components. The exact amount of the eroded material is very important to the reactor design and its lifetime. During the plasma deposition, the vaporized wall material will interact with the incoming plasma particles and may shield the rest of the wall from damage. The vapor shielding may then prolong the lifetime of these components and increase the reactor duty cycle. To correctly evaluate the impact of vapor shielding effect a comprehensive model is developed. In this model the dynamic slowing down of the plasma particles, both ions and electrons, with the eroded wall material is established. Different interaction processes between the plasma particles and the ablated material is included. The generated photons radiation source and the transport of this radiation through the vapor to the wall is modeled. Recent experimental data on disruptions is analyzed and compared with model predictions. Vapor shielding may be effective in reducing the overall erosion rate for certain plasma disruption parameters and conditions.

Hassanein, A.; Ehst, D.A.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Porter, John D. (Berkeley, CA); Yoshiyama, James M. (Fremont, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fines, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fines are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized materials then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal. 2 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1984-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

310

Downhole pressure, temperature and flowrate measurements in steam wells at the Geysers field  

SciTech Connect

Recently developed pressure-temperature-spinner (PTS) tools are used to collect reliable downhole measurements in geothermal systems, such as at The Geysers. PTS surveys in several flowing Geysers steam wells were used to quantify steam entry location and magnitude, wellbore heat loss, pressure drop due to friction, thermodynamic properties of the steam, and maximum rock temperature. Interwell cross flow/interference was identified in one well. Finally, a single-phase saturated steam wellbore model used to compare calculated to measured downhole values, was found to adequately predict the flowing pressure versus depth curves in vapor filled holes.

Enedy, Kathleen L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Miniaturized pressurization system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to pressurization systems and liquid rocket propulsion systems, and particularly to those used to attitude control or maneuvering of small space vehicles or airborne vehicles where the requirement for thrust is intermittent rather than continuous, and must be available rapidly upon demand. This invention also relates to increasing performance of such propulsion systems, by way of eliminating inert mass from the propulsion system. The invention uses a fluid stored at a low pressure and provides the fluid at a high pressure. The invention allows the low pressure fluid to flow to a fluid bore of a differential pump and from the pump to a fluid pressure regulator. After flowing through the regulator the fluid is converted to a gas which is directed to a gas bore of the differential pump. By controlling the flow of gas entering and being exhausted from the gas bore, the invention provides pressure to the fluid. By setting the regulator, the high pressure fluid can be set at predetermined values. Because the invention only needs a low pressure fluid, the inventive apparatus has a low mass, and therefore would be useful in rocket propulsion systems.

Whitehead, J.C.; Swink, D.G.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

312

PRESSURE ACTIVATED SEALANT TECHNOLOGY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop new, efficient, cost effective methods of internally sealing natural gas pipeline leaks through the application of differential pressure activated sealants. In researching the current state of the art for gas pipeline sealing technologies we concluded that if the project was successful, it appeared that pressure activated sealant technology would provide a cost effective alternative to existing pipeline repair technology. From our analysis of current field data for a 13 year period from 1985 to 1997 we were able to identify 205 leaks that were candidates for pressure activated sealant technology, affirming that pressure activated sealant technology is a viable option to traditional external leak repairs. The data collected included types of defects, areas of defects, pipe sizes and materials, incident and operating pressures, ability of pipeline to be pigged and corrosion states. This data, and subsequent analysis, was utilized as a basis for constructing applicable sealant test modeling.

Michael A. Romano

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Electro-Osmosis and Water Uptake in Polymer Electrolytes in Equilibrium with Water Vapor at Low Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water uptake and electro-osmosis are investigated to improve the understanding and aid the modeling of water transport in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) below 0 C. Measurements of water sorption isotherms show a significant reduction in the water capacity of polymer electrolytes below 0 C. This reduced water content is attributed to the lower vapor pressure of ice compared to supercooled liquid water. At -25 C, 1100 equivalent weight Nafion in equilibrium with vapor over ice has 8 moles of water per sulfonic acid group. Measurements of the electro-osmotic drag coefficient for Nafion and both random and multiblock copolymer sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (BPSH) chemistries are reported for vapor equilibrated samples below 0 C. The electro-osmotic drag coefficient of BPSH chemistries is found to be {approx}0.4, and that of Nafion is {approx}1. No significant temperature effect on the drag coefficient is found. The implication of an electro-osmotic drag coefficient less than unity is discussed in terms of proton conduction mechanisms. Simulations of the ohmically limited current below 0 C show that a reduced water uptake below 0 C results in a significant decrease in PEMFC performance.

Gallagher, K. G.; Pivovar, B. S.; Fuller, T. F.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM Observations Cady-Pereira, Karen Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Shephard, Mark Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Clough, Shepard Atmospheric and Environmental Research Mlawer, Eli Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc. Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Category: Atmospheric State and Surface The primary objective of the TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) instrument on the Aura spacecraft is the retrieval of trace gases, especially water vapor and ozone. The TES retrievals extremely useful for global monitoring of the atmospheric state, but they must be validated. The ARM sites are well instrumented and provide continuous measurements, which

315

Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption technique to retrieve columnar water vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differential absorption techniques are suitable to retrieve the total column water vapor contents from imaging spectroscopy data. A technique called Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption (APDA) is derived directly from simplified radiative transfer equations. It combines a partial atmospheric correction with a differential absorption technique. The atmospheric path radiance term is iteratively corrected during the retrieval of water vapor. This improves the results especially over low background albedos. The error of the method for various ground reflectance spectra is below 7% for most of the spectra. The channel combinations for two test cases are then defined, using a quantitative procedure, which is based on MODTRAN simulations and the image itself. An error analysis indicates that the influence of aerosols and channel calibration is minimal. The APDA technique is then applied to two AVIRIS images acquired in 1991 and 1995. The accuracy of the measured water vapor columns is within a range of {+-}5% compared to ground truth radiosonde data.

Schlaepfer, D.; Itten, K.I. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography; Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Interactions between Liquid-Wall Vapor and Edge Plasmas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of liquid walls for fusion reactors could help solve problems associated with material erosion from high plasma heat-loads and neutronic activation of structures. A key issue analyzed here is the influx of impurity ions to the core plasma from the vapor of liquid side-walls. Numerical 2D transport simulations are performed for a slab geometry which approximates the edge region of a reactor-size tokamak. Both lithium vapor (from Li or SnLi walls) and fluorine vapor (from Flibe walls) are considered for hydrogen edge-plasmas in the high- and low-recycling regimes. It is found that the minimum influx is from lithium with a low-recycling hydrogen plasma, and the maximum influx occurs for fluorine with a high-recycling hydrogen plasma.

Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E

2000-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

317

Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although it is known that incorporating an intermediate reboiler or reflux condenser in a distillation column will improve column efficiency by 15 to 100%, there has been little use of this technique to date." Intermediate vapor compression heat pumping was recently introduced as one practical means of achieving this benefit. Introduced in this paper are two new means having added advantages over compression: intermediate vapor expansion heat pumping, and nested enrichment cascades. In both cases the efficiency advantage is obtained without requiring import of shaft work. With intermediate vapor expansion, the expander is more efficient and less costly than the compressor which achieves comparable improvement in distillation efficiency. With the "nested enrichment" technique, the increased efficiency is obtained without requiring either compressors or expanders.

Erickson, D. C.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Davis, W. Jr. (Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, TN (USA)); Cochran, H.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Pressurizer tank upper support  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

320

Pressurizer tank upper support  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90.degree. intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure.

Baker, Tod H. (O' Hara Township, Allegheny County, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Township, Armstrong County, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Variable pressure supercritical Rankine cycle for integrated natural gas and power production from the geopressured geothermal resource  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A small-scale power plant cycle that utilizes both a variable pressure vaporizer (heater) and a floating pressure (and temperature) air-cooled condenser is described. Further, it defends this choice on the basis of classical thermodynamics and minimum capital cost by supporting these conclusions with actual comparative examples. The application suggested is for the geopressured geothermal resource. The arguments cited in this application apply to any process (petrochemical, nuclear, etc.) involving waste heat recovery.

Goldsberry, F.L.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program. [Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the finding and recommendations on the audit of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program. The status of the program was assessed to determine whether the Department was achieving objectives stated in its January 1990 Plan for the Demonstration, Transition and Deployment of AVLIS Technology. Through Fiscal Year 1991, the Department had spent about $1.1 billion to develop AVLIS technology. The January 1990 plan provided for AVLIS to be far enough along by September to enable the Department to make a determination of the technical and economic feasibility of deployment. However, the milestones needed to support that determination were not met. An estimated $550 million would be needed to complete AVLIS engineering development and related testing prior to deployment. The earliest possible deployment date has slipped to beyond the year 2000. It is recommended that the Department reassess the requirement for AVLIS in light of program delays and changes that have taken place in the enrichment market since January 1990. Following the reassessment, a decision should be made to either fully support and promote the actions needed to complete AVLIS development or discontinue support for the program entirely. Management's position is that the Department will successfully complete the AVLIS technology demonstration and that the program should continue until it can be transferred to a Government corporation. Although the auditors recognize that AVLIS may be transferred, there are enough technical and financial uncertainties that a thorough assessment is warranted.

Not Available

1992-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

324

Effect of pressure on the phase behavior and structure of water confined between nanoscale hydrophobic and hydrophilic plates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.1 GPa, the system crystallizes into a bilayer ice. A P-d phase diagram showing the vapor, liquid, and bilayer ice phases is proposed. When water is confined by hydrophilic hydroxylated silica platesEffect of pressure on the phase behavior and structure of water confined between nanoscale

325

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pressure pressure ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

326

Giraffe blood pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

thing that happens to you when you raise or lower your head. The arteries serving your heart (carotids) constrict when you lower your head, and that lowers the blood pressure...

327

Capacitance pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

Eaton, William P. (Tijeras, NM); Staple, Bevan D. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, James H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Critical CRBR core pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conditions are detailed under which gas pressure will cause or initiate failure in the structural containment of the fuel core. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant is the prototype structure. Two general classes of problems have been studied, representing two entirely distinct configurations of containment failure. The first model determines the minimum pressure to lift a portion or the entire core from its containment. The second model estimates the critical pressure above which the fuel rods interior to the hexagonal fuel can warp, leading to blockage of the gas passages. Such blockage might cause further buildup of the gas pressure to a level causing the failure of the fuel rod containment in the hexagonal fuel container.

Ju, F.D.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

Grossman, M.W.

1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

331

Pressure multiplying dispenser  

SciTech Connect

A pressure multiplying dispenser for delivering fluid, preferably as a spray to the atmosphere, from a source of fluid, preferably a spray bottle, is described. The dispenser includes in combination a hollow cylindrical member, a nozzle delivery tube within the cylindrical member and a hollow actuator piston slideable within the cylindrical member which acts to multiply the pressure of a squeeze applied to the spray bottle.

DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA); Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Vapor-Liquid Partitioning of Sulfuric Acid and Ammonium Sulfate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality of water and steam is central to ensuring power plant component availability and reliability. A key part of developing operating cycle chemistry guidelines is an understanding of the impurity distribution between water and steam. This study focused on the partitioning of sulfuric acid and ammonium bisulfate between the liquid and vapor phases.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

333

Computation of Infrared Cooling Rates in the Water Vapor Bands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast but accurate method for calculating the infrared radiative terms due to water vapor has been developed. It makes use of the behavior in the far wings of absorption lines to scale transmission along an inhomogencous path to an equivalent ...

Ming Dah Chou; Albert Arking

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Probing Hurricanes with Stable Isotopes of Rain and Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain and water vapor were collected during flights in Hurricanes Olivia (1994), Opal (1995), Marilyn (1995), and Hortense (1995) and analyzed for their stable isotopic concentrations, or ratios, H218O:H2O and HDO:H2O. The spatial patterns and ...

Stanley Gedzelman; James Lawrence; John Gamache; Michael Black; Edward Hindman; Robert Black; Jason Dunion; Hugh Willoughby; Xiaoping Zhang

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

ECN Pressure Test  

SciTech Connect

This note describes: the rationale for the test pressure of the inner ECN cryostat vessel, the equipment to be used in this test, the test procedure, the status of the vessel prior to the test, the actual test results, and a schematic diagram of the testing set up and the pressure testing permit. The test, performed in the evening of July 17, 1991, was a major success. Based on a neglible pressure drop indicated on the pressure gages (1/4 psi), the vessel appeared to be structurally sound throughout the duration of the test (approx. 1.5 hrs.). No pressure increases were observed on the indicators looking at the beam tube bellows volumes. There was no indication of bubbles form the soap test on the welds and most of the fittings that were checked. There were some slight deviations in the actual procedure used. The UO filter was removed after the vessel had bled down to about 18 psig in order to speed up that aspect of the test. The rationale was that the higher velocity gas had already passed through at the higher pressures and there was no visible traces of the black uo particles. The rate of 4 psi/10 minutes seemed incredibly slow and often that time was reduced to just over half that rate. The testing personnel was allowed to stay in the pit throughout the duration of the test; this was a slight relaxation of the rules.

Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

1991-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

336

Observation of Water Vapor Greenhouse Absorption over the Gulf of Mexico Using Aircraft and Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through its interaction with radiation, water vapor provides an important link between the ocean and atmosphere. One way this occurs is through the greenhouse effect; observations of water vapor greenhouse absorption in the Gulf of Mexico during ...

David Marsden; Francisco P. J. Valero

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Investigation of Turbulent Processes in the Lower Troposphere with Water Vapor DIAL and RadarRASS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution water vapor and wind measurements in the lower troposphere within the scope of the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) are presented. The measurements were performed during a field campaign with a new water vapor differential ...

V. Wulfmeyer

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Modes and Mechanisms of Global Water Vapor Variability over the Twentieth Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The modes and mechanisms of the annual water vapor variations over the twentieth century are investigated based on a newly developed twentieth-century atmospheric reanalysis product. It is found that the leading modes of global water vapor ...

Liping Zhang; Lixin Wu; Bolan Gan

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Water Vapor Transport and the Production of Precipitation in the Eastern Fertile Crescent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study presented here attempts to quantify the significance of southerly water vapor fluxes on precipitation occurring in the eastern Fertile Crescent region. The water vapor fluxes were investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution by ...

J. P. Evans; R. B. Smith

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Automated Retrievals of Water Vapor and Aerosol Profiles from an Operational Raman Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automated routines have been developed to derive water vapor mixing ratio, relative humidity, aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficient, and linear depolarization profiles, as well as total precipitable water vapor and aerosol optical ...

D. D. Turner; R. A. Ferrare; L. A. Heilman Brasseur; W. F. Feltz; T. P. Tooman

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Tropical Water Vapor and Cloud Feedbacks in Climate Models: A Further Assessment Using Coupled Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By comparing the response of clouds and water vapor to ENSO forcing in nature with that in Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations by some leading climate models, an earlier evaluation of tropical cloud and water vapor ...

De-Zheng Sun; Yongqiang Yu; Tao Zhang

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

A Comparison of Water Vapor Measurements Made by Raman Lidar and Radiosondes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the calibration characteristics of the NASA/GSFC Raman water vapor lidar during three field experiments that occurred between 1991 and 1993. The lidar water vapor profiles are calibrated using relative humidity profiles ...

R. A. Ferrare; S. H. Melfi; D. N. Whiteman; K. D. Evans; F. J. Schmidlin; D. O'C. Starr

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Heat transfer during film condensation of potassium vapor on a horizontal plate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The object of the investigation is to analyze the following two features of heat transfer during condensation of potassium vapor: a. Heat transfer during film condensation of a pure saturated potassium vapor on a horizontal ...

Meyrial, Paul M.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Distributions of Liquid, Vapor, and Ice in an Orographic Cloud from Field Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phase distribution of the water mass of a cold orographic cloud into vapor, liquid, and ice is calculated from measurements made from an instrumented aircraft. The vapor values are calculated from thermodynamic measurements, and the liquid is ...

Taneil Uttal; Robert M. Rauber; Lewis O. Grant

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Chemical vapor deposition thin films as biopassivation coatings and directly patternable dielectrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organosilicon thin films deposited by pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PPECVD) and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) were investigated as potential biopassivation coatings for neural probes. ...

Pryce Lewis, Hilton G. (Hilton Gavin), 1973-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Determination of concentration-dependent dispersion of propane in vapor extraction of heavy oil.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Vapex (vapor extraction) is a solvent-based non-thermal in-situ heavy oil recovery process. In Vapex process, a vaporized hydrocarbon solvent is injected into an upper horizontal (more)

Abukhalifeh, Hadil

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Numerical studies of cold water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent reservoir pressure and steam flow rate declines at The Geysers geothermal field in California have attracted interest in studies of increased cold water injection into this system. In this paper, numerical studies of such injection into a fractured vapor-dominated reservoir are conducted using a two-dimensional radial, double-porosity model. The results obtained indicate that cold water injection into superheated (low-pressure) zones will greatly enhance the productivities of steam wells. Injection into two-phase zones with significant liquid reserves in the matrix blocks does not appear to aid in steam recovery until most of the original liquid reserves are depleted. Sensitivity studies are conducted over the range of fracture and matrix permeabilities applicable to the Geysers. The sensitivity of the grid size is also conducted, and shows very large grid effects. A fine vertical space discretization near the bottom of the reservoir is necessary to accurately predict the boiling of the injected water. 28 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Lai, C.H; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Control and Optimization of Vapor Compression Cycles Using Recursive Least Squares Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vapor compression cycles are the primary method by which refrigeration and air-conditioning systems operate, and thus constitute a significant portion of commercial and residential building energy consumption. This thesis presents a data-driven approach to find the optimal operating conditions of a multi-evaporator system in order to minimize the energy consumption while meeting operational requirements such as constant cooling or constant evaporator outlet temperature. The experimental system used for controller evaluation is a custom built small-scale water chiller with three evaporators; each evaporator services a separate body of water, referred to as a cooling zone. The three evaporators are connected to a single condenser and variable speed compressor, and feature variable water flow and electronic expansion valves. The control problem lies in development of a control architecture that will minimize the energy consumed by the system without prior information about the system in the form of performance maps, or complex mathematical models. The control architecture explored in this thesis relies on the data collected by sensors alone to formulate a function for the power consumption of the system in terms of controlled variables, namely, condenser and evaporator pressures, using recursive least squares estimation. This cost function is then minimized to attain optimal set points for the pressures which are fed to local controllers.

Rani, Avinash

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

The effect of longitudinal spacer ribs on the minimum pressure drop in a heated annulus  

SciTech Connect

When evaluating a heated flow passage for vulnerability to static flow excursions, special note should be taken of flow restrictions which might allow premature vapor generation. In this study, measurements of steady state pressure drop were made for the downward flow of water in a vertical annulus. The outer wall was uniformly heated to allow subcooled boiling. Minima in the pressure drop characteristics were compared for test sections with and without longitudinal spacer ribs. For a given power and inlet temperature, the minimum occurred at a higher flow rate in the ribbed test section. This is attributed to vapor generation at the ribs. The work cited in this document show how a restriction in a heated channel can produce vapor which would not be observed in the absence of the restriction. In the present study, the effect of a flow restriction on the tendency to flow excursion is explored by finding demand curves for a heated annulus in subcooled boiling flow. The annulus is heated from the outside, and alternately equipped with and without longitudinal spacer ribs. These ribs separate the heated and unheated walls; in pressing against the heated wall they provide a means for premature vapor production.

Johnston, B.S.; Neff, J.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

NETL: Oxy-Fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (Oxy-PFBC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimization of Pressurized Oxy-Combustion with Flameless Reactor Optimization of Pressurized Oxy-Combustion with Flameless Reactor Project No.: DE-FE0009478 Unity Power Alliance (UPA), a joint venture between the Italian company ITEA and ThermoEnergy Corp, is investigating the optimization of pressurized oxy-combustion with a flameless reactor. They will develop a basis for modeling conditions in a flameless reactor and inlet conditions for a heat recovery steam generator. A range of cycles will be evaluated at varying operating pressures to assess the effectiveness of heat recovery by vapor condensation; the optimum size and design of the combustor and the pressure drop in the recirculation pipes; and various purities of oxygen to determine how the variations affect the operation and performance of the air separation unit, the CO2 separation system, and the oxy-combustion process.

351

New Way To Realize Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ever since then, civilization has used the toxic liquid metal to measure pressure. ... The pressure and temperature of a gas are directly related to its ...

2013-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

352

High efficiency vapor-fed AMTEC system for direct conversion. Appendices for final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report consists of four appendices for the final report. They are: Appendix A: 700 C Vapor-Fed AMTEC Cell Calculations; Appendix B: 700 C Vapor-Fed AMTEC Cell Parts Drawings; Appendix C: 800 C Vapor-Fed AMTEC Cell Calculations; and Appendix D: 800 C Wick-Pumped AMTEC Cell System Design.

Anderson, W.G.; Bland, J.J.

1997-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

353

Passive blast pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

354

Coal-CO2 Slurry Feeding System for Pressurized Gasifiers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Feed Systems Coal-CO2 Slurry Feeding System for Pressurized Gasifiers Massachusetts Institute of Technology Project Number: FE0012500 Project Description This project will develop and assess a slurry feeding system based on a suspension of coal in liquid CO2 that can be pumped into a high-pressure gasifier. The advantages of this solution are that CO2 has a low heat capacity, a low heat of vaporization and low viscosity. Thus, the liquid CO2 imposes a much smaller thermal load on the gasifier relative to a water slurry, and has the potential to improve the efficiency and economics of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with carbon capture and dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal fired power plants. Project Details

355

Experimental testing of cooling by low pressure adsorption in a zeolite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A small scale facility was designed, constructed, and utilized to test the use of zeolite adsorption of water vapor to augment chill storage in ice for conventional space cooling. The facility uses solar-derived energy, for the heat source and evaporatively chilled water for the heat sump. The product cooling uses sublimation of ice instead of melting. The ZCAT facility utilizes a heat pumping technique in which a water vapor adsorbent functions as the compressor and condenser. The design was based on use of 13X zeolite as the adsorber because of its high adsorbence at low pressures. However, it has been determined that other materials such as silica gel should give superior performance. While zeolite 13X holds more water in the pressure and temperature ranges of interest, silica gel cycles more water and has less residue water. Both points are very important in the design of an efficient and cost effective system.

Redman, C.M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

The adsorption of water vapor on carbon fiber composite molecular sieve  

SciTech Connect

Carbon Fiber Composite Molecular Sieve (CFCMS) is a porous adsorbent carbon material manufactured from isotropic pitch derived carbon fibers and a phenolic resin binder via a slurry molding process. The material is produced in the form of a monolith and can be activated in steam, CO{sub 2} or O{sub 2}, during which it develops high BET surface areas and micropore volumes. The material has a continuous carbon skeletal structure and is, therefore, electrically conductive. The passage of an electric current at low voltage allows for direct resistive heating of the carbon and thus provides an efficient method of desorbing adsorbed gases. This method of separating gases has been named electrical swing adsorption (ESA) and is analogous to thermal or pressure swing adsorption. Recently, the authors have examined the potential of CFCMS/ESA for the adsorption and separation of water vapor. Frequently, water vapor must be removed from a gas stream before separation and processing can occur. To assess the potential of CFCMS for water adsorption a series of CFCMS samples were manufactured and activated to relatively high burn-off. Half of each sample was treated at 200 C in flowing oxygen to increase the number of chemisorbed surface functional groups. The amount of water adsorbed has previously been shown to be controlled by the availability of surface functional groups (such as carboxylic acid) which act as active sites for the adsorption of water. Here the authors report the preliminary study of the moisture adsorption behavior of treated and untreated CFCMS samples.

Burchell, T.D.; Judkins, R.R.; Rogers, M.R.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

PRESSURE SENSING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This device is primarily useful as a switch which is selectively operable to actuate in response to either absolute or differential predetermined pressures. The device generally comprises a pressure-tight housing divided by a movable impermeable diaphragm into two chambers, a reference pressure chamber and a bulb chamber containing the switching means and otherwise filled with an incompressible non-conducting fluid. The switch means comprises a normally collapsed bulb having an electrically conductive outer surface and a vent tube leading to the housing exterior. The normally collapsed bulb is disposed such that upon its inflation, respensive to air inflow from the vent, two contacts fixed within the bulb chamber are adapted to be electrically shorted by the conducting outer surface of the bulb.

Pope, K.E.

1959-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Pressure suppression containment system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (San Jose, CA)

1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Pressure suppression containment system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Smoothing HCCI heat release with vaporization-cooling-induced thermal stratification using ethanol.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends are being widely considered as alternative fuels for light-duty automotive applications. At the same time, HCCI combustion has the potential to provide high efficiency and ultra-low exhaust emissions. However, the application of HCCI is typically limited to low and moderate loads because of unacceptably high heat-release rates (HRR) at higher fueling rates. This work investigates the potential of lowering the HCCI HRR at high loads by using partial fuel stratification to increase the in-cylinder thermal stratification. This strategy is based on ethanol's high heat of vaporization combined with its true single-stage ignition characteristics. Using partial fuel stratification, the strong fuel-vaporization cooling produces thermal stratification due to variations in the amount of fuel vaporization in different parts of the combustion chamber. The low sensitivity of the autoignition reactions to variations of the local fuel concentration allows the temperature variations to govern the combustion event. This results in a sequential autoignition event from leaner and hotter zones to richer and colder zones, lowering the overall combustion rate compared to operation with a uniform fuel/air mixture. The amount of partial fuel stratification was varied by adjusting the fraction of fuel injected late to produce stratification, and also by changing the timing of the late injection. The experiments show that a combination of 60-70% premixed charge and injection of 30-40 % of the fuel at 80{sup o}CA before TDC is effective for smoothing the HRR. With CA50 held fixed, this increases the burn duration by 55% and reduces the maximum pressure-rise rate by 40%. Combustion stability remains high but engine-out NO{sub x} has to be monitored carefully. For operation with strong reduction of the peak HRR, ISNO{sub x} rises to around 0.20 g/kWh for an IMEP{sub g} of 440 kPa. The single-cylinder HCCI research engine was operated naturally aspirated without EGR at 1200 rpm, and had low residual level using a CR = 14 piston.

Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Einstein's Gravity Under Pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mysterious `dark energy' needed to explain the current observations, poses a serious confrontation between fundamental physics and cosmology. The present crisis may be an outcome of the (so far untested) prediction of the general theory of relativity that the pressure of the matter source also gravitates. In this view, a theoretical analysis reveals some surprising inconsistencies and paradoxes faced by the energy-stress tensor (in the presence of pressure) which is used to model the matter content of the universe, including dark energy.

Ram Gopal Vishwakarma

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

362

Wellbore pressure transducer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Subterranean earth formations containing energy values are subjected to hydraulic fracturing procedures to enhance the recovery of the energy values. These fractures are induced in the earth formation by pumping liquid into the wellbore penetrating the earth formation until the pressure of the liquid is sufficient to fracture the earth formation adjacent to the wellbore. The present invention is directed to a transducer which is positionable within the wellbore to generate a signal indicative of the fracture initiation useful for providing a timing signal to equipment for seismic mapping of the fracture as it occurs and for providing a measurement of the pressure at which the fracture is initiated.

Shuck, Lowell Z. (Morgantown, WV)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

SALTSTONE OSMOTIC PRESSURE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR- 2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency <1 and as a result actual osmotic pressures are less than theoretical pressures. Observations from laboratory tests of simulated saltstone indicate that it may exhibit the behavior of a semi-permeable membrane. After several weeks of back pressure saturation in a flexible wall permeameter (FWP) the membrane containing a simulated saltstone sample appeared to have bubbles underneath it. Upon removal from the FWP the specimen was examined and it was determined that the bubbles were due to liquid that had accumulated between the membrane and the sample. One possible explanation for the accumulation of solution between the membrane and sample is the development of osmotic pressure within the sample. Osmotic pressure will affect fluid flow and contaminant transport and may result in the changes to the internal structure of the semi-permeable material. B?nard et al. 2008 reported swelling of wet cured Portland cement mortars containing salts of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}x12H{sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that groundwater will flow into the semi-permeable material resulting in hydrologic containment within the membrane. Additionally, hyperfiltration can occur within semi-permeable materials when water moves through a membrane into the more concentrated solution and dissolved constituents are retained in the lower concentration solution. Groundwater flow and transport equations that incorporate chemical gradients (osmosis) have been developed. These equations are referred to as coupled flow equations. Currently groundwater modeling to assess the performance of saltstone waste forms is conducted using the PORFLOW groundwater flow and transport model. PORFLOW does not include coupled flow from chemico-osmotic gradients and therefore numerical simulation of the effect of coupled flow on contaminant transport in and around saltstone cannot be assessed. Most natural semi-permeable membranes are non-ideal membranes and do not restrict all movement of solutes and as a result theoretical osmotic potential is not realized. Osmotic efficiency is a parameter in the coupled flow equation that accounts for the

Nichols, R.

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

364

SALTSTONE OSMOTIC PRESSURE  

SciTech Connect

Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR- 2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency <1 and as a result actual osmotic pressures are less than theoretical pressures. Observations from laboratory tests of simulated saltstone indicate that it may exhibit the behavior of a semi-permeable membrane. After several weeks of back pressure saturation in a flexible wall permeameter (FWP) the membrane containing a simulated saltstone sample appeared to have bubbles underneath it. Upon removal from the FWP the specimen was examined and it was determined that the bubbles were due to liquid that had accumulated between the membrane and the sample. One possible explanation for the accumulation of solution between the membrane and sample is the development of osmotic pressure within the sample. Osmotic pressure will affect fluid flow and contaminant transport and may result in the changes to the internal structure of the semi-permeable material. B?nard et al. 2008 reported swelling of wet cured Portland cement mortars containing salts of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}x12H{sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that groundwater will flow into the semi-permeable material resulting in hydrologic containment within the membrane. Additionally, hyperfiltration can occur within semi-permeable materials when water moves through a membrane into the more concentrated solution and dissolved constituents are retained in the lower concentration solution. Groundwater flow and transport equations that incorporate chemical gradients (osmosis) have been developed. These equations are referred to as coupled flow equations. Currently groundwater modeling to assess the performance of saltstone waste forms is conducted using the PORFLOW groundwater flow and transport model. PORFLOW does not include coupled flow from chemico-osmotic gradients and therefore numerical simulation of the effect of coupled flow on contaminant transport in and around saltstone cannot be assessed. Most natural semi-permeable membranes are non-ideal membranes and do not restrict all movement of solutes and as a result theoretical osmotic potential is not realized. Osmotic efficiency is a parameter in the coupled flow equation that accounts for the

Nichols, R.

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

365

Method for the generation of variable density metal vapors which bypasses the liquidus phase  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method for producing a metal vapor that includes the steps of combining a metal and graphite in a vessel to form a mixture; heating the mixture to a first temperature in an argon gas atmosphere to form a metal carbide; maintaining the first temperature for a period of time; heating the metal carbide to a second temperature to form a metal vapor; withdrawing the metal vapor and the argon gas from the vessel; and separating the metal vapor from the argon gas. Metal vapors made using this method can be used to produce uniform powders of the metal oxide that have narrow size distribution and high purity.

Kunnmann, Walter (Stony Brook, NY); Larese, John Z. (Rocky Point, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Mercury Vapor At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Mokapu Penninsula Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The high degree of cultural activity (e.g. residential areas, streets, jet runways, etc.) on Mokapu both limited the extent of the soil geochemical surveys performed and rendered their interpretation much more difficult. Soil mercury concentrations and radon emanometry data on the peninsula showed a few localized high values (Figs 13, 14), but no consistent correlation between the anomalous zones and geologic features could be

367

Catalytic hydrogenation process and apparatus with improved vapor liquid separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous hydrogenation process and apparatus wherein liquids are contacted with hydrogen in an ebullated catalyst reaction zone with the liquids and gas flowing vertically upwardly through that zone into a second zone substantially free of catalyst particles and wherein the liquid and gases are directed against an upwardly inclining surface through which vertical conduits are placed having inlet ends at different levels in the liquid and having outlet ends at different levels above the inclined surface, such that vapor-rich liquid is collected and discharged through conduits terminating at a higher level above the inclined surface than the vapor-poor liquid which is collected and discharged at a level lower than the inclined surface.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Trenton, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Hydrocarbon pool and vapor fire data analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The flame geometry and thermal radiation data from a series of large scale experiments involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline spills on water were analyzed. The experiments were conducted at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California. Two types of fires have been studied; namely, pool fires and vapor fires. The spill quantity varied from 4 m/sup 3/ to approximately 6 m/sup 3/. The LPG pool fire flame height to diameter ratio were between 3.5 and 4.5. The gasoline flame height was about 2. The flame emissive powers for LPG pool fires ranged from 78 kW/m/sup 2/ to 115 kW/m/sup 2/. The average surface emissive power for gasoline pool fire was 40 kW/m/sup 2/. The LPG vapor fire emissive power ranged from 159 to 269 kW/m/sup 2/. 63 figures, 13 tables.

Mudan, K.S.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

371

Reactor pressure vessel nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

372

Pressure swing adsorption process  

SciTech Connect

An adiabatic pressure swing adsorption process is described for the separation of gas mixtures by adsorbing at least one gas component in each of at least 8 phase staggered operated adsorbent beds, which can continue to be operated without any stoppage of installation even if one adsorbent bed is removed from operation due to a defective valve. 6 claims.

De Meyer, H.; Doclo, R.; Seynaeve, J.

1980-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

373

High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Vaporizing Flow in Hot Fractures: Observations from Laboratory Experiments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Understanding water seepage in hot fractured rock is important in a number of fields including geothermal energy recovery and nuclear waste disposal. Heat-generating high-level nuclear waste packages which will be emplaced in the partially saturated fractured tuffs at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, if it becomes a high-level nuclear waste repository, will cause significant impacts on moisture distribution and migration. Liquid water, which occupies anywhere from 30 to 100% of the porespace, will be vaporized as the temperature reaches the boiling temperature. Flowing primarily in fractures, the vapor will condense where it encounters cooler rock, generating mobile water. This water will flow under gravitational and capillary forces and may flow back to the vicinity of the emplaced waste where it may partially escape vaporization. Water flowing down (sub-) vertical fractures may migrate considerable distances through fractured rock that is at above-boiling temperatures; thus, flowing condensate may contact waste packages, and provide a pathway for the transport of water-soluble radionuclides downward to the saturated zone. Thermally-driven flow processes induced by repository heat may be as important or even more important for repository performance than natural infiltration. For a nominal thermal loading of 57 kW/acre, vaporization may generate an average equivalent percolation flux from condensate of 23.1 mm/yr over 1,000 years, and 5.2 mm/yr over 10,000 years. These numbers are comparable to or larger than current estimates of net infiltration at Yucca Mountain. This condensate, which is generated in the immediate vicinity (meters) of the waste packages, will likely have a larger impact on waste package and repository performance than a similar amount of water introduced at the land surface.

Kneafsey, T.; Pruess, K.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Applications of Mechanical Vapor Recompression to Evaporation and Crystallization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past 10-15 years, mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) has become the preferred system in many industrial evaporation and crystallization applications, because of its economy and simplicity of operation. In most instances, the need for steam to provide heat for the evaporation and cooling water for condensing the overhead vapors is virtually eliminated; and, at the same time, a wide range of turndown is available. An MVR is generally found to be the most economical choice when there is no boiler plant available or when electrical power is priced competitively in comparison to steam. Vapor recompression is accomplished using centrifugal, axial-flow, or positive displacement compressors and these compressors can be powered by electricity, steam turbine or a gas turbine. The use of an MVR Evaporator/Crystallizer provides a comparatively low cost means of expanding the production capability of an existing evaporation plant either by adding a "stand alone" unit or by reconfiguring a multiple-effect system into several single-effect MVR's.

Outland, J. S.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method are disclosed which determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to an equation given in the patent where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4) + K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation. 11 figs.

Nelson, L.D.; Cerni, T.A.

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

377

M.D.?Lukin, Storage of light in atomic vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report an experiment in which a light pulse is decelerated and trapped in a vapor of Rb atoms, stored for a controlled period of time, and then released on demand. We accomplish this storage of light by dynamically reducing the group velocity of the light pulse to zero, so that the coherent excitation of the light is reversibly mapped into a collective Zeeman (spin) coherence of the Rb vapor. PACS numbers 03.67.-a, 42.50.-p, 42.50.Gy Typeset using REVTEX 1 Photons are the fastest and most robust carriers of information, but they are difficult to localize and store. The present Letter reports a proof-of-principle demonstration of a technique [1,2] to trap, store, and release excitations carried by light pulses. Specifically, a pulse of light which is several kilometers long in free space is compressed to a length of a few centimeters and then converted into collective spin excitations in a vapor of Rb atoms. After a controllable storage time, the process is reversed and the atomic coherence is converted

D. F. Phillips; A. Fleischhauer; A. Mair; R. L. Walsworth; M. D. Lukin

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavlength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to: ##EQU1## where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4)+K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation.

Nelson, Loren D. (Morrison, CO); Cerni, Todd A. (Littleton, CO)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Improved method for removing metal vapor from gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for gas cleanup to remove one or more metallic contaminants present as vapor. More particularly, the invention relates to a gas cleanup process using mass transfer to control the saturation levels such that essentially no particulates are formed, and the vapor condenses on the gas passage surfaces. It addresses the need to cleanup an inert gas contaminated with cadmium which may escape from the electrochemical processing of Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel in a hot cell. The IFR is a complete, self-contained, sodium-cooled, pool-type fast reactor fueled with a metallic alloy of uranium, plutonium and zirconium, and is equipped with a close-coupled fuel cycle. Tests with a model have shown that removal of cadmium from argon gas is in the order of 99.99%. The invention could also apply to the industrial cleanup of air or other gases contaminated with zinc, lead, or mercury. In addition, the invention has application in the cleanup of other gas systems contaminated with metal vapors which may be toxic or unhealthy.

Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

1994-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

380

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper will address the following. 1. Factors that determine the feasibility of reducing the plant steam operating pressure. 2. The operating advantages and disadvantages associated with the decreased steam pressure. 3. The economics of steam pressure reduction. Appropriate visual aids will be utilized as part of the discussion.

Sylva, D. M.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Improved efficiency and precise temperature control of low-frequency induction-heating pure iron vapor source on ECR ion source  

SciTech Connect

Multiply charged ions to be used prospectively are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Recently a pure iron source is also required for the production of caged iron ions in the fullerene in order to control cells in vivo in bio-nano science and technology. We adopt directly heating iron rod by induction heating (IH) because it has non-contact with insulated materials which are impurity gas sources. We choose molybdenum wire for the IH coils because it doesn't need water cooling. To improve power efficiency and temperature control, we propose to the new circuit without previously using the serial and parallel dummy coils (SPD) for matching and safety. We made the circuit consisted of inductively coupled coils which are thin-flat and helix shape, and which insulates the IH power source from the evaporator. This coupling coils circuit, i.e. insulated induction heating coil transformer (IHCT), can be move mechanically. The secondary current can be adjusted precisely and continuously. Heating efficiency by using the IHCT is much higher than those of previous experiments by using the SPD, because leakage flux is decreased and matching is improved simultaneously. We are able to adjust the temperature in heating the vapor source around melting point. And then the vapor pressure can be controlled precisely by using the IHCT. We can control {+-}10K around 1500 Degree-Sign C by this method, and also recognize to controlling iron vapor flux experimentally in the extreme low pressures. Now we come into next stage of developing induction heating vapor source for materials with furthermore high temperature melting points above 2000K with the IHCT, and then apply it in our ECRIS.

Kato, Y.; Takenaka, T.; Yano, K.; Kiriyama, R.; Kurisu, Y.; Nozaki, D.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Sato, F.; Iida, T. [Osaka Univ., 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo Univ., 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe, Saitama, 350-8585 (Japan); Osaka Univ., 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

382

Tank 241-BY-110 Headspace Gas and Vapor Characterization Results for Samples Collected in November 1994. Revision 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUS WASTE STORAGE TANK VAPOR CONTROL ATTEMPTS ON SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) & DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) FARMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report forms the basis for a feasibility study and conceptual design to control vapor emissions from waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The Carbtrol, Vapor Mixing, and High Efficiency Gas Absorber (HEGA) vapor controls were evaluated to determine the lessons learned from previous failed vapor control attempts. This document illustrates the resulting findings based on that evaluation.

BAKER, D.M.

2004-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

384

Pressure suppression system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

387

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

389

High pressure storage vessel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

Liu, Qiang

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

390

pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description This raw data reflects readings from instruments mounted on or near a 82 meter meteorological tower located at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), approximately 5 miles south of Boulder, CO (specifically: 39.9107 N, 105.2348 W, datum WGS84). The base elevation at the site is 1,855 meters AMSL. Source NREL Date Released Unknown Date Updated March 10th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords DOE humidity irrandiance NREL NWTC pressure temperature turbulence wind wind direction wind speed Data text/plain icon Raw data (8/24/2001 - 3/10/2011) (txt, 681 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon Field IDs for above .txt file (xls, 69.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Scientists and Technicians are notified real-time via email of instruments outside the above min/max or delta comparisons (http://www.nrel.gov/midc/nwtc_m2/) Data have not been reviewed for accuracy or completeness; disclaimer available (http://www.nrel.gov/disclaimer.html).

391

Tank Vapor Characterization Project -- Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-107: Results from samples collected on 01/17/96  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system with and without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane hydrocarbons (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Laboratory investigations of steam pressure-transient behavior in porous materials  

SciTech Connect

Transient flow of noncondensable gas in porous materials has been thoroughly investigated, and good agreement between the gas-flow equation and experiments has been reported in the petroleum-engineering literature. This theory has been widely used in computer simulations of pressure-transient behavior in vapor-dominated geothermal steam reservoirs. However, few laboratory experiments involving steam flow in porous materials have been reported. In order to test the applicability of the gas-flow theory to steam flow, they developed a laboratory system to investigate the transient flow of steam through unconsolidated porous materials. Pressure-transient experiments were carried out by imposing a step change in gas pressure at one end of a cylinder of porous material, and measuring the pressure as a function of time at the other end.

Herkelrath, W.N.; Moench, A.F.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Observed annual and interannual variations in tropospheric water vapor  

SciTech Connect

Radiosonde observations from a global network of 56 radiosonde stations for 1973-1990 are used to describe and quantify annual and interannual variations of tropospheric water vapor. Taking care to identify data inhomogeneities related to changes in instruments or observing practices, monthly mean and anomaly data sets are constructed for dew point, specific humidity, relative humidity, temperature and precipitable water from the surface to 500 mb. Local annual cycles of tropospheric humidity can be classified according to the amplitude and phase of humidity variations which define five humidity regimes. For two regimes, both in middle and high latitudes, relative humidity is fairly constant while the annual cycle of precipitable water is in phase with that of temperature. At some midlatitude stations with a monsoon-like climate, seasonal relative humidity variations are large. In the tropics, seasonal relative humidity variations, especially above the boundary layer, dominate the annual cycle of precipitable water, and precipitable water variations are not related to temperature variations. Correlations of temperature and specific humidity anomalies are generally positive outside the tropics, suggesting that atmospheric warming is associated with increases in water vapor content. However, correlations of temperature and relative humidity anomalies are sometimes not significant and are often negative (e.g., in mid- and high latitude continental regions). Thus relative humidity is not always insensitive to temperature changes. In the tropics, tropospheric water vapor and temperature variations are not well correlated. An empirical orthogonal function analysis of tropical specific humidity variations identified two important modes of variability. The first is a step-like increase in specific humidity that occurred in about 1976-1977, and the second is associated with the El Nino phenomenon.

Gaffen, D.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

SORPTION OF GASES BY VAPOR-DEPOSITED TITANIUM FILMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are summarized for an investigation of the sorption rates of gases on vapor-deposited titanium films. The usefulness of such films for ultrahigh speed vacuum pumping is appraised. The sorption of hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water vapor, helium, argon, and methane onto titanium films was measured for a variety of circumstances using techniques and apparatus developed for this specific purpose. The information obtained and techniques evolved in this study have shown that large-scale getter pumping is feasible and can be a very effective means of pumping many gases. Sticking fractions larger than 0.8 were obtained for hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The experiments have shown that the sticking fraction for gases on vapor-deposited films is a function of the deposition conditions. There is strong evidence to support the supposition that conditions which favor the formation of a porous, fine-grained film structure with a large surface-to-volume ratio produce films with the highest sorption rates. The technique for measuring sticking fractions is new and in many respects unique. It utilizes a very large sorption surface, thus minimizing the perturbing effect of the instrumentation and evaporation apparatus and reducing the hazard of film contamination due to small leaks in the system or outgassing of system components. The method gives especially good accuracy for measurements of sticking fractions approaching unity. The quantity of gas adsorbed, the gas flux onto the getter surface, and the gas flux leaving the getter surface are measured directly. Any two of these three independent measurements can be used to determine the sticking fraction, thereby providing a means of checking the data. The evaporation techniques, substrate surface, and substrate area were chosen to very nearly duplicate the conditions likely to be encountered in the practical application of large-scale getter pumping. (auth)

Clausing, R.E.

1964-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Measurement of gas transport through fiber preforms and densified composites for chemical vapor infiltration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas transport via pressure-driven permeation or via concentration-driven diffusion is a key step in the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process. This paper describes methods for the measurement of these properties for CVI preforms and partially infiltrated composites. Results are presented for Nicalon-fiber cloth layup preforms and composites, Nextel-fiber braid preforms and composites, and a Nicalon-fiber three-dimensional (3-D) weave composite. The permeability of Nicalon cloth layup preforms is strongly dependent on the packing density over the range of 29--40 vol% but is only weakly dependent on the orientation of the alternating cloth layers. The permeability of Nextel braid preforms is dependent on the thread count and the weight for cloths with similar construction and packing density. The gas permeability of the finer wave (6.3 tows/cm (16 tows/in.)) is approximately one-half that of the coarser weave (3.5 tows/cm (9 tows/in.)). Results are reported for a small number of infiltrated composites with Nextel fiber reinforcement. Attempts to mount a Nicalon-fiber 3-D weave preform specimen have been unsuccessful. Results for a small number of composite specimens with 3-D weave reinforcement are reported.

Starr, T.L.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films produced by chemical vapor deposition: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a technologically important semiconductor, well-suited for solar photovoltaic energy conversion and thin film device applications. While the glow discharge technique is widely used for the deposition of a-Si:H films, this work is focused on the use of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique, i.e., the thermal decomposition of disilane and higher silanes, for the deposition of a-Si:H films. A simple technique for the preparation of disilane and higher silanes by using an electric discharge in monosilane under atmospheric pressure has been developed, and the discharge product can be used directly for the deposition process. The important parameters of the CVD process including the substrate temperature, the composition and flow rate of the reaction mixture, and the nature of the diluent gas for disilane, have also been investigated. The deposition rate of a-Si:H films in a helium atmosphere is considerably higher than that in a hydrogen atmosphere, and the CVD process in a helium atmosphere is well-suited for the deposition of thick a-Si:H films. The a-Si:H films deposited under various conditions have been characterized by the photoconductivity, dissolution rate, optical absorption, mechanical stress, gap state density, minority carrier diffusion length, and stability measurements. On the basis of these measurements, a-Si:H films deposited by the thermal decomposition of disilane in a helium atmosphere exhibit better structural and electronic properties than those deposited in a hydrogen atmosphere.

Not Available

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Carbon supported metal catalysts (Cu/C, Fe/C, Pd/C, Pt/C, PdFe/C and Ru/C) have been prepared, characterized and tested for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of guaiacol (GUA) at atmospheric pressure. Phenol was the major intermediate on all catalysts. Over the noble metal catalysts saturation of the aromatic ring was the major pathway observed at low temperature (250 C), forming predominantly cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. Substantial ring opening reaction was observed on Pt/C and Ru/C at higher reaction temperatures (e.g., 350 C). Base metal catalysts, especially Fe/C, were found to exhibit high HDO activity without ring-saturation or ring-opening with the main products being benzene, phenol along with small amounts of cresol, toluene and trimethylbenzene (TMB). A substantial enhancement in HDO activity was observed on the PdFe/C catalysts. Compared with Fe/C, the yield to oxygen-free aromatic products (i.e., benzene/toluene/TMB) on PdFe/C increased by a factor of four at 350 C, and by approximately a factor of two (83.2% versus 43.3%) at 450 C. The enhanced activity of PdFe/C is attributed to the formation of PdFe alloy as evidenced by STEM, EDS and TPR.

Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Zhang, He; Kovarik, Libor; Li, Xiaohong S.; Hensley, Alyssa; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Wang, Yong

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Thermodynamic Models for Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Nitrogen+Oxygen+Carbon Dioxide at Low Temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the design and optimization of CO2 recovery from alcoholic fermentation processes by distillation, models for vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) are needed. Two such thermodynamic models, the Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and a model based on Henry's law constants, are proposed for the ternary mixture N2+O2+CO2. Pure substance parameters of the Peng-Robinson EOS are taken from the literature, whereas the binary parameters of the Van der Waals one-fluid mixing rule are adjusted to experimental binary VLE data. The Peng-Robinson EOS describes both binary and ternary experimental data well, except at high pressures approaching the critical region. A molecular model is validated by simulation using binary and ternary experimental VLE data. On the basis of this model, the Henry's law constants of N2 and O2 in CO2 are predicted by molecular simulation. An easy-to-use thermodynamic model, based on those Henry's law constants, is developed to reliably describe the VLE in the CO2-rich region.

Vrabec, J; Buchhauser, U; Meyer-Pittroff, R; Hasse, H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

400

Multi-cathode metal vapor arc ion source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. One embodiment of the appaatus utilizes a multi-cathode arrangement for interaction with the anode.

Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Physical vapor deposition and patterning of calcium fluoride films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Physical vapor deposition of calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) thin films was performed via electron beam evaporation, resistive/thermal evaporation, and nonreactive radio frequency sputtering. Patterning of the resultant ''usable'' thin films was then also attempted in several ways, including by shadow mask deposition, liftoff, and direct chemical etching. Resistive evaporation produced the most stable films, having polycrystalline morphology with a moderately strong preference to the 331 orientation. The cleanest patterning results were obtained via a polymer/metal liftoff. The results and implications of each of the various deposition and patterning techniques are discussed.

Pinol, L.; Rebello, K.; Caruso, K.; Francomacaro, A. S.; Coles, G. L. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Maryland 20723 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (625 Gulfwood Rd., Knoxville, TN 37923)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

Vo-Dinh, T.

1987-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

404

Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior. 8 figures.

Hall, J.P.; Sawvel, R.M.; Draggoo, V.G.

1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

405

Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior.

Hall, Jerome P. (Livermore, CA); Sawvel, Robert M. (Modesto, CA); Draggoo, Vaughn G. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Nonlinear transmission through a tapered fiber in rubidium vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sub-wavelength diameter tapered optical fibers surrounded by rubidium vapor can undergo a substantial decrease in transmission at high atomic densities due to the accumulation of rubidium atoms on the surface of the fiber. Here we demonstrate the ability to control these changes in transmission using light guided within the taper. We observe transmission through a tapered fiber that is a nonlinear function of the incident power. This effect can also allow a strong control beam to change the transmission of a weak probe beam.

S. M. Hendrickson; T. B. Pittman; J. D. Franson

2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

407

Managed Pressure Drilling Candidate Selection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Managed Pressure Drilling now at the pinnacle of the 'Oil Well Drilling' evolution tree, has itself been coined in 2003. It is an umbrella term for a few new drilling techniques and some preexisting drilling techniques, all of them aiming to solve several drilling problems, including non-productive time and/or drilling flat time issues. These techniques, now sub-classifications of Managed Pressure Drilling, are referred to as 'Variations' and 'Methods' of Managed Pressure Drilling. Although using Managed Pressure Drilling for drilling wells has several benefits, not all wells that seem a potential candidate for Managed Pressure Drilling, need Managed Pressure Drilling. The drilling industry has numerous simulators and software models to perform drilling hydraulics calculations and simulations. Most of them are designed for conventional well hydraulics, while some can perform Underbalanced Drilling calculations, and a select few can perform Managed Pressure Drilling calculations. Most of the few available Managed Pressure Drilling models are modified Underbalanced Drilling versions that fit Managed Pressure Drilling needs. However, none of them focus on Managed Pressure Drilling and its candidate selection alone. An 'Managed Pressure Drilling Candidate Selection Model and software' that can act as a preliminary screen to determine the utility of Managed Pressure Drilling for potential candidate wells are developed as a part of this research dissertation. The model and a flow diagram identify the key steps in candidate selection. The software performs the basic hydraulic calculations and provides useful results in the form of tables, plots and graphs that would help in making better engineering decisions. An additional Managed Pressure Drilling worldwide wells database with basic information on a few Managed Pressure Drilling projects has also been compiled that can act as a basic guide on the Managed Pressure Drilling variation and project frequencies and aid in Managed Pressure Drilling candidate selection.

Nauduri, Anantha S.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Pressure Data Within BOP- ODS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

409

Pressure Data Within BOP- XLS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

410

Mercury Vapor At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Mercury Vapor At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date - 2005 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Adsorbed mercury soil geochemical surveys and radiometric geophysical surveys were carried out in conjunction with geologic mapping to test the application of these ground-based techniques to geothermal exploration at three prospects in Nevada by Henkle Jr. et al. in 2005. Mercury soil vapor surveys were not widely used in geothermal exploration in the western US at the time, although the association of mercury vapors with geothermal

411

MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN THE ARCTIC Cadeddu, Maria Argonne National Laboratory Category: Instruments A new G-band (183 GHz) vapor radiometer (GVR), developed and built by Prosensing Inc. (http://www.prosensing.com), was deployed in Barrow, Alaska, in April 2005. The radiometer was deployed as part of the ongoing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's effort to improve water vapor retrievals in the cold, dry Arctic environment. The instrument measures brightness temperatures from four double sideband channels centered at 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz from the 183.31-GHz water vapor line. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. The GVR will remain in Barrow

412

Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method of forming vanadium oxide films and vanadium oxide thin-films prepared thereby  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method is disclosed of forming a vanadium oxide film on a substrate utilizing plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The method includes positioning a substrate within a plasma reaction chamber and then forming a precursor gas comprised of a vanadium-containing chloride gas in an inert carrier gas. This precursor gas is then mixed with selected amounts of hydrogen and oxygen and directed into the reaction chamber. The amounts of precursor gas, oxygen and hydrogen are selected to optimize the final properties of the vanadium oxide film An rf plasma is generated within the reaction chamber to chemically react the precursor gas with the hydrogen and the oxygen to cause deposition of a vanadium oxide film on the substrate while the chamber deposition pressure is maintained at about one torr or less. Finally, the byproduct gases are removed from the plasma reaction chamber.

Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Turner, John A. (Littleton, CO); Liu, Ping (Lakewood, CO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Low pressure turbine installation  

SciTech Connect

Low-pressure turbine installation is described comprising a casing, at least two groups of turbine stages mounted in said casing, each turbine stage having blades so arranged that a flow of steam passes through the respective turbine stages in contraflow manner, partition means in said casing for separating the opposed final stages of said turbine stages from each other, and steam exhausting means opened in the side walls of said casing in a direction substantially perpendicular to the axis of said turbine, said steam exhausting means being connected to condensers.

Iizuka, N.; Hisano, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Otawara, Y.

1976-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

414

Fiber-optic pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure wave sensor utilizing fiber optic interferometry techniques to determine pressure in a bar. Light from a fiber optic coil around the bar is mixed with light from a reference optical fiber to produce interference fringes as a function of time. These fringes over time are related to the pressure versus time existing in the bar. 2 figs.

Dingus, R.S.

1989-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

415

AIR LEAKAGE, SURFACE PRESSURES AND INFILTRATION RATES IN HOUSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vapor barrier. Active solar heating Sealed combustion woodbarrier. heating systems possible including active solar.

Grimsrud, D.T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Five alternatives to vapor compression technology were qualitatively evaluated to determine their prospects for being better than vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. The results of the assessment are summarized in the report. Overall, thermoacoustic and magnetic technologies were judged to have the best prospects for competing with vapor compression technology, with thermotunneling, thermoelectric, and thermionic technologies trailing behind in that order.

Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Stout, Tyson E.

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

417

Comparative Global Warming Impacts of Electric Vapor-Compression and Direct-fired Absorption Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report compares the global warming impacts of electric vapor-compression and gas-fired absorption-cycle equipment for commercial cooling applications. Absorption chillers do not use ozone depleting refrigerants but substitution of alternative refrigerants in electrically driven vapor-compression cycle equipment also offers radically reduced or eliminated potential for stratospheric ozone depletion. Therefore, when comparing absorption-cycle and vapor-compression equipment, net global warming impacts...

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Combustor oscillation pressure stabilizer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In accordance with the objective of the present invention, the active control of unsteady combustion induced oscillations in a combustion chamber fired by a suitable fuel and oxidizer mixture, such as a hydrocarbon fuel and air mixture, is provided by restructuring and moving the position of the main flame front and thereby increasing the transport time and displacing the pressure wave further away from the in-phase relationship with the periodic heat release. The restructuring and repositioning of the main flame are achieved by utilizing a pilot flame which is pulsed at a predetermined frequency corresponding to less than about one-half the frequency of the combustion oscillation frequency with the duration of each pulse being sufficient to produce adequate secondary thermal energy to restructure the main flame and thereby decouple the heat release from the acoustic coupling so as to lead to a reduction in the dynamic pressure amplitude. The pulsating pilot flame produces a relatively small and intermittently existing flame front in the combustion zone that is separate from the oscillating main flame front but which provides the thermal energy necessary to effectively reposition the location of the oscillating main flame front out of the region in the combustion zone where the acoustic coupling can occur with the main flame and thereby effectively altering the oscillation-causing phase relationship with the heat of combustion.

Gemmen, R.S.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.T.J.; Robey, E.; Cully, S.R.; Addis, R.E.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

Evaluation of Fire Dynamics Simulator for Liquefied Natural Gas Vapor Dispersion Hazards.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and Pipeline and Hazardous Material Administration (PHMSA) require vapor dispersion modeling as part of a siting analysis for liquefied (more)

Kohout, Andrew Joseph

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Evaluation of fire dynamics simulator for liquefied natural gas vapor dispersion hazards.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and Pipeline and Hazardous Material Administration (PHMSA) require vapor dispersion modeling as part of a siting analysis for (more)

Kohout, Andrew Joseph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

SAT-TMMC: Liquid-Vapor coexistence properties - TraPPE ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SAT-TMMC: Liquid-Vapor coexistence properties - TraPPE Carbon Dioxide. ... Fluid, Carbon Dioxide. Model, TraPPE [1]. V, 27000 3. TRUNCATION, ...

2013-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

422

(Ti,Mg)N Thin Film Coatings Produced Via Physical Vapor Deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magnesium (Mg) doped TiN was prepared via physical vapor deposition to ... Axial Compression of a Hollow Cylinder Filled with a Foam: A Porcupine Quill...

423

Separation of heavy water by vapor-phase thermal diffusion coupled with distillation and condensation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study on the enrichment of heavy water in a vapor-phase thermal-diffusion column has been conducted. With the combination of the effects of distillation, vapor-phase thermal diffusion, and partial condensation, considerable improvement in the degree of enrichment has been achieved in a vapor-phase column rather than in a liquid-phase column. It was also found that even the part of enrichment contributed only by vapor-phase thermal-diffusion effect is much higher than that obtained by liquid-phase thermal diffusion.

Yeh, H.M. [Tamkang Univ., Taiwan (China); Chang, S.M. [Cheng Kung Univ., Taiwan (China)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Renewable Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies, of theTransport in Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs, Geothermics,Depletion of Vapor-Dominated Geothermal Reservoirs, Lawrence

Pruess, Karsten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

PRODUCTION AND DESTRUCTION OF D- BY CHARGE TRANSFER IN METAL VAPORS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alkali-vapor target of the heat- pipe type. The beam leavingthe incident beam. The heat-pipe target and the collimation

Schlachter, A.S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Imaging Spectrometry of Tropospheric Ozone and Water Vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Imaging spectrometry has the potential of remotely detecting atmospheric trace gases on the basis of their absorption of radiation. Ozone absorbs particulary in the ultraviolet and visible range of the spectrum, whereas water vapor has strong absorption features in the near infrared. Hence, spectrometry is expected to be a promising tool to extract these trace gas contents in a given air column by using the correlation between cumulative trace gas amount and absorption strength in the sensor channels located in the absorption bands. New mathematical methods of channel selection and method evaluation for measuring atmospheric trace gases are presented. Three already known and four new differential absorption techniques are evaluated by using MODTRAN2 simulations of the radiance spectrum at the sensor level and an analytical error propagation analysis. Finally, the best methods and channel combinations are selected and applied to AVIRIS data of Central Switzerland. The spatial ozone distribution could be estimated over water in a qualitative manner, whereas the total column water vapor content could be quantified over land with an accuracy of about 6%.

Daniel Schlpfer; Klaus I. Itten; Johannes Keller

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Blowdown of hydrocarbons pressure vessel with partial phase separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a model for the simulation of the blowdown of vessels containing two-phase (gas-liquid) hydrocarbon fluids, considering non equilibrium between phases. Two phases may be present either already at the beginning of the blowdown process (for instance in gas-liquid separators) or as the liquid is formed from flashing of the vapor due to the cooling induced by pressure decrease. There is experimental evidence that the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium is not appropriate, since the two phases show an independent temperature evolution. Thus, due to the greater heat transfer between the liquid phase with the wall, the wall in contact with the liquid experiences a stronger cooling than the wall in contact with the gas, during the blowdown. As a consequence, the vessel should be designed for a lower temperature than if it was supposed to contain vapor only. Our model is based on a compositional approach, and it takes into account internal heat and mass transfer processes, as well as heat transfer with ...

Speranza, Alessandro; 10.1142/9789812701817_0046

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Application to low-pressure deposition of tungsten  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a mode for the simultaneous reaction kinetics and transport processes in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactors extended to treat deposition of materials that have a broad range of surface characteristics, e.g. sites with multiple dangling bonds and adsorbates with multiple bonding configurations. The model uses the nature of the surface to determine the elementary processes that can take place during growth. Rate constants for these processes are calculated from first principles using statistical thermodynamics, transition state theory, and bond dissociation enthalpies. In this way, deposition rates are determined without either assuming the reaction mechanism or arbitrarily choosing any kinetic parameter values. The utility of the approach is illustrated by modeling low-pressure CVD of tungsten from tungsten hexafluoride and hydrogen. The treatment considers 14 species and eight reactions in the gas together with 21 species and 65 processes at the surface.

Arora, R.; Pollard, R. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (US))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Twenty-Four-Hour Raman Lidar Water Vapor Measurements during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Observation Periods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prior to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programs first water vapor intensive observation period (WVIOP) at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed site near Lamont, Oklahoma, an automated 24-h Raman lidar was delivered to the site. This ...

D. D. Turner; J. E. M. Goldsmith

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

TEOS-based SiO{sub 2} chemical vapor deposition: Reaction kinetics and related surface chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed a comprehensive understanding of thermal TEOS (tetracthylorthosificate, Si(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 4}) surface chemistry at CVD (chemical vapor deposition) temperatures and pressures. This was accomplished by examining how TEOS reaction rate are influenced by factors critical to the heterogeneous reaction. This includes determining the TEOS pressure dependence, testing if reaction by-products inhibit TEOS decomposition, identifying reaction sites on the surface, and establishing the reaction sites coverage dependencies. We evaluated the pressure dependencies and by-product inhibition with GCMS. The experiments in a cold-wall research reactor revealed that the TEOS surface reaction at 1000K (1) was first-order with respect to TEOS pressure (0.10 to 1.50Torr) and (2) was not inhibited by surface reaction by-products (ethylene, ethanol, and water). Reactivities of surface sites and their coverage dependencies were compared with FTIR. Our experiments demonstrated that two-membered siloxane ((Si-O){sub 2}) rings on the SiO{sub 2} surface were consumed almost instantaneously when exposed to TEOS. Our FTIR experiments also revealed that TEOS decomposition was zero-order with respect to coverages of hydroxyl groups and (by indirect evidence) three-membered siloxane ((Si-O){sub 3}) rings. This type of site-independent reactivity is consistent with TEOS reacting with hydroxyl groups and (Si-O){sub 3} rings via a common rate-determining step at 1000K. With respect to deposition uniformity, our results predict that deposition rates will be insensitive to the relative coverages of (Si-O){sub 3} rings and hydroxyls on SiO{sub 2} as well as the re-adsorbed by-products of the surface reaction. Therefore, it is likely that nonuniform SiO{sub 2} depositions from TEOS reactions are due to depletion of TEOS in the gas-phase and/or thermal gradients.

Bartram, M.E.; Moffat, H.K.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

The Effect of Growth Parameters on the Intrinsic Properties of Large-Area Single Layer Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu  

SciTech Connect

We present a comprehensive study of the parameter space for single layer graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition on Cu. The temperature is the most widely recognized parameter in single layer graphene growth. We show that the methane-to-hydrogen ratio and the growth pressure also are critical parameters that affect the structural perfection and the cleanliness of graphene. The optimal conditions for suppressing double and multilayer graphene growth occur near 1000 C, 1:20 methane-to-hydrogen ratio, and a total pressure in the range from 0.5 to 1 Torr. Raman mapping of a 40x30 m2 area shows single layer domains with 5-10 m linear dimensions. Atomic resolution imaging of suspended graphene by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy shows that the cleanest single layer graphene consists of areas of 10-15 nm linear dimensions and smaller patches of residual contamination that was undetected by other characterization methods.

Regmi, Murari [ORNL; Chisholm, Matthew F [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

CDIAC Atmospheric Pressure Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric Pressure CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Pressure Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 1 (CDIAC NDP-041) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; through 1990 Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of sea-level pressure Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 2 (Note: the above link takes you to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center website.) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; some through most recent month

433

Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CMS to develop a membrane CMS to develop a membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling with 99 percent efficiency. This membrane system enables gasoline stations to surpass environmental regulations while reducing fuel losses. Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) was founded in 1993 in Wilmington, DE, with the acquisition of rights to certain DuPont polymer membrane patents. CMS focuses

434

Apparatus and method for removing mercury vapor from a gas stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metallic filter effectively removes mercury vapor from gas streams. The filter captures the mercury which then can be released and collected as product. The metallic filter is a copper mesh sponge plated with a six micrometer thickness of gold. The filter removes up to 90% of mercury vapor from a mercury contaminated gas stream.

Ganesan, Kumar (Butte, MT)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Lithium phosphorous oxynitride films synthesized by a plasma-assisted directed vapor deposition approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium phosphorous oxynitride films synthesized by a plasma-assisted directed vapor deposition vapor deposition approach has been explored for the synthesis of lithium phosphorous oxynitride Lipon the ionic transport properties of these films. This enabled the synthesis of electrolyte films with lithium

Wadley, Haydn

436

Synthesis of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on copper using chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/IG of the Raman spectra (red line in Fig. 6a) taken from the graphene grown on high purity Cu (99.999%) is above 3Synthesis of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on copper using chemical vapor deposition determining the growth of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on Cu using chemical vapor deposition

437

The finite element analysis of water vapor diffusion in a brick with vertical holes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a finite element analysis of water vapor diffusion in a brick with vertical holes. The isotherms, isodensity, isopressure and isohumidity surfaces considering the longitudinal and transverse direction diffusion of water vapor in a ... Keywords: brick wall, diffusion, finite element method (FEM), numerical simulation

Madalina Calbureanu; Mihai Talu; Carlos Manuel Travieso-Gonzlez; Stefan Talu; Mihai Lungu; Raluca Malciu

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Laser vaporization/ionization interface for coupling microscale separation techniques with mass spectrometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a laser-induced vaporization and ionization interface for directly coupling microscale separation processes to a mass spectrometer. Vaporization and ionization of the separated analytes are facilitated by the addition of a light-absorbing component to the separation buffer or solvent. 8 figs.

Yeung, E.S.; Chang, Y.C.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

439

Integrated Water Vapor Field and Multiscale Variations over China from GPS Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor plays a key role in the global hydrologic cycle and in climatic change. However, the distribution and variability of water vapor in the troposphere are not understood wellin particular, in China with the complex Tibetan Plateau and ...

Shuanggen Jin; Z. Li; J. Cho

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Gas transport model for chemical vapor infiltration. Topical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A node-bond percolation model is presented for the gas permeability and pore surface area of the coarse porosity in woven fiber structures during densification by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). Model parameters include the number of nodes per unit volume and their spatial distribution, and the node and bond radii and their variability. These parameters relate directly to structural features of the weave. Some uncertainty exists in the proper partition of the porosity between {open_quotes}node{close_quotes} and{open_quote}bond{close_quotes} and between intra-tow and inter-tow, although the total is constrained by the known fiber loading in the structure. Applied to cloth layup preforms the model gives good agreement with the limited number of available measurements.

Starr, T.L. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Gas/vapor- and fire-resistant transformers. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project responds to the serious need for a fire and explosion-resistant power transformer that can be produced at an acceptable cost while eliminating or reducing environmental concern. The objectives were to build three transformers with size, performance, cost, and losses equivalent to their oil counterpart. After much development of materials and systems, a gas-insulated vapor cooled system was chosen for the 2500 kVA 95 BIL unit. An immersed system utilizing perchloroethylene (C/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/) with 25% transformer oil, was used for the 1000-kVA, 200-BIL network transformer and the 5000-kVA 200-BIL substation transformer. The materials and systems developed provide safer fire-resistant transformers at near the cost of oil-insulated units but with greatly reduced dependence on the petroleum industry.

Moore, C.L.; Dakin, T.W.; Stewart, W.A.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Evaluation of aqueous cleaners as alternatives to vapor degreasing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of the preparation process during assembly of thermally activated batteries, the stainless steel piece parts are normally cleaned by vapor degreasing with trichloroethylene. Severe restrictions on the use of chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons in recent years prompted the evaluation of a number of aqueous cleaners as a replacement technology for this application. A total of seven commercial aqueous degreasers was evaluated in this study at several dilution ratios and temperatures. One organic cleaner was also examined under ambient conditions. The effectiveness of the cleaner was determined by the use of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which is a surface analytical technique that is very sensitive to low levels of surface contaminants. A quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) that is immersed in the cleaning bath was evaluated as a tool for monitoring the bath cleanliness. The best overall cleaning results were obtained with Micro, Impro-Clean 3800, and Sonicor cleaners.

Guidotti, R.A.; Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C. [and others

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Evaluation of aqueous cleaners as alternatives to vapor degreasing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of the preparation process during assembly of thermally activated batteries, the stainless steel piece parts are normally cleaned by vapor degreasing with trichloroethylene. Severe restrictions on the use of chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons in recent years prompted the evaluation of a number of aqueous cleaners as a replacement technology for this application. A total of seven commercial aqueous degreasers was evaluated in this study at several dilution ratios and temperatures. One organic cleaner was also examined under ambient conditions. The effectiveness of the cleaner was determined by the use of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which is a surface analytical technique that is very sensitive to low levels of surface contaminants. A quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) that is immersed in the cleaning bath was evaluated as a tool for monitoring the bath cleanliness. The best overall cleaning results were obtained with Micro, Impro-Clean 3800, and Sonicor cleaners.

Guidotti, R.A.; Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C. [and others

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

FFT-LB modeling of thermal liquid-vapor systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We further develop a thermal LB model for multiphase flows. In the improved model, we propose to use the FFT scheme to calculate both the convection term and external force term. The usage of FFT scheme is detailed and analyzed. By using the FFT algorithm spatiotemporal discretization errors are decreased dramatically and the conservation of total energy is much better preserved. A direct consequence of the improvement is that the unphysical spurious velocities at the interfacial regions can be damped to neglectable scale. Together with the better conservation of total energy, the more accurate flow velocities lead to the more accurate temperature field which determines the dynamical and final states of the system. With the new model, the phase diagram of the liquid-vapor system obtained from simulation is more consistent with that from theoretical calculation. Very sharp interfaces can be achieved. The accuracy of simulation results are also verified by the Laplace law. The FFT scheme can be easily applied t...

Gan, Yanbiao; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Nonlinear magneto-optic effects in optically dense Rb vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nonlinear magneto-optical effects, originated from atomic coherence, are studied both theoretically and experimentally in thermal Rb vapor. The analytical description of the fundamental properties of coherent media are based on the simplified three- and four-level systems, and then verified using numerical simulations and experimental measurements. In particular, we analyze the modification of the long-lived atomic coherence due to various physical effects, such as reabsorption of spontaneous radiation, collisions with a buffer gas atoms, etc. We also discuss the importance of the high-order nonlinearities in the description of the polarization rotation for the elliptically polarized light. The effect of self-rotation of the elliptical polarization is also analyzed. Practical applications of nonlinear magneto-optical effects are considered in precision metrology and magnetometery, and for the generation of non-classical states of electromagnetic field.

Novikova, Irina Borisovna

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Storage and retrieval of thermal light in warm atomic vapor  

SciTech Connect

We report slowed propagation and storage and retrieval of thermal light in warm rubidium vapor using the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We first demonstrate slowed propagation of the probe thermal light beam through an EIT medium by measuring the second-order correlation function of the light field using the Hanbury-Brown-Twiss interferometer. We also report an experimental study on the effect of the EIT slow-light medium on the temporal coherence of thermal light. Finally, we demonstrate the storage and retrieval of the thermal light beam in the EIT medium. The direct measurement of the photon number statistics of the retrieved light field shows that the photon number statistics are preserved during the storage and retrieval processes.

Cho, Young-Wook; Kim, Yoon-Ho [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Thin Film Magnets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin-film magnet formed from a gas-phase reaction of tetracyanoetheylene (TCNE) OR (TCNQ), 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-P-quinodimethane, and a vanadium-containing compound such as vanadium hexcarbonyl (V(CO).sub.6) and bis(benzene)vanalium (V(C.sub.6 H.sub.6).sub.2) and a process of forming a magnetic thin film upon at least one substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a process temperature not exceeding approximately 90.degree. C. and in the absence of a solvent. The magnetic thin film is particularly suitable for being disposed upon rigid or flexible substrates at temperatures in the range of 40.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The present invention exhibits air-stable characteristics and qualities and is particularly suitable for providing being disposed upon a wide variety of substrates.

Miller, Joel S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Pokhodnya, Kostyantyn I. (Salt Lake City, UT)

2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

448

Laser-induced micron size clustering in thiophenol vapor  

SciTech Connect

Positively charged micron sized clusters are efficiently produced following irradiation of thiophenol vapor at 248 nm by a single KrF laser pulse of 30 ns duration. The production mechanism has been studied by examining the effect of N[sub 2], Ar, and He as diffusion media in mixtures with thiophenol, and by varying the laser pulse energy and excitation wavelength. A qualitative summary of possible mechanisms that may be responsible for the experimental results is presented providing a framework for understanding the observed cluster growth. The measurements indicate an optimum set of parameters for growth of large clusters and also show that the cluster charge can be controlled by selection of the buffer gas mixture.

Zafiropulos, V.; Kollia, Z.; Fotakis, C. (FORTH-Institute for Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, GR 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)); Stockdale, J.A.D. (L-463, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

1993-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

Computer Based Training: Pressure Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ETTM Pressure Measurement is a computer based training module that allows users to access training when desired and review it at their own pace. It provides graphics and limited interactive features to enhance learning. The purpose of this training module is to provide an understanding of the engineering principles associated with pressure measurement through the review of: Definitions and laws, Operation of some typical plant pressure instruments and, Installation and correction considerations that will...

2010-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

450

Rapid tooling by electron-beam vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) of tooling metal, onto a shaped substrate to produce a replica of the substrate surface, offers the potential for significant cost savings over present methods of injection mold manufacturing. These savings are realized by the high deposition rate and the corresponding short manufacturing times provided by the EBPVD process. However, on route to realizing these gains, there are process technical issues which need to be resolved. Mold surfaces typically contain relatively high aspect ratio details that must be replicated to dimensional tolerances within +/- 2 mils. The deposited mold material must also provide high surface hardness and high fracture toughness. Good quality grain structure can be obtained in deposited Al 10-wt% Cu mold material when the substrate and corresponding deposit are at high process temperature. However, the resulting mold is subject to distortion during cooldown due to differential temperatures and shrinkage rates. Thermally controlled cooldown and the use of crushable substrate materials reduce these distortions, but not to the required levels of tolerance. Deposition of the Al-Cu at lower temperature produces columnar, poorly joined grains which result in a brittle and weakened mold material. When Al 10-wt% Cu metal vapor is deposited across high aspect ratio step features on the substrate surface, a grain growth defect can form in the step-shadowed regions of the deposited material, alongside the step feature. The step coverage defect consists of entrained voids which persist at intermediate deposition temperatures and produce a weakened mold. This final 1997 LDRD report investigates causes of this step coverage defect and offers methods for their control and elimination.

Meier, T. C., LLNL

1998-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

451

A Deep-Sea Differential Pressure Gauge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pressure gauge configured to respond to the difference between the ocean pressure and the pressure within a confined volume of compressible oil is found to be especially useful for detecting pressure fluctuations in the frequency range from a ...

Charles Cox; Thomas Deaton; Spahr Webb

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

High Pressure Studies of Superconductivity.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Superconductivity has been studied extensively since it was first discovered over 100 years ago. High pressure studies, in particular, have been vital in furthering our (more)

Hillier, Narelle Jayne

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

EA-0881: Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

81: Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization 81: Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization and Supporting Activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington EA-0881: Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization and Supporting Activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to sample the vapor space and liquid waste and perform other supporting activities in Tank 241-C-103 located in the 241-C Tank Farm on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD August 10, 1992 EA-0881: Finding of No Significant Impact Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization and Supporting Activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington August 10, 1992

454

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Vapor Retarder Classification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2006 the IRC has permitted Class III 2006 the IRC has permitted Class III vapor retarders like latex paint (see list above) in all climate zones under certain conditions thanks to research by Building America teams. Air-tight and well-insulated homes have little or no tolerance for drying if they get wet; moisture control is critical. That's why Building America research establishing vapor retarder classifications and their appropriate applications has been instrumental in the market transformation to high-performance homes. As buildings have gotten tighter over the past several decades, questions about vapor retarders and vapor barriers have confounded builders and code developers. Vapor barriers have traditionally been installed on the warm in winter side of the wall assembly in an attempt to keep interior moisture from entering the wall cavity

455

CONTAM Libraries - Appendix B: CONTAM Wind Pressure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Appendix B: CONTAM Wind Pressure Profile Library. The table below contains information on the wind pressure profiles ...

456

High pressure heterogeneous catalysis in a low pressure UHV environment  

SciTech Connect

The major thrust of our research is to carry out for the first time a heterogeneous catalytic reaction that normally is observed only at high pressures (>1 atm) of reactant gas at low pressures (<10{sup {minus}4} Torr) in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The reaction we have chosen is the steam reforming of methane on a Ni(111) crystal.

Ceyer, S.T.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Open-Cycle Vapor Compression Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In many industrial processes, large quantities of energy are often wasted in the form of low pressure steam and low-grade heat. Economical recovery of these waste energy sources is often difficult due to such factors as low temperature levels and contamination of the steam. In industrial processes that utilize steam directly or as a mode of energy transport, waste energy can be efficiently recovered and upgraded in the form of high-pressure steam by means of an open-cycle steam heat pump system. Recovery and upgrading of these waste steam or heat sources offer a great potential for energy conservation. Thermo Electron has developed, under sponsorship by the Gas Research Institute, Southern California Gas Company, and the Consolidated Natural Gas Service Company, an open-cycle steam heat pump to recover this waste energy in the form of high-pressure process steam. The system utilizes excess low-pressure steam (or that produced from an excess heat source with a waste heat boiler) and compresses this steam to the desired pressure level for process use. The compressor is driven by a gas turbine or gas engine prime mover. To enhance the system performance, the prime mover exhaust and/or cooling jacket heat is recovered to generate additional process steam or hot water. Utilizing the Thermo Electron system, fuel consumption can be 30 percent lower in comparison to a direct-fired boiler. Simple payback periods of 1 to 3 years are generally found for most applications.

Pasquinelli, D. M.; Becker, F. E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Vaporization modeling of petroleum-biofuel drops using a hybrid multi-component approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical modeling of the vaporization characteristics of multi-component fuel mixtures is performed in this study. The fuel mixtures studied include those of binary components, biodiesel, diesel-biodiesel, and gasoline-ethanol. The use of biofuels has become increasingly important for reasons of environmental sustainability. Biofuels are often blended with petroleum fuels, and the detailed understanding of the vaporization process is essential to designing a clean and efficient combustion system. In this study, a hybrid vaporization model is developed that uses continuous thermodynamics to describe petroleum fuels and discrete components to represent biofuels. The model is validated using the experimental data of n-heptane, n-heptane-n-decane mixture, and biodiesel. Since biodiesel properties are not universal due to the variation in feedstock, methods for predicting biodiesel properties based on the five dominant fatty acid components are introduced. Good levels of agreement in the predicted and measured drop size histories are obtained. Furthermore, in modeling the diesel-biodiesel drop, results show that the drop lifetime increases with the biodiesel concentration in the blend. During vaporization, only the lighter components of diesel fuel vaporize at the beginning. Biodiesel components do not vaporize until some time during the vaporization process. On the other hand, results of gasoline-ethanol drops indicate that both fuels start to vaporize once the process begins. At the beginning, the lighter components of gasoline have a slightly higher vaporization rate than ethanol. After a certain time, ethanol vaporizes faster than the remaining gasoline components. At the end, the drop reduces to a regular gasoline drop with heavier components. Overall, the drop lifetime increases as the concentration of ethanol increases in the drop due to the higher latent heat. (author)

Zhang, Lei; Kong, Song-Charng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2025 Black Engineering Building, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

459

Three-Dimensional Evolution of Water Vapor Distributions in the Northern Hemisphere Stratosphere as Observed by the MLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-dimensional evolution of stratospheric water vapor distributions observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) during the period October 1991July 1992 is documented. The transport features inferred from the MLS water vapor distributions ...

W. A. Lahoz; A. O'Neill; E. S. Carr; R. S. Harwood; L. Froidevaux; W. G. Read; J. W. Waters; J. B. Kumer; J. L. Mergenthaler; A. E. Roche; G. E. Peckham; R. Swinbank

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

A Comparison of Columnar Water Vapor Retrievals Obtained with Near-IR Solar Radiometer and Microwave Radiometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple two-channel solar radiometer and analysis technique have been developed for setting atmospheric water vapor via differential solar transmission measurements in and adjacent to the 940-nm water vapor absorption band. A prototype solar ...

J. Reagan; K. Thome; B. Herman; R. Stone; J. DeLuisi; J. Snider

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reid vapor pressure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

The Apparent Water Vapor Sinks and Heat Sources Associated with the Intraseasonal Oscillation of the Indian Summer Monsoon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility of using remote sensing retrievals to estimate apparent water vapor sinks and heat sources is explored. The apparent water vapor sinks and heat sources are estimated from a combination of remote sensing, specific humidity, and ...

Sun Wong; Eric J. Fetzer; Baijun Tian; Bjorn Lambrigtsen; Hengchun Ye

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

A Steerable Dual-Channel Microwave Radiometer for Measurement of Water Vapor and Liquid in the Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An instrument that remotely senses the integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid on a path through the atmosphere is discussed. The vapor and liquid are measured simultaneously but independently by microwave radiometers. Comparison of the ...

D. C. Hogg; F. O. Guiraud; J. B. Snider; M. T. Decker; E. R. Westwater

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Developing an Operational, Surface-Based, GPS, Water Vapor Observing System for NOAA: Network Design and Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The need for a reliable, low-cost observing system to measure water vapor in the atmosphere is incontrovertible. Experiments have shown the potential for using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to measure total precipitable water vapor ...

Daniel E. Wolfe; Seth I. Gutman

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

The Earths Clear-Sky Radiation Budget and Water Vapor Absorption in the Far Infrared  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed observational data are used to simulate the sensitivity of clear-sky outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) to water vapor perturbations in order to investigate the effect of uncertainties in water vapor measurements and spectroscopic ...

Ashok Sinha; John E. Harries

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Pairing Measurements of the Water Vapor Isotope Ratio with Humidity to Deduce Atmospheric Moistening and Dehydration in the Tropical Midtroposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the isotope ratio of water vapor (expressed as the ? value) allow processes that control the humidity in the tropics to be identified. Isotopic information is useful because the change in ? relative to the water vapor mixing ratio (...

David Noone

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Effect of gas feeding methods on optical properties of GaN grown by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: Ga vacancies, GaN growth, gas feeding method, optical property, rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD), yellow luminescence

Sun Jung Kim; Young Hun Seo; Kee Suk Nahm; Yun Bong Hahn; Hyun Wook Shim; Eun-Kyung Suh; Kee Young Lim; Hyung Jae Lee

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

TO: Reid Rosnick, Radiation Protection Division, Environmental Protection Agency FROM: Sarah M. Fields, Uranium Watch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Sarah M. Fields, Uranium Watch DATE: November 25, 2009 RE: EPA REVIEW OF 40 CFR PART 61, SUBPART W -- RADON NESHAP FOR OPERATING URANIUM RECOVERY FACILITIES Below are some issues that the Environmental radionuclide NESHAPS in a timely manner. · Failure to properly implement radionuclide NESHAPS for uranium mills

470

NETL: Pressure Swing Absorption Device  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Project No.: DE-FE0001323 New Jersey Institute of Technology is developing an advanced pressure swing absorption-based (PSAB) device via laboratory-based experiments. The device will be used to accomplish a cyclic process to process low temperature post-shift-reactor synthesis gas resulting from the gasification process into purified hydrogen at high pressure for use by the combustion turbine of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. The overall goal of the proposed work is to develop an advanced PSAB device and cyclic process for use in a coal-fired IGCC plant to produce purified hydrogen at high pressure and a highly purified CO2 stream suitable for use or sequestration.

471

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

February 8 February 8 th , 2005 Mark J. Warner, P.E. Principal Engineer Quantum Technologies, Inc. Irvine, CA Low Cost, High Efficiency, Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage High Pressure Hydrogen Storage This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. 70 MPa Composite Tanks Vent Line Ports Defueling Port (optional) Fill Port Filter Check Valve Vehicle Interface Bracket with Stone Shield In Tank Regulator with Solenoid Lock-off Pressure Relief Device Manual Valve Compressed Hydrogen Storage System In-Tank Regulator Pressure Sensor (not visible here) Pressure Relief Device (thermal) In Tank Gas Temperature Sensor Carbon Composite Shell (structural) Impact Resistant Outer Shell (damage resistant) Gas Outlet Solenoid Foam Dome (impact protection)

472

Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

473

atmospheric pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description (Abstract):Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords atmospheric pressure climate NASA SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 46 MiB)

474

Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zirconium Nitride in a Fluidized Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to design, assemble, and demonstrate the initial performance of a fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FB-CVD) system capable of producing thin, uniform zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings (1 to 10 micrometers thick) on uranium-molybdenum (UMo) particulate fuel. Plate-type fuel with U-xMo (x = 3 to 10 wt.%) particle fuel dispersed in an aluminum matrix is under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. Initial irradiation tests performed at INL in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) indicate an interaction layer forms between the fuel microspheres and the matrix at relatively high power levels. These power levels induce higher temperatures which enables uranium diffusion into the aluminum during irradiation, eventually causing fuel plate failure. The objective of this work was to create a process to mitigate the fuel/matrix interaction by forming a thin barrier coating on the surface of the U-xMo microspheres before incorporation into the dispersion fuel plate matrix. One of the main challenges in performance of the FB-CVD system was the effective fluidization of a powder whose physical characteristics (size, density) are continuously changing. To address this, two types of fluidized bed reaction vessels were designed and improved over the course of this research: a spouted fluidized bed and an inverted fluidized bed. Both reaction vessels utilized tetrakis(dimethylamino)zirconium (TDMAZ) and ammonia gas as precursors at atmospheric pressure. Tungsten wires and zirconia-silica (ZrO2-SiO2) microspheres were used as the substrates for the coating experiments. The substrate temperature and precursor gas flow were manipulated as the process variables. The FB-CVD system was successful in forming zirconium based coatings on surrogate microspheres with elevated levels of chemical impurities. At atmospheric pressure, coatings of thicknesses ranging from 0.5 micrometers to 1.5 micrometers were produced between temperatures of 250 degrees C and 350 degrees C. The deposited coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy.

Arrieta, Marie

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Atmospheric constraints for the CO2 partial pressure on terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years, several potentially habitable, probably terrestrial exoplanets and exoplanet candidates have been discovered. The amount of CO2 in their atmosphere is of great importance for surface conditions and habitability. In the absence of detailed information on the geochemistry of the planet, this amount could be considered as a free parameter. Up to now, CO2 partial pressures for terrestrial planets have been obtained assuming an available volatile reservoir and outgassing scenarios. This study aims at calculating the allowed maximum CO2 pressure at the surface of terrestrial exoplanets orbiting near the outer boundary of the habitable zone by coupling the radiative effects of the CO2 and its condensation at the surface. These constraints might limit the permitted amount of atmospheric CO2, independent of the planetary reservoir. A 1D radiative-convective cloud-free atmospheric model was used. CO2 partial pressures are fixed according to surface temperature and vapor pressure curve. Considered scena...

von Paris, Philip; Hedelt, Pascal; Rauer, Heike; Selsis, Franck; Stracke, Barbara

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

477