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Sample records for regulations radionuclides final

  1. Radionuclides in Western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, D.T.; Styron, C.E.; Casella, V.R.

    1983-09-23

    The increase in domestic energy production coupled with the switch from oil and natural gas to coal as a boiler-fuel source have prompted various federal agencies to assess the potential environmental and health risks associated with coal-fired power plants. Because it has been suggested that Western coals contain more uranium than Eastern coals, particular concern has been expressed about radioactive emissions from the increasing number of power plants that burn low-sulfur Western coal. As a result, the radionuclides in coal program was established to analyze low-sulfur coal reserves in Western coal fields for radioactivity. Samples from seams of obvious commercial value were taken from 19 operating mines that represented 65% of Western coal production. Although the present study did not delve deeply into underlying causative factors, the following general conclusions were reached. Commercially exploited Western coals do not show any alarming pattern of radionuclide content and probably have lower radioactivity levels than Eastern coals. The materials that were present appeared to be in secular equilibrium in coal, and a detailed dose assessment failed to show a significant hazard associated with the combustion of Western coal. Flue gas desulfurization technology apparently has no significant impact on radionuclide availability, nor does it pose any significant radiologic health risks. This study has also shown that Western coals are not more radioactive than most soils and that most solid combustion products have emanation powers <1%, which greatly reduce dose estimates from this pathway. In summary, the current use of mined, Western coals in fossil-fueled power plants does not present any significant radiological hazard.

  2. Differences in the regulation of chemicals and radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travis, C.C.

    1993-12-01

    Government regulations limiting public exposure to radionuclides and chemicals have historically been developed by regulatory agencies using different approaches with the result that levels of protection vary for the two classes of contaminants. These differences create difficulties in determining equitable regulatory measures when both radionuclides and chemical pollutants are involved. Generally, radiation exposure is not regulated as stringently as chemical exposure (Travis et al, 1989). The International commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends limiting excess environmental radiation exposure to the general public to 100 millirem per year (mrem/yr) (ICRP, 1991), a lifetime cancer risk of about 3.5E-3. An acceptable level of risk for chemical exposures is generally considered to be below 1E-6. Differences in regulatory approach for radionuclides and chemicals evoke debate over why they are different and which regulation strategy is better. Because these pollutants often coexist (mixed waste sites, contaminated metals and facilities, etc.), it is important to analyze inconsistencies in the regulation of chemicals and radionuclides and establish a more consistent approach to defining an acceptable level of exposure for these contaminants.

  3. Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule for Subchapters A, B, and C ... Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule for Subchapters A, B, ...

  4. Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule for changes to Parts 908, ... More Documents & Publications Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Technical ...

  5. Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule for changes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Parts 908, 945, 952, and 970 regarding Government Property | Department of Energy Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule for changes to Parts 908, 945, 952, and 970 regarding Government Property Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule for changes to Parts 908, 945, 952, and 970 regarding Government Property Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule for changes to Parts 908, 945, 952, and 970 regarding Government Property was published

  6. Estimate of radionuclide release characteristics into containment under severe accident conditions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1993-11-01

    A detailed review of the available light water reactor source term information is presented as a technical basis for development of updated source terms into the containment under severe accident conditions. Simplified estimates of radionuclide release and transport characteristics are specified for each unique combination of the reactor coolant and containment system combinations. A quantitative uncertainty analysis in the release to the containment using NUREG-1150 methodology is also presented.

  7. Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Radiation Protection; Final Rule |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Occupational Radiation Protection; Final Rule Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Radiation Protection; Final Rule The Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its primary standards for occupational radiation protection. This final rule is the culmination of a systematic analysis to identify the elements of a comprehensive radiation protection program and determine those elements of such a program that should be codified as DOE continues its transition from a system

  8. Department of Energy Finalizes Regulations to Increase Energy Efficiency in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Federal Buildings by 30% | Department of Energy Regulations to Increase Energy Efficiency in New Federal Buildings by 30% Department of Energy Finalizes Regulations to Increase Energy Efficiency in New Federal Buildings by 30% December 21, 2007 - 4:58pm Addthis WASHINGTON DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced it has established regulations that require new Federal buildings to achieve at least 30% greater energy efficiency over prevailing building codes. Mandated by

  9. Final Technical Report: Viral Infection of Subsurface Microorganisms and Metal/Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Karrie A.; Bender, Kelly S.; Li, Yusong

    2013-09-28

    Microbially mediated metabolisms have been identified as a significant factor either directly or indirectly impacting the fate and transport of heavy metal/radionuclide contaminants. To date microorganisms have been isolated from contaminated environments. Examination of annotated finished genome sequences of many of these subsurface isolates from DOE sites, revealed evidence of prior viral infection. To date the role that viruses play influencing microbial mortality and the resulting community structure which directly influences biogeochemical cycling in soils and sedimentary environments remains poorly understood. The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the role of viral infection of subsurface bacteria and the formation of contaminant-bearing viral particles. This objective was approached by examining the following working hypotheses: (i) subsurface microorganisms are susceptible to viral infections by the indigenous subsurface viral community, and (ii) viral surfaces will adsorb heavy metals and radionuclides. Our results have addressed basic research needed to accomplish the BER Long Term Measure to provide sufficient scientific understanding such that DOE sites would be able to incorporate coupled physical, chemical and biological processes into decision making for environmental remediation or natural attenuation and long-term stewardship by establishing viral-microbial relationships on the subsequent fate and transport of heavy metals and radionuclides. Here we demonstrated that viruses play a significant role in microbial mortality and community structure in terrestrial subsurface sedimentary systems. The production of viral-like particles within subsurface sediments in response to biostimulation with dissolved organic carbon and a terminal electron acceptor resulted in the production of viral-like particles. Organic carbon alone did not result in significant viral production and required the addition of a terminal electron acceptor

  10. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site. Final [report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m{sup 2} grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards.

  11. Scale-Dependent Fracture-Matrix Interactions And Their Impact on Radionuclide Transport - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Detwiler, Russell

    2014-06-30

    Matrix diffusion and adsorption within a rock matrix are widely regarded as important mechanisms for retarding the transport of radionuclides and other solutes in fractured rock (e.g., Neretnieks, 1980; Tang et al., 1981; Maloszewski and Zuber, 1985; Novakowski and Lapcevic, 1994; Jardine et al., 1999; Zhou and Xie, 2003; Reimus et al., 2003a,b). When remediation options are being evaluated for old sources of contamination, where a large fraction of contaminants reside within the rock matrix, slow diffusion out of the matrix greatly increases the difficulty and timeframe of remediation. Estimating the rates of solute exchange between fractures and the adjacent rock matrix is a critical factor in quantifying immobilization and/or remobilization of DOE-relevant contaminants within the subsurface. In principle, the most rigorous approach to modeling solute transport with fracture-matrix interaction would be based on local-scale coupled advection-diffusion/dispersion equations for the rock matrix and in discrete fractures that comprise the fracture network (Discrete Fracture Network and Matrix approach, hereinafter referred to as DFNM approach), fully resolving aperture variability in fractures and matrix property heterogeneity. However, such approaches are computationally demanding, and thus, many predictive models rely upon simplified models. These models typically idealize fracture rock masses as a single fracture or system of parallel fractures interacting with slabs of porous matrix or as a mobile-immobile or multi-rate mass transfer system. These idealizations provide tractable approaches for interpreting tracer tests and predicting contaminant mobility, but rely upon a fitted effective matrix diffusivity or mass-transfer coefficients. However, because these fitted parameters are based upon simplified conceptual models, their effectiveness at predicting long-term transport processes remains uncertain. Evidence of scale dependence of effective matrix diffusion

  12. Final Report for Regulation of Embryonic Development in Higher Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harada, John J.

    2013-10-22

    The overall goal of the project was to define the cellular processes that underlie embryo development in plants at a mechanistic level. Our studies focused on a critical transcriptional regulator, Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC1), that is necessary and sufficient to induce processes required for embryo development. Because LEC1 regulates lipid accumulation during the maturation phase of embryo development, information about LEC1 may be useful in designing approaches to enhance biofuel production in plants. During the tenure of this project, we determined the molecular mechanisms by which LEC1 acts as a transcription factor in embryos. We also identified genes directly regulated by LEC1 and showed that many of these genes are involved in maturation processes. This information has been useful in dissecting the gene regulatory networks controlling embryo development. Finally, LEC1 is a novel isoform of a transcription factor that is conserved among eukaryotes, and LEC1 is active primarily in seeds. Therefore, we determined that the LEC1-type transcription factors first appeared in lycophytes during land plant evolution. Together, this study provides basic information that has implications for biofuel production.

  13. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA Project Processing Site. Revision 3, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The supplemental standards provisions of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 192 (40 CFR Part 192) require the cleanup of radionuclides other than radium-226 (Ra-226) to levels ``as low as reasonably achievable`` (ALARA), taking into account site-specific conditions, if sufficient quantities and concentrations are present to constitute a significant radiation hazard. In this context, thorium-230 (Th-230) at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site will require remediation. However, a seasonally fluctuating groundwater table at the site significantly complicates conventional remedial action with respect to cleanup. Characterization data indicate that in the offpile areas, the removal of residual in situ bulk Ra-226 and Th-230 such that the 1000-year projected Ra-226 concentration (Ra-226 concentration in 1000 years due to the decay of in situ Ra-226 and the in-growth of Ra-226 from in situ Th-230) complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cleanup standard for in situ Ra-226 and the cleanup protocol for in situ Th-230 can be readily achieved using conventional excavation techniques for bulk contamination without encountering significant impacts due to groundwater. The EPA cleanup standard and criterion for Ra-226 and the 1000-year projected Ra-226 are 5 and 15 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) above background, respectively, averaged over 15-centimeter (cm) deep surface and subsurface intervals and 100-square-meter (m{sup 2}) grid areas. Significant differential migration of Th-230 relative to Ra-226 has occurred over 40 percent of the subpile area. To effectively remediate the site with respect to Ra-226 and Th-230, supplemental standard is proposed and discussed in this report.

  14. Estimates of health risks associated with radionuclide emissions from fossil-fueled steam-electric generating plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C.

    1995-08-01

    Under the Title III, Section 112 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment, Congress directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to perform a study of the hazards to public resulting from pollutants emitted by electric utility system generating units. Radionuclides are among the groups of pollutants listed in the amendment. This report updates previously published data and estimates with more recently available information regarding the radionuclide contents of fossil fuels, associated emissions by steam-electric power plants, and potential health effects to exposed population groups.

  15. Federal program for regulating highly hazardous materials finally takes off

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lessard, P.C. [Block Environmental Services Inc., Pleasant Hill, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Risk Management Program (RMP) rule, Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), was signed on May 24 and finalized on June 20. RMP is one of the most comprehensive, technically based regulatory programs for preventing, detecting and responding to accidental hazardous materials releases to have been issued in recent times. Although facilities have three years to comply, EPA estimates that the rule will affect an estimated 66,000 facilities that store highly hazardous or acutely toxic materials. The 1990 CAA Amendments are designed to prevent accidental releases of highly hazardous chemicals from stationary sources. Two significant regulatory programs that have emerged from the revised CAA are the Process Safety Management (PSM) standard and RMP. PSM is designed to protect employees and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. RMP`s purpose is to protect the public and the environment from highly hazardous chemicals. It authorizes EPA to create a list of substances (distinct from the list generated under PSM) known to cause serious adverse effects and to implement a program for accidental chemical release prevention.

  16. Radionuclide trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  17. Effect of Water Radiolysis Caused by Dispersed Radionuclides on Oxidative Dissolution of Spent Fuel in a Final Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Jinsong; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2001-08-15

    When released out of a canister, the radionuclides originally incorporated in the spent fuel can still deposit radiation energy (even more efficiently) into the pore water, cause water radiolysis, and produce oxidants in the buffering material. This phenomenon is termed secondary water radiolysis. The oxidants thus produced can possibly diffuse back to oxidize the spent fuel and to increase the oxidative dissolution rate of the fuel.The effect of the secondary water radiolysis has been identified and preliminarily addressed by a mass-balance model. To explore whether the effect is significant on spent-fuel dissolution, the upper-boundary limit of the effect has been set up by considering a scenario that is very unlikely to occur. Several extreme assumptions have been made: First, the canister fails completely 10{sup 3} yr after deposition; second, the spent fuel is oxidized instantaneously; and third, the radionuclides considered are those that dominantly contribute to radiolysis between 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} yr. With these assumptions, the spent-fuel dissolution rate can be increased dramatically if 10% or more of the oxidants produced by the secondary water radiolysis diffuse back to oxidize the spent fuel. It thus indicates that the effect of the secondary water radiolysis could be significant with some extreme assumptions. With more realistic assumptions, the effect could possibly become minimal. The subject is worth further investigation.

  18. OMB Interim Final Regulations … 2 CFR Part 176

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nov<24>2008 16:03 Apr 22, 2009 Jkt 217001 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\23APR1.SGM 23APR1 rwilkins on PROD1PC63 with RULES 18449 Federal Register Rules and Regulations Vol. 74, No. 77 Thursday, April 23, 2009 This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains regulatory documents having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed to and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations, which is published under 50 titles pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 1510. The Code of

  19. Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule for Subchapters A, B, and C

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule for Subchapters A, B, and C was published February 11, 2011, in the Federal Register 76 FR 7685. The changes are effective March 14, 2011.

  20. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  1. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  3. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  4. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  5. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  6. Position Paper on Practicable Performance Criteria for the Removal Efficiency of Volatile Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. T. Jubin; N. Soelberg; D. M. Strachan

    2012-03-01

    As a result of fuel reprocessing, volatile radionuclides may be released from the facility stack if no processes are put in place to remove them. The radionuclides that are of concern in this document are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. The question we attempted to answer is how efficient must this removal process be for each of these radionuclides? To answer this question, we examined the three regulations that may impact the degree to which these radionuclides must be reduced before process gases can be released from the facility. These regulations are 40 CFR 61 (EPA 2010a), 40 CFR 190(EPA 2010b), and 10 CFR 20 (NRC 2012). These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and to a particular organ - the thyroid. Because these doses can be divided amongst all the radionuclides in different ways and even within the four radionuclides in question, we provided several cases. We first looked at the inventories for these radionuclides for three fuel types (PWR UOX, PWR MOX, and AHTGR), several burn-up values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculated doses to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) with the EPA code CAP-88 (Rosnick 1992). Finally, we looked at two dose cases. Allocating all of the allowable dose to be used by the volatile radionuclides is one case, but, perhaps, unrealistic. In lieu of this, we arbitrarily selected a value of 10% of the allowable dose to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. We calculated the required decontamination factors (DFs) for both of these cases, including the case for the thyroid dose for which 14C and 129I were the main contributors. With respect to 129I doses, we found that the highest dose was calculated with iodine as a fine particulate. The dose scaled as the fraction of the total 129I that was particulate. Therefore, we assumed for all of our calculations that 100% of the 129I was particulate and allow the user of the results given here to scale our calculated doses to their needs.

  7. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  8. Policy Flash 2013-23 Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule for changes to Parts 908, 945, 952, and 970 regarding Government Property

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attached is Policy Flash 2013-23 Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule for changes to Parts 908, 945, 952, and 970 regarding Government Property.

  9. Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

  10. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by DOE itself. The three major recommendations are: under any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  11. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report: Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  12. Impact of federal regulations on the small coal mine in Appalachia. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.; Ferrell, R.

    1980-11-01

    This report contains the results of a study of the total costs of compliance with federal regulations of coal mines in Eastern Kentucky. The mines were stratified by tonnage per year and employment. Mail and personal interview surveys were conducted for each stratum. Survey results attempt to suggest the competitive position of small concerns and to form a basis for necessary modifications in regulations.

  13. Regulation of terpene metabolism. Final technical report, March 15, 1988--March 14, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croteau, R.

    1996-12-31

    This research focuses on the following topics: the biosynthesis and catabolism of monoterpenes; the organization of monoterpene metabolism; the developmental regulation of monoterpene metabolism; the flux control of precursor supply; and the integration of monoterpene and higher terpenoid metabolism.

  14. Calcium-Mediated Regulation of Proton-Coupled Sodium Transport - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumaker, Karen S

    2013-10-24

    The long-term goal of our experiments was to understand mechanisms that regulate energy coupling by ion currents in plants. Activities of living organisms require chemical, mechanical, osmotic or electrical work, the energy for which is supplied by metabolism. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has long been recognized as the universal energy currency, with metabolism supporting the synthesis of ATP and the hydrolysis of ATP being used for the subsequent work. However, ATP is not the only energy currency in living organisms. A second and very different energy currency links metabolism to work by the movement of ions passing from one side of a membrane to the other. These ion currents play a major role in energy capture and they support a range of physiological processes from the active transport of nutrients to the spatial control of growth and development. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), the activity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger, SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (SOS1), is essential for regulation of sodium ion homeostasis during plant growth in saline conditions. Mutations in SOS1 result in severely reduced seedling growth in the presence of salt compared to the growth of wild type. SOS1 is a secondary active transporter coupling movement of sodium ions out of the cell using energy stored in the transplasma membrane proton gradient, thereby preventing the build-up of toxic levels of sodium in the cytosol. SOS1 is regulated by complexes containing the SOS2 and CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (CBL10) or SOS3 proteins. CBL10 and SOS3 (also identified as CBL4) encode EF-hand calcium sensors that interact physically with and activate SOS2, a serine/threonine protein kinase. The CBL10/SOS2 or SOS3/SOS2 complexes then activate SOS1 Na+/H+ exchange activity. We completed our studies to understand how SOS1 activity is regulated. Specifically, we asked: (1) how does CBL10 regulate SOS1 activity? (2) What role do two putative CBL10-interacting proteins play in SOS1 regulation? (3) Are

  15. Genetic analysis of the regulation of TCH gene expression, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braam, Janet

    2008-10-28

    The Arabidopsis TCH genes, originally isolated as a consequence of their upregulation in response to the mechanical stimulus of touch, are also upregulated by a variety of seemingly disparate environmental and hormonal stimuli. To gain insight into the complexities of TCH gene regulation, a number of approaches were taken. Regulatory elements responsible for regulation were identified and characteristics of the regulation were evaluated. Reporter genes were used to monitor expression localization and dynamics. Microarray analyses of genome-wide expression behavior indicated that touch-inducible gene expression is more widespread than generally appreciated. Identification of all touch-regulated genes shed light on the types of cellular processes that may be altered in response to mechanical stress perturbations. Expression of the TCH2 gene, also called CML24, encoding a calmodulin (CaM)-like (CML) protein, was evaluated. CML24 shares over 40% amino acid sequence identity with CaM, has 4 EF hands and undergoes a Ca2+-dependent change in migration rate through denaturing gel electrophoresis, indicating that CML24 binds Ca2+ and, as a consequence, undergoes conformational changes. CML24 expression occurs in all major organs and is induced from 2- to 15-fold in plants subjected to touch, darkness, heat, cold, hydrogen peroxide, abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid. The putative CML24 regulatory region confers reporter expression at sites of predicted mechanical stress, in regions undergoing growth, in vascular tissues and various floral organs and in stomata, trichomes and hydathodes. CML24 underexpressing transgenics are resistant to ABA inhibition of germination and seedling growth, defective in long-day induction of flowering, and have enhanced tolerance to CoCl2, molybdic acid, ZnSO4 and MgCl2. These data present evidence that CML24 encodes a potential Ca2+ sensor that may function to enable responses to ABA, day length and presence of various salts. Further

  16. Radionuclide Behavior in Containments.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-02-14

    MATADOR analyzes the transport and deposition of radionuclides as vapor or aerosol through Light Water Reactor (LWR) containments during severe accidents and calculates environmental release fractions of radionuclides as a function of time. It is intended for use in system risk studies. The principal output is information on the timing and magnitude of radionuclide releases to the environment as a result of severely degraded core accidents. MATADOR considers the transport of radionuclides through the containmentmore » and their removal by natural deposition and the operation of engineered safety systems such as sprays. Input data on the source term from the primary system, the containment geometry, and thermal-hydraulic conditions are required.« less

  17. Impact analysis of OSM regulations on highwall mining systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The establishment of the federal surface mining performance standards has placed additional restraints on auger mining. The federal regulations impose barrier pillar and hole sealing requirements on augering, stipulate time frames for hole sealing and discharge treatment, and prohibit auger mining under certain conditions. Barrier pillar requirements between groups of auger holes and between auger holes and underground workings decrease the augerable reserve base on a site by a minimum of ten percent. Barrier requirements may also reduce productivity levels due to increased delay and scheduling problems. Federal auger hole sealing requirements are more stringent than most state regulations, and consequently have increased the cost of augering in almost all auger mining areas. The availability of impervious materials on the site and the extent of backfilling required to form a water-tight seal may have the greatest effect on auger hole reclamation costs. The federal regulations require auger mining to be prohibited: if adverse water quality impacts cannot be prevented; if stability of sealings cannot be achieved; if subsidence resulting from augering may damage powerlines, pipelines, buildings, or other facilities; or if coal reserve recovery is not maximized by augering. As a result, all up dip augering may be restricted on the grounds that seal stability cannot be maintained for long time periods if water pressure builds behind the plug. Also, since tradiational augering techniques have a lower recovery rate than surface or underground methods, augering may be prohibited in many situations by the stipulation that maximum resource recovery will not be achieved.

  18. The Human Genome Project: Information access, management, and regulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McInerney, J.D.; Micikas, L.B.

    1996-08-31

    The Human Genome Project is a large, internationally coordinated effort in biological research directed at creating a detailed map of human DNA. This report describes the access of information, management, and regulation of the project. The project led to the development of an instructional module titled The Human Genome Project: Biology, Computers, and Privacy, designed for use in high school biology classes. The module consists of print materials and both Macintosh and Windows versions of related computer software-Appendix A contains a copy of the print materials and discs containing the two versions of the software.

  19. Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harp, Richard J. (18746 Viking Way, Cerritos, CA 90701)

    1990-01-01

    In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

  20. Cost impact of discretionary alternatives. OSM Permanent Regulations 30 CFR, Chapter 7. Volume 1. Executive Summary and methodology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-11

    The report was prepared by D'Appolonia Consulting Engineers, Inc. (D'Appolonia) for the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) to assess the probable impacts on coal production costs of numerous discretionary issues involved in drafting the permanent regulations for implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (the Act). The results of the engineering cost study were used directly in OSM's Regulatory Analysis (RA) developed in compliance with Executive Order 12044. The final RA was published in March 1979 and is available from the OSM. The report details those analyses conducted by D'Appolonia and used in the RA. The results of the study are not meant to reflect the complete cost or economic impact of the Act or the resulting OSM regulations. The results do provide a basis for evaluating the relative impact of the various alternatives considered by OSM during development of the permanent regulatory program. The discretionary issues analyzed in the report pertain to both surface and underground mining activities. The volume presents the general methods of approach and final results of the study, while Volumes II and III present the individual analyses of each issue for surface and underground mines, respectively.

  1. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  2. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  3. Final Report: Transport and its regulation in Marine Microorganisms: A Genomic Based Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian Palenik; Bianca Brahamsha; Ian Paulsen

    2009-09-03

    This grant funded the analysis and annotation of the genomes of Synechococcus and Ostreococcus, major marine primary producers. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of transporters using state of the art bioinformatics analyses. During the analysis of the Synechococcus genome, some of the components of the unique bacterial swimming apparatus of one species of Synechococcus (Clade III, strain WH8102) were determined and these included transporters, novel giant proteins and glycosyltransferases. This grant funded the analysis of gene expression in Synechococcus using whole genome microarrays. These analyses revealed the strategies by which marine cyanobacteria respond to environmental conditions such as the absence of phosphorus, a common limiting nutrient, and the interaction of Synechococcus with other microbes. These analyses will help develop models of gene regulation in cyanobacteria and thus help predict their responses to changes in environmental conditions.

  4. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions ... This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms ...

  5. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  6. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  7. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, H

    2005-07-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  8. Final Record of Decision for the Madison Site, Madison, Illinois...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... This regulation provides a dose limitation for all radionuclides from all possible ... radiation which is 5000 mremyr (IDNS regulation section 340.210; U.S. Nuclear ...

  9. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of ... RADIOISOTOPES; RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION; RETENTION; SORPTION; WASTE FORMS; ...

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  11. ESTABLISHING FINAL END STATE FOR A RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS PRODUCTION REACTOR; COLLABORATION BETWEEN STAKEHOLDERS, REGULATORS AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergren, C

    2009-01-16

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Nuclear weapons material production began in the early 1950s, utilizing five production reactors. In the early 1990s all SRS production reactor operations were terminated. The first reactor closure end state declaration was recently institutionalized in a Comprehensive Environmental Response and Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Early Action Record of Decision. The decision for the final closure of the 318,000 square foot 105-P Reactor was determined to be in situ decommissioning (ISD). ISD is an acceptable and cost effective alternative to off-site disposal for the reactor building, which will allow for consolidation of remedial action wastes generated from other cleanup activities within the P Area. ISD is considered protective by the regulators, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), public and stakeholders as waste materials are stabilized/immobilized, and radioactivity is allowed to naturally decay, thus preventing future exposure to the environment. Stakeholder buy-in was critical in the upfront planning in order to achieve this monumental final decision. Numerous public meetings and workshops were held in two different states (covering a 200 mile radius) with stakeholder and SRS Citizens Advisory Board participation. These meetings were conducted over an eight month period as the end state decision making progressed. Information provided to the public evolved from workshop to workshop as data became available and public input from the public meetings were gathered. ISD is being considered for the balance of the four SRS reactors and other hardened facilities such as the chemical processing canyons.

  12. ESTABLISHING FINAL END STATE FOR A RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS PRODUCTION REACTOR; COLLABORATION BETWEEN STAKEHOLDERS, REGULATORS, AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT - 11052

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergren, C.; Flora, M.; Belencan, H.

    2010-11-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Nuclear weapons material production began in the early 1950s, utilizing five production reactors. In the early 1990s all SRS production reactor operations were terminated. The first reactor closure end state declaration was recently institutionalized in a Comprehensive Environmental Response and Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Early Action Record of Decision. The decision for the final closure of the 318,000 square foot 105-P Reactor was determined to be in situ decommissioning (ISD). ISD is an acceptable and cost effective alternative to off-site disposal for the reactor building, which will allow for consolidation of remedial action wastes generated from other cleanup activities within the P Area. ISD is considered protective by the regulators, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), public and stakeholders as waste materials are stabilized/immobilized, and radioactivity is allowed to naturally decay, thus preventing future exposure to the environment. Stakeholder buy-in was critical in the upfront planning in order to achieve this monumental final decision. Numerous public meetings and workshops were held in two different states (covering a 200 mile radius) with stakeholder and SRS Citizens Advisory Board participation. These meetings were conducted over an eight month period as the end state decision making progressed. Information provided to the public evolved from workshop to workshop as data became available and public input from the public meetings were gathered. ISD is being considered for the balance of the four SRS reactors and other hardened facilities such as the chemical Separation Facilities (canyons).

  13. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  14. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  15. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  16. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2008-07-15

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners.

  17. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  18. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}} ions and RaCl{sub 2} is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  20. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal: Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Prohammer, L.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    The results reported here establish the relevance and propose a method for including biotic transport in the assessment and licensing process for commercial low-level waste disposal sites. Earlier work identified the biotic transport mechanisms and process scenarios linking biotic transport with dose to man, and developed models for assessment of impacts. Model modification and improvement efforts in enhancing the ability to represent soil erosion and soil transport within the trench cover. Two alternative hypotheses on plant root uptake were incorporated into the model to represent transport of radionuclides by roots that penetrate the buried waste. Enhancements were also made to the scenario for future site intruder activities. Representation of waste package decomposition in the model was confirmed as the best available alternative. Results from sensitivity analyses indicate that additional information is needed to evaluate the alternative hypotheses for plant root uptake of buried wastes. Site-specific evaluations of the contribution from biotic transport to the potential dose to man establish the relevance in the assessment process. The BIOPORT/MAXI1 computer software package is proposed for dose assessments of commercial low-level waste disposal sites.

  1. Implementation plan for Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Parts 280 and 281; Final rules for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stupka, R.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the schedules and methods required to comply with the newly promulgated Underground Storage Tank (UST) Regulations Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 280 and 281. These rules were promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on September 23, 1988, and became effective December 22, 1988. These regulations are required by Subtitle I of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. Their purpose is to protect the groundwater supplies of the United States in the following ways: Closing old tanks; detecting and remediating tank leaks and spills; establishing stringent standards for new tanks; and upgrade of existing tanks to new-tank standards. 3 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobecky, Patricia A; Taillefert, Martial

    2013-03-29

    This final technical report describes results and findings from a research project to examine the role of microbial phosphohydrolase enzymes in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of the radionuclide uranium through the production of insoluble uranium phosphate minerals. The research project investigated the microbial mechanisms and the physical and chemical processes promoting uranium biomineralization and sequestration in oxygenated subsurface soils. Uranium biomineralization under aerobic conditions can provide a secondary biobarrier strategy to immobilize radionuclides should the metal precipitates formed by microbial dissimilatory mechanisms remobilize due to a change in redox state.

  3. What radionuclides does LANL measure?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radionuclides & Chemicals What radionuclides does LANL measure? In compliance with the Clean Air Act, LANL monitors nonradiological pollutants. August 1, 2013 A typical airnet station with its housing open for sample changeout A typical airnet station with its housing open for sample changeout LANL expects to emit certain analytes to the air based on the materials that are used at each facility. LANL expects to emit certain analytes to the air based on the materials that are used at each

  4. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  5. U.S. DOE 2004 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.W. Jacobson

    2005-08-12

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2004.

  6. Impacts of proposed RCRA regulations and other related federal environmental regulations on fossil fuel-fired facilities: Final report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Estimation of the costs associated with implementation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for non-hazardous and hazardous material disposal in the utility industry are provided. These costs are based on engineering studies at a number of coal-fired power plants in which the costs for hazardous and non-hazardous disposal are compared to the costs developed for the current practice design for each utility. The relationship of the three costs is displayed. The emphasis of this study is on the determination of incremental costs rather than the absolute costs for each case (current practice, non-hazardous, or hazardous). For the purpose of this project, the hazardous design cost was determined for minimum versus maximum compliance.

  7. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-06-29

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

  8. An Innovative Approach for the Calculation of Exposure Point Concentrations for Large Areas of Surface Radionuclide Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winchester Chromec, F.; Myers, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-15

    The Department of Energy Rocky Flats site was designated as a wildlife refuge by the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge Act of 2001. Rocky Flats was considered to be one of the most highly contaminated radiological sites in the country. Some portions of the site have low-level radionuclide contamination in surface soils. A site-wide risk and dose assessment to evaluate threats to human health and the environment were performed, so that the site could be released for this land use. The aggressive accelerated action program combined with defensible and innovative risk assessment methods resulted in there being no radionuclides of concern in the final comprehensive risk assessment (DOE 2006). An innovative approach for delineating functional exposure areas and area-weighted exposure point concentration-activities (EPCs) was negotiated with the regulatory agencies in Colorado. This procedure leads to realistic estimates of risk and dose to workers and visitors. This innovative approach to the calculation of EPCs was negotiated with both State and Federal regulators. The value of developing and maintaining good working relationships with regulators responsible for a site can not be overestimated. The building of trust and confidence among responsible parties and regulators is essential for the development and implementation of innovative methods and technologies.

  9. Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-03-08

    Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

  10. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1983-05-03

    Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  11. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Richards, Powell

    1985-01-01

    Lymphocytes labelled with .beta.-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  12. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  13. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Perkins, Richard W.; Rieck, Henry G.; Wogman, Ned A.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  14. Radionuclide Inventory Distribution Project Data Evaluation and Verification White Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-05-17

    Testing of nuclear explosives caused widespread contamination of surface soils on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Atmospheric tests produced the majority of this contamination. The Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP) was developed to determine distribution and total inventory of radionuclides in surface soils at the NTS to evaluate areas that may present long-term health hazards. The RIDP achieved this objective with aerial radiological surveys, soil sample results, and in situ gamma spectroscopy. This white paper presents the justification to support the use of RIDP data as a guide for future evaluation and to support closure of Soils Sub-Project sites under the purview of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Use of the RIDP data as part of the Data Quality Objective process is expected to provide considerable cost savings and accelerate site closures. The following steps were completed: - Summarize the RIDP data set and evaluate the quality of the data. - Determine the current uses of the RIDP data and cautions associated with its use. - Provide recommendations for enhancing data use through field verification or other methods. The data quality is sufficient to utilize RIDP data during the planning process for site investigation and closure. Project planning activities may include estimating 25-millirem per industrial access year dose rate boundaries, optimizing characterization efforts, projecting final end states, and planning remedial actions. In addition, RIDP data may be used to identify specific radionuclide distributions, and augment other non-radionuclide dose rate data. Finally, the RIDP data can be used to estimate internal and external dose rates. The data quality is sufficient to utilize RIDP data during the planning process for site investigation and closure. Project planning activities may include estimating 25-millirem per industrial access year dose rate boundaries, optimizing characterization efforts, projecting final

  15. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site, calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diediker, L.P.; Johnson, A.R.; Rhoads, K.; Klages, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Rokkan, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1992 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to an member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  16. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site, Calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleckler, B.P.; Diediker, L.P.; Jette, S.J.; Rhoads, K.; Soldat, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1994, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the ``MEI.`` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  18. Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1983-08-25

    This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

  19. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tveten, U. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchant, Gary E.

    2013-04-23

    This is the final report of a two year project entitled "Governing Nanotechnology Risks and Benefits in the Transition to Regulation: Innovative Public and Private Approaches." This project examined the role of new governance or "soft law" mechanisms such as codes of conduct, voluntary programs and partnership agreements to manage the risks of emerging technologies such as nanotechnology. A series of published or in publication papers and book chapters are attached.

  1. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  2. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

  3. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates.

  4. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  5. A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake Print Thursday, 21 January 2016 12:40 Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide uptake into cells is instrumental in managing human contamination. Recently, scientists have reported that an iron-binding protein called siderocalin can also bind

  6. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

    1990-11-13

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

  7. Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  8. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities radionuclide inventory assessment CY 1992-1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sula, M.J.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-09-01

    Assessments for evaluating compliance with airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subparts H and I) were performed for 33 buildings at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory on the Hanford Site, and for five buildings owned and operated by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The assessments were performed using building radionuclide inventory data obtained in 1992 and 1993. Results of the assessments are summarized in Table S.1 for DOE-PNL buildings and in Table S.2 for Battelle-owned buildings. Based on the radionuclide inventory assessments, four DOE-PNL buildings (one with two emission points) require continuous sampling for radionuclides per 40 CFR 61. None of the Battelle-owned buildings require continuous emission sampling.

  10. Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wai, Chien M.; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2000-01-01

    The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

  11. Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric pollution around Manjung district, Perak using moss as bio-indicator Bio-monitoring method using mosses have ...

  12. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 12 MANAGEMENT OF ...

  13. Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, Keith D.; Morgan, Dean T.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

  14. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.R. Dixon

    2004-02-17

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document two models for drift-scale radionuclide transport. This has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) 2002 [160819]), which includes planning documents for the technical work scope, content, and management of this Model Report in Section 1.15, Work Package AUZM11, ''Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport.'' The technical work scope for this Model Report calls for development of a process-level model and an abstraction model representing diffusive release from the invert to the rocks, partitioned between fracture and matrix, as compared to the fracture-release approach used in the Site Recommendation. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of that drift. The plan for validation of the models documented in this Model Report is given in Section I-5 of Attachment I in BSC (2002 [160819]). Note that the model validation presented in Section 7 deviates from the technical work plan (BSC 2002 [160819], Section I-5) in that an independent technical review specifically for model validation has not been conducted, nor publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Model validation presented in Section 7 is based on corroboration with alternative mathematical models, which is also called out by the technical work plan (BSC 2002 [160819], Section I-5), and is sufficient based on the requirements of AP-SIII.10Q for model validation. See Section 7 for additional discussion. The phenomenon of flow and transport in the vicinity of the waste emplacement drift are evaluated in this model report under ambient thermal, chemical, and mechanical conditions. This includes the effects of water diversion around an emplacement drift and the flow and transport behavior expected in a fractured rock below the drift. The reason for a separate assessment of drift-scale transport is that the effects of waste emplacement drifts on flow

  15. An assessment of natural radionuclides in water of Langat River...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An assessment of natural radionuclides in water of Langat River estuary, Selangor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An assessment of natural radionuclides in water of ...

  16. Radionuclide Releases During Normal Operations for Ventilated Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blunt, B.

    2001-09-24

    This calculation estimates the design emissions of radionuclides from Ventilated Tanks used by various facilities. The calculation includes emissions due to processing and storage of radionuclide material.

  17. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

  18. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  19. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  20. Radionuclide analysis using solid phase extraction disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beals, D.M; Britt, W.G.; Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    The use of solid phase extraction disks was studied for the quantification of selected radionuclides in aqueous solutions. The extraction of four radionuclides using six types (two commercial, four test materials) of 3M Empore{trademark} RAD disks was studied. The radionuclides studied were: technetium-99 (two types of disks), cesium-137 (two types), strontium-90 (one type), plutonium-238 (one type). Extractions were tested from DI water, river water and seawater. Extraction efficiency, kinetics (flow rate past the disk), capacity, and potential interferences were studied as well as quantification methods.

  1. NREL Support for a Functional Genomics Approach to Investigate Regulation of Phenolic Glycoside: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-07-00218

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.

    2010-07-01

    NREL and MTU collaborated on a proposal 'A Functional Genomics Approach to Investigate Regulation of Phenolic Glycoside Metabolism in Populus' funded by the National Science Foundation.

  2. System and method for assaying a radionuclide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

    2014-12-23

    A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

  3. Natural radionuclides in Hanford site ground waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.R.; Laul, J.C.; Johnson, V.G.

    1987-10-01

    Uranium, Th, Ra, Rn, Pb and Po radionuclide concentrations in ground waters from the Hanford Site indicate that U, Th, and Ra are highly sorbed. Relative to Rn, these radionuclides are low by factors of 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -6/. Uranium sorption is likely due to its reduction from the +6 state, where it is introduced via surface waters, to the +4 state found in the confined aquifers. The distribution of radionuclides is very similar in all of the confined aquifers and significantly different from the distribution observed in the unconfined and surface waters. Barium correlates well with Ra over three orders of magnitude, indicating that stable element analogs may be useful for inferring the behavior of radioactive waste radionuclides in this candidate geologic repository. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake Print Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide uptake into cells is instrumental in managing human contamination. Recently, scientists have reported that an iron-binding protein called siderocalin can also bind and transport actinides into cells, a major advance in understanding

  5. A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake Print Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide uptake into cells is instrumental in managing human contamination. Recently, scientists have reported that an iron-binding protein called siderocalin can also bind and transport actinides into cells, a major advance in understanding

  6. A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake Print Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide uptake into cells is instrumental in managing human contamination. Recently, scientists have reported that an iron-binding protein called siderocalin can also bind and transport actinides into cells, a major advance in understanding

  7. A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake Print Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide uptake into cells is instrumental in managing human contamination. Recently, scientists have reported that an iron-binding protein called siderocalin can also bind and transport actinides into cells, a major advance in understanding

  8. Treatment of radionuclide contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettis, S.A.; Kallas, A.J.; Kochen, R.L.; McGlochlin, S.C.

    1988-06-01

    Rockwell, International, Rocky Flats Plants, is committed to remediating within the scope of RCRA/CERCLA, Solid Waste Managements Units (SWMUs) at Rocky Flats found to be contaminated with hazardous substances. SWMUs fund to have radionuclide (uranium, plutonium, and/or americium) concentrations in the soils and/or groundwater that exceed background levels or regulatory limits will also be included in this remediation effort. This paper briefly summarizes past and present efforts by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, to identify treatment technologies appropriate for remediating actinide contaminated soils. Many of the promising soil treatments evaluated in Rocky Flats' laboratories during the late 1970's and early 1980's are currently being revisited. These technologies are generally directed toward substantially reducing the volume of contaminated soils, with the subsequent intention of disposing of a small remaining concentrated fraction of contaminated soil in a facility approved to receive radioactive wastes. Treatment processes currently will be treated to remove actinides, and recycled back to the process. Past investigations have included evaluations of dry screening, wet screening, scrubbing, ultrasonics, chemical oxidation, calcination, desliming, flotation, and heavy-liquid density separation. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  9. (Radiological assessments of radionuclide releases)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1990-12-28

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, data have been obtained throughout the Northern Hemisphere on the concentrations of radionuclides in air, vegetation, soil, water, and foodstuffs that could be important means of human exposure. At the IAEA's invitation, the traveler reviewed recently published data and handbook summaries. The traveler evaluated the need for revising the default values recommended in Chapter 5, Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Chain Transport,'' of IAEA Safety Series No. 57. All attempts at revision were made to keep the mathematical complexity of the models to a minimum without substantial underestimation of dose to critical population subgroups. The traveler also served as chairman of the Multiple Pathways Working Group of the Coordinated Research Program on VAMP. This group has been established to test predictions of models assessing multiple exposure pathways potentially leading to human exposure to {sup 137}Cs. Testing is carried out for major components of assessment models that predict deposition, environmental transport, food chain bioaccumulation, and subsequent uptake and retention in the human body and dose due to exposure to external gamma radiation.

  10. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.; Shkolnik, A.; Yogev, R.; Firlit, C.; Traisman, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis.

  11. Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diediker, L.P.; Curn, B.L.; Rhoads, K.; Damberg, E.G.; Soldat, J.K.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, {open_quotes}National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,{close_quotes} Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.{close_quotes}

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Report, 2005 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith W. Jacobson, David P. Fuehne

    2006-09-01

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2006.

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2012-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. M.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-04-08

    BattellePacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energys Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

  17. The role of organic complexants and microparticulates in the facilitated transport of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schilk, A.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Abel, K.H.; Thomas, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    This progress report describes the results of ongoing radiological and geochemical investigations of the mechanisms of radionuclide transport in groundwater at two low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites within the waste management area of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), Ontario, Canada. These sites, the Chemical Pit liquid disposal facility and the Waste Management Area C solid LLW disposal site, have provided valuable 30- to 40-year-old field locations for characterizing the migration of radionuclides and evaluating a number of recent site performance objectives for LLW disposal facilities. This information will aid the NRC and other federal, state, and local regulators, as well as LLW disposal site developers and waste generators, in maximizing the effectiveness of existing or projected LLW disposal facilities for isolating radionuclides from the general public and thereby improving the health and safety aspects of LLW disposal.

  18. Distribution of radionuclides during melting of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurber, W.C.; MacKinney, J.

    1997-02-01

    During the melting of steel with radioactive contamination, radionuclides may be distributed among the metal product, the home scrap, the slag, the furnace lining and the off-gas collection system. In addition, some radionuclides will pass through the furnace system and vent to the atmosphere. To estimate radiological impacts of recycling radioactive scrap steel, it is essential to understand how radionuclides are distributed within the furnace system. For example, an isotope of a gaseous element (e.g., radon) will exhaust directly from the furnace system into the atmosphere while a relatively non-volatile element (e.g., manganese) can be distributed among all the other possible media. This distribution of radioactive contaminants is a complex process that can be influenced by numerous chemical and physical factors, including composition of the steel bath, chemistry of the slag, vapor pressure of the particular element of interest, solubility of the element in molten iron, density of the oxide(s), steel melting temperature and melting practice (e.g., furnace type and size, melting time, method of carbon adjustment and method of alloy additions). This paper discusses the distribution of various elements with particular reference to electric arc furnace steelmaking. The first two sections consider the calculation of partition ratios for elements between metal and slag based on thermodynamic considerations. The third section presents laboratory and production measurements of the distribution of various elements among slag, metal, and the off-gas collection system; and the final section provides recommendations for the assumed distribution of each element of interest.

  19. PUREX low-level waste radionuclide characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, M.W.; LeBaron, G.J.

    1995-01-16

    The PUREX low-level waste (LLW) radionuclide characterization document describes the methodology for the characterization of solid LLW and solid low-level mixed waste (MW) with the respect to radiological characteristics. This document only serves as an overview of the PUREX radionuclide characterization methodology and provides specific examples for how the radionuclide distribution is derived. It would be impractical to provide all background information in this document. If further clarification and background information is required, consult the PUREX Regulatory Compliance group files. This document applies to only that waste generated in or is the responsibility of the PUREX facilities. The US Department of Energy (DOE) establishes the requirements for radioactive solid waste in DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management. Chapters 2 and 3 from DOE Order 5820.2A requires that generators of solid wastes in the LLW categories and the radioactive mixed waste subcategories: (1) identify the major radionuclides in each solid waste matrix and (2) determine the radionuclide concentrations and waste classes of their solid wastes. In addition, the Order also requires each generator to carry out a compliance program that ensures the proper certification of the solid waste generated.

  20. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  1. Eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) and 5’ mRNA leader sequences as agents of translational regulation in Arabidopsis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Arnim, Albrecht G.

    2015-02-04

    Protein synthesis, or translation, consumes a sizable fraction of the cell’s energy budget, estimated at 5% and up to 50% in differentiated and growing cells, respectively. Plants also invest significant energy and biomass to construct and maintain the translation apparatus. Translation is regulated by a variety of external stimuli. Compared to transcriptional control, attributes of translational control include reduced sensitivity to stochastic fluctuation, a finer gauge of control, and more rapid responsiveness to environmental stimuli. Yet, our murky understanding of translational control allows few generalizations. Consequently, translational regulation is underutilized in the context of transgene regulation, although synthetic biologists are now beginning to appropriate RNA-level gene regulation into their regulatory circuits. We also know little about how translational control contributes to the diversity of plant form and function. This project explored how an emerging regulatory mRNA sequence element, upstream open reading frames (uORFs), is integrated with the general translation initiation machinery to permit translational regulation on specific mRNAs.

  2. Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Mark; Herrington, Pres; Miley, Harry; Ellis, J. Edward; McKinnon, David; St. Pierre, Devon

    1999-08-03

    Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by electronic mail using formats defined in IMS 1.0, Formats and Protocols for Messages. An open message authentication standard exists, called S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), which has been proposed for use with all IMS radionuclide station message communications. This standard specifies adding a digital signature and public key certificate as a MIME attachment to the e-mail message. It is advantageous because it allows authentication to be added to all IMS 1.0 messages in a standard format and is commercially supported in e-mail software. For command and control, the RASA system uses a networked Graphical User Interface (GUI) based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) communications, which requires special authentication procedures. The authors have modified the RASA system to meet CTBTO authentication guidelines, using a FORTEZZA card for authentication functions. They demonstrated signing radionuclide data messages at the RASA, then sending, receiving, and verifying the messages at a data center. They demonstrated authenticating command messages and responses from the data center GUI to the RASA. Also, the particular authentication system command to change the private/public key pair and retrieve the new public key was demonstrated. This work shows that data surety meeting IMS guidelines may be immediately applied to IMS radionuclide systems.

  3. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2000-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 1999 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities'', and with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247. Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from US. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1999 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.029 mrem (2.9 E-04 mSv), which is less than 0.3 percent of the federal standard. WAC 246-247 requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources, during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations. The state further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. The EDE from diffuse and fugitive emissions at the Hanford Site in 1999 was 0.039 mrem (3.9 E-04 mSv) EDE. The total dose from point sources and from diffuse and fugitive sources of radionuclide emissions during all operating conditions in 1999 was 0.068 mrem (6.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is less than 0.7 percent of the state standard.

  4. Laboratory studies of radionuclide migration in tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rundberg, R.S.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Triay, I.R.

    1989-10-01

    The movement of selected radionuclides has been observed in crushed tuff, intact tuff, and fractured tuff columns. Retardation factors and dispersivities were determined from the elution profiles. Retardation factors have been compared with those predicted on the basis of batch sorption studies. This comparison forms a basis for either validating distribution coefficients or providing evidence of speciation, including colloid formation. Dispersivities measured as a function of velocity provide a means of determining the effect of sorption kinetics or mass transfer on radionuclide migration. Dispersion is also being studied in the context of scaling symmetry to develop a basis for extrapolating from the laboratory scale to the field. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  6. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  7. Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Technical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Amendment-Final Rule | Department of Energy Technical Amendment-Final Rule Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Technical Amendment-Final Rule PF2009-66.pdf (171.29 KB) PF2009-66a - Attachment-Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Technical Amendment-Final Rule (172.78 KB) More Documents & Publications Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Technical Amendment-Final Rule Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule for Subchapters

  8. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  9. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey

    2012-12-12

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  10. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  11. Final Report [Regulated mRNA Decay in Arabidopsis: A global analysis of differential control by hormones and the circadian clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Pamela J.

    2010-03-18

    The long-term goal of this research was to better understand the influence of mRNA stability on gene regulation, particularly in response to hormones and the circadian clock. The primary aim of this project was to examine this using DNA microarrays, small RNA analysis and other approaches. We accomplished these objectives, although we were only able to detect small changes in mRNA stability in response to these stimuli. However, the work also contributed to a major breakthrough allowing the identification of small RNAs on a genomic scale in eukaryotes. Moreover, the project prompted us to develop a new way to analyze mRNA decay genome wide. Thus, the research was hugely successful beyond our objectives.

  12. Summary of radionuclide air emissions from Department of Energy facilities for CY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    Facilities owned or operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) handle and process radioactive materials in conjunction with their research, nuclear materials production, remediation, and waste disposal activities. During normal operations, some of these facilities have the potential to release small quantities of radionuclides to the environment. Radionuclide emissions to the atmosphere from DOE facilities are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the authority of Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. Subpart H of 40 CFR Part 61 of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) sets standards for public exposure to airborne radioactive materials (other than radon) released by DOE facilities, DOE radon emissions are regulated by NESHAPs in Subparts Q and T. Subparts Q and T apply specifically to DOE storage and disposal facilities for radium-containing material. Airborne radionuclide emissions are also regulated by the Department of Energy under the authority provided by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, as amended. This report summarizes air emissions subject to the EPA requirements and demonstrates that DOE facilities are in compliance with the required dose limits.

  13. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  14. Final Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    final optics Final Optics Schematic layout of NIF's final optics assembly (FOA). The suite of optics for one beamline is on the right. The final optics assemblies (FOAs) are the last element of the main laser system and the first of the target area systems. Each FOA contains four integrated optics modules (IOMs) that incorporate beam conditioning, frequency conversion, focusing, diagnostic sampling, and debris shielding capabilities into a single compact assembly. These optics are shown in the

  15. Radionuclide partitioning in the modified Unex process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babain, V.; Smirnov, I.; Alyapyshev, M.; Todd, T.A.; Law, J.D.; Herbst, R.S.; Paulenova, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of long-lived radionuclides (cesium, strontium, actinides, and lanthanides) from acidic solutions in one extraction cycle. Modification of this organic solvent through the use of diamides of dipicolinic acid instead of CMPO increases the extraction capacity of UNEX solvent toward lanthanides and actinide metals, allowing for the processing of spent nuclear fuel. The possibility of radionuclide group separation using the modified UNEX solvent [HCCD (chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide), TBDPA (tetrabutyl-diamide of dipicolinic acid), PEG in FS-1 3 (phenyl-trifluoromethyl-sulfone)] is being investigated. Individual strip products, including a) actinides and lanthanides, b) strontium, and c) cesium, can be obtained by selective stripping from UNEX solvent. Such partitioning will make it possible to transform the Cs/Sr product into the most stable matrices for long-term storage and to further process the actinide/lanthanide product for recycling to a nuclear reactor. (authors)

  16. Methods and systems for detection of radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Jr., John T.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2010-05-25

    Disclosed are materials and systems useful in determining the existence of radionuclides in an aqueous sample. The materials provide the dual function of both extraction and scintillation to the systems. The systems can be both portable and simple to use, and as such can beneficially be utilized to determine presence and optionally concentration of radionuclide contamination in an aqueous sample at any desired location and according to a relatively simple process without the necessity of complicated sample handling techniques. The disclosed systems include a one-step process, providing simultaneous extraction and detection capability, and a two-step process, providing a first extraction step that can be carried out in a remote field location, followed by a second detection step that can be carried out in a different location.

  17. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  18. UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-28

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  19. Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2008-10-01

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  20. Use of natural radionuclides to predict the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, N.; Laul, J.C.; Perkins, R.W.

    1983-10-01

    In appropriate aquifers the natural radionuclides of the U and Th decay series are important sources of information about the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers. The Wolfcamp Carbonate, Pennsylvanian Carbonate and Granite Wash aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle are prime examples of such aquifers. Sampling and analysis for key radionuclides in the ground waters of these aquifers are quite feasible and have been accomplished. Key early results are: (1) Ra does not appear to be retarded by sorption, (2) Th appears to be strongly sorbed, (3) kinetics seem to be different on time scales of days to months than on ones of hundreds of thousands of years, and (4) U and Th behave similarily when the time scales (half-lives) are similar, leading to the suggestion that uranium is in the +4 valence state in these aquifers. 10 references, 9 figures.

  1. Use of natural radionuclides to predict the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, N.; Laul, J.C.; Perkins, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    In appropriate aquifers the natural radionuclides of the U and Th decay series are important sources of information about the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers. The Wolfcamp Carbonate, Pennsylvanian Carbonate and Granite Wash aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle are prime examples of such aquifers. Sampling and analysis for key radionuclides in the ground waters of these aquifers are quite feasible and have been accomplished. Key early results are: (1) Ra does not appear to be retarded by sorption, (2) Th appears to be strongly sorbed, (3) kinetics seem to be different on time scales of days to months than on ones of hundreds of thousands of years, and (4) U and Th behave similarly when the time scales (half-lives) are similar, leading to the suggestion that uranium is in the +4 valence state in these aquifers. 10 references, 3 figures.

  2. Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-04-01

    This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  3. Quality assurance project plan for the radionuclide airborne emissions for the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristofzski, J.G.; Alison, D.

    1992-04-01

    The information provided in this document meets the quality assurance (QA) requirements for the ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants`` (NESHAP) (EPA 1989a) radionuclide airborne emissions control program in accordance with the regulation`s referenced stack monitoring method (i.e. Method 114) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). At the Hanford Site, the operations personnel have primary responsibility for implementing the continuous radionuclide emission measurements in conformance with NESHAP. Continuous measurement is used to describe continuous sampling of the effluent stream withdrawn and subjected to radiochemical analysis, and monitoring of radionuclide particulate emissions for administrative control. This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) fully describes these PFP- implemented activities and the associated QA program as required by the NESHAP. The information is provided in the format specified in QAMS/005, Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA 1983a). This QAPjP describes the QA program for only those activities that are the responsibility of the PFP: operation, calibration, and maintenance of the sampling systems. The QA requirements for laboratory services, data compilation, and data reporting are beyond the scope of this QAPjP.

  4. Reference Material for Radionuclides in Sediment, IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon Sediment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Povinec, P; Pham, M; Barci-Funel, G; Bojanawski, R; Boshkova, T; Burnett, W; Carvalho, F; Chapeyron, B; Cunha, I; Dahlgaard, H; Galabov, N; Gastaud, J; Geering, J; Gomez, I; Green, N; Hamilton, T; Ibanez, F; Majah, M I; John, M; Kanisch, G; Kenna, T; Kloster, M; Korun, M; Wee Kwong, L L; La Rosa, J; Lee, S; Levy-Palomo, I; Malatova, M; Maruo, Y; Mitchell, P; Murciano, I; Nelson, R; Oh, J; Oregioni, B; Petit, G L; Pettersson, H; Reineking, A; Smedley, P; Suckow, A; der Struijs, T v; Voors, P; Yoshimizu, K; Wyse, E

    2005-09-23

    The IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's program of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). An important part of the AQCS program has been a production of Reference Materials (RMs) and their provision to radioanalytical laboratories. The RMs have been developed for different marine matrices (sediment, water, biota), with accuracy and precision required for the present state of the art of radiometrics and mass spectrometry methods. The RMs have been produced as the final products of world-wide intercomparison exercises organized during last 30 years. A total of 44 intercomparison exercises were undertaken and 39 RMs were produced for radionuclides in the marine environment. All required matrices (seawater, biota, sediment) have been covered with radionuclide concentrations ranging from typical environmental levels to elevated levels affected by discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants. The long-term availability of RMs (over 10 years) requires the use of very specific techniques to collect and pretreat large quantities of material (e.g., in excess of 100 kg) in order to ensure sample stability and homogenization of any analytes of interest. The production of a RM is therefore a long process, covering the identification of needs, sample collection, pre-treatment, homogenization, bottling, distribution to laboratories, evaluation of data, preliminary reporting, additional analyses in expert laboratories, certification of the material, and finally issuing the RM. In this paper we describe a reference material IAEA-384, Fangataufa lagoon sediment, designed for determination of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in the marine environment. This RM has been prepared with the aim of testing the performance of analytical laboratories to measure the activity of these radionuclides in a sediment sample contaminated

  5. FINAL REPORT

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FINAL REPORT Analytical and Elemental Analysis of Air and Soil Samples Facility and Public ... Information 4 Background 5 Stormwater Pollution 5 Erosion and Sediment Control Workshop ...

  6. Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Technical...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Technical Amendment-Final Rule (172.78 KB) More Documents & Publications Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Technical ...

  7. ORISE: Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wounds Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated Wounds Dose coefficients for 38 radionuclides based on NCRP Wound Model and ICRP biokinetic models This report is intended to assist health physics and medical staff in more rapidly assessing the potential dosimetric consequences of a contaminated wound. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Wound Model describing the retention of selected radionuclides at the site of a contaminated wound and their

  8. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleckler, B.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1995, and the resulting effective dose equivalent (FDE) to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the `MEI.` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, `National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,` Subpart H, `National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.` This report has also been prepared for and will be submitted in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, `Radiation Protection-Air Emissions.`

  9. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  10. LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF RADIONUCLIDE VERTICAL MIGRATION IN SOILS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NUCLEAR POWER PLANT EXCLUSION ZONE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF RADIONUCLIDE VERTICAL MIGRATION IN SOILS OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER ...

  11. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In the first mechanism, products of the fermentation process can act as chelators for metals and radionuclides increasing their transport through underlying geological media. The ...

  12. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when ... factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological ...

  13. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites contain mixtures of heavy metals, radionuclides and assorted organic materials. Over time, ...

  14. Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    WATERS Nuclear Test Site Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site Under the ...

  15. Potential for radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Potential for radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: Aboveground biomass ... due to biotic intrusion: Aboveground biomass study at the Los Alamos National ...

  16. FINAL RELEASE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELEASE AWARDEE: ____________________________________________________ The work under Award No. DE-__________________________, dated ______________, between the United States of America (represented by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, and the undersigned awardee, having been completed and finally accepted , and in consideration of Final Payment thereunder, the United States of America, its officers, agents and employees are hereby released from all liabilities,

  17. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Gnome underground nuclear test site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earman, S.; Chapman, J.; Pohlmann, K.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations that were used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater from these sites is an important part of the preliminary site risk analysis. These evaluations are undertaken to allow prioritization of the test areas in terms of risk, provide a quantitative basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work at the sites, and provide a framework for assessing data needs to be filled by site characterization. The Gnome site in southeastern New Mexico was the location of an underground detonation of a 3.5-kiloton nuclear device in 1961, and a hydrologic tracer test using radionuclides in 1963. The tracer test involved the injection of tritium, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs directly into the Culebra Dolomite, a nine to ten-meter-thick aquifer located approximately 150 in below land surface. The Gnome nuclear test was carried out in the Salado Formation, a thick salt deposit located 200 in below the Culebra. Because salt behaves plastically, the cavity created by the explosion is expected to close, and although there is no evidence that migration has actually occurred, it is assumed that radionuclides from the cavity are released into the overlying Culebra Dolomite during this closure process. Transport calculations were performed using the solute flux method, with input based on the limited data available for the site. Model results suggest that radionuclides may be present in concentrations exceeding drinking water regulations outside the drilling exclusion boundary established by DOE. Calculated mean tritium concentrations peak at values exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard of 20,000 pCi/L at distances of up to almost eight kilometers west of the nuclear test.

  18. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

  19. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

  20. Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

  1. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  2. Final Rule Technical Amendment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Rule Technical Amendment Federal Register Announcement: The Department of Energy (DOE) is publishing this technical amendment to the regulations for the loan guarantee ...

  3. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) ?Sv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) ?Sv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) ?Sv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 ?Sv/year.

  4. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DIEDIKER, L.P.

    1999-06-15

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in I998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR SI), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection--Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H; require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv), which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.5 E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from the unplanned event

  5. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biros, George

    2014-08-18

    This the final report for the project "Large-Scale Optimization for Bayesian Inference in Complex Systems," for the work in the group of the co-PI George Biros.

  6. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeTar, Carleton

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  7. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurney, Kevin R

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  8. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

    2008-08-07

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  9. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R and D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  10. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation ProtectionAir Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  11. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  12. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  13. Quality assurance project plan for the radionuclide airborne emissions for the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristofzski, J.G.; Alison, D.

    1992-04-01

    The information provided in this document meets the quality assurance (QA) requirements for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants'' (NESHAP) (EPA 1989a) radionuclide airborne emissions control program in accordance with the regulation's referenced stack monitoring method (i.e. Method 114) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). At the Hanford Site, the operations personnel have primary responsibility for implementing the continuous radionuclide emission measurements in conformance with NESHAP. Continuous measurement is used to describe continuous sampling of the effluent stream withdrawn and subjected to radiochemical analysis, and monitoring of radionuclide particulate emissions for administrative control. This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) fully describes these PFP- implemented activities and the associated QA program as required by the NESHAP. The information is provided in the format specified in QAMS/005, Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA 1983a). This QAPjP describes the QA program for only those activities that are the responsibility of the PFP: operation, calibration, and maintenance of the sampling systems. The QA requirements for laboratory services, data compilation, and data reporting are beyond the scope of this QAPjP.

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  15. Radionuclide chain transport through heterogeneous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadermann, J.; Patry, J.

    1982-04-01

    A one-dimensional radionuclide chain transport model is developed, taking into account sorption, longitudinal dispersion, and arbitrary repository concentrations. For piecewise constant geologic parameters, a semianalytic solution can be written down, when, at the layer boundaries, mass conservation is considered rigorously and flux conservation to a good approximation. The solution consists of a superposition of terms that are easily interpreted and is invariant under layer permutation and parameter scaling. A corresponding computer code RANCH has been developed. The /sup 245/Cm chain has been investigated for a broad variation of parameters of a three-layer geology. For very small retention factors only, /sup 245/Cm and /sup 241/Am can survive migration in the geologic medium, while /sup 237/Np is reduced by at most three orders of magnitude.

  16. Chancellor Water Colloids: Characterization and Radionuclide Association

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Fattah, Amr I.

    2012-06-18

    Concluding remarks about this paper are: (1) Gravitational settling, zeta potential, and ultrafiltration data indicate the existence of a colloidal phase of both the alpha and beta emitters in the Chancellor water; (2) The low activity combined with high dispersion homogeneity of the Chancellor water indicate that both alpha and beta emitters are not intrinsic colloids; (3) Radionuclides in the Chancellor water, particularly Pu, coexist as dissolved aqueous and sorbed phases - in other words the radionuclides are partitioned between the aqueous phase and the colloidal phase; (4) The presence of Pu as a dissolved species in the aqueous phase, suggests the possibility of Pu in the (V) oxidation state - this conclusion is supported by the similarity of the k{sub d} value of Pu determined in the current study to that determined for Pu(V) sorbed onto smectite colloids, and the similar electrokinetic behavior of the Chancellor water colloids to smectite colloids; (5) About 50% of the Pu(V) is in the aqueous phase and 50% is sorbed on colloids (mass concentration of colloids in the Chancellor water is 0.12 g/L); (6) The k{sub d} of the Pu and the beta emitters (fission products) between aqueous and colloidal phases in the Chancellor water is {approx}8.0 x 10{sup 3} mL/g using two different activity measurement techniques (LSC and alpha spectroscopy); (7) The gravitational settling and size distributions of the association colloids indicate that the properties (at least the physical ones) of the colloids to which the alpha emitters are associated with seem to be different that the properties of the colloids to which the beta emitters are associated with - the beta emitters are associated with very small particles ({approx}50 - 120 nm), while the alpha emitters are associated with relatively larger particles; and (8) The Chancellor water colloids are extremely stable under the natural pH and ionic strength conditions, indicating high potential for transport in the

  17. SLUDGE BATCH 7 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION: RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB7 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareizs, J.; Hay, M.

    2011-02-22

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Seven (SB7) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB7 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB6. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB7 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter qualification sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-10-125) received on September 18, 2010. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. With consultation from the Liquid Waste Organization, the qualification sample was then modified by several washes and decants, which included addition of Pu from H Canyon and sodium nitrite per the Tank Farm corrosion control program. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40. Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB7 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0031. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task I.2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task III.2.) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB7 will be taken and transferred to SRNL for measurement of these radionuclides

  18. Dynamics and transformations of radionuclides in soils and ecosystem health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellows, Robert J. ); Ainsworth, Calvin C. ); Driver, Crystal J. ); Cataldo, Dominic A. )

    1998-12-01

    The chemical behavior of radionuclides can vary widely in soil and sediment environments. Equally important, for a given radionuclide the physico-chemical properties of the solids and aqueous phase can greatly influence a radionuclides behavior. Radionuclides can conceivably occur in soils as soluble-free, inorganic-soluble-complexed, organic-soluble, complexed, adsorbed, precipitated, coprecipitated, or solid structural species. While it is clear that an assessment of a radionuclide?s soil chemistry and potential shifts in speciation will yield a considerable understanding of its behavior in the natural environment, it does not directly translate to bioavailability or its impact on ecosystems health. The soil chemical factors have to be linked to food chain considerations and other ecological parameters that directly tie to an analysis of ecosystem health. In general, the movement of radionuclides from lower to higher trophic levels diminishes with each trophic level in both aqua tic and terrestrial systems. In some cases, transfer is limited because of low absorption/assimilation by successive trophic organisms (Pu, U); for other radionuclides (Tc, H) assimilation may be high but rapid metabolic turnover and low retention greatly reduce tissue concentrations available to predator species. Still others are chemical analogs of essential elements whose concentrations are maintained under strict metabolic control in tissues (Cs) or are stored in tissues seldom consumed by other organisms (Sr storage in exoskeleton, shells, and bone). Therefore, the organisms that receive the greatest ingestion exposures are those in lower trophic positions or are in higher trophic levels but within simple, short food chains. Food source, behavior, and habitat influence the accumulation of radionuclides in animals.

  19. Radionuclide Migration at the Rio Blanco Site, A Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clay A. Cooper; Ming Ye; Jenny Chapman; Craig Shirley

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies conducted a program in the 1960s and 1970s that evaluated technology for the nuclear stimulation of low-permeability gas reservoirs. The third and final project in the program, Project Rio Blanco, was conducted in Rio Blanco County, in northwestern Colorado. In this experiment, three 33-kiloton nuclear explosives were simultaneously detonated in a single emplacement well in the Mesaverde Group and Fort Union Formation, at depths of 1,780, 1,899, and 2,039 m below land surface on May 17, 1973. The objective of this work is to estimate lateral distances that tritium released from the detonations may have traveled in the subsurface and evaluate the possible effect of postulated natural-gas development on radionuclide migration. Other radionuclides were considered in the analysis, but the majority occur in relatively immobile forms (such as nuclear melt glass). Of the radionuclides present in the gas phase, tritium dominates in terms of quantity of radioactivity in the long term and contribution to possible whole body exposure. One simulation is performed for {sup 85}Kr, the second most abundant gaseous radionuclide produced after tritium.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES DATABASES IN CAP88 MAINFRAME VERSION 1.0 AND WINDOWS-BASED VERSION 3.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.; Lee, P.; Jannik, T.; Donnelly, E.

    2008-09-16

    In this study the radionuclide databases for two versions of the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP88) computer model were assessed in detail. CAP88 estimates radiation dose and the risk of health effects to human populations from radionuclide emissions to air. This program is used by several Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. CAP88 Mainframe, referred to as Version 1.0 on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website (http://www.epa.gov/radiation/assessment/CAP88/), was the very first CAP88 version released in 1988. Some DOE facilities including the Savannah River Site still employ this version (1.0) while others use the more user-friendly personal computer Windows-based Version 3.0 released in December 2007. Version 1.0 uses the program RADRISK based on International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 as its radionuclide database. Version 3.0 uses half-life, dose and risk factor values based on Federal Guidance Report 13. Differences in these values could cause different results for the same input exposure data (same scenario), depending on which version of CAP88 is used. Consequently, the differences between the two versions are being assessed in detail at Savannah River National Laboratory. The version 1.0 and 3.0 database files contain 496 and 838 radionuclides, respectively, and though one would expect the newer version to include all the 496 radionuclides, thirty-five radionuclides are listed in version 1.0 that are not included in version 3.0. The majority of these has either extremely short or long half-lives or is no longer in production; however, some of the short-lived radionuclides might produce progeny of great interest at DOE sites. In addition, one hundred and twenty-two radionuclides were found to have different half-lives in the two versions, with 21 over 3 percent different and 12 over 10 percent different.

  1. Radionuclide transport through engineered barrier system alteration products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viani, B.E.; Torretto, P.C.; Matzen, S.L.

    1997-12-01

    The primary rationale for studying the transport behavior of radionuclides through the Engineered Barrier system / Near Field Environment (EBS/NFE) is to ascertain whether the material properties of the introduced and altered host rock can significantly affect the transport of radionuclides from the waste container to the far field. The intent of this report is to present data and modeling results that can be used to assess the importance of canister corrosion products and cementitious materials to transport of radionuclides to the far field.

  2. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  5. The Production & Generation of Radionuclides from Deuterium-Deuterium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    invention is for the generation and production of radionuclides generated by D-D and D-T nuclear reactions in fusion reactors and fusion devices for medical, industry and research...

  6. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Field, E.K. , P. Haun, R. Gerlach, B.M. Peyton, W.A. Apel, and B.D. Lee (2006): The Influence of Cellulose Utilization on Metal and Radionuclide Mobility and Reduction. ...

  7. SRNL RADIONUCLIDE FIELD LYSIMETER EXPERIMENT: BASELINE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Bagwell, L.; Powell, B.; Almond, P.; Emerson, H.; Hixon, A.; Jablonski, J.; Buchanan, C.; Waterhouse, T.

    2012-10-17

    The purpose of this document is to compile information regarding experimental design, facility design, construction, radionuclide source preparation, and path forward for the ten year Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radionuclide Field Lysimeter Experiment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This is a collaborative effort by researchers at SRNL and Clemson University. The scientific objectives of this study are to: Study long-term radionuclide transport under conditions more representative of vadose zone conditions than laboratory experiments; Provide more realistic quantification of radionuclide transport and geochemistry in the vadose zone, providing better information pertinent to radioactive waste storage solutions than presently exists; Reduce uncertainty and improve justification for geochemical models such as those used in performance assessments and composite analyses.

  8. Screening Risk Assessment for Possible Radionuclides in the Amchitka Marine Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NNSA /NV

    2002-10-31

    As part of its environmental stewardship program the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is reevaluating three sites where underground nuclear tests were conducted in the deep subsurface of Amchitka Island, Alaska. The tests (i.e., Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin) were conducted in 1965, 1969, and 1971, respectively. Extensive investigations were conducted on these tests and their effect on the environment. Evaluations at the time of testing indicated limited release of radionuclides and absence of risk related to the testing; however, these are being reevaluated under the current DOE environmental stewardship program. A screening risk assessment of potential radionuclide release into the marine environment is an important part of this reevaluation. The risk assessment is one of three interrelated activities: a groundwater model and this screening risk assessment, both of which guide the decisions in the third activity, the site closure plan. Thus, the overall objective of the work is to understand, and subsequently manage, any risk to humans and the environment through a closure and long-term stewardship plan. The objective of this screening risk assessment is to predict whether possible releases of radionuclides at the ocean floor would represent potential risks to Native Alaskans by consumption of marine subsistence species. In addition, risks were predicted for consumers of commercial catches of marine organisms. These risks were calculated beginning with estimates of possible radionuclide release at the seafloor (from a groundwater modeling study), into the seawater, through possible uptake by marine organisms, and finally possible consumption by humans. The risk assessment model has 11 elements, progressing from potential release at the seafloor through water and food chains to human intake. Data for each of these elements were systematically found and synthesized from many sources, and represent the best available knowledge. Whenever precise data were lacking

  9. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanlon, E.A.

    1994-07-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10{sup 6}/yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs.

  10. Radionuclide Interaction and Transport in Representative Geologic Media |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Radionuclide Interaction and Transport in Representative Geologic Media Radionuclide Interaction and Transport in Representative Geologic Media The report presents information related to the development of a fundamental understanding of disposal-system performance in a range of environments for potential wastes that could arise from future nuclear fuel cycle alternatives. It addresses selected aspects of the development of computational modeling capability for the

  11. Natural chelating agents for radionuclide decorporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1985-06-11

    This invention relates to the production of metal-binding compounds useful for the therapy of heavy metal poisoning, for biological mining and for decorporation of radionuclides. The present invention deals with an orderly and effective method of producing new therapeutically effective chelating agents. This method uses challenge biosynthesis for the production of chelating agents that are specific for a particular metal. In this approach, the desired chelating agents are prepared from microorganisms challenged by the metal that the chelating agent is designed to detoxify. This challenge induces the formation of specific or highly selective chelating agents. The present invention involves the use of the challenge biosynthetic method to produce new complexing/chelating agents that are therapeutically useful to detoxify uranium, plutonium, thorium and other toxic metals. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa family of organisms is the referred family of microorganisms to be used in the present invention to produce the new chelating agent because this family is known to elaborate strains resistant to toxic metals.

  12. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-12

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  13. Final Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    352 Regulatory and Utility Solutions to Advance SunShot Initiative Goals Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Inc. FINAL REPORT Project Title: "Regulatory and Utility Solutions to Advance SunShot Initiative Goals" Covering Period: 09/01/11 through 02/28/15 Date of Report: 04/20/2015 Recipient: Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Inc. (IREC) Award Number: DE-EE0005352 Working Partners: Keyes, Fox & Wiedman LLP Michael T. Sheehan Sherwood Associates, Inc. Kris Mayes Law Firm (KMLF)

  14. Publication of Final Rule for Department of Energy (DOE) Financial

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assistance Regulations | Department of Energy Publication of Final Rule for Department of Energy (DOE) Financial Assistance Regulations Publication of Final Rule for Department of Energy (DOE) Financial Assistance Regulations PF2009-70.pdf (201.22 KB) More Documents & Publications Publication of Final Rule for Department of Energy (DOE) Financial Assistance Regulations Rescind Policy Flashes 2010-04 "Cease All Funding of the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now

  15. Calculation of Accumulated Radiation Doses to Man from Radionuclides Found in Food Products and from Radionuclides in the Environment.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1981-02-17

    PABLM calculates internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. It can be used to calculate accumulated doses to 23 possible body organs or tissues for any one or a combination of radionuclides. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in themore » environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. A chain decay scheme is used; it includes branching to account for transitions to and from isomeric states. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years.« less

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciucci, John

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  17. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Edwards; KD Shields; MJ Sula; MY Ballinger

    1999-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP--US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H). In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the US Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Pacific Northwest) on the Hanford Site. Two of the facilities evaluated, 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, and 331 Building Life Sciences Laboratory met state and federal criteria for continuous sampling of airborne radionuclide emissions. One other building, the 3720 Environmental Sciences Laboratory, was recognized as being in transition with the potential for meeting the continuous sampling criteria.

  18. New Tax Regulations Help Further Low Income Solar | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The final regulations state that utility costs paid by a tenant are treated the same as submitting payment directly to the utility company. The temporary regulations extend the ...

  19. REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES IN DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboul, S.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.; Bannochie, C.

    2011-12-20

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that the waste producer 'shall report the curie inventory of radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115.' As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type all radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and contribute greater than 0.01 percent of the total curie inventory from the time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial list of radionuclides to be reported is based on the design-basis glass identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report. However, it is required that the list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the 'greater than 0.01% of the curie inventory' criterion. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, and U-238; and Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete list of reportable radionuclides must also include these sets of U and Pu isotopes - and the U and Pu isotopic mass distributions must be identified. The DWPF receives HLW sludge slurry from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 40. For Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), the waste in Tank 40 contained a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) material transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. This sludge blend is also referred to as Macrobatch 8. Laboratory analyses of a Tank 40 sludge sample were performed to quantify the concentrations of pertinent radionuclides in the SB7a waste. Subsequently, radiological decay and in

  20. Final Rule (October 23, 2007)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Loan Guarantees for Projects That Employ Innovative Technologies; Final Rule: On May 16, 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and opportunity for comment (NOPR) to establish regulations for the loan guarantee program authorized by Title XVII of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Title XVII or the Act).

  1. A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahook, S.D.

    1992-08-01

    A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water system to the environment via evaporation to the atmosphere and blow-down to the Savannah River. The developed model allows for delay times associated with the transport of the cooling water radioactivity through cooling water system components. Additionally, this model simulates the time-dependent behavior of radionuclides levels in various CWS components. The developed model is incorporated into the K-reactor Cooling Tower Activity (KCTA) code. KCTA allows the accident (heat exchanger leak rate) and the cooling tower blow-down and evaporation rates to be described as time-dependent functions. Thus, the postulated leak and the consequence of the assumed leak can be modelled realistically. This model is the first of three models to be ultimately assembled to form a comprehensive Liquid Pathway Activity System (LPAS). LPAS will offer integrated formation, transport, deposition, and release estimates for radionuclides formed in a SRS facility. Process water and river water modules are forthcoming as input and downstream components, respectively, for KCTA.

  2. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Robert C.; Kamon, Teruki; Toback, David; Safonov, Alexei; Dutta, Bhaskar; Dimitri, Nanopoulos; Pope, Christopher; White, James

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  3. Phase 2 sampling for radionuclides and metal distribution in L-lake sediments. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J.W. II

    1996-10-01

    Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) was tasked by Westinghouse Savannah River Company under subcontract C001015P to provide environmental sampling services on L-Lake at the Savannah River site. Athena Technologies, Inc. was subcontracted by SAIC to provide vibracoring services. The project consisted of vibracore sampling of lake bottom sediments at 23 locations within L-Lake. Field activities were performed from August 8 through August 22, 1996. This report describes the activities associated with the task.

  4. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  5. Radionuclides in plankton from the South Pacific Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1984-03-23

    We have initiated an investigation of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review has shown that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10/sup 4/. We participated in Operations Deepfreeze 1981 and 1982, collecting a total of 48 plankton samples from the USCGC Glacier on its Antarctic cruises. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories sampled air, water, rain, and fallout. We were able to measure concentrations in plankton of the naturally-occurring radionuclides /sup 7/Be, /sup 40/K, and the U and Th series, and we believe that we have detected low levels of /sup 144/Ce and /sup 95/Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68/sup 0/. Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and the protozoa content of the samples. 7 references, 5 figures.

  6. Assessment of the impact of radionuclides in coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Styron, C.E.; Bishop, C.T.; Casella, V.R.; Jenkins, P.H.; Yanko, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    An assessment of the potential environmental and health impacts of radionuclides in the coal fuel cycle is being conducted at Mound. This paper describes our studies evaluating the potential for migration of radionuclides from ash disposal sites. Studies at a power plant burning western US coal dealt with an assessment of potential radiation doses from coal ash ponds and leachate discharges of radionuclides from the ponds. Emanation of radon-222 from the ash is relatively low. The emanation of radon-222 from the ash pond (radium-226 at 4.5 pCi/g) is predicted to be about six times less than from soil (radium-226 at 1 pCi/g). Ash with radium-226 at 25 pCi/g would approximate emanation of radon-222 from soil. At 1000 m from the center of the ash pond area, radon-222 from the ash pond is predicted to be 1000 to 6000 times less than background (0.1 to 0.5 pCi/liter). Pathways exist for transport of radionuclides leached from ash into the aquifer beneath the holding ponds, but concentrations of radionuclides in water leaving the pond are lower than concentrations in groundwater which is upgradient of the ponds. Leachability of the ash is quite low, on the order of 0.002% in one month, and flow of ash sluicing water (3% of the volume of the ponds each day) has actually diluted normal background concentrations of radionuclides in the aquifer between the ponds and the adjacent river.

  7. Influence of speciation on the geospheric migration of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadermann, J.

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclides in ground water can exist as different species whose retention factors may be strongly different. For one-dimensional transport in a porous medium, conditions for the existence of equilibrium between two species are given. In most cases, these conditions are probably well fulfilled when time scales of geosphere transport are considered. In these cases, the total concentration migrates independently of a particular speciation with an effective retention factor. Such an effective retention factor can also be defined if more than two species in liquid phase are in equilibrium. As a consequence, existing radionuclide transport models can be readily used by properly redefining the retention factor.

  8. Method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide source distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stolin, Alexander V.; McKisson, John E.; Lee, Seung Joon; Smith, Mark Frederick

    2012-12-18

    A method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide distributions. Its particular embodiment is for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of awake animals, though its techniques are general enough to be applied to other moving radionuclide distributions as well. The invention eliminates motion and blurring artifacts for image reconstructions of moving source distributions. This opens new avenues in the area of small animal brain imaging with radiotracers, which can now be performed without the perturbing influences of anesthesia or physical restraint on the biological system.

  9. ORISE: Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated Wounds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dose CoeffiCients for intakes of raDionuCliDes via ContaminateD WounDs R. E. Toohey*, L. Bertelli + , S. L. Sugarman*, A. L. Wiley* and D. M. Christensen* *Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 37031-0117; + Radiation Protection Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545. Ver. 2, Aug 2014 The NCRP Wound Model describing the retention of selected radionuclides at the site of a contaminated

  10. Determination of operating limits for radionuclides for a proposed landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.; Kocher, D.C.

    1994-05-24

    The operating limits for radionuclides in sanitary and industrial wastes were determined for a proposed landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky. These limits, which may be very small but nonzero, are not mandated by law or regulation but are needed for rational operation. The approach was based on analyses of the potential contamination of groundwater at the plant boundary and the potential exposure to radioactivity of an intruder at the landfill after closure. The groundwater analysis includes (1) a source model describing the disposal of waste and the release of radionuclides from waste to the groundwater, (2) site-specific groundwater flow and contaminant transport calculations, and (3) calculations of operating limits from the dose limit and conversion factors. The intruder analysis includes pathways through ingestion of contaminated vegetables and soil, external exposure to contaminated soil, and inhalation of suspended activity from contaminated soil particles. In both analyses, a limit on annual effective dose equivalent of 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) was adopted. The intended application of the results is to refine the radiological monitoring standards employed by the PGDP Health Physics personnel to determine what constitutes radioactive wastes, with concurrence of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.

  11. Acquisition Regulation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Career Development, Contracting Authority and Responsibilities Acquisition Regulation ... file, except for any documents required by regulation to be maintained in paper copy. ...

  12. SALTSTONE AND RADIONUCLIDE INTERACTIONS: RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION AND DESORPTION, AND SALTSTONE REDUCTION CAPACITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D; Kimberly Roberts, K; Steven Serkiz, S; Matthew Siegfried, M

    2008-10-30

    The overall objective of this study was to measure a number of key input parameters quantifying geochemical processes in the subsurface environment of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) Saltstone Facility. For the first time, sorption (K{sub d}) values of numerous radionuclides were measured with Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete. Particular attention was directed at understanding how Tc adsorbs and desorbs from these cementitious materials with the intent to demonstrate that desorption occurs at a much slower rate than adsorption, thus permitting the use of kinetic terms instead of (or along with) the steady state K{sub d} term. Another very important parameter measured was the reduction capacity of these materials. This parameter is used to estimate the duration that the Saltstone facility remains in a reduced chemical state, a condition that maintains several otherwise mobile radionuclides in an immobile form. Key findings of this study follow. K{sub d} values for Am, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Hg, I, Np, Pa, Pu, Se, Sn, Tc, U, and Y for Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete were measured under oxidized and reduced conditions. Precipitation of several of the higher valence state radionuclides was observed. There was little evidence that the Vault 2 and Saltstone K{sub d} values differed from previous SRS K{sub d} values measured with reducing grout (Kaplan and Coates 2007). These values also supported a previous finding that K{sub d} values of slag-containing cementitious materials, tend to be greater for cations and about the same for anions, than regular cementitious materials without slag. Based on these new findings, it was suggested that all previous reducing concrete K{sub d} values be used in future PAs, except Np(V) and Pu(IV) K{sub d} values, which should be increased, and I values, which should be slightly decreased in all three stages of concrete aging. The reduction capacity of Saltstone, consisting of 23 wt-% blast furnace slag, was 821.8 microequivalents per gram

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  15. SLUDGE BATCH 5 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

    2008-07-28

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Five (SB5) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Part of this SB5 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40 to complete the formation of SB5. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB4. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB5 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry taken on March 21, 2008. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under direction of the Liquid Waste Organization it was then modified by five washes, six decants, an addition of Pu/Be from Canyon Tank 16.4, and an addition of NaNO2. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Ta Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB5 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2008-0010. The work with this qualification sample is covered by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan and an Analytical Study Plan. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task 2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task 5) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB5 will be taken and

  16. Radionuclide Concentrations in Terrestrial Vegetation and Soil Samples On and Around the Hanford Site, 1971 Through 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Fritz, Brad G.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-07-29

    Environmental monitoring is conducted on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to comply with DOE Orders and federal and state regulations. Major objectives of the monitoring are to characterize contaminant levels in the environment and to determine site contributions to the contaminant inventory. This report focuses on surface soil and perennial vegetation samples collected between 1971 and 2008 as part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Surface Environmental Surveillance Project performed under contract to DOE. Areas sampled under this program are located on the Hanford Site but outside facility boundaries and on public lands surrounding the Hanford Site. Additional samples were collected during the past 8 years under DOE projects that evaluated parcels of land for radiological release. These data were included because the same sampling methodology and analytical laboratory were used for the projects. The spatial and temporal trends of six radionuclides collected over a 38-year period were evaluated. The radionuclides----cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and uranium (reported either as uranium-238 or total uranium)----were selected because they persist in the environment and are still being monitored routinely and reported in Hanford Site environmental reports. All these radionuclides were associated with plutonium production and waste management of activities occurring on the site. Other sources include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which ended in 1980, and the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Uranium is also a natural component of the soil. This assessment of soil and vegetation data provides important information on the distribution of radionuclides in areas adjacent to industrial areas, established perimeter locations and buffer areas, and more offsite nearby and distant locations. The concentrations reflect a tendency for detection of some radionuclides close to where they were

  17. Waste site reclamation with recovery of radionuclides and metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    1994-03-08

    A method for decontaminating radionuclides and other toxic metal-contaminate The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016 between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities, Inc.

  18. Waste site reclamation with recovery of radionuclides and metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Dodge, Cleveland J.

    1994-01-01

    A method for decontaminating radionuclides and other toxic metal-contaminate The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016 between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities, Inc.

  19. Isonitrile radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1984-06-04

    A coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta, is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

  20. New Catalytic DNA Biosensors for Radionuclides and Metal ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Lu

    2008-03-01

    We aim to develop new DNA biosensors for simultaneous detection and quantification of bioavailable radionuclides, such as uranium, technetium, and plutonium, and metal contaminants, such as lead, chromium, and mercury. The sensors will be highly sensitive and selective. They will be applied to on-site, real-time assessment of concentration, speciation, and stability of the individual contaminants before and during bioremediation, and for long-term monitoring of DOE contaminated sites. To achieve this goal, we have employed a combinatorial method called in vitro selection to search from a large DNA library (~ 1015 different molecules) for catalytic DNA molecules that are highly specific for radionuclides or other metal ions through intricate 3-dimensional interactions as in metalloproteins. Comprehensive biochemical and biophysical studies have been performed on the selected DNA molecules. The findings from these studies have helped to elucidate fundamental principles for designing effective sensors for radionuclides and metal ions. Based on the study, the DNA have been converted to fluorescent or colorimetric sensors by attaching to it fluorescent donor/acceptor pairs or gold nanoparticles, with 11 part-per-trillion detection limit (for uranium) and over million fold selectivity (over other radionuclides and metal ions tested). Practical application of the biosensors for samples from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Field Research Center (FRC) at Oak Ridge has also been demonstrated.

  1. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2015-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim.This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.'' The EDE to the MSL MEI due to routine operations in 2014 was 9E-05 mrem (9E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2014. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  2. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim (Sequim). This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The EDE to the Sequim MEI due to routine operations in 2013 was 5E-05 mrem (5E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2013. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  3. Notice of Final Rulemaking | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Rulemaking Notice of Final Rulemaking Revisions to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulations governing compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) were published in the Federal Register on October 13, 2011, and will be effective on November 14. The revision (76 FR 63763) can be viewed using the link below. Final Rule - 76 FR 63763 - Oct 13 2011_0.pdf (297.74 KB) More Documents & Publications Department of Energy Technical Support Document National Environmental

  4. Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Q; Mori, A

    2007-09-12

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive {sup 237}Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.

  5. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Shields, Keith D.; Edwards, Daniel R.

    2001-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods, and provides the results, for the assessment performed in 2001.

  6. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-05-13

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.

  7. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Barfuss, Brad C.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2008-01-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP – U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection – Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2007.

  8. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Edwards, Daniel L.

    2003-12-05

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the assessment performed in 2003.

  9. Regulations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Center Regulations Regulations Personnel Security Regulations Click Here FOIA Regulations Click Here Privacy Act Regulations Click Here Whistleblower Protection ...

  10. VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Eschen, R.L.; Scheele, P.F.

    1962-04-24

    A transistorized voltage regulator which provides very close voitage regulation up to about 180 deg F is described. A diode in the positive line provides a constant voltage drop from the input to a regulating transistor emitter. An amplifier is coupled to the positive line through a resistor and is connected between a difference circuit and the regulating transistor base which is negative due to the difference in voltage drop across thc diode and the resistor so that a change in the regulator output causes the amplifier to increase or decrease the base voltage and current and incrcase or decrease the transistor impedance to return the regulator output to normal. (AEC)

  11. SLUDGE BATCH 6 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION: RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB6 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, D.

    2010-05-21

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Six (SB6) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB6 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB5. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB6 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-09-110) taken on October 8, 2009. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of the Liquid Waste Organization it was then modified by eight washes, nine decants, an addition of Pu from Canyon Tank 16.3, and an addition of NaNO{sub 2}. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40. Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB6 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2009-0014. The work with this qualification sample is covered by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan and an Analytical Study Plan. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task I.2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task II.2.) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB6 will be taken and transferred

  12. Radionuclide mass balance for the TMI-2 accident: data-base system and preliminary mass balance. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, M I; Davis, R J; Strahl, J F; Arcieri, W C; Tonkay, D W

    1983-04-01

    Tables are presented which represent the radionuclide levels following the Three Mile Island-2 reactor accident.

  13. LITERATURE REVIEW ON MAXIMUM LOADING OF RADIONUCLIDES ON CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

    2010-10-13

    Plans are underway to use small column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions at Savannah River Site. The ion exchange material slated for the SCIX project is engineered or granular crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Information on the maximum loading of radionuclides on CST is needed by Savannah River Remediation for safety evaluations. A literature review has been conducted that culminated in the estimation of the maximum loading of all but one of the radionuclides of interest (Cs-137, Sr-90, Ba-137m, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Am-241, and Cm-244). No data was found for Cm-244.

  14. Radio-nuclide mixture identification using medium energy resolution detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Karl Einar

    2013-09-17

    According to one embodiment, a method for identifying radio-nuclides includes receiving spectral data, extracting a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and using a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library. In another embodiment, a device for identifying unknown radio-nuclides includes a processor, a multi-channel analyzer, and a memory operatively coupled to the processor, the memory having computer readable code stored thereon. The computer readable code is configured, when executed by the processor, to receive spectral data, to extract a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and to use a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library.

  15. Situ formation of apatite for sequestering radionuclides and heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.

    2003-07-15

    Methods for in situ formation in soil of a permeable reactive barrier or zone comprising a phosphate precipitate, such as apatite or hydroxyapatite, which is capable of selectively trapping and removing radionuclides and heavy metal contaminants from the soil, while allowing water or other compounds to pass through. A preparation of a phosphate reagent and a chelated calcium reagent is mixed aboveground and injected into the soil. Subsequently, the chelated calcium reagent biodegrades and slowly releases free calcium. The free calcium reacts with the phosphate reagent to form a phosphate precipitate. Under the proper chemical conditions, apatite or hydroxyapatite can form. Radionuclide and heavy metal contaminants, including lead, strontium, lanthanides, and uranium are then selectively sequestered by sorbing them onto the phosphate precipitate. A reducing agent can be added for reduction and selective sequestration of technetium or selenium contaminants.

  16. CRITICAL RADIONUCLIDE AND PATHWAY ANALYSIS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jannik, T.

    2011-08-30

    This report is an update to the analysis, Assessment of SRS Radiological Liquid and Airborne Contaminants and Pathways, that was performed in 1997. An electronic version of this large original report is included in the attached CD to this report. During the operational history (1954 to the present) of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released to the environment from the various production facilities. However, as will be shown by this updated radiological critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis, only a small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to potential doses and risks to offsite people. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface waters, the principal media that carry contaminants offsite. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. The groundwater monitoring performed at the site shows that an estimated 5 to 10% of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, no evidence exists from the extensive monitoring performed that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated off the site (SRS 2011). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people. In addition, in response to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Order 435.1, several Performance Assessments (WSRC 2008; LWO 2009; SRR 2010; SRR 2011) and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis (SRNO 2010) have recently been completed at SRS. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in these extensive reports are discussed and, where applicable, included in this analysis.

  17. Monitoring Trace Radionuclides by ICP Mass Spectrometry with Femtosecond

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Ablation | The Ames Laboratory Monitoring Trace Radionuclides by ICP Mass Spectrometry with Femtosecond Laser Ablation FWP/Project Description: This project will develop analytical methodology for the use of femtosecond laser ablation sampling and analysis techniques for the rapid screening of samples derived from detection of clandestine nuclear operations, and nuclear non-proliferation and safeguards activities. A state-of-the-art femtosecond laser ablation system in conjunction with

  18. Summary Report for the Development of Materials for Volatile Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Henager, Charles H.; Matyas, Josef; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2010-11-22

    The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2010, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogenides. For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated.

  19. Low Waste Method for Production of Radionuclides - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Low Waste Method for Production of Radionuclides Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (679 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryInsuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to healthcare around the world. With the increase need for

  20. Single-photon ultrashort-lived radionuclides: symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paras, P.; Thiessen, J.W. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to define the current role and state-of-the-art regarding the development, clinical applications, and usefulness of generator-produced single-photon ultrashort-lived radionuclides (SPUSLR's) and to predict their future impact on medicine. Special emphasis was placed on the generator production of iridium-191, gold-195, and krypton-81. This report contains expanded summaries of the included papers. (ACR)

  1. Improving the Availability of the Therapeutic Radionuclide Astatine-211 |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Improving the Availability of the Therapeutic Radionuclide Astatine-211 Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email Us More Information » 11.01.14

  2. Radionuclide inventory for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report updates the information previously submitted in the draft report DOE/WIPP 88-005, Radionuclide Source Term for the WIPP, dated 1987 (reference 1). The information in this report provides the projected radionuclide inventory at the WIPP based on the projected waste receipts through the year 2013. The information is based on the 1991 TRU Program Data submittals for the Integrated Data Base (DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 7) from each of the DOE sites generating or storing TRU waste for shipment to the WIPP. The data is based on existing characterization data on the waste in interim storage, waste estimates based on projected programs during the 1991 through 2013 time period, projected treatment processes required to meet WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), and a projection of the waste that will be declared low level waste when it is assayed as part of the certification program for waste shipments to WIPP. This data will serve as a standard reference for WIPP programs requiring radionuclide data, including safety programs, performance assessment, and regulatory compliance. These projections will continue to be periodically updated as the waste data estimates are refined by the generator sites as they participate in the annual update of the Integrated Data Base (IDB).

  3. Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong-Nian Jow; R.C. Moore; K.B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A.R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

    2005-01-14

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or ''getter'' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. ''Getter'' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion ''getters'' is presented. The benefits of the ''getter'' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined.

  4. Environmental radionuclide distribution in Georgia after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Shoniya, N.I.; Katamadze, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric Chernobyl-released radioactivity, assessed at about 2 x 10{sup 18} Bq, caused global environmental contamination. Contaminated air masses appeared in the Transcaucasian region in early May, 1986. Rains that month promoted intense radionuclide deposition all over Georgia. The contamination level of western Georgia considerably exceeded the contamination level of eastern Georgia. The Black Sea coast of Georgia suffered from the Chernobyl accident as much as did strongly contaminated areas of the Ukraine and Belarus`. Unfortunately, governmental decrees on countermeasures against the consequences of the Chernobyl accident at that time did not even refer to the coast of Georgia. The authors observed the first increase in radioactivity background in rainfall samples collected on May 2, 1986, in Tbilisi. {gamma}-Spectrometric measurements of aerosol filters, vegetation, food stuffs, and other objects, in addition to rainfall, persistently confirmed the occurrence of short-lived radionuclides, including {sup 131}I. At first, this fact seemed unbelievable, because the Chernobyl accident had occurred only 4-5 days earlier and far from Georgia. However, these arguments proved to be faulty. Soon, environmental monitoring of radiation in Georgia became urgent. Environmental radionuclide distribution in Georgia shortly after the Chernobyl accident, as well as the methods of analysis, are reported in this paper.

  5. Application of Monte Carlo Methods in Molecular Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann Siantar, C; Descalle, M-A; DeNardo, G L; Nigg, D W

    2002-02-19

    Targeted radionuclide therapy promises to expand the role of radiation beyond the treatment of localized tumors. This novel form of therapy targets metastatic cancers by combining radioactive isotopes with tumor-seeking molecules such as monoclonal antibodies and custom-designed synthetic agents. Ultimately, like conventional radiotherapy, the effectiveness of targeted radionuclide therapy is limited by the maximum dose that can be given to a critical, normal tissue, such as bone marrow, kidneys, and lungs. Because radionuclide therapy relies on biological delivery of radiation, its optimization and characterization are necessarily different than for conventional radiation therapy. We have initiated the development of a new, Monte Carlo transport-based treatment planning system for molecular targeted radiation therapy as part of the MINERVA treatment planning system. This system calculates patient-specific radiation dose estimates using a set of computed tomography scans to describe the 3D patient anatomy, combined with 2D (planar image) and 3D (SPECT, or single photon emission computed tomography) to describe the time-dependent radiation source. The accuracy of such a dose calculation is limited primarily by the accuracy of the initial radiation source distribution, overlaid on the patient's anatomy. This presentation provides an overview of MINERVA functionality for molecular targeted radiation therapy, and describes early validation and implementation results of Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. But, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. Moreover, a charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify themore » particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. Our study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes.« less

  7. Phosphate-Mediated Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martinez, Robert J.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide industrialization activities create vast amounts of organic and inorganic waste streams that frequently result in significant soil and groundwater contamination. Metals and radionuclides are of particular concern due to their mobility and long-term persistence in aquatic and terrestrial environments. As the global population increases, the demand for safe, contaminant-free soil and groundwater will increase as will the need for effective and inexpensive remediation strategies. Remediation strategies that include physical and chemical methods (i.e., abiotic) or biological activities have been shown to impede the migration of radionuclide and metal contaminants within soil and groundwater. However, abiotic remediation methods aremore » often too costly owing to the quantities and volumes of soils and/or groundwater requiring treatment. The in situ sequestration of metals and radionuclides mediated by biological activities associated with microbial phosphorus metabolism is a promising and less costly addition to our existing remediation methods. This review highlights the current strategies for abiotic and microbial phosphate-mediated techniques for uranium and metal remediation.« less

  8. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site -- calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleckler, B.P.; Rhoads, K.

    1998-06-17

    This report documents radionuclide air emission from the Hanford Site in 1997, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the MEI. The report has been prepared in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. This report has also been prepared in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The effective dose equivalent to the MEI from the Hanford Site`s 1997 point source emissions was 1.2 E-03 mrem (1.2 E-05 mSv), which is well below the 40 CFR 61 Subpart H regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr. Radon and thoron emissions, exempted from 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, resulted in an effective dose equivalent to the MEI of 2.5 E-03 mrem (2.5 E-05 mSv). The effective dose equivalent to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive emissions was 2.2 E-02 mrem (2.2 E-04 mSv). The total effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions was 2.6 E-02 mrem (2.6 E-04 mSv). The effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions is well below the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 246-247, regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr.

  9. Dose assessment from potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. The Compliance Order required RL to (1) evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which points are subject to the continuous emission sampling requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61 (40 CFR 61), Subpart H, and (2) continuously sample radionuclide emissions in accordance with requirements in 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required RL to provide a written Compliance Plan to meet the requirements of the Compliance Order. A Compliance Plan was submitted to EPA, Region 10, on April 30, 1993. The Compliance Plan specified that a dose assessment would be performed for 84 Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health on the Hanford Site. Any stack identified in the assessment as having potential emissions to cause an effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a maximum exposed individual (MEI) greater than 0.1 mrem y{sup {minus}1} must have a compliant sampling system. In addition, a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) was signed on. February 7, 1994. The FFCA required that all unregistered stacks on the Hanford Site be assessed. This requirement increased the number of stacks to be assessed to 123 stacks. Six methods for performing the assessments are described. An initial assessment using only the HEPA filtration factor for back calculations identified 32 stacks that would have emissions which would cause an EDE to the MEI greater than 0.1 mrem y{sup {minus}1}. When the other methods were applied the number was reduced to 20 stacks. The paper discusses reasons for these overestimates.

  10. SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION SAMPLING OF HIGH EXPLOSIVE RESIDUES IN THE PRESENCE OF RADIONUCLIDES AND RADIONUCLIDE SURROGATE METALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Donna Beals, D

    2007-04-13

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.