National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for regulations radionuclides final

  1. Differences in the regulation of chemicals and radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travis, C.C.

    1993-12-01

    Government regulations limiting public exposure to radionuclides and chemicals have historically been developed by regulatory agencies using different approaches with the result that levels of protection vary for the two classes of contaminants. These differences create difficulties in determining equitable regulatory measures when both radionuclides and chemical pollutants are involved. Generally, radiation exposure is not regulated as stringently as chemical exposure (Travis et al, 1989). The International commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends limiting excess environmental radiation exposure to the general public to 100 millirem per year (mrem/yr) (ICRP, 1991), a lifetime cancer risk of about 3.5E-3. An acceptable level of risk for chemical exposures is generally considered to be below 1E-6. Differences in regulatory approach for radionuclides and chemicals evoke debate over why they are different and which regulation strategy is better. Because these pollutants often coexist (mixed waste sites, contaminated metals and facilities, etc.), it is important to analyze inconsistencies in the regulation of chemicals and radionuclides and establish a more consistent approach to defining an acceptable level of exposure for these contaminants.

  2. Estimate of radionuclide release characteristics into containment under severe accident conditions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1993-11-01

    A detailed review of the available light water reactor source term information is presented as a technical basis for development of updated source terms into the containment under severe accident conditions. Simplified estimates of radionuclide release and transport characteristics are specified for each unique combination of the reactor coolant and containment system combinations. A quantitative uncertainty analysis in the release to the containment using NUREG-1150 methodology is also presented.

  3. Final Technical Report: Viral Infection of Subsurface Microorganisms and Metal/Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Karrie A.; Bender, Kelly S.; Li, Yusong

    2013-09-28

    Microbially mediated metabolisms have been identified as a significant factor either directly or indirectly impacting the fate and transport of heavy metal/radionuclide contaminants. To date microorganisms have been isolated from contaminated environments. Examination of annotated finished genome sequences of many of these subsurface isolates from DOE sites, revealed evidence of prior viral infection. To date the role that viruses play influencing microbial mortality and the resulting community structure which directly influences biogeochemical cycling in soils and sedimentary environments remains poorly understood. The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the role of viral infection of subsurface bacteria and the formation of contaminant-bearing viral particles. This objective was approached by examining the following working hypotheses: (i) subsurface microorganisms are susceptible to viral infections by the indigenous subsurface viral community, and (ii) viral surfaces will adsorb heavy metals and radionuclides. Our results have addressed basic research needed to accomplish the BER Long Term Measure to provide sufficient scientific understanding such that DOE sites would be able to incorporate coupled physical, chemical and biological processes into decision making for environmental remediation or natural attenuation and long-term stewardship by establishing viral-microbial relationships on the subsequent fate and transport of heavy metals and radionuclides. Here we demonstrated that viruses play a significant role in microbial mortality and community structure in terrestrial subsurface sedimentary systems. The production of viral-like particles within subsurface sediments in response to biostimulation with dissolved organic carbon and a terminal electron acceptor resulted in the production of viral-like particles. Organic carbon alone did not result in significant viral production and required the addition of a terminal electron acceptor (nitrate), indicating that nutrients are not limiting viral production, but rather substrates that can be converted into energy for host metabolism. Our results also revealed that cell abundance was not correlated to the mineralization of organic carbon, but rather viruses were positively correlated with carbon mineralization. This is a result of viral-mediated cell lysis and demonstrates that viruses are sensitive indicators of microbial activity. Viruses as an indicator of microbial activity was not unique to batch culture studies as results obtained from an in situ field experiment conducted at the DOE Old Rifle Field site. This study revealed that viral abundance increased in response to the injection of oxygenated groundwater and influx of dissolved organic carbon whereas cell abundance changes were minimal. However, the extent to which viral-mediated cell lysis alters organic matter pools subsequently influencing microbial community structure and biogeochemical function remains a critical question in subsurface biogeochemical cycling. The production of significant numbers of viruses in groundwater has implications for nanoparticulate metal as well as carbon transport in groundwater. We have demonstrated that the virus surface is reactive and will adsorb heavy metals. Thus viruses can promote colloidal contaminant mobility. Interestingly, the presence of heavy metals has a positive effect on infectivity of the phage, increasing phage infection which could lead to further production of viruses. Together, the results indicate that the sorption of metals to the surface of viruses could not only contribute to nanoparticulate metal as well as carbon transport but could also enhance infectivity further contributing to cell lysis which could subsequently influence biogeochemical cycling. As more viruses infect host microbial populations the high concentration of metals would enhance infection, resulting in cell lysis, and decreasing the metabolically active host population while yielding greater numbers of viruses capable of transporting contaminats. Additional studie

  4. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site. Final [report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m{sup 2} grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards.

  5. Scale-Dependent Fracture-Matrix Interactions And Their Impact on Radionuclide Transport - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Detwiler, Russell

    2014-06-30

    Matrix diffusion and adsorption within a rock matrix are widely regarded as important mechanisms for retarding the transport of radionuclides and other solutes in fractured rock (e.g., Neretnieks, 1980; Tang et al., 1981; Maloszewski and Zuber, 1985; Novakowski and Lapcevic, 1994; Jardine et al., 1999; Zhou and Xie, 2003; Reimus et al., 2003a,b). When remediation options are being evaluated for old sources of contamination, where a large fraction of contaminants reside within the rock matrix, slow diffusion out of the matrix greatly increases the difficulty and timeframe of remediation. Estimating the rates of solute exchange between fractures and the adjacent rock matrix is a critical factor in quantifying immobilization and/or remobilization of DOE-relevant contaminants within the subsurface. In principle, the most rigorous approach to modeling solute transport with fracture-matrix interaction would be based on local-scale coupled advection-diffusion/dispersion equations for the rock matrix and in discrete fractures that comprise the fracture network (Discrete Fracture Network and Matrix approach, hereinafter referred to as DFNM approach), fully resolving aperture variability in fractures and matrix property heterogeneity. However, such approaches are computationally demanding, and thus, many predictive models rely upon simplified models. These models typically idealize fracture rock masses as a single fracture or system of parallel fractures interacting with slabs of porous matrix or as a mobile-immobile or multi-rate mass transfer system. These idealizations provide tractable approaches for interpreting tracer tests and predicting contaminant mobility, but rely upon a fitted effective matrix diffusivity or mass-transfer coefficients. However, because these fitted parameters are based upon simplified conceptual models, their effectiveness at predicting long-term transport processes remains uncertain. Evidence of scale dependence of effective matrix diffusion coefficients obtained from tracer tests highlights this point and suggests that the underlying mechanisms and relationship between rock and fracture properties are not fully understood in large complex fracture networks. In this project, we developed a high-resolution DFN model of solute transport in fracture networks to explore and quantify the mechanisms that control transport in complex fracture networks and how these may give rise to observed scale-dependent matrix diffusion coefficients. Results demonstrate that small scale heterogeneity in the flow field caused by local aperture variability within individual fractures can lead to long-tailed breakthrough curves indicative of matrix diffusion, even in the absence of interactions with the fracture matrix. Furthermore, the temporal and spatial scale dependence of these processes highlights the inability of short-term tracer tests to estimate transport parameters that will control long-term fate and transport of contaminants in fractured aquifers.

  6. Final Report for Regulation of Embryonic Development in Higher Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harada, John J.

    2013-10-22

    The overall goal of the project was to define the cellular processes that underlie embryo development in plants at a mechanistic level. Our studies focused on a critical transcriptional regulator, Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC1), that is necessary and sufficient to induce processes required for embryo development. Because LEC1 regulates lipid accumulation during the maturation phase of embryo development, information about LEC1 may be useful in designing approaches to enhance biofuel production in plants. During the tenure of this project, we determined the molecular mechanisms by which LEC1 acts as a transcription factor in embryos. We also identified genes directly regulated by LEC1 and showed that many of these genes are involved in maturation processes. This information has been useful in dissecting the gene regulatory networks controlling embryo development. Finally, LEC1 is a novel isoform of a transcription factor that is conserved among eukaryotes, and LEC1 is active primarily in seeds. Therefore, we determined that the LEC1-type transcription factors first appeared in lycophytes during land plant evolution. Together, this study provides basic information that has implications for biofuel production.

  7. Federal program for regulating highly hazardous materials finally takes off

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lessard, P.C. [Block Environmental Services Inc., Pleasant Hill, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Risk Management Program (RMP) rule, Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), was signed on May 24 and finalized on June 20. RMP is one of the most comprehensive, technically based regulatory programs for preventing, detecting and responding to accidental hazardous materials releases to have been issued in recent times. Although facilities have three years to comply, EPA estimates that the rule will affect an estimated 66,000 facilities that store highly hazardous or acutely toxic materials. The 1990 CAA Amendments are designed to prevent accidental releases of highly hazardous chemicals from stationary sources. Two significant regulatory programs that have emerged from the revised CAA are the Process Safety Management (PSM) standard and RMP. PSM is designed to protect employees and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. RMP`s purpose is to protect the public and the environment from highly hazardous chemicals. It authorizes EPA to create a list of substances (distinct from the list generated under PSM) known to cause serious adverse effects and to implement a program for accidental chemical release prevention.

  8. Estimates of health risks associated with radionuclide emissions from fossil-fueled steam-electric generating plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C.

    1995-08-01

    Under the Title III, Section 112 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment, Congress directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to perform a study of the hazards to public resulting from pollutants emitted by electric utility system generating units. Radionuclides are among the groups of pollutants listed in the amendment. This report updates previously published data and estimates with more recently available information regarding the radionuclide contents of fossil fuels, associated emissions by steam-electric power plants, and potential health effects to exposed population groups.

  9. Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Radiation Protection; Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its primary standards for occupational radiation protection. This final rule is the culmination of a systematic analysis to identify the elements of a...

  10. Effect of Water Radiolysis Caused by Dispersed Radionuclides on Oxidative Dissolution of Spent Fuel in a Final Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Jinsong; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2001-08-15

    When released out of a canister, the radionuclides originally incorporated in the spent fuel can still deposit radiation energy (even more efficiently) into the pore water, cause water radiolysis, and produce oxidants in the buffering material. This phenomenon is termed secondary water radiolysis. The oxidants thus produced can possibly diffuse back to oxidize the spent fuel and to increase the oxidative dissolution rate of the fuel.The effect of the secondary water radiolysis has been identified and preliminarily addressed by a mass-balance model. To explore whether the effect is significant on spent-fuel dissolution, the upper-boundary limit of the effect has been set up by considering a scenario that is very unlikely to occur. Several extreme assumptions have been made: First, the canister fails completely 10{sup 3} yr after deposition; second, the spent fuel is oxidized instantaneously; and third, the radionuclides considered are those that dominantly contribute to radiolysis between 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} yr. With these assumptions, the spent-fuel dissolution rate can be increased dramatically if 10% or more of the oxidants produced by the secondary water radiolysis diffuse back to oxidize the spent fuel. It thus indicates that the effect of the secondary water radiolysis could be significant with some extreme assumptions. With more realistic assumptions, the effect could possibly become minimal. The subject is worth further investigation.

  11. Radionuclide trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  12. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  14. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  15. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  16. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  17. Position Paper on Practicable Performance Criteria for the Removal Efficiency of Volatile Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. T. Jubin; N. Soelberg; D. M. Strachan

    2012-03-01

    As a result of fuel reprocessing, volatile radionuclides may be released from the facility stack if no processes are put in place to remove them. The radionuclides that are of concern in this document are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. The question we attempted to answer is how efficient must this removal process be for each of these radionuclides? To answer this question, we examined the three regulations that may impact the degree to which these radionuclides must be reduced before process gases can be released from the facility. These regulations are 40 CFR 61 (EPA 2010a), 40 CFR 190(EPA 2010b), and 10 CFR 20 (NRC 2012). These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and to a particular organ - the thyroid. Because these doses can be divided amongst all the radionuclides in different ways and even within the four radionuclides in question, we provided several cases. We first looked at the inventories for these radionuclides for three fuel types (PWR UOX, PWR MOX, and AHTGR), several burn-up values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculated doses to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) with the EPA code CAP-88 (Rosnick 1992). Finally, we looked at two dose cases. Allocating all of the allowable dose to be used by the volatile radionuclides is one case, but, perhaps, unrealistic. In lieu of this, we arbitrarily selected a value of 10% of the allowable dose to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. We calculated the required decontamination factors (DFs) for both of these cases, including the case for the thyroid dose for which 14C and 129I were the main contributors. With respect to 129I doses, we found that the highest dose was calculated with iodine as a fine particulate. The dose scaled as the fraction of the total 129I that was particulate. Therefore, we assumed for all of our calculations that 100% of the 129I was particulate and allow the user of the results given here to scale our calculated doses to their needs.

  18. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report: Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  19. Department of Energy Finalizes Regulations to Increase Energy Efficiency in New Federal Buildings by 30%

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    WASHINGTON DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced it has established regulations that require new Federal buildings to achieve at least 30% greater energy efficiency over...

  20. Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

  1. Calcium-Mediated Regulation of Proton-Coupled Sodium Transport - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumaker, Karen S

    2013-10-24

    The long-term goal of our experiments was to understand mechanisms that regulate energy coupling by ion currents in plants. Activities of living organisms require chemical, mechanical, osmotic or electrical work, the energy for which is supplied by metabolism. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has long been recognized as the universal energy currency, with metabolism supporting the synthesis of ATP and the hydrolysis of ATP being used for the subsequent work. However, ATP is not the only energy currency in living organisms. A second and very different energy currency links metabolism to work by the movement of ions passing from one side of a membrane to the other. These ion currents play a major role in energy capture and they support a range of physiological processes from the active transport of nutrients to the spatial control of growth and development. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), the activity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger, SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (SOS1), is essential for regulation of sodium ion homeostasis during plant growth in saline conditions. Mutations in SOS1 result in severely reduced seedling growth in the presence of salt compared to the growth of wild type. SOS1 is a secondary active transporter coupling movement of sodium ions out of the cell using energy stored in the transplasma membrane proton gradient, thereby preventing the build-up of toxic levels of sodium in the cytosol. SOS1 is regulated by complexes containing the SOS2 and CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (CBL10) or SOS3 proteins. CBL10 and SOS3 (also identified as CBL4) encode EF-hand calcium sensors that interact physically with and activate SOS2, a serine/threonine protein kinase. The CBL10/SOS2 or SOS3/SOS2 complexes then activate SOS1 Na+/H+ exchange activity. We completed our studies to understand how SOS1 activity is regulated. Specifically, we asked: (1) how does CBL10 regulate SOS1 activity? (2) What role do two putative CBL10-interacting proteins play in SOS1 regulation? (3) Are there differences in the regulation and/or activity of SOS1 in plants differing in their adaptation to salinity?

  2. Genetic analysis of the regulation of TCH gene expression, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braam, Janet

    2008-10-28

    The Arabidopsis TCH genes, originally isolated as a consequence of their upregulation in response to the mechanical stimulus of touch, are also upregulated by a variety of seemingly disparate environmental and hormonal stimuli. To gain insight into the complexities of TCH gene regulation, a number of approaches were taken. Regulatory elements responsible for regulation were identified and characteristics of the regulation were evaluated. Reporter genes were used to monitor expression localization and dynamics. Microarray analyses of genome-wide expression behavior indicated that touch-inducible gene expression is more widespread than generally appreciated. Identification of all touch-regulated genes shed light on the types of cellular processes that may be altered in response to mechanical stress perturbations. Expression of the TCH2 gene, also called CML24, encoding a calmodulin (CaM)-like (CML) protein, was evaluated. CML24 shares over 40% amino acid sequence identity with CaM, has 4 EF hands and undergoes a Ca2+-dependent change in migration rate through denaturing gel electrophoresis, indicating that CML24 binds Ca2+ and, as a consequence, undergoes conformational changes. CML24 expression occurs in all major organs and is induced from 2- to 15-fold in plants subjected to touch, darkness, heat, cold, hydrogen peroxide, abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid. The putative CML24 regulatory region confers reporter expression at sites of predicted mechanical stress, in regions undergoing growth, in vascular tissues and various floral organs and in stomata, trichomes and hydathodes. CML24 underexpressing transgenics are resistant to ABA inhibition of germination and seedling growth, defective in long-day induction of flowering, and have enhanced tolerance to CoCl2, molybdic acid, ZnSO4 and MgCl2. These data present evidence that CML24 encodes a potential Ca2+ sensor that may function to enable responses to ABA, day length and presence of various salts. Further investigation of CML24 function and regulation led to the finding that CML24 has a critical role in nitric oxide regulation. Distinct tilling mutant alleles demonstrated that CML24 can act as a switch in the response to day length perception. Because of potential redundancy with the related CML23 gene, CML23 T-DNA insertion mutants were identified and characterized. Together, CML23 and CML24 impact the autonomous regulatory pathway of the transition to flowering. Nitric oxide levels are elevated in cml23/cml24 double mutants. Therefore, CML23 and CML24 are potential calcium sensors regulate nitric oxide accumulation. In collaboration with Drs. McCann and Carpita, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to assess, verify and classify wall architectural changes that occur as a result of single XTH insertion mutations. Thirty-four homozygous mutant lines of Arabidopsis representing 21 members of the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase gene family provided a set of mutants to characterize. Kohonen networks classified cell wall architectures of xth mutant lines and previously characterized cell wall mutants. The xth mutants were found to have chemical changes in their cell walls not detectable as phenotypic growth and development changes, consistent with the existence of feed-back loops that modify wall composition in response to a life-long deficiency of a cell wall enzyme. To gain insight into the potential physiological relevance of the distinct members of the XTH family, GUS reporter fusion genes were constructed, and plants expressing these transgenes were characterized to reveal spatial and temporal patterns of expression. In addition, Genevestigator sources were mined for comprehensive and comparative XTH expression regulation analysis. These data revealed that the Arabidopsis XTHs are likely expressed in every developmental stage from seed germination through flowering. All organs showed XTH::GUS expression and most, if not all, are found to express multiple XTH::GUS genes suggesting that XTHs may contribute to morphogenesis at every d

  3. The Human Genome Project: Information access, management, and regulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McInerney, J.D.; Micikas, L.B.

    1996-08-31

    The Human Genome Project is a large, internationally coordinated effort in biological research directed at creating a detailed map of human DNA. This report describes the access of information, management, and regulation of the project. The project led to the development of an instructional module titled The Human Genome Project: Biology, Computers, and Privacy, designed for use in high school biology classes. The module consists of print materials and both Macintosh and Windows versions of related computer software-Appendix A contains a copy of the print materials and discs containing the two versions of the software.

  4. Cost impact of discretionary alternatives. OSM Permanent Regulations 30 CFR, Chapter 7. Volume 1. Executive Summary and methodology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-11

    The report was prepared by D'Appolonia Consulting Engineers, Inc. (D'Appolonia) for the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) to assess the probable impacts on coal production costs of numerous discretionary issues involved in drafting the permanent regulations for implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (the Act). The results of the engineering cost study were used directly in OSM's Regulatory Analysis (RA) developed in compliance with Executive Order 12044. The final RA was published in March 1979 and is available from the OSM. The report details those analyses conducted by D'Appolonia and used in the RA. The results of the study are not meant to reflect the complete cost or economic impact of the Act or the resulting OSM regulations. The results do provide a basis for evaluating the relative impact of the various alternatives considered by OSM during development of the permanent regulatory program. The discretionary issues analyzed in the report pertain to both surface and underground mining activities. The volume presents the general methods of approach and final results of the study, while Volumes II and III present the individual analyses of each issue for surface and underground mines, respectively.

  5. Final Report: Transport and its regulation in Marine Microorganisms: A Genomic Based Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian Palenik; Bianca Brahamsha; Ian Paulsen

    2009-09-03

    This grant funded the analysis and annotation of the genomes of Synechococcus and Ostreococcus, major marine primary producers. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of transporters using state of the art bioinformatics analyses. During the analysis of the Synechococcus genome, some of the components of the unique bacterial swimming apparatus of one species of Synechococcus (Clade III, strain WH8102) were determined and these included transporters, novel giant proteins and glycosyltransferases. This grant funded the analysis of gene expression in Synechococcus using whole genome microarrays. These analyses revealed the strategies by which marine cyanobacteria respond to environmental conditions such as the absence of phosphorus, a common limiting nutrient, and the interaction of Synechococcus with other microbes. These analyses will help develop models of gene regulation in cyanobacteria and thus help predict their responses to changes in environmental conditions.

  6. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  7. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  8. Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harp, Richard J. (18746 Viking Way, Cerritos, CA 90701)

    1990-01-01

    In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

  9. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  10. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as 2030 and 2033, depending on the type of waste. TSPA-LA uses the results of this analysis to decay the inventory to the year of repository closure projected for the year of 2060.

  11. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  12. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  13. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

  14. Implementation plan for Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Parts 280 and 281; Final rules for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stupka, R.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the schedules and methods required to comply with the newly promulgated Underground Storage Tank (UST) Regulations Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 280 and 281. These rules were promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on September 23, 1988, and became effective December 22, 1988. These regulations are required by Subtitle I of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. Their purpose is to protect the groundwater supplies of the United States in the following ways: Closing old tanks; detecting and remediating tank leaks and spills; establishing stringent standards for new tanks; and upgrade of existing tanks to new-tank standards. 3 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  16. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  17. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}} ions and RaCl{sub 2} is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  18. U.S. DOE 2004 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.W. Jacobson

    2005-08-12

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2004.

  19. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  20. What radionuclides does LANL measure?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radionuclides & Chemicals What radionuclides does LANL measure? In compliance with the Clean Air Act, LANL monitors nonradiological pollutants. August 1, 2013 A typical airnet station with its housing open for sample changeout A typical airnet station with its housing open for sample changeout LANL expects to emit certain analytes to the air based on the materials that are used at each facility. LANL expects to emit certain analytes to the air based on the materials that are used at each

  1. An Innovative Approach for the Calculation of Exposure Point Concentrations for Large Areas of Surface Radionuclide Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winchester Chromec, F.; Myers, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-15

    The Department of Energy Rocky Flats site was designated as a wildlife refuge by the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge Act of 2001. Rocky Flats was considered to be one of the most highly contaminated radiological sites in the country. Some portions of the site have low-level radionuclide contamination in surface soils. A site-wide risk and dose assessment to evaluate threats to human health and the environment were performed, so that the site could be released for this land use. The aggressive accelerated action program combined with defensible and innovative risk assessment methods resulted in there being no radionuclides of concern in the final comprehensive risk assessment (DOE 2006). An innovative approach for delineating functional exposure areas and area-weighted exposure point concentration-activities (EPCs) was negotiated with the regulatory agencies in Colorado. This procedure leads to realistic estimates of risk and dose to workers and visitors. This innovative approach to the calculation of EPCs was negotiated with both State and Federal regulators. The value of developing and maintaining good working relationships with regulators responsible for a site can not be overestimated. The building of trust and confidence among responsible parties and regulators is essential for the development and implementation of innovative methods and technologies.

  2. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  3. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-06-29

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

  4. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  5. Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-03-08

    Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

  6. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1983-05-03

    Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  7. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Fawwaz, Rashid A. (Pelham, NY); Richards, Powell (Bayport, NY)

    1985-01-01

    Lymphocytes labelled with .beta.-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  8. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr. Final Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr. Final Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr. Final Report Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and

  9. Radionuclide Inventory Distribution Project Data Evaluation and Verification White Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-05-17

    Testing of nuclear explosives caused widespread contamination of surface soils on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Atmospheric tests produced the majority of this contamination. The Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP) was developed to determine distribution and total inventory of radionuclides in surface soils at the NTS to evaluate areas that may present long-term health hazards. The RIDP achieved this objective with aerial radiological surveys, soil sample results, and in situ gamma spectroscopy. This white paper presents the justification to support the use of RIDP data as a guide for future evaluation and to support closure of Soils Sub-Project sites under the purview of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Use of the RIDP data as part of the Data Quality Objective process is expected to provide considerable cost savings and accelerate site closures. The following steps were completed: - Summarize the RIDP data set and evaluate the quality of the data. - Determine the current uses of the RIDP data and cautions associated with its use. - Provide recommendations for enhancing data use through field verification or other methods. The data quality is sufficient to utilize RIDP data during the planning process for site investigation and closure. Project planning activities may include estimating 25-millirem per industrial access year dose rate boundaries, optimizing characterization efforts, projecting final end states, and planning remedial actions. In addition, RIDP data may be used to identify specific radionuclide distributions, and augment other non-radionuclide dose rate data. Finally, the RIDP data can be used to estimate internal and external dose rates. The data quality is sufficient to utilize RIDP data during the planning process for site investigation and closure. Project planning activities may include estimating 25-millirem per industrial access year dose rate boundaries, optimizing characterization efforts, projecting final end states, and planning remedial actions. In addition, RIDP data may be used to identify specific radionuclide distributions, and augment other non-radionuclide dose rate data. Finally, the RIDP data can be used to estimate internal and external dose rates.

  10. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  11. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brodzinski, Ronald L. (Richland, WA); Perkins, Richard W. (Richland, WA); Rieck, Henry G. (Richland, WA); Wogman, Ned A. (Richland, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  13. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site, Calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleckler, B.P.; Diediker, L.P.; Jette, S.J.; Rhoads, K.; Soldat, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1994, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the ``MEI.`` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  14. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site, calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diediker, L.P.; Johnson, A.R.; Rhoads, K.; Klages, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Rokkan, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1992 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to an member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  15. Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1983-08-25

    This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

  16. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tveten, U. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates.

  18. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

  19. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  20. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities radionuclide inventory assessment CY 1992-1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sula, M.J.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-09-01

    Assessments for evaluating compliance with airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subparts H and I) were performed for 33 buildings at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory on the Hanford Site, and for five buildings owned and operated by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The assessments were performed using building radionuclide inventory data obtained in 1992 and 1993. Results of the assessments are summarized in Table S.1 for DOE-PNL buildings and in Table S.2 for Battelle-owned buildings. Based on the radionuclide inventory assessments, four DOE-PNL buildings (one with two emission points) require continuous sampling for radionuclides per 40 CFR 61. None of the Battelle-owned buildings require continuous emission sampling.

  2. A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake Print Thursday, 21 January 2016 12:40 Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide uptake into cells is instrumental in managing human contamination. Recently, scientists have reported that an iron-binding protein called siderocalin can also bind

  3. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

    1990-11-13

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

  4. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  5. Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  6. Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiaoyuan (Syracuse, NY); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Fisher, Darrell R. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

  7. NREL Support for a Functional Genomics Approach to Investigate Regulation of Phenolic Glycoside: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-07-00218

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.

    2010-07-01

    NREL and MTU collaborated on a proposal 'A Functional Genomics Approach to Investigate Regulation of Phenolic Glycoside Metabolism in Populus' funded by the National Science Foundation.

  8. Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

  9. Radionuclide Releases During Normal Operations for Ventilated Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blunt, B.

    2001-09-24

    This calculation estimates the design emissions of radionuclides from Ventilated Tanks used by various facilities. The calculation includes emissions due to processing and storage of radionuclide material.

  10. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and contaminant mixing in an exhaust system and may be useful to identify potential sampling locations in an exhaust system that are likely to meet criteria in the revised standard.

  11. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

  12. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2012-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  16. U.S. Department of Energy Report, 2005 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith W. Jacobson, David P. Fuehne

    2006-09-01

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2006.

  17. Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diediker, L.P.; Curn, B.L.; Rhoads, K.; Damberg, E.G.; Soldat, J.K.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, {open_quotes}National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,{close_quotes} Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.{close_quotes}

  18. System and method for assaying a radionuclide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

    2014-12-23

    A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

  19. Natural radionuclides in Hanford site ground waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.R.; Laul, J.C.; Johnson, V.G.

    1987-10-01

    Uranium, Th, Ra, Rn, Pb and Po radionuclide concentrations in ground waters from the Hanford Site indicate that U, Th, and Ra are highly sorbed. Relative to Rn, these radionuclides are low by factors of 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -6/. Uranium sorption is likely due to its reduction from the +6 state, where it is introduced via surface waters, to the +4 state found in the confined aquifers. The distribution of radionuclides is very similar in all of the confined aquifers and significantly different from the distribution observed in the unconfined and surface waters. Barium correlates well with Ra over three orders of magnitude, indicating that stable element analogs may be useful for inferring the behavior of radioactive waste radionuclides in this candidate geologic repository. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake Print Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide uptake into cells is instrumental in managing human contamination. Recently, scientists have reported that an iron-binding protein called siderocalin can also bind and transport actinides into cells, a major advance in understanding

  1. A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake Print Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide uptake into cells is instrumental in managing human contamination. Recently, scientists have reported that an iron-binding protein called siderocalin can also bind and transport actinides into cells, a major advance in understanding

  2. A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake Print Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide uptake into cells is instrumental in managing human contamination. Recently, scientists have reported that an iron-binding protein called siderocalin can also bind and transport actinides into cells, a major advance in understanding

  3. A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake Print Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide uptake into cells is instrumental in managing human contamination. Recently, scientists have reported that an iron-binding protein called siderocalin can also bind and transport actinides into cells, a major advance in understanding

  4. Hydroxyapatite Barriers for Radionuclide Containment - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Hydroxyapatite Barriers for Radionuclide Containment Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (1,049 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryApatite, which has been shown to effectively bind and immobilize radionuclides, can also be used to form barriers in water and soil in contaminated environments. The apatite barrier is formed in situ in soil by injection of chelated calcium, phosphate and fluoride solution. In situ

  5. Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials. Abstract not provided. Authors: Wang, Yifeng Publication Date: 2014-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1241847 Report Number(s): SAND2014-18612C 540411 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Proposed for presentation at the Materials Science &

  6. Treatment of radionuclide contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettis, S.A.; Kallas, A.J.; Kochen, R.L.; McGlochlin, S.C.

    1988-06-01

    Rockwell, International, Rocky Flats Plants, is committed to remediating within the scope of RCRA/CERCLA, Solid Waste Managements Units (SWMUs) at Rocky Flats found to be contaminated with hazardous substances. SWMUs fund to have radionuclide (uranium, plutonium, and/or americium) concentrations in the soils and/or groundwater that exceed background levels or regulatory limits will also be included in this remediation effort. This paper briefly summarizes past and present efforts by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, to identify treatment technologies appropriate for remediating actinide contaminated soils. Many of the promising soil treatments evaluated in Rocky Flats' laboratories during the late 1970's and early 1980's are currently being revisited. These technologies are generally directed toward substantially reducing the volume of contaminated soils, with the subsequent intention of disposing of a small remaining concentrated fraction of contaminated soil in a facility approved to receive radioactive wastes. Treatment processes currently will be treated to remove actinides, and recycled back to the process. Past investigations have included evaluations of dry screening, wet screening, scrubbing, ultrasonics, chemical oxidation, calcination, desliming, flotation, and heavy-liquid density separation. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.; Shkolnik, A.; Yogev, R.; Firlit, C.; Traisman, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis.

  8. The role of organic complexants and microparticulates in the facilitated transport of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schilk, A.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Abel, K.H.; Thomas, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    This progress report describes the results of ongoing radiological and geochemical investigations of the mechanisms of radionuclide transport in groundwater at two low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites within the waste management area of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), Ontario, Canada. These sites, the Chemical Pit liquid disposal facility and the Waste Management Area C solid LLW disposal site, have provided valuable 30- to 40-year-old field locations for characterizing the migration of radionuclides and evaluating a number of recent site performance objectives for LLW disposal facilities. This information will aid the NRC and other federal, state, and local regulators, as well as LLW disposal site developers and waste generators, in maximizing the effectiveness of existing or projected LLW disposal facilities for isolating radionuclides from the general public and thereby improving the health and safety aspects of LLW disposal.

  9. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. M.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-04-08

    BattellePacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energys Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

  10. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  11. PUREX low-level waste radionuclide characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, M.W.; LeBaron, G.J.

    1995-01-16

    The PUREX low-level waste (LLW) radionuclide characterization document describes the methodology for the characterization of solid LLW and solid low-level mixed waste (MW) with the respect to radiological characteristics. This document only serves as an overview of the PUREX radionuclide characterization methodology and provides specific examples for how the radionuclide distribution is derived. It would be impractical to provide all background information in this document. If further clarification and background information is required, consult the PUREX Regulatory Compliance group files. This document applies to only that waste generated in or is the responsibility of the PUREX facilities. The US Department of Energy (DOE) establishes the requirements for radioactive solid waste in DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management. Chapters 2 and 3 from DOE Order 5820.2A requires that generators of solid wastes in the LLW categories and the radioactive mixed waste subcategories: (1) identify the major radionuclides in each solid waste matrix and (2) determine the radionuclide concentrations and waste classes of their solid wastes. In addition, the Order also requires each generator to carry out a compliance program that ensures the proper certification of the solid waste generated.

  12. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2000-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 1999 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities'', and with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247. Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from US. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1999 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.029 mrem (2.9 E-04 mSv), which is less than 0.3 percent of the federal standard. WAC 246-247 requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources, during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations. The state further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. The EDE from diffuse and fugitive emissions at the Hanford Site in 1999 was 0.039 mrem (3.9 E-04 mSv) EDE. The total dose from point sources and from diffuse and fugitive sources of radionuclide emissions during all operating conditions in 1999 was 0.068 mrem (6.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is less than 0.7 percent of the state standard.

  13. Final - Gasbuggy S

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Gasbuggy S i t e Environmental Management End State Vision - January 2005 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Gasbuggy Site ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT END STATE VISION Final Final - Gasbuggy Site Environmental Management End State Vhion - fanuaty 2005 Executive Summary The Environmental Management End State Vision is to be used as the primary tool for communicating the individual site end state to the involved parties (e.g., U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], regulators, public stakeholders, Tribal Nations).

  14. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  15. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  16. Laboratory studies of radionuclide migration in tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rundberg, R.S.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Triay, I.R.

    1989-10-01

    The movement of selected radionuclides has been observed in crushed tuff, intact tuff, and fractured tuff columns. Retardation factors and dispersivities were determined from the elution profiles. Retardation factors have been compared with those predicted on the basis of batch sorption studies. This comparison forms a basis for either validating distribution coefficients or providing evidence of speciation, including colloid formation. Dispersivities measured as a function of velocity provide a means of determining the effect of sorption kinetics or mass transfer on radionuclide migration. Dispersion is also being studied in the context of scaling symmetry to develop a basis for extrapolating from the laboratory scale to the field. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey

    2012-12-12

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  18. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  19. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  20. Summary of radionuclide air emissions from Department of Energy facilities for CY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    Facilities owned or operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) handle and process radioactive materials in conjunction with their research, nuclear materials production, remediation, and waste disposal activities. During normal operations, some of these facilities have the potential to release small quantities of radionuclides to the environment. Radionuclide emissions to the atmosphere from DOE facilities are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the authority of Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. Subpart H of 40 CFR Part 61 of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) sets standards for public exposure to airborne radioactive materials (other than radon) released by DOE facilities, DOE radon emissions are regulated by NESHAPs in Subparts Q and T. Subparts Q and T apply specifically to DOE storage and disposal facilities for radium-containing material. Airborne radionuclide emissions are also regulated by the Department of Energy under the authority provided by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, as amended. This report summarizes air emissions subject to the EPA requirements and demonstrates that DOE facilities are in compliance with the required dose limits.

  1. Final Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Final Optics Schematic layout of NIF's final optics assembly (FOA). The suite of optics for one beamline is on the right. The final optics assemblies (FOAs) are the last element of the main laser system and the first of the target area systems. Each FOA contains four integrated optics modules (IOMs) that incorporate beam conditioning, frequency conversion, focusing, diagnostic sampling, and debris shielding capabilities into a single compact assembly. These optics are shown in the figure at

  2. Final Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Final Report Document Number 11123-23.Final Field Demonstration of Eco-Friendly Creation of Propped Hydraulic Fractures Contract Number: 11123-23.Final February 16, 2015 Nadji Benrabah (Author) Engineer CSI Technologies 1930 W.W. Thorne Dr. Houston, TX 77073 Phil Van Trump (Principal Investigator) Chief Technology Officer DaniMer Scientific, LLC 1301 Colquitt Highway Bainbridge, GA 39817 2 LEGAL NOTICE This report was prepared by DaniMer Scientific, LLC as an account of work sponsored by the

  3. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  4. Final Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulation Software A simple fracture treatment design model was programed using Excel VBA. The goal was to estimate the pumping schedule and final conductivity of a fracture...

  5. Radionuclide partitioning in the modified Unex process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babain, V.; Smirnov, I.; Alyapyshev, M.; Todd, T.A.; Law, J.D.; Herbst, R.S.; Paulenova, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of long-lived radionuclides (cesium, strontium, actinides, and lanthanides) from acidic solutions in one extraction cycle. Modification of this organic solvent through the use of diamides of dipicolinic acid instead of CMPO increases the extraction capacity of UNEX solvent toward lanthanides and actinide metals, allowing for the processing of spent nuclear fuel. The possibility of radionuclide group separation using the modified UNEX solvent [HCCD (chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide), TBDPA (tetrabutyl-diamide of dipicolinic acid), PEG in FS-1 3 (phenyl-trifluoromethyl-sulfone)] is being investigated. Individual strip products, including a) actinides and lanthanides, b) strontium, and c) cesium, can be obtained by selective stripping from UNEX solvent. Such partitioning will make it possible to transform the Cs/Sr product into the most stable matrices for long-term storage and to further process the actinide/lanthanide product for recycling to a nuclear reactor. (authors)

  6. Methods and systems for detection of radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Jr., John T.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2010-05-25

    Disclosed are materials and systems useful in determining the existence of radionuclides in an aqueous sample. The materials provide the dual function of both extraction and scintillation to the systems. The systems can be both portable and simple to use, and as such can beneficially be utilized to determine presence and optionally concentration of radionuclide contamination in an aqueous sample at any desired location and according to a relatively simple process without the necessity of complicated sample handling techniques. The disclosed systems include a one-step process, providing simultaneous extraction and detection capability, and a two-step process, providing a first extraction step that can be carried out in a remote field location, followed by a second detection step that can be carried out in a different location.

  7. FINAL RELEASE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELEASE AWARDEE: ____________________________________________________ The work under Award No. DE-__________________________, dated ______________, between the United States of America (represented by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, and the undersigned awardee, having been completed and finally accepted , and in consideration of Final Payment thereunder, the United States of America, its officers, agents and employees are hereby released from all liabilities,

  8. Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2008-10-01

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  9. UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-28

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  10. Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-04-01

    This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  11. Use of natural radionuclides to predict the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, N.; Laul, J.C.; Perkins, R.W.

    1983-10-01

    In appropriate aquifers the natural radionuclides of the U and Th decay series are important sources of information about the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers. The Wolfcamp Carbonate, Pennsylvanian Carbonate and Granite Wash aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle are prime examples of such aquifers. Sampling and analysis for key radionuclides in the ground waters of these aquifers are quite feasible and have been accomplished. Key early results are: (1) Ra does not appear to be retarded by sorption, (2) Th appears to be strongly sorbed, (3) kinetics seem to be different on time scales of days to months than on ones of hundreds of thousands of years, and (4) U and Th behave similarily when the time scales (half-lives) are similar, leading to the suggestion that uranium is in the +4 valence state in these aquifers. 10 references, 9 figures.

  12. Use of natural radionuclides to predict the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, N.; Laul, J.C.; Perkins, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    In appropriate aquifers the natural radionuclides of the U and Th decay series are important sources of information about the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers. The Wolfcamp Carbonate, Pennsylvanian Carbonate and Granite Wash aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle are prime examples of such aquifers. Sampling and analysis for key radionuclides in the ground waters of these aquifers are quite feasible and have been accomplished. Key early results are: (1) Ra does not appear to be retarded by sorption, (2) Th appears to be strongly sorbed, (3) kinetics seem to be different on time scales of days to months than on ones of hundreds of thousands of years, and (4) U and Th behave similarly when the time scales (half-lives) are similar, leading to the suggestion that uranium is in the +4 valence state in these aquifers. 10 references, 3 figures.

  13. Quality assurance project plan for the radionuclide airborne emissions for the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristofzski, J.G.; Alison, D.

    1992-04-01

    The information provided in this document meets the quality assurance (QA) requirements for the ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants`` (NESHAP) (EPA 1989a) radionuclide airborne emissions control program in accordance with the regulation`s referenced stack monitoring method (i.e. Method 114) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). At the Hanford Site, the operations personnel have primary responsibility for implementing the continuous radionuclide emission measurements in conformance with NESHAP. Continuous measurement is used to describe continuous sampling of the effluent stream withdrawn and subjected to radiochemical analysis, and monitoring of radionuclide particulate emissions for administrative control. This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) fully describes these PFP- implemented activities and the associated QA program as required by the NESHAP. The information is provided in the format specified in QAMS/005, Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA 1983a). This QAPjP describes the QA program for only those activities that are the responsibility of the PFP: operation, calibration, and maintenance of the sampling systems. The QA requirements for laboratory services, data compilation, and data reporting are beyond the scope of this QAPjP.

  14. Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

  15. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biros, George

    2014-08-18

    This the final report for the project "Large-Scale Optimization for Bayesian Inference in Complex Systems," for the work in the group of the co-PI George Biros.

  16. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurney, Kevin R

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate students proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  17. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeTar, Carleton

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  18. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleckler, B.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1995, and the resulting effective dose equivalent (FDE) to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the `MEI.` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, `National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,` Subpart H, `National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.` This report has also been prepared for and will be submitted in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, `Radiation Protection-Air Emissions.`

  19. {gamma}-ray emitting radionuclide production in a multidimensional

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    supernovae model (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect {gamma}-ray emitting radionuclide production in a multidimensional supernovae model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: {gamma}-ray emitting radionuclide production in a multidimensional supernovae model We examine the effects of multidimensional hydrodynamics on {gamma}-ray emitting radionuclide yields from massive star progenitor supernovae. Significant differences are expected between explosive nucleosynthesis product yields from

  20. {gamma}-ray emitting radionuclide production in a multidimensional

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages

    supernovae model (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect {gamma}-ray emitting radionuclide production in a multidimensional supernovae model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: {gamma}-ray emitting radionuclide production in a multidimensional supernovae model We examine the effects of multidimensional hydrodynamics on {gamma}-ray emitting radionuclide yields from massive star progenitor supernovae. Significant differences are expected between explosive nucleosynthesis product yields from

  1. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Gnome underground nuclear test site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earman, S.; Chapman, J.; Pohlmann, K.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations that were used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater from these sites is an important part of the preliminary site risk analysis. These evaluations are undertaken to allow prioritization of the test areas in terms of risk, provide a quantitative basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work at the sites, and provide a framework for assessing data needs to be filled by site characterization. The Gnome site in southeastern New Mexico was the location of an underground detonation of a 3.5-kiloton nuclear device in 1961, and a hydrologic tracer test using radionuclides in 1963. The tracer test involved the injection of tritium, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs directly into the Culebra Dolomite, a nine to ten-meter-thick aquifer located approximately 150 in below land surface. The Gnome nuclear test was carried out in the Salado Formation, a thick salt deposit located 200 in below the Culebra. Because salt behaves plastically, the cavity created by the explosion is expected to close, and although there is no evidence that migration has actually occurred, it is assumed that radionuclides from the cavity are released into the overlying Culebra Dolomite during this closure process. Transport calculations were performed using the solute flux method, with input based on the limited data available for the site. Model results suggest that radionuclides may be present in concentrations exceeding drinking water regulations outside the drilling exclusion boundary established by DOE. Calculated mean tritium concentrations peak at values exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard of 20,000 pCi/L at distances of up to almost eight kilometers west of the nuclear test.

  2. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    causing transport into the surrounding environment. We propose that fermentative microorganisms are active in these sites and may control metal and radionuclide migration from...

  3. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The following overarching hypothesis will drive our research: 'Metals and radionuclides can be mobilized by infiltration of water into waste storage sites. Microbial communities of ...

  4. RADIONUCLIDES IN MARINE FISHES AND BIRDS FROM AMCHITKA AND KISKA...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... DISCUSSION Establishing baselines Radionuclides in the environment come from natu- ral sources, from fallout from historic nuclear weapons testing (Duran et al. 2004), from nuclear ...

  5. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  6. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

  7. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

  8. EA-1356: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    56: Final Environmental Assessment EA-1356: Final Environmental Assessment Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Biosolids Land Application Program on the Oak Ridge Reservation The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to raise the biosolids land application radionuclide loading limits from the current, self-imposed 4 mrem/yr lifetime loading to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC)-approved level of 10 mrem/yr. The planning level increase is necessary for industrial

  9. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  10. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DIEDIKER, L.P.

    1999-06-15

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in I998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR SI), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection--Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H; require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv), which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.5 E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from the unplanned event was similar in magnitude to that from routine releases during 1998. Were the release from this unplanned event combined with routine releases, the total dose would be less than 1 percent ofthe 10 mrem/yr standard.

  11. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) ?Sv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) ?Sv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) ?Sv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 ?Sv/year.

  12. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

    2008-08-07

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  14. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  15. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R and D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  16. Quality assurance project plan for the radionuclide airborne emissions for the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristofzski, J.G.; Alison, D.

    1992-04-01

    The information provided in this document meets the quality assurance (QA) requirements for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants'' (NESHAP) (EPA 1989a) radionuclide airborne emissions control program in accordance with the regulation's referenced stack monitoring method (i.e. Method 114) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). At the Hanford Site, the operations personnel have primary responsibility for implementing the continuous radionuclide emission measurements in conformance with NESHAP. Continuous measurement is used to describe continuous sampling of the effluent stream withdrawn and subjected to radiochemical analysis, and monitoring of radionuclide particulate emissions for administrative control. This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) fully describes these PFP- implemented activities and the associated QA program as required by the NESHAP. The information is provided in the format specified in QAMS/005, Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA 1983a). This QAPjP describes the QA program for only those activities that are the responsibility of the PFP: operation, calibration, and maintenance of the sampling systems. The QA requirements for laboratory services, data compilation, and data reporting are beyond the scope of this QAPjP.

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  18. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciucci, John

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration of each detected radionuclide at each of these locations is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. At any one location, if multiple radionuclides are detected, then compliance with NESHAP is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclides concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2009, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NTS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was a maximum of 1.69 mrem/yr, well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all six critical receptor stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NTS, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000044 mrem/yr, 230,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  19. FINAL REPORT

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FINAL REPORT Analytical and Elemental Analysis of Air and Soil Samples Facility and Public Awareness Partnership (Training/Public Awareness) Congressionally Awarded Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER64045 Submitted to: U.S. Department of Energy Attn: William Henson Submitted by: Alabama A&M University Research Institute (AAMURI) [pic] October 1, 2007 This report reflects a joint training program at the Integrated Environmental Research and Services (IERS) of the Alabama A&M University Research

  20. Final Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cyber Security for Utility Operations NETL Project M63SNL34 Sponsored by the U.S. DOE Office of Energy Assurance Managed by NETL Final Report Period of Performance October, 2003 - April, 2005 Dennis Holstein and John Tengdin, OPUS Publishing Jay Wack and Roger Butler, TecSec, Inc. Timothy Draelos, Sandia National Laboratories 1 Paul Blomgren, SafeNet/Mykotronx April 18, 2005 1 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States

  1. Chancellor Water Colloids: Characterization and Radionuclide Association

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Fattah, Amr I.

    2012-06-18

    Concluding remarks about this paper are: (1) Gravitational settling, zeta potential, and ultrafiltration data indicate the existence of a colloidal phase of both the alpha and beta emitters in the Chancellor water; (2) The low activity combined with high dispersion homogeneity of the Chancellor water indicate that both alpha and beta emitters are not intrinsic colloids; (3) Radionuclides in the Chancellor water, particularly Pu, coexist as dissolved aqueous and sorbed phases - in other words the radionuclides are partitioned between the aqueous phase and the colloidal phase; (4) The presence of Pu as a dissolved species in the aqueous phase, suggests the possibility of Pu in the (V) oxidation state - this conclusion is supported by the similarity of the k{sub d} value of Pu determined in the current study to that determined for Pu(V) sorbed onto smectite colloids, and the similar electrokinetic behavior of the Chancellor water colloids to smectite colloids; (5) About 50% of the Pu(V) is in the aqueous phase and 50% is sorbed on colloids (mass concentration of colloids in the Chancellor water is 0.12 g/L); (6) The k{sub d} of the Pu and the beta emitters (fission products) between aqueous and colloidal phases in the Chancellor water is {approx}8.0 x 10{sup 3} mL/g using two different activity measurement techniques (LSC and alpha spectroscopy); (7) The gravitational settling and size distributions of the association colloids indicate that the properties (at least the physical ones) of the colloids to which the alpha emitters are associated with seem to be different that the properties of the colloids to which the beta emitters are associated with - the beta emitters are associated with very small particles ({approx}50 - 120 nm), while the alpha emitters are associated with relatively larger particles; and (8) The Chancellor water colloids are extremely stable under the natural pH and ionic strength conditions, indicating high potential for transport in the subsurface.

  2. SLUDGE BATCH 7 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION: RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB7 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareizs, J.; Hay, M.

    2011-02-22

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Seven (SB7) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB7 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB6. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB7 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter qualification sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-10-125) received on September 18, 2010. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. With consultation from the Liquid Waste Organization, the qualification sample was then modified by several washes and decants, which included addition of Pu from H Canyon and sodium nitrite per the Tank Farm corrosion control program. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40. Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB7 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0031. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task I.2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task III.2.) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB7 will be taken and transferred to SRNL for measurement of these radionuclides. The results presented in this report are those necessary for DWPF to assess if the Tank 51 SB7 sample prepared at SRNL meets the requirements for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program. Concentrations are given for thirty-four radionuclides along with total alpha and beta activity. Values for total gamma and total gamma plus beta activities are also calculated.

  3. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-12

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  4. Radionuclide Migration at the Rio Blanco Site, A Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clay A. Cooper; Ming Ye; Jenny Chapman; Craig Shirley

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies conducted a program in the 1960s and 1970s that evaluated technology for the nuclear stimulation of low-permeability gas reservoirs. The third and final project in the program, Project Rio Blanco, was conducted in Rio Blanco County, in northwestern Colorado. In this experiment, three 33-kiloton nuclear explosives were simultaneously detonated in a single emplacement well in the Mesaverde Group and Fort Union Formation, at depths of 1,780, 1,899, and 2,039 m below land surface on May 17, 1973. The objective of this work is to estimate lateral distances that tritium released from the detonations may have traveled in the subsurface and evaluate the possible effect of postulated natural-gas development on radionuclide migration. Other radionuclides were considered in the analysis, but the majority occur in relatively immobile forms (such as nuclear melt glass). Of the radionuclides present in the gas phase, tritium dominates in terms of quantity of radioactivity in the long term and contribution to possible whole body exposure. One simulation is performed for {sup 85}Kr, the second most abundant gaseous radionuclide produced after tritium.

  5. Dynamics and transformations of radionuclides in soils and ecosystem health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellows, Robert J. ); Ainsworth, Calvin C. ); Driver, Crystal J. ); Cataldo, Dominic A. )

    1998-12-01

    The chemical behavior of radionuclides can vary widely in soil and sediment environments. Equally important, for a given radionuclide the physico-chemical properties of the solids and aqueous phase can greatly influence a radionuclides behavior. Radionuclides can conceivably occur in soils as soluble-free, inorganic-soluble-complexed, organic-soluble, complexed, adsorbed, precipitated, coprecipitated, or solid structural species. While it is clear that an assessment of a radionuclide?s soil chemistry and potential shifts in speciation will yield a considerable understanding of its behavior in the natural environment, it does not directly translate to bioavailability or its impact on ecosystems health. The soil chemical factors have to be linked to food chain considerations and other ecological parameters that directly tie to an analysis of ecosystem health. In general, the movement of radionuclides from lower to higher trophic levels diminishes with each trophic level in both aqua tic and terrestrial systems. In some cases, transfer is limited because of low absorption/assimilation by successive trophic organisms (Pu, U); for other radionuclides (Tc, H) assimilation may be high but rapid metabolic turnover and low retention greatly reduce tissue concentrations available to predator species. Still others are chemical analogs of essential elements whose concentrations are maintained under strict metabolic control in tissues (Cs) or are stored in tissues seldom consumed by other organisms (Sr storage in exoskeleton, shells, and bone). Therefore, the organisms that receive the greatest ingestion exposures are those in lower trophic positions or are in higher trophic levels but within simple, short food chains. Food source, behavior, and habitat influence the accumulation of radionuclides in animals.

  6. Radionuclide transport through engineered barrier system alteration products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viani, B.E.; Torretto, P.C.; Matzen, S.L.

    1997-12-01

    The primary rationale for studying the transport behavior of radionuclides through the Engineered Barrier system / Near Field Environment (EBS/NFE) is to ascertain whether the material properties of the introduced and altered host rock can significantly affect the transport of radionuclides from the waste container to the far field. The intent of this report is to present data and modeling results that can be used to assess the importance of canister corrosion products and cementitious materials to transport of radionuclides to the far field.

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE, 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001(EPA, 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2010, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000032 mrem/yr, more than 300,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  8. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2011, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1% to a maximum of 12.2% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  9. FINAL AGENDA

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FINAL AGENDA 1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSPORTATION EXTERNAL COORDINATION WORKING GROUP (TEC) APRIL 4-5, 2005 PHOENIX, ARIZONA MONDAY, APRIL 4, 2005 7:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. General Registration 7:30 a.m. - 8:00 a.m. Continental Breakfast 8:00 a.m. - 10:00 am. Tribal Topic Group - Lead: Jay Jones, DOE/RW 10:00 a.m. - 10:30 a.m. Break 10:30 a.m. - 11:00 a.m. Welcome and Meeting Overview Introduction, Meeting Overview - Judith Holm, Director, DOE/RW, Operations Development Division, Office of

  10. Screening Risk Assessment for Possible Radionuclides in the Amchitka Marine Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NNSA /NV

    2002-10-31

    As part of its environmental stewardship program the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is reevaluating three sites where underground nuclear tests were conducted in the deep subsurface of Amchitka Island, Alaska. The tests (i.e., Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin) were conducted in 1965, 1969, and 1971, respectively. Extensive investigations were conducted on these tests and their effect on the environment. Evaluations at the time of testing indicated limited release of radionuclides and absence of risk related to the testing; however, these are being reevaluated under the current DOE environmental stewardship program. A screening risk assessment of potential radionuclide release into the marine environment is an important part of this reevaluation. The risk assessment is one of three interrelated activities: a groundwater model and this screening risk assessment, both of which guide the decisions in the third activity, the site closure plan. Thus, the overall objective of the work is to understand, and subsequently manage, any risk to humans and the environment through a closure and long-term stewardship plan. The objective of this screening risk assessment is to predict whether possible releases of radionuclides at the ocean floor would represent potential risks to Native Alaskans by consumption of marine subsistence species. In addition, risks were predicted for consumers of commercial catches of marine organisms. These risks were calculated beginning with estimates of possible radionuclide release at the seafloor (from a groundwater modeling study), into the seawater, through possible uptake by marine organisms, and finally possible consumption by humans. The risk assessment model has 11 elements, progressing from potential release at the seafloor through water and food chains to human intake. Data for each of these elements were systematically found and synthesized from many sources, and represent the best available knowledge. Whenever precise data were lacking, the most conservative data were selected. Conservative assumptions and values were used for radionuclide uptake factors and for marine food ingestion rates by human receptors. The dispersion of material in the marine environment utilized a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved model (CORMIX). In addition, the screening level of 1 x 10{sup -6} or 1 excess cancer in 1 million is considered by the EPA to be below the level of concern. The end result, as presented in this report, is a highly conservative estimate of potential risks that are well below the EPA's most conservative risk threshold for both subsistence users and commercial-catch consumers.

  11. Final Rule (October 23, 2007)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Loan Guarantees for Projects That Employ Innovative Technologies; Final Rule: On May 16, 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and opportunity for comment (NOPR) to establish regulations for the loan guarantee program authorized by Title XVII of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Title XVII or the Act).

  12. SRNL RADIONUCLIDE FIELD LYSIMETER EXPERIMENT: BASELINE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Bagwell, L.; Powell, B.; Almond, P.; Emerson, H.; Hixon, A.; Jablonski, J.; Buchanan, C.; Waterhouse, T.

    2012-10-17

    The purpose of this document is to compile information regarding experimental design, facility design, construction, radionuclide source preparation, and path forward for the ten year Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radionuclide Field Lysimeter Experiment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This is a collaborative effort by researchers at SRNL and Clemson University. The scientific objectives of this study are to: Study long-term radionuclide transport under conditions more representative of vadose zone conditions than laboratory experiments; Provide more realistic quantification of radionuclide transport and geochemistry in the vadose zone, providing better information pertinent to radioactive waste storage solutions than presently exists; Reduce uncertainty and improve justification for geochemical models such as those used in performance assessments and composite analyses.

  13. The Production & Generation of Radionuclides from Deuterium-Deuterium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    invention is for the generation and production of radionuclides generated by D-D and D-T nuclear reactions in fusion reactors and fusion devices for medical, industry and research...

  14. Potential for radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aboveground biomass study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the closure of Material Disposal Area G (Conference) | SciTech Connect Potential for radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: Aboveground biomass study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the closure of Material Disposal Area G Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Potential for radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: Aboveground biomass study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the

  15. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanlon, E.A.

    1994-07-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10{sup 6}/yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs.

  16. Radionuclide Interaction and Transport in Representative Geologic Media |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Radionuclide Interaction and Transport in Representative Geologic Media Radionuclide Interaction and Transport in Representative Geologic Media The report presents information related to the development of a fundamental understanding of disposal-system performance in a range of environments for potential wastes that could arise from future nuclear fuel cycle alternatives. It addresses selected aspects of the development of computational modeling capability for the

  17. Natural chelating agents for radionuclide decorporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1985-06-11

    This invention relates to the production of metal-binding compounds useful for the therapy of heavy metal poisoning, for biological mining and for decorporation of radionuclides. The present invention deals with an orderly and effective method of producing new therapeutically effective chelating agents. This method uses challenge biosynthesis for the production of chelating agents that are specific for a particular metal. In this approach, the desired chelating agents are prepared from microorganisms challenged by the metal that the chelating agent is designed to detoxify. This challenge induces the formation of specific or highly selective chelating agents. The present invention involves the use of the challenge biosynthetic method to produce new complexing/chelating agents that are therapeutically useful to detoxify uranium, plutonium, thorium and other toxic metals. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa family of organisms is the referred family of microorganisms to be used in the present invention to produce the new chelating agent because this family is known to elaborate strains resistant to toxic metals.

  18. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Robert C.; Kamon, Teruki; Toback, David; Safonov, Alexei; Dutta, Bhaskar; Dimitri, Nanopoulos; Pope, Christopher; White, James

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  19. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Edwards; KD Shields; MJ Sula; MY Ballinger

    1999-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP--US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H). In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the US Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Pacific Northwest) on the Hanford Site. Two of the facilities evaluated, 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, and 331 Building Life Sciences Laboratory met state and federal criteria for continuous sampling of airborne radionuclide emissions. One other building, the 3720 Environmental Sciences Laboratory, was recognized as being in transition with the potential for meeting the continuous sampling criteria.

  20. REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES IN DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboul, S.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.; Bannochie, C.

    2011-12-20

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that the waste producer 'shall report the curie inventory of radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115.' As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type all radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and contribute greater than 0.01 percent of the total curie inventory from the time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial list of radionuclides to be reported is based on the design-basis glass identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report. However, it is required that the list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the 'greater than 0.01% of the curie inventory' criterion. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, and U-238; and Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete list of reportable radionuclides must also include these sets of U and Pu isotopes - and the U and Pu isotopic mass distributions must be identified. The DWPF receives HLW sludge slurry from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 40. For Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), the waste in Tank 40 contained a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) material transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. This sludge blend is also referred to as Macrobatch 8. Laboratory analyses of a Tank 40 sludge sample were performed to quantify the concentrations of pertinent radionuclides in the SB7a waste. Subsequently, radiological decay and in-growth were calculated over the time period from 2015 to 3115. This provided a basis for characterizing the radionuclide content of SB7a over time and for identifying the 'reportable radionuclides.' Details of the characterization methodology and the analytical results are the focus of this report. This work was performed at the request of the Waste Solidification Engineering Department of Savannah River Remediation, initiated via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0031. A minor revision in the reporting requirements was requested via a subsequent email communication. The work was conducted in accordance with the protocols identified in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan SRNL-RP-2010-01218 and Analytical Study Plan SRNL-RP-2010-01219. All of the raw data related to this scope have been recorded in laboratory notebook SRNL-NB-2011-00061. The overall goal of this task was to characterize the radionuclide content of the SB7a waste sufficiently to meet the WAPS and DWPF reporting requirements. The specific objectives were: (1) Quantify the current concentrations of all radionuclides impacting (or potentially-impacting) the total curie content between calendar years 2011 and 3115. Also quantify the current concentrations of other radionuclides specifically requested in the TTR or required by the WAPS. (2) Calculate future concentrations of decayed and in-grown radionuclides impacting the total curie content between calendar years 2015 and 3115; (3) Identify as 'reportable' all radionuclides contributing {ge} 0.01% of the total curie content from 2015 to 3115 and having half-lives {ge} 10 years.

  1. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  2. Radionuclides in plankton from the South Pacific Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1984-03-23

    We have initiated an investigation of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review has shown that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10/sup 4/. We participated in Operations Deepfreeze 1981 and 1982, collecting a total of 48 plankton samples from the USCGC Glacier on its Antarctic cruises. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories sampled air, water, rain, and fallout. We were able to measure concentrations in plankton of the naturally-occurring radionuclides /sup 7/Be, /sup 40/K, and the U and Th series, and we believe that we have detected low levels of /sup 144/Ce and /sup 95/Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68/sup 0/. Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and the protozoa content of the samples. 7 references, 5 figures.

  3. Determination of operating limits for radionuclides for a proposed landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.; Kocher, D.C.

    1994-05-24

    The operating limits for radionuclides in sanitary and industrial wastes were determined for a proposed landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky. These limits, which may be very small but nonzero, are not mandated by law or regulation but are needed for rational operation. The approach was based on analyses of the potential contamination of groundwater at the plant boundary and the potential exposure to radioactivity of an intruder at the landfill after closure. The groundwater analysis includes (1) a source model describing the disposal of waste and the release of radionuclides from waste to the groundwater, (2) site-specific groundwater flow and contaminant transport calculations, and (3) calculations of operating limits from the dose limit and conversion factors. The intruder analysis includes pathways through ingestion of contaminated vegetables and soil, external exposure to contaminated soil, and inhalation of suspended activity from contaminated soil particles. In both analyses, a limit on annual effective dose equivalent of 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) was adopted. The intended application of the results is to refine the radiological monitoring standards employed by the PGDP Health Physics personnel to determine what constitutes radioactive wastes, with concurrence of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.

  4. Method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide source distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stolin, Alexander V.; McKisson, John E.; Lee, Seung Joon; Smith, Mark Frederick

    2012-12-18

    A method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide distributions. Its particular embodiment is for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of awake animals, though its techniques are general enough to be applied to other moving radionuclide distributions as well. The invention eliminates motion and blurring artifacts for image reconstructions of moving source distributions. This opens new avenues in the area of small animal brain imaging with radiotracers, which can now be performed without the perturbing influences of anesthesia or physical restraint on the biological system.

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2013, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from 0.2% to a maximum of 10.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000011 mrem/yr, more than 900,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  6. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2012, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 0.5% to a maximum of 11.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  7. SLUDGE BATCH 5 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

    2008-07-28

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Five (SB5) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Part of this SB5 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40 to complete the formation of SB5. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB4. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB5 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry taken on March 21, 2008. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under direction of the Liquid Waste Organization it was then modified by five washes, six decants, an addition of Pu/Be from Canyon Tank 16.4, and an addition of NaNO2. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Ta Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB5 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2008-0010. The work with this qualification sample is covered by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan and an Analytical Study Plan. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task 2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task 5) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB5 will be taken and transferred to SRNL for measurement of these radionuclides. Data presented in this report represents the measured or estimated radionuclide concentrations obtained from several standard and special analytical methods performed by Analytical Development (AD) personnel within SRNL. The method for I-129 measurement in sludge is described in detail. Most of these methods were performed on solutions resulting from the dissolutions of the slurry samples. Concentrations are given for twenty-nine radionuclides along with total alpha and beta activity. Values for total gamma and total gamma plus beta activities are also calculated. Results also indicate that 98% of the Tc-99 and 92% of the I-129 that could have been in this sludge batch have been removed by chemical processing steps in the SRS Canyons or Tank Farm.

  8. Radionuclide Concentrations in Terrestrial Vegetation and Soil Samples On and Around the Hanford Site, 1971 Through 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Fritz, Brad G.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-07-29

    Environmental monitoring is conducted on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to comply with DOE Orders and federal and state regulations. Major objectives of the monitoring are to characterize contaminant levels in the environment and to determine site contributions to the contaminant inventory. This report focuses on surface soil and perennial vegetation samples collected between 1971 and 2008 as part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Surface Environmental Surveillance Project performed under contract to DOE. Areas sampled under this program are located on the Hanford Site but outside facility boundaries and on public lands surrounding the Hanford Site. Additional samples were collected during the past 8 years under DOE projects that evaluated parcels of land for radiological release. These data were included because the same sampling methodology and analytical laboratory were used for the projects. The spatial and temporal trends of six radionuclides collected over a 38-year period were evaluated. The radionuclides----cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and uranium (reported either as uranium-238 or total uranium)----were selected because they persist in the environment and are still being monitored routinely and reported in Hanford Site environmental reports. All these radionuclides were associated with plutonium production and waste management of activities occurring on the site. Other sources include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which ended in 1980, and the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Uranium is also a natural component of the soil. This assessment of soil and vegetation data provides important information on the distribution of radionuclides in areas adjacent to industrial areas, established perimeter locations and buffer areas, and more offsite nearby and distant locations. The concentrations reflect a tendency for detection of some radionuclides close to where they were utilized onsite, but as one moves to unindustrialized areas on the site, surrounding buffer areas and perimeter location into the more distant sites, concentrations of these radionuclides approach background and cannot be distinguished from fallout activity. More importantly, concentrations in soil and vegetation samples did not exceed environmental benchmark concentrations, and associated exposure to human and ecological receptors were well below levels that are demonstratively hazardous to human health and the environment.

  9. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.

    2015-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim.This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.'' The EDE to the MSL MEI due to routine operations in 2014 was 9E-05 mrem (9E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2014. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  10. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim (Sequim). This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The EDE to the Sequim MEI due to routine operations in 2013 was 5E-05 mrem (5E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2013. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  11. Waste site reclamation with recovery of radionuclides and metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland J. (Wading River, NY)

    1994-01-01

    A method for decontaminating radionuclides and other toxic metal-contaminate The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016 between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities, Inc.

  12. Isonitrile radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1984-06-04

    A coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta, is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

  13. New Catalytic DNA Biosensors for Radionuclides and Metal ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Lu

    2008-03-01

    We aim to develop new DNA biosensors for simultaneous detection and quantification of bioavailable radionuclides, such as uranium, technetium, and plutonium, and metal contaminants, such as lead, chromium, and mercury. The sensors will be highly sensitive and selective. They will be applied to on-site, real-time assessment of concentration, speciation, and stability of the individual contaminants before and during bioremediation, and for long-term monitoring of DOE contaminated sites. To achieve this goal, we have employed a combinatorial method called in vitro selection to search from a large DNA library (~ 1015 different molecules) for catalytic DNA molecules that are highly specific for radionuclides or other metal ions through intricate 3-dimensional interactions as in metalloproteins. Comprehensive biochemical and biophysical studies have been performed on the selected DNA molecules. The findings from these studies have helped to elucidate fundamental principles for designing effective sensors for radionuclides and metal ions. Based on the study, the DNA have been converted to fluorescent or colorimetric sensors by attaching to it fluorescent donor/acceptor pairs or gold nanoparticles, with 11 part-per-trillion detection limit (for uranium) and over million fold selectivity (over other radionuclides and metal ions tested). Practical application of the biosensors for samples from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Field Research Center (FRC) at Oak Ridge has also been demonstrated.

  14. Waste site reclamation with recovery of radionuclides and metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    1994-03-08

    A method for decontaminating radionuclides and other toxic metal-contaminate The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016 between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities, Inc.

  15. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. M.

    2011-05-13

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.

  16. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Barfuss, Brad C.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2008-01-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2007.

  17. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Shields, Keith D.; Edwards, Daniel R.

    2001-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods, and provides the results, for the assessment performed in 2001.

  18. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Edwards, Daniel L.

    2003-12-05

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the assessment performed in 2003.

  19. Guidance Regarding NEPA Regulations | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    NEPA Regulations Guidance Regarding NEPA Regulations This document provides Council on Environmental Quality guidance on several topics: scoping, categorical exclusions, adoption procedures, contracting provisions, selection of alternatives in licensing and permitting situations, and tiering. PDF icon Guidance Regarding NEPA Regulations More Documents & Publications Final Guidance for Effective Use of Programmatic NEPA Review Forty Most Asked Questions Concerning CEQ's National Environmental

  20. Chair, CTBT working group B Radionuclide Expert Group and the U.S.

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Radionuclide Subgroup of the Verification Monitoring Task Force, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | National Nuclear Security Administration Chair, CTBT working group B Radionuclide Expert Group and the U.S. Radionuclide Subgroup of the Verification Monitoring Task Force, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency

  1. SLUDGE BATCH 6 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION: RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB6 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, D.

    2010-05-21

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Six (SB6) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB6 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB5. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB6 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-09-110) taken on October 8, 2009. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of the Liquid Waste Organization it was then modified by eight washes, nine decants, an addition of Pu from Canyon Tank 16.3, and an addition of NaNO{sub 2}. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40. Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB6 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2009-0014. The work with this qualification sample is covered by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan and an Analytical Study Plan. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task I.2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task II.2.) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB6 will be taken and transferred to SRNL for measurement of these radionuclides. The results presented in this report are those necessary for DWPF to assess if the Tank 51 SB6 sample prepared at SRNL meets the requirements for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program. The sample is the same as that on which the chemical composition was reported. Concentrations are given for thirty-four radionuclides along with total alpha and beta activity. Values for total gamma and total gamma plus beta activities are also calculated. Results also indicate that 99% of the Tc-99 and at least 90% of the I-129 that could have been in this sludge batch have been removed by chemical processing steps in the SRS Canyons or Tank Farm.

  2. Radio-nuclide mixture identification using medium energy resolution detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Karl Einar

    2013-09-17

    According to one embodiment, a method for identifying radio-nuclides includes receiving spectral data, extracting a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and using a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library. In another embodiment, a device for identifying unknown radio-nuclides includes a processor, a multi-channel analyzer, and a memory operatively coupled to the processor, the memory having computer readable code stored thereon. The computer readable code is configured, when executed by the processor, to receive spectral data, to extract a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and to use a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library.

  3. Situ formation of apatite for sequestering radionuclides and heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.

    2003-07-15

    Methods for in situ formation in soil of a permeable reactive barrier or zone comprising a phosphate precipitate, such as apatite or hydroxyapatite, which is capable of selectively trapping and removing radionuclides and heavy metal contaminants from the soil, while allowing water or other compounds to pass through. A preparation of a phosphate reagent and a chelated calcium reagent is mixed aboveground and injected into the soil. Subsequently, the chelated calcium reagent biodegrades and slowly releases free calcium. The free calcium reacts with the phosphate reagent to form a phosphate precipitate. Under the proper chemical conditions, apatite or hydroxyapatite can form. Radionuclide and heavy metal contaminants, including lead, strontium, lanthanides, and uranium are then selectively sequestered by sorbing them onto the phosphate precipitate. A reducing agent can be added for reduction and selective sequestration of technetium or selenium contaminants.

  4. Summary Report for the Development of Materials for Volatile Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Henager, Charles H.; Matyas, Josef; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2010-11-22

    The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2010, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogenides. For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated.

  5. Single-photon ultrashort-lived radionuclides: symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paras, P.; Thiessen, J.W. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to define the current role and state-of-the-art regarding the development, clinical applications, and usefulness of generator-produced single-photon ultrashort-lived radionuclides (SPUSLR's) and to predict their future impact on medicine. Special emphasis was placed on the generator production of iridium-191, gold-195, and krypton-81. This report contains expanded summaries of the included papers. (ACR)

  6. DOE Isotope Program Announces Availability of Radionuclide Generators for

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Medical Research | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) DOE Isotope Program Announces Availability of Radionuclide Generators for Medical Research Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email

  7. Low Waste Method for Production of Radionuclides - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Low Waste Method for Production of Radionuclides Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (679 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryInsuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to healthcare around the world. With the increase need for

  8. Improving the Availability of the Therapeutic Radionuclide Astatine-211 |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Improving the Availability of the Therapeutic Radionuclide Astatine-211 Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email Us More Information » 11.01.14

  9. Monitoring Trace Radionuclides by ICP Mass Spectrometry with Femtosecond

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Ablation | The Ames Laboratory Monitoring Trace Radionuclides by ICP Mass Spectrometry with Femtosecond Laser Ablation FWP/Project Description: This project will develop analytical methodology for the use of femtosecond laser ablation sampling and analysis techniques for the rapid screening of samples derived from detection of clandestine nuclear operations, and nuclear non-proliferation and safeguards activities. A state-of-the-art femtosecond laser ablation system in conjunction with

  10. CRITICAL RADIONUCLIDE AND PATHWAY ANALYSIS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jannik, T.

    2011-08-30

    This report is an update to the analysis, Assessment of SRS Radiological Liquid and Airborne Contaminants and Pathways, that was performed in 1997. An electronic version of this large original report is included in the attached CD to this report. During the operational history (1954 to the present) of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released to the environment from the various production facilities. However, as will be shown by this updated radiological critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis, only a small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to potential doses and risks to offsite people. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface waters, the principal media that carry contaminants offsite. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. The groundwater monitoring performed at the site shows that an estimated 5 to 10% of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, no evidence exists from the extensive monitoring performed that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated off the site (SRS 2011). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people. In addition, in response to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Order 435.1, several Performance Assessments (WSRC 2008; LWO 2009; SRR 2010; SRR 2011) and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis (SRNO 2010) have recently been completed at SRS. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in these extensive reports are discussed and, where applicable, included in this analysis.

  11. Phosphate-Mediated Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martinez, Robert J.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide industrialization activities create vast amounts of organic and inorganic waste streams that frequently result in significant soil and groundwater contamination. Metals and radionuclides are of particular concern due to their mobility and long-term persistence in aquatic and terrestrial environments. As the global population increases, the demand for safe, contaminant-free soil and groundwater will increase as will the need for effective and inexpensive remediation strategies. Remediation strategies that include physical and chemical methods (i.e., abiotic) or biological activities have been shown to impede the migration of radionuclide and metal contaminants within soil and groundwater. However, abiotic remediation methods aremore » often too costly owing to the quantities and volumes of soils and/or groundwater requiring treatment. The in situ sequestration of metals and radionuclides mediated by biological activities associated with microbial phosphorus metabolism is a promising and less costly addition to our existing remediation methods. This review highlights the current strategies for abiotic and microbial phosphate-mediated techniques for uranium and metal remediation.« less

  12. Radionuclide inventory for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report updates the information previously submitted in the draft report DOE/WIPP 88-005, Radionuclide Source Term for the WIPP, dated 1987 (reference 1). The information in this report provides the projected radionuclide inventory at the WIPP based on the projected waste receipts through the year 2013. The information is based on the 1991 TRU Program Data submittals for the Integrated Data Base (DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 7) from each of the DOE sites generating or storing TRU waste for shipment to the WIPP. The data is based on existing characterization data on the waste in interim storage, waste estimates based on projected programs during the 1991 through 2013 time period, projected treatment processes required to meet WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), and a projection of the waste that will be declared low level waste when it is assayed as part of the certification program for waste shipments to WIPP. This data will serve as a standard reference for WIPP programs requiring radionuclide data, including safety programs, performance assessment, and regulatory compliance. These projections will continue to be periodically updated as the waste data estimates are refined by the generator sites as they participate in the annual update of the Integrated Data Base (IDB).

  13. Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong-Nian Jow; R.C. Moore; K.B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A.R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

    2005-01-14

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or ''getter'' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. ''Getter'' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion ''getters'' is presented. The benefits of the ''getter'' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined.

  14. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site -- calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleckler, B.P.; Rhoads, K.

    1998-06-17

    This report documents radionuclide air emission from the Hanford Site in 1997, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the MEI. The report has been prepared in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. This report has also been prepared in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The effective dose equivalent to the MEI from the Hanford Site`s 1997 point source emissions was 1.2 E-03 mrem (1.2 E-05 mSv), which is well below the 40 CFR 61 Subpart H regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr. Radon and thoron emissions, exempted from 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, resulted in an effective dose equivalent to the MEI of 2.5 E-03 mrem (2.5 E-05 mSv). The effective dose equivalent to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive emissions was 2.2 E-02 mrem (2.2 E-04 mSv). The total effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions was 2.6 E-02 mrem (2.6 E-04 mSv). The effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions is well below the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 246-247, regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr.

  15. Dose assessment from potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. The Compliance Order required RL to (1) evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which points are subject to the continuous emission sampling requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61 (40 CFR 61), Subpart H, and (2) continuously sample radionuclide emissions in accordance with requirements in 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required RL to provide a written Compliance Plan to meet the requirements of the Compliance Order. A Compliance Plan was submitted to EPA, Region 10, on April 30, 1993. The Compliance Plan specified that a dose assessment would be performed for 84 Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health on the Hanford Site. Any stack identified in the assessment as having potential emissions to cause an effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a maximum exposed individual (MEI) greater than 0.1 mrem y{sup {minus}1} must have a compliant sampling system. In addition, a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) was signed on. February 7, 1994. The FFCA required that all unregistered stacks on the Hanford Site be assessed. This requirement increased the number of stacks to be assessed to 123 stacks. Six methods for performing the assessments are described. An initial assessment using only the HEPA filtration factor for back calculations identified 32 stacks that would have emissions which would cause an EDE to the MEI greater than 0.1 mrem y{sup {minus}1}. When the other methods were applied the number was reduced to 20 stacks. The paper discusses reasons for these overestimates.

  16. Complete decay of radionuclides: Implications for low-level waste disposal in municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meck, R.A.

    1996-05-01

    The time required for the complete decay of a radioactive source can be quantified by specifying an acceptable probability and using an original derivation. The physical phenomenon of complete decay may be used as the technical basis to change regulations and permit, with public acceptance, the inexpensive disposal of short half-lived radioactive waste into municipal landfills. Current regulations require isolation of trash form the biosphere for 30 years during the post-closure control period for municipal landfills. Thirty years is sufficient time for complete decay of significant quantities of short-lived radionuclides, and there is a large decay capacity in the nation`s landfills. As the major generators of low-level radioactive waste with relatively short half-lives, the academic, medical, and research communities likely would benefit most from such regulatory relief. Disposal of such waste is prohibited or costly. The waste must be specially packaged, stored, transported, and disposed in designated repositories. Regulatory relief can be initiated by citizens since the Administrative Procedures Act gives citizens the right to petition for regulatory change. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Policy Flash 2013-23 Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Attached is Policy Flash 2013-23 Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule for changes to Parts 908, 945, 952, and 970 regarding Government Property. Questions...

  18. SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION SAMPLING OF HIGH EXPLOSIVE RESIDUES IN THE PRESENCE OF RADIONUCLIDES AND RADIONUCLIDE SURROGATE METALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Donna Beals, D

    2007-04-13

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  19. Final EIS Volume 3

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Volume 3 Final Environmental Impact Statement for Decommissioning and/or Long-Term Stewardship at the West Valley Demonstration Project and Western New York Nuclear Service Center DOE/EIS-0226 January 2010 The West Valley Site Comment Response Document Final Environmental Impact Statement for AVAILABILITY OF THE FINAL EIS FOR DECOMMISSIONING AND/OR LONG- TERM STEWARDSHIP AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AND WESTERN NEW YORK NUCLEAR SERVICE CENTER For further information on this Final

  20. WY Final EA DRAFT

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Final Environmental Assessment Wallooskee-Youngs Confluence Restoration Project Bonneville Power Administration DOE/EA-1974 July 2015 This document is the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed Wallooskee-Youngs Confluence Restoration Project. This document has been prepared as an abbreviated Final EA because there have been no substantial changes to the proposed action, alternatives, or environmental analysis presented in the Draft EA. This abbreviated Final EA provides changes

  1. Searchable Electronic Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Searchable Electronic Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation Searchable Electronic Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation Updated July 2, 2013. The EDEAR is current through the Final Rule published May 3, 2013 at 78 FR 25817 If you have any questions concerning this page, please contact Barbara Binney in the Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division, Office of Acquisition and Project Management. PDF icon EDEAR July 2 2013 final.pdf More Documents &

  2. Regulations, Policies and Strategies for LLRW Management in Bangladesh - 12368

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mollah, A.S.

    2012-07-01

    Low level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated from various nuclear applications in Bangladesh. The major sources of radioactive waste in the country are at present: (a) the 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor; (b) the radioisotope production facility; (c) the medical, industrial and research facilities that use radionuclides; and (d) the industrial facility for processing monazite sands. Radioactive waste needs to be safely managed because it is potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. According to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Act-93, the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the governmental body responsible for the receipt and final disposal of radioactive wastes in the whole country. Waste management policy has become an important environmental, social, and economical issue for LLW in Bangladesh. Policy and strategies will serve as a basic guide for radioactive waste management in Bangladesh. The waste generator is responsible for on-site collection, conditioning and temporary storage of the waste arising from his practice. The Central Waste Processing and Storage Unit (CWPSU) of BAEC is the designated national facility with the requisite facility for the treatment, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste until a final disposal facility is established and becomes operational. The Regulatory Authority is responsible for the enforcement of compliance with provisions of the waste management regulation and other relevant requirements by the waste generator and the CWPSU. The objective of this paper is to present, in a concise form, basic information about the radioactive waste management infrastructure, regulations, policies and strategies including the total inventory of low level radioactive waste in the country. For improvement and strengthening in terms of operational capability, safety and security of RW including spent radioactive sources and overall security of the facility (CWPSF), the facility is expected to serve waste management need in the country and, in the course of time, the facility may be turned into a regional level training centre. It is essential for safe conduction and culture of research and application in nuclear science and technology maintaining the relevant safety of man and environment and future generations to come. (authors)

  3. Microbial stabilization and mass reduction of wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1991-09-10

    A process is provided to treat wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals with Clostridium sp. BFGl to release a large fraction of the waste solids into solution and convert the radionuclides and toxic metals to a more concentrated and stable form with concurrent volume and mass reduction. The radionuclides and toxic metals being in a more stable form are available for recovery, recycling and disposal. 18 figures.

  4. Method for preparing radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meares, Claude F. (Davis, CA); Li, Min (Davis, CA); DeNardo, Sally J. (El Macero, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complexes that are useful in medical diagnosis or therapy are prepared by reacting a radionuclide, such as .sup.90 Y or .sup.111 In, with a polyfunctional chelating agent to form a radionuclide chelate that is electrically neutral; purifying the chelate by anion exchange chromatography; and reacting the purified chelate with a targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody, to form the complex.

  5. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  6. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-09-07

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  7. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr Predicting the potential migration of metals and radionuclides from waste pits and trenches will

  8. Microbial stabilization and mass reduction of wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland J. (Wading River, NY); Gillow, Jeffrey B. (Valley Cottage, NY)

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided to treat wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals with Clostridium sp. BFGl to release a large fraction of the waste solids into solutin and convert the radionuclides and toxic metals to a more concentrated and stable form with concurrent volume and mass reduction. The radionuclides and toxic metals being in a more stable form are available for recovery, recycling and disposal.

  9. Regulations | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Information Center » Regulations Regulations Personnel Security Regulations Click Here FOIA Regulations Click Here Privacy Act Regulations Click Here Whistleblower Protection Regulations Click Here Exception Regulations Click Here Procedural Regulations Click Here Browse Title 10 Energy Regulations Click Here Annual Reports Filing Information FOIA Decisions Security Hearings Decisions Whistleblower Decisions EIA Decisions Oil Refund Decisions Product Efficiency Decisions Decision Summaries

  10. Apparatus for the measurement of radionuclide transport rates in rock cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weed, H.C.; Koszykowski, R.F.; Dibley, L.L.; Murray, I.

    1981-09-01

    An apparatus and procedure for the study of radionuclide transport in intact rock cores are presented in this report. This equipment more closely simulates natural conditions of radionuclide transport than do crushed rock columns. The apparatus and the procedure from rock core preparation through data analysis are described. The retardation factors measured are the ratio of the transport rate of a non-retarded radionuclide, such as /sup 3/H, to the transport rate of a retarded radionuclide. Sample results from a study of the transport of /sup 95m/Tc and /sup 85/Sr in brine through a sandstone core are included.

  11. 300 AREA PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY FACILITY RADIONUCLIDE EMISSION POINTS AND SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. M.; Harbinson, L Jill

    2006-08-28

    Radionuclide emission points for 300 Area and Battelle Private facilities are presented herein. The sampling systems and associated emission specifics are detailed.

  12. Radionuclide-binding compound, a radionuclide delivery system, a method of making a radium complexing compound, a method of extracting a radionuclide, and a method of delivering a radionuclide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Darrell R. (Richland, WA); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Chen, Xiaoyuan (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01

    The invention pertains to compounds which specifically bind radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexing compounds. In one aspect, the invention includes a radionuclide delivery system comprising: a) a calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, and wherein m is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound comprising at least two ionizable groups; and b) an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of making a radium complexing compound, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising n phenolic hydroxyl groups; b) providing a crown ether precursor, the crown ether precursor comprising a pair of tosylated ends; c) reacting the pair of tosylated ends with a pair of the phenolic hydroxyl groups to convert said pair of phenolic hydroxyl groups to ether linkages, the ether linkages connecting the crown ether precursor to the calix[n]arene to form a calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound, wherein m is an integer greater than 3; d) converting remaining phenolic hydroxyl groups to esters; e) converting the esters to acids, the acids being proximate a crown-[m]-ether portion of the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound; and f) providing a Ra.sup.2+ ion within the crown-[m]-ether portion of the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound.

  13. Radionuclide Migration through Sediment and Concrete: 16 Years of Investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Snyder, Michelle MV; Powers, Laura; Whyatt, Greg A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-11-06

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Part of these services includes safe disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, performance assessment analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires continuing data collection to increase confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied on to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the order. Cement-based solidification and stabilization is considered for hazardous waste disposal because it is easily done and cost-efficient. One critical assumption is that concrete will be used as a waste form or container material at the Hanford Site to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The radionuclides iodine-129, selenium-75, technetium-99, and uranium-238 have been identified as long-term dose contributors (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, these constituents of potential concern may be released from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and migrate into the surrounding subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989; 1992; 1993a, b; 1995). Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. Each of the test methods performed throughout the lifetime of the project has focused on different aspects of the concrete waste form weathering process. Diffusion of different analytes [technetium-99 (Tc-99), iodine-125 (I-125), stable iodine (I), uranium (U), and rhenium (Re)] has been quantified from experiments under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The water-saturated conditions provide a conservative estimate of the concrete’s performance in situ, and the unsaturated conditions provide a more accurate estimate of the diffusion of contaminants from the concrete.

  14. Use of depleted uranium silicate glass to minimize release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel waste packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-01-20

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate Container Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill the void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (a) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (b) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

  15. Acquisition Regulation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    6 Rev. 1 Date 09/09/2015 Department of Energy No. FAL 2015-04 Rev. 1 Date 09/09/2015 Financial Assistance Regulations ACQUISITION/FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE LETTER This Acquisition/Financial Assistance Letter is issued under the authority of the Senior Procurement Executive of DOE. It is intended for use by procurement professionals of DOE, primarily Contracting Officers, and other officials of DOE that are involved in the acquisition process. Other parties are welcome to its information, but

  16. FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on a flip chart: Where What To Regulators When K RIFS Proposed Plan Sept DH RIFS & Prop Plan Nov RIFS Proposed Plan Nov River and Plateau Committee Page 11 Final Meeting...

  17. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F; Meck, Robert A.

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently studied radionuclides. (4) The biokinetics of a radionuclide in the human body typically represents the greatest source of uncertainty or variability in dose per unit intake. (5) Characterization of uncertainty in dose per unit exposure is generally a more straightforward problem for external exposure than for intake of a radionuclide. (6) For many radionuclides the most important outcome of a large-scale critical evaluation of databases and biokinetic models for radionuclides is expected to be the improvement of current models. Many of the current models do not fully or accurately reflect available radiobiological or physiological information, either because the models are outdated or because they were based on selective or uncritical use of data or inadequate model structures. In such cases the models should be replaced with physiologically realistic models that incorporate a wider spectrum of information.

  18. National Science Bowl Finals

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    National Science Bowl finals and awards at the National Building Museum in Washington D.C. Monday 5/3/2010

  19. DOE Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinzman, Larry D.; Long, James; Newby, Greg B.

    2014-01-08

    This final report contains a summary of work accomplished in the establishment of a Climate Data Center at the International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks.

  20. Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Dandy, David S.

    2015-05-15

    This is the final technical report of the DOE project DE-FG02-07ER46448 awarded to Colorado State University.

  1. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  2. Radionuclide release from low-level waste in field lysimeters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblath, S B

    1986-01-01

    A field program has been in operation for 8 years at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to determine the leaching/migration behavior of low-level radioactive waste using lysimeters. The lysimeters are soil-filled caissons containing well characterized wastes, with each lysimeter serving as a model of a shallow land burial trench. Sampling and analysis of percolate water and vegetation from the lysimeters provide a determination of the release rates of the radionuclides from the waste/soil system. Vegetative uptake appears to be a major pathway for migration. Fractional release rates from the waste/soil system are less than 0.01% per year. Waste-to-soil leach rates up to 10% per year have been determined by coring several of the lysimeters. The leaching of solidified wasteforms under unsaturated field conditions has agreed well with static, immersion leaching of the same type waste in the laboratory. However, releases from the waste/soil system in the lysimeter may be greater than predicted based on leaching alone, due to complexation of the radionuclides by other components leached from the wastes to form mobile, anionic species.

  3. Laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured Climax granite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Failor, R.; Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Vandergraaf, T.

    1982-06-01

    This report documents our laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured granite cores. To simulate natural conditions, our laboratory studies used naturally fractured cores and natural ground water from the Climax Granite Stock at the Nevada Test Site. For comparison, additional tests used artificially fractured granite cores or distilled water. Relative to the flow of tritiated water, {sup 85}Sr and /sup 95m/Tc showed little or no retardation, whereas {sup 137}Cs was retarded. After the transport runs the cores retained varying amounts of the injected radionuclides along the fracture. Autoradiography revealed some correlation between sorption and the fracture fill material. Strontium and cesium retention increased when the change was made from natural ground water to distilled water. Artificial fractures retained less {sup 137}Cs than most natural fractures. Estimated fracture apertures from 18 to 60 {mu}m and hydraulic conductivities from 1.7 to 26 x 10{sup -3} m/s were calculated from the core measurements.

  4. Proceedings of the Radionuclide Contamination in Water Resources Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, J H; Duisebayev, B; Janecky, D R; Knapp, R; Rosenburg, N D; Smith, D K; Tompson, A F B; Tyupkina, O; Veselov, V V

    2001-07-26

    A workshop entitled ''Radionuclide Contamination in Water Resources'' was held in Almaty, Kazakhstan from Tuesday 29 May through Friday 1 June. This workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and three organizations from the Republic of Kazakhstan: the Institute of Nonproliferation, the Institute of Hydrogeology and Hydrophysics, and KazAtomProm. Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, three national laboratories, and 13 different organizations from the Republic of Kazakhstan attended the workshop. A complete list of attendees, the workshop program, and information on the background and motivation for this workshop are provided in this report. The objective of the workshop was to identify critical problems, discover what is known about the problems related to radionuclide contamination of groundwater resources, form collaborative teams, and produce a small number proposals that both address further characterization and assess risk via contaminant fate and transport modeling. We plan to present these proposals to U.S. government agencies and international sponsors for funding.

  5. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva; Stan, Rydell

    2008-08-07

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb).This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  6. Chalcogen-Based Aerogels as Sorbents for Radionuclide Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Brian J.; Chun, Jaehun; Um, Wooyong; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Olszta, Matthew J.; Li, Xiaohong; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2013-06-13

    The efficient capture of radionuclides having long half-lives such as technetium-99 (99Tc), uranium-238 (238U), and iodine-129 (129I) is pivotal to prevent their transport into groundwater and/or release into the atmosphere. While different sorbents have been considered for capturing each of them, in the current work, a new nanostructured chalcogen-based aerogel, called a chalcogel, is shown to be very effective to capture ionic forms of 99Tc and 238U, as well as nonradioactive gaseous iodine (i.e., a surrogate for 129I), irrespective of the sorbent polarity. Some of the chalcogels performed better than others but the PtGeS sorbent performed the best with capture efficiencies of 98% and 99.4% for 99Tc and 238U, respectively. All sorbents showed >99% capture efficiency for iodine over the test duration. This unified sorbent would be an attractive option in environmental remediation for various radionuclides associated with legacy wastes from nuclear weapons production, wastes from nuclear power production, or potential future nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  7. Department of Energy Finalizes Regulations to Increase Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    efficiency of renewable energy technologies; and adopt sustainable design practices. "Dramatically elevating building efficiency standards to these unprecedented levels ...

  8. Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farnham, Irene

    2005-09-01

    Frenchman Flat is one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) used for underground nuclear testing (Figure 1-1). These nuclear tests resulted in groundwater contamination in the vicinity of the underground test areas. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) of the Frenchman Flat underground test areas. Since 1996, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) has regulated NNSA/NSO corrective actions through the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' ([FFACO], 1996). Appendix VI of the FFACO agreement, ''Corrective Action Strategy'', was revised on December 7, 2000, and describes the processes that will be used to complete corrective actions, including those in the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. The individual locations covered by the agreement are known as corrective action sites (CASs), which are grouped into corrective action units (CAUs). The UGTA CASs are grouped geographically into five CAUs: Frenchman Flat, Central Pahute Mesa, Western Pahute Mesa, Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, and Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (Figure 1-1). These CAUs have distinctly different contaminant source, geologic, and hydrogeologic characteristics related to their location (FFACO, 1996). The Frenchman Flat CAU consists of 10 CASs located in the northern part of Area 5 and the southern part of Area 11 (Figure 1-1). This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for Frenchman Flat, CAU 98. The methodology used to estimate hydrologic source terms (HSTs) for the Frenchman Flat CAU is also documented. The HST of an underground nuclear test is the portion of the total inventory of radionuclides that is released over time into the groundwater following the test. The total residual inventory of radionuclides associated with one or more tests is known as the radiologic source term (RST). The RST is comprised of radionuclides in water, glass, or other phases or mineralogic forms. This evaluation was conducted in support of the development of a CAU contaminant transport model for the Frenchman Flat CAU.

  9. Technical and Policy Challenges in Deep Vadose Zone Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides - 12025

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Freshley, Mark; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Dresel, P. Evan

    2012-07-01

    Deep vadose zone contamination is a significant issue facing the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). Contamination in the deep vadose zone is isolated from exposure such that direct contact is not a factor in risk to human health and the environment. Transport of deep vadose zone contamination and discharge to the groundwater creates the potential for exposure and risk to receptors, so limiting flux to groundwater is key for protection of groundwater resources. Remediation approaches for the deep vadose zone need to be considered within the regulatory context, targeted at mitigating the source of contamination and reducing contaminant flux to groundwater. Processes for deep vadose zone metal and radionuclide remediation are discussed, as well as challenges and opportunities for implementation. It may be useful to consider the risk and challenges with leaving contaminants in place as part of a flux-control remedy in comparison with risks associated with contaminant removal and final disposition elsewhere. Understanding and quantifying the ramifications of contaminant removal and disposition options are therefore warranted. While this review suggests that some additional development work is needed for deep vadose zone remediation techniques, the benefits of applying vadose zone remediation for groundwater protection are compelling and worthy of continued development. (authors)

  10. Radionuclide release from PWR spent fuel specimens with induced cladding defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.; Oversby, V.M.

    1984-03-01

    Radionuclide releases from pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel rod specimens containing various artificially induced cladding defects were compared by leach testing. The study was conducted in support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Waste Package Task to evaluate the effectiveness of failed cladding as a barrier to radionuclide release. Test description and results are presented. 6 references, 4 figures.

  11. Radionuclide release from PWR spent fuel specimens with induced cladding defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.; Oversby, V.M.

    1984-03-01

    Radionuclide releases from pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel rod specimens containing various artificially induced cladding defects were compared by leach testing. The study was conducted in support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Waste Package Task to evaluate the effectiveness of failed cladding as a barrier to radionuclide release. Test description and results are presented.

  12. Title 40 CFR 1502.9 Draft, Final, and Supplemental Statements...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    9 Draft, Final, and Supplemental Statements Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal Regulation: Title 40 CFR...

  13. Final EIS for Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Project Now

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Available | Department of Energy Final EIS for Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Project Now Available Final EIS for Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Project Now Available August 8, 2014 - 4:44pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) NEPA regulations (40 CFR

  14. DOE Issues Final Rule for Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Alternative Rating Methods | Department of Energy Issues Final Rule for Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating Methods DOE Issues Final Rule for Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating Methods December 26, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The Department of Energy (DOE) has issued a pre-publication Federal Register final rule revising its existing regulations governing the use of particular methods as alternatives to testing for commercial

  15. Policy Flash 2013-23 Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Rule for changes to Parts 908, 945, 952, and 970 regarding Government Property | Department of Energy 3 Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule for changes to Parts 908, 945, 952, and 970 regarding Government Property Policy Flash 2013-23 Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final Rule for changes to Parts 908, 945, 952, and 970 regarding Government Property Attached is Policy Flash 2013-23 Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) Final

  16. Potential Application Of Radionuclide Scaling Factors To High Level Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboul, S. H.

    2013-09-30

    Production sources, radiological properties, relative solubilities in waste, and laboratory analysis techniques for the forty-five radionuclides identified in Hanford?s Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Feed Acceptance Data Quality Objectives (DQO) document are addressed in this report. Based on Savannah River Site (SRS) experience and waste characteristics, thirteen of the radionuclides are judged to be candidates for potential scaling in High Level Waste (HLW) based on the concentrations of other radionuclides as determined through laboratory measurements. The thirteen radionuclides conducive to potential scaling are: Ni-59, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Cd-113m, Sn-121m, Sn-126, Cs-135, Sm-151, Ra-226, Ra-228, Ac-227, Pa-231, and Th-229. The ability to scale radionuclides is useful from two primary perspectives: 1) it provides a means of checking the radionuclide concentrations that have been determined by laboratory analysis; and 2) it provides a means of estimating radionuclide concentrations in the absence of a laboratory analysis technique or when a complex laboratory analysis technique fails. Along with the rationale for identifying and applying the potential scaling factors, this report also provides examples of using the scaling factors to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in current SRS waste and into the future. Also included in the report are examples of independent laboratory analysis techniques that can be used to check results of key radionuclide analyses. Effective utilization of radionuclide scaling factors requires understanding of the applicable production sources and the chemistry of the waste. As such, the potential scaling approaches identified in this report should be assessed from the perspective of the Hanford waste before reaching a decision regarding WTP applicability.

  17. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  18. Final EIS Volume 2

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Volume 2 Final Environmental Impact Statement for Decommissioning and/or Long-Term Stewardship at the West Valley Demonstration Project and Western New York Nuclear Service Center DOE/EIS-0226 January 2010 The West Valley Site (Appendices A through R) AVAILABILITY OF THE FINAL EIS FOR DECOMMISSIONING AND/OR LONG- TERM STEWARDSHIP AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AND WESTERN NEW YORK NUCLEAR SERVICE CENTER For further information on this Final EIS, or to request a copy of the EIS or

  19. DOE NEPA Implementing Procedures: Final Rule (61 Fed Reg 64603) |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy 64603) DOE NEPA Implementing Procedures: Final Rule (61 Fed Reg 64603) DOE amended its regulations governing compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). These amendments incorporate changes primarily related to DOE's power marketing activities, based on DOE's experience in applying the current NEPA regulations. The revised regulations are intended to improve DOE's efficiency in implementing NEPA requirements by reducing costs and preparation time, while

  20. Radionuclide Partitioning in an Underground Nuclear Test Cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, T P; Hu, Q; Zhao, P; Conrado, C L; Dickerson, R; Eaton, G F; Kersting, A B; Moran, J E; Nimz, G; Powell, B A; Ramon, E C; Ryerson, F J; Williams, R W; Wooddy, P T; Zavarin, M

    2009-01-09

    In 2004, a borehole was drilled into the 1983 Chancellor underground nuclear test cavity to investigate the distribution of radionuclides within the cavity. Sidewall core samples were collected from a range of depths within the re-entry hole and two sidetrack holes. Upon completion of drilling, casing was installed and a submersible pump was used to collect groundwater samples. Test debris and groundwater samples were analyzed for a variety of radionuclides including the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 155}Eu, the activation products {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu, and {sup 154}Eu, and the actinides U, Pu, and Am. In addition, the physical and bulk chemical properties of the test debris were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Microprobe measurements. Analytical results were used to evaluate the partitioning of radionuclides between the melt glass, rubble, and groundwater phases in the Chancellor test cavity. Three comparative approaches were used to calculate partitioning values, though each method could not be applied to every nuclide. These approaches are based on: (1) the average Area 19 inventory from Bowen et al. (2001); (2) melt glass, rubble, and groundwater mass estimates from Zhao et al. (2008); and (3) fission product mass yield data from England and Rider (1994). The U and Pu analyses of the test debris are classified and partitioning estimates for these elements were calculated directly from the classified Miller et al. (2002) inventory for the Chancellor test. The partitioning results from this study were compared to partitioning data that were previously published by the IAEA (1998). Predictions of radionuclide distributions from the two studies are in agreement for a majority of the nuclides under consideration. Substantial differences were noted in the partitioning values for {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}I, and uranium. These differences are attributable to two factors: chemical volatility effects that occur during the initial plasma condensation, and groundwater remobilization that occurs over a much longer time frame. Fission product partitioning is very sensitive to the early cooling history of the test cavity because the decay of short-lived (t{sub 1/2} < 1 hour) fission-chain precursors occurs on the same time scale as melt glass condensation. Fission product chains that include both volatile and refractory elements, like the mass 99, 125, and 129 chains, can show large variations in partitioning behavior depending on the cooling history of the cavity. Uranium exhibits similar behavior, though the chemical processes are poorly understood. The water temperature within the Chancellor cavity remains elevated (75 C) more than two decades after the test. Under hydrothermal conditions, high solubility chemical species such as {sup 125}Sb and {sup 129}I are readily dissolved and transported in solution. SEM analyses of melt glass samples show clear evidence of glass dissolution and secondary hydrothermal mineral deposition. Remobilization of {sup 99}Tc is also expected during hydrothermal activity, but moderately reducing conditions within the Chancellor cavity appear to limit the transport of {sup 99}Tc. It is recommended that the results from this study should be used together with the IAEA data to update the range in partitioning values for contaminant transport models at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site).

  1. Chancellor Water Colloids: Characterization and Radionuclide Associated Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, Paul William; Boukhalfa, Hakim

    2014-09-26

    Column transport experiments were conducted in which water from the Chancellor nuclear test cavity was transported through crushed volcanic tuff from Pahute Mesa. In one experiment, the cavity water was spiked with solute 137Cs, and in another it was spiked with 239/240Pu(IV) nanocolloids. A third column experiment was conducted with no radionuclide spike at all, although the 137Cs concentrations in the water were still high enough to quantify in the column effluent. The radionuclides strongly partitioned to natural colloids present in the water, which were characterized for size distribution, mass concentration, zeta potential/surface charge, critical coagulation concentration, and qualitative mineralogy. In the spiked water experiments, the unanalyzed portion of the high-concentration column effluent samples were combined and re-injected into the respective columns as a second pulse. This procedure was repeated again for a third injection. Measurable filtration of the colloids was observed after each initial injection of the Chancellor water into the columns, but the subsequent injections (spiked water experiments only) exhibited no apparent filtration, suggesting that the colloids that remained mobile after relatively short transport distances were more resistant to filtration than the initial population of colloids. It was also observed that while significant desorption of 137Cs from the colloids occurred after the first injection in both the spiked and unspiked waters, subsequent injections of the spiked water exhibited much less 137Cs desorption (much greater 137Cs colloid-associated transport). This result suggests that the 137Cs that remained associated with colloids during the first injection represented a fraction that was more strongly adsorbed to the mobile colloids than the initial 137Cs associated with the colloids. A greater amount of the 239/240Pu desorbed from the colloids during the second column injection compared to the first injection, but then desorption decreased significantly in the third injection. This result suggests that the Pu(IV) nanocolloids probably at least partially dissolved during and after the first injection, resulting in enhanced desorption from the colloids during the second injection, but by the third injection the Pu started following the same trend that was observed for 137Cs. The experiments suggest a transport scale dependence in which mobile colloids and colloid-associated radionuclides observed at downstream points along a flow path have a greater tendency to remain mobile along the flow path than colloids and radionuclides observed at upstream points. This type of scale dependence may help explain observations of colloid-facilitated Pu transport over distances of up to 2 km at Pahute Mesa.

  2. Biogeochemical Mechanisms Controlling Reduced Radionuclide Particle Properties and Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jim K. Fredrickson; John M. Zachara; Matthew J. Marshall; Alex S. Beliaev

    2006-06-01

    Uranium and Technetium are the major risk-driving contaminants at Hanford and other DOE sites. These radionuclides have been shown to be reduced by dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) under anoxic conditions. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that reduction results in the formation of poorly soluble hydrous oxides, UO2(s) and TcO2n?H2O(s), that are believed to limit mobility in the environment. The mechanisms of microbial reduction of U and Tc have been the focus of considerable research in the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP). In spite of equal or greater importance in terms of controlling the environmental fate of the contaminants relatively little is known regarding the precipitation mechanism(s), reactivity, persistence, and transport of biogenic UO2(s) and TcO2(s).

  3. Carboxy, carboalkoxy and carbamile substituted isonitrile radionuclide complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Kronauge, James; Abrams, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A coordination complex comprising a radionuclide selected from the class consisting of radioactive isotopes of Tc, Ru, Co, Pt and Re and an isonitrile ligand of the formula: (CNX)R, where X is a lower alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, wherein R is selected from the group consisting of COOR.sup.1 and CONR.sup.2 R.sup.3 where R.sup.1 can be H, a pharmaceutically acceptable cation, or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms. R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 can be H, or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, and R.sup.2 and R.sup.3 can be the same of different is disclosed. Kits that can be used to form these complexes are also disclosed.

  4. Carboxy, carboalkoxy and carbamile substituted isonitrile radionuclide complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Kronauge, James; Abrams, Michael J.

    1988-04-05

    A coordination complex comprising a radionuclide selected from the class consisting of radioactive isotopes of Tc, Ru, Co, Pt and Re and an isonitrile ligand of the formula: (CNX)R, where X is a lower alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, wherein R is selected from the group consisting of COOR.sup.1 and CONR.sup.2 R.sup.3 where R.sup.1 can be H, a pharmaceutically acceptable cation, or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 can be H, or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, and R.sup.2 and R.sup.3 can be the same or different is disclosed. Kits that can be used to form these complexes are also disclosed.

  5. Targets and methods for target preparation for radionuclide production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhuikov, Boris L; Konyakhin, Nicolai A; Kokhanyuk, Vladimir M; Srivastava, Suresh C

    2012-10-16

    The invention relates to nuclear technology, and to irradiation targets and their preparation. One embodiment of the present invention includes a method for preparation of a target containing intermetallic composition of antimony Ti--Sb, Al--Sb, Cu--Sb, or Ni--Sb in order to produce radionuclides (e.g., tin-117 m) with a beam of accelerated particles. The intermetallic compounds of antimony can be welded by means of diffusion welding to a copper backing cooled during irradiation on the beam of accelerated particles. Another target can be encapsulated into a shell made of metallic niobium, stainless steel, nickel or titanium cooled outside by water during irradiation. Titanium shell can be plated outside by nickel to avoid interaction with the cooling water.

  6. Noble gases and cosmogenic radionuclides in the Eltanin Pacific meteorite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogard, D D; Garrison, D H; Caffee, M W; Kyte, F; Nishiizumi, K

    2000-01-14

    A 1.5 cm long, 1.2 g specimen of the Eltanin meteorite was found at 10.97 m depth in Polarstern piston core PS2704-1. The early studies indicated that the small fragments of the Eltanin meteorite was debris from a km-sized asteroid which impacted into the deep-ocean basin. In this study, the authors measured {sup 39}Ar-{sup 40}Ar age, noble gases, and cosmogenic radionuclides in splits of specimen as a part of consortium studies of Eltanin meteorite. They concluded that the specimen was about 3 m deep from the asteroid surface. The exposure age of the Eltanin asteroid was about 20 Myr.

  7. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-11-06

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  8. Regulations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regulations Regulations Security Reviews Click Here FOIA Appeals Click Here Whistleblower Protection Click Here Procedural Regulations Click Here Browse Title 10 Energy Click Here

  9. CFC Charity Fair Finale

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Finish out the 2012 CFC with the Charity Fair Finale! Buy cookies, participate in a putt-putt golf game, eat some popcorn, and meet and talk with CFC charity representatives.

  10. Aurora final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert, Dross; Amedeo, Conti

    2013-12-06

    Final Technical report detailing the work done by Nuvera and its partners to fulfill the goals of the program "Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks" (a.k.a. AURORA)

  11. FINAL Submitted to NREL

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... systems, usage feedback devices, optional demand-side FINAL Submitted to NREL 10-21-11 City of Naperville Case Study 4 programs, and intelligent charging options for electric cars. ...

  12. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Water ...

  13. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ... Cold","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry" "Water Heating",,"Cold",,"Hot-Dry","Hot-Humid","M...

  14. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Household Income, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ... to 119,999","120,000 or More" "Water Heating" "Total Homes",113.6,23.7,27.5,21....

  15. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ... Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Water Heating" "Total Homes",113.6,71.8,6.7,9,19...

  16. Caspary Thesis Final

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DENSITY AND BETA LIMITS IN THE MADISON SYMMETRIC TORUS REVERSED-FIELD PINCH by KYLE JONATHAN CASPARY A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PHYSICS) at the UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON 2014 Date of final oral examination: March 24th, 2014 The dissertation is under review by the following members of the Final Oral Committee: Brett Chapman, Senior Scientist, Physics John Sarff, Professor, Physics Paul Terry, Professor, Physics

  17. Blackout Final Implementation Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report on the Implementation of the Task Force Recommendations U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force Natural Resources Canada U.S. Department of Energy September 2006 Final Report on the Implementation of the Task Force Recommendations U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force September 2006 Natural Resources Canada U.S. Department of Energy Acknowledgments This document was prepared by staff of Natural Resources Canada and the U.S. Department of Energy. The principal contributors

  18. RADTRAD: A simplified model for RADionuclide Transport and Removal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactor Regulation;Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States) Sponsoring Org: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States) Country of Publication:...

  19. Basement Fill Model Evaluation of Maximum Radionuclide Concentrations for Initial Suite of Radionuclides. Zion Station Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Terry

    2014-12-10

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in order to establish a new water treatment plant. There is some residual radioactive particles from the plant which need to be brought down to levels so an individual who receives water from the new treatment plant does not receive a radioactive dose in excess of 25 mrem/y? as specified in 10 CFR 20 Subpart E. The objectives of this report are: (a) To present a simplified conceptual model for release from the buildings with residual subsurface structures that can be used to provide an upper bound on radionuclide concentrations in the fill material and the water in the interstitial spaces of the fill. (b) Provide maximum water concentrations and the corresponding amount of mass sorbed to the solid fill material that could occur in each building for use by ZSRP in selecting ROCs for detailed dose assessment calculations.

  20. Determination Of Reportable Radionuclides For DWPF Sludge Batch 7B (Macrobatch 9)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C. L.; Diprete, D. P.

    2012-12-17

    The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. Twenty-seven radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB7b. Each of these radionuclides has a half-life greater than ten years and contributes more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis at some point from production through the 1100 year period between 2015 and 3115. For SB7b, all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time during the 1100- year period between 2015 and 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. The radionuclide measurements made for SB7b are the most extensive conducted to date. Some method development/refinement occurred during the conduct of these measurements, leading to lower detection limits and more accurate measurement of some isotopes than was previously possible.

  1. Final Rule Technical Amendment | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technical Amendment Final Rule Technical Amendment Federal Register Announcement: The Department of Energy (DOE) is publishing this technical amendment to the regulations for the loan guarantee program authorized by Section 1703 of Title XVII of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Title XVII) to incorporate, without substantive change, an amendment to Section 1702(b) of Title XVII enacted by Section 305 of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012. PDF icon Loan Guarantees for Projects That Employ

  2. Notice of Final Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Revisions to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulations governing compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) were published in the Federal Register on October 13, 2011, and will...

  3. Charge regulation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  4. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. )

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 15: Uranium-238

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 15 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U). The purpose of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the waste disposal facility environment. This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 238}U can be found, and {sup 238}U behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  6. Enewetak radiological support project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, B.

    1982-09-01

    From 1972 through 1980, the Department of Energy acted in an advisory role to the Defense Nuclear Agency during planning for and execution of the cleanup of Enewetak Atoll. The Nevada Operations Office of the Department of Energy was responsible for the radiological characterization of the atoll and for certification of radiological condition of each island upon completion of the project. In-situ measurements of gamma rays emitted by americium-241 were utilized along with wet chemistry separation of plutonium from soil samples to identify and delineate surface areas requiring removal of soil. Military forces removed over 100,000 cubic yards of soil from the surface of five islands and deposited this material in a crater remaining from the nuclear testing period. Subsurface soil was excavated and removed from several locations where measurements indicated the presence of radionuclides above predetermined criteria. The methodologies of data acquisition, analysis and interpretation are described and detailed results are provided in text, figures and microfiche. The final radiological condition of each of 43 islets is reported.

  7. A commentary on the 1995 DOT/NRC amendments to the U.S. nuclear transportation regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grella, A.

    1996-07-01

    This article discusses the major revisions (1995 DOT/NRC ammendments) to the US Nuclear Transportation regulations and their probable impacts on transportation. Areas covered include the following: the LSA and SCO definitions and packaging; radiation protection programs; mandatory use of SI units; changes an additions to the table of A1/A2 radionuclide values; and additional type B package hypothetical accident parameters.

  8. Final 2011 Supplement Analysis of the 2005 Final SWEIS | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Office of General Counsel National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) NEPA Reading Room Final 2011 Supplement Analysis of the 2005 ... Final 2011 Supplement Analysis of the...

  9. An SAR-compliant radionuclide inventory management system for a DOE research and development laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Lux, C.R.; Clements, J.A.

    2000-07-01

    The US Department of Energy Complex contains many laboratories that require inventory management and control of large stores of radionuclides. While the overall quantities of radionuclides are bounded by Authorization-Basis (AB) documents, the spatial distribution may change rapidly according to facility experimentation and storage limits. Thus, the consequences of postulated accident events may be difficult to quantify as the location of radiological species becomes uncertain. Furthermore, a situation of this nature may be compounded by management of fissile materials in the same laboratory. Although radionuclide inventory management, fissile material control, and compliance with AB limits may be handled individually, a systematic and consistent approach would be to integrate all three functions. A system with these characteristics, an upgraded Radionuclide Inventory and Administrative Control (RI-AC) System, has been implemented for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) located on the Savannah River Site (SRS), and is summarized in this paper.

  10. Proceedings of Soil Decon `93: Technology targeting radionuclides and heavy metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The principal objective for convening this workshop was to exchange ideas and discuss with scientists and engineers methods for removing radionuclides and/or toxic metals from soils. Over the years there have been numerous symposia, conferences, and workshops directed at soil remediation. However, this may be the first where the scope was narrowed to the removal of radionuclides and toxic metals from soils. The intent was to focus on the separation processes controlling the removal of the radionuclide and/or metal from soil. Its purpose was not intended to be a soil washing/leaching workshop, but rather to identify a variety or combination of processes (chemical, physical, and biological) that can be used in concert with the applicable engineering approaches to decontaminate soils of radionuclides and toxic metals. Abstracts and visual aids used by the speakers of the workshop are presented in this document.

  11. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F; Manger, Ryan P

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  12. Evaluation and selection of aqueous-based technology for partitioning radionuclides from ICPP calcine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, A.L.; Schulz, W.W.; Burchfield, L.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Swanson, J.L.; Thompson, M.C.

    1993-02-01

    Early in 1993 Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) chartered a Panel of Nuclear Separations Experts. The purpose of this Panel was to assist WINCO scientists and engineers in selecting, evaluating, and ranking candidate aqueous-based processes and technologies for potential use in partitioning selected radionuclides from nitric acid solutions of retrieved Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcine. Radionuclides of interest are all transuranium elements, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 137}Cs. The six man Panel met for 4 days (February 16--19, 1993) on the campus of the Idaho State University in Pocatello, Idaho. Principal topics addressed included: Available radionuclide removal technology; applicability of separations technology and processes to ICPP calcine; and potential integrated radionuclide partitioning schemes. This report, prepared from contributions from all Panel members, presents a comprehensive account of the proceedings and significant findings of the February, 1993 meeting in Pocatello.

  13. Production of Radionuclide Molybdenum 99 in a Distributed and In Sit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fashion.---- Inventor(s): Charles Gentile, Adam B. Cohen and George Ascione. | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Production of Radionuclide Molybdenum 99 in a Distributed and In Sit Fashion.---- Inventor(s): Charles Gentile, Adam B. Cohen and George Ascione. This patent application is for the distributed production of Tc-99m, a radionuclide extensively used in diagnostic medicine. Central to the invention is the generation of high energy gamma rays which can be produced by the interaction of

  14. Decontamination of Terrorist-Dispersed Radionuclides from Surfaces in Urban Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Robert; Sutton, Mark; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Gray, Jeremy; Hu, Qinhong; McNab, Walt; Viani, Brian

    2008-01-15

    Research is currently underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to advance the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment. Investigations have focused on more optimized decontamination agents for cesium (Cs) and americium (Am) specifically for use in mass transit infrastructure and urban environments. This project is designed to enhance the capability of the United States to effectively respond to a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) attack. The work addresses recognized data gaps by advancing the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment and provides a solution to a national need. The research is focused in four major areas: (1) a better understanding of urban surface conditions that influence the efficacy of decontamination processes, (2) development of prototype decontamination agents for Am and Cs optimized for use in urban environments, (3) the development of capabilities to realistically contaminate surfaces at both the real world and laboratory scale and (4) a validated model for radionuclide-surface interactions. The decontamination of urban surfaces following the detonation of an RDD presents a number of challenges. The following key points are found to be critical for the efficiency of decontamination agents in an urban environment: - Particle size and surface deposition of radionuclide particles on urban surface materials. - Interactions between radionuclides and urban materials. - The presence of grime and carbonation/alteration layers on the surface of urban surfaces. - Post-detonation penetration of radionuclides strongly affected by the dynamic wetting/drying processes. A laboratory scale contamination system has been developed allowing for samples to be contaminated and radionuclide interactions to be studied. In combination with laboratory scale experiments, a real scale outdoor test is scheduled for the spring of 2007. In conclusion, integrated laboratory, field, and numerical approaches are utilized to better understand the radionuclide behavior and the development/utility of decontamination agents.

  15. Remediation of Deep Vadose Zone Radionuclide and Metal Contamination: Status and Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresel, P. Evan; Truex, Michael J.; Cantrell, Keri

    2008-12-30

    This report documents the results of a PNNL literature review to report on the state of maturity of deep vadose zone remediation technologies for metal contaminants including some radionuclides. Its recommendations feed into decisionmakers need for scientific information and cost-effective in situ remediation technlogies needed under DOE's Environmental Management initiative Enhanced Remediation Methods: Scientific & Technical Basis for In Stu Treatment Systems for Metals and Radionuclides.

  16. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, Chris

    2014-11-13

    The project, �Capital Investment to Fund Equipment Purchases and Facility Modifications to Create a Sustainable Future for EnergyXchange� served to replace landfill gas energy with alternative energy resources, primarily solar and wood waste. This is the final project closeout report.

  17. New Catalytic DNA Biosensors for Radionuclides and Metal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Yi

    2003-06-01

    The goals of the project are to develop new catalytic DNA biosensors for simultaneous detection and quantification of bioavailable radionuclides and metal ions, and apply the sensors for on-site, real-time assessment of concentration, speciation and stability of the individual contaminants during and after bioremediation. A negative selection strategy was tested and validated. In vitro selection was shown to yield highly active and specific transition metal ion-dependent catalytic DNA/RNA. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study of in vitro selected DNA demonstrated that the trifluorophore labeled system is a simple and powerful tool in studying complex biomolecules structure and dynamics, and is capable of revealing new sophisticated structural changes. New fluorophore/quenchers in a single fluorosensor yielded improved signal to noise ratio in detection, identification and quantification of metal contaminants. Catalytic DNA fluorescent and colorimetric sensors were shown useful in sensing lead in lake water and in leaded paint. Project results were described in two papers and two patents, and won an international prize.

  18. New Catalytic DNA Biosensors for Radionuclides and Metal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Yi

    2002-06-01

    The goals of the project are to develop new catalytic DNA biosensors for simultaneous detection and quantification of bioavailable radionuclides and metal ions, and apply the sensors for on-site, real-time assessment of concentration, speciation and stability of the individual contaminants during and after bioremediation. A negative selection strategy was tested and validated. In vitro selection was shown to yield highly active and specific transition metal ion-dependent catalytic DNA/RNA. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study of in vitro selected DNA demonstrated that the trifluorophore labeled system is a simple and powerful tool in studying complex biomolecules structure and dynamics, and is capable of revealing new sophisticated structural changes. New fluorophore/quenchers in a single fluorosensor yielded improved signal to noise ratio in detection, identification and quantification of metal contaminants. Catalytic DNA fluorescent and colorimetric sensors were shown useful in sensing lead in lake water and in leaded paint. Project results were described in two papers and two patents, and won an international prize.

  19. Regulators, Requirements, Statutes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulators, Requirements, Statutes Regulators, Requirements, Statutes The Laboratory must comply with environmental laws and regulations that apply to Laboratory operations. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Environmental laws and regulations LANL complies with more than 30 state and federal regulations and policies designed to protect human health and the environment. Regulators Regulators Environmental

  20. DOE Revises its NEPA Regulations, Including Categorical Exclusions |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Revises its NEPA Regulations, Including Categorical Exclusions DOE Revises its NEPA Regulations, Including Categorical Exclusions September 30, 2011 - 2:30pm Addthis On September 27, 2011, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved revisions to its National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) regulations, and on September 28th, submitted the revisions to the Federal Register. The final regulations, which become effective 30 days after publication in the Federal Register, are

  1. EA-1631: Beacon Power Corporation Frequency Regulation Facility in

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Stephentown, NY | Department of Energy 1: Beacon Power Corporation Frequency Regulation Facility in Stephentown, NY EA-1631: Beacon Power Corporation Frequency Regulation Facility in Stephentown, NY February 2, 2009 EA-1631: Final Environmental Assessment Loan Guarantee for Beacon Power Corporation Frequency Regulation Facility in Stephentown, New York February 27, 2009 EA-1631: Finding of No Significant Impact Loan Guarantee for Beacon Power Corporation Frequency Regulation Facility in

  2. Review of radionuclide source terms used for performance-assessment analyses; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, R.W.

    1993-06-01

    Two aspects of the radionuclide source terms used for total-system performance assessment (TSPA) analyses have been reviewed. First, a detailed radionuclide inventory (i.e., one in which the reactor type, decay, and burnup are specified) is compared with the standard source-term inventory used in prior analyses. The latter assumes a fixed ratio of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) to boiling-water reactor (BWR) spent fuel, at specific amounts of burnup and at 10-year decay. TSPA analyses have been used to compare the simplified source term with the detailed one. The TSPA-91 analyses did not show a significant difference between the source terms. Second, the radionuclides used in source terms for TSPA aqueous-transport analyses have been reviewed to select ones that are representative of the entire inventory. It is recommended that two actinide decay chains be included (the 4n+2 ``uranium`` and 4n+3 ``actinium`` decay series), since these include several radionuclides that have potentially important release and dose characteristics. In addition, several fission products are recommended for the same reason. The choice of radionuclides should be influenced by other parameter assumptions, such as the solubility and retardation of the radionuclides.

  3. Radionuclide inventories : ORIGEN2.2 isotopic depletion calculation for high burnup low-enriched uranium and weapons-grade mixed-oxide pressurized-water reactor fuel assemblies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Ross, Kyle W.; Smith, James Dean; Longmire, Pamela

    2010-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory computer code, ORIGEN2.2 (CCC-371, 2002), was used to obtain the elemental composition of irradiated low-enriched uranium (LEU)/mixed-oxide (MOX) pressurized-water reactor fuel assemblies. Described in this report are the input parameters for the ORIGEN2.2 calculations. The rationale for performing the ORIGEN2.2 calculation was to generate inventories to be used to populate MELCOR radionuclide classes. Therefore the ORIGEN2.2 output was subsequently manipulated. The procedures performed in this data reduction process are also described herein. A listing of the ORIGEN2.2 input deck for two-cycle MOX is provided in the appendix. The final output from this data reduction process was three tables containing the radionuclide inventories for LEU/MOX in elemental form. Masses, thermal powers, and activities were reported for each category.

  4. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troxell, W; Batchelor, A

    2012-11-28

    Final report for the formation of faculty and education establishing Colorado State's Smart Grid Integration Center

  5. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, Mike, J., P.E.

    2012-08-30

    The STI product is the Final Technical Report from ReliOn, Inc. for contract award DE-EE0000487: Recovery Act PEM Fuel Cell Systems Providing Emergency Reserve and Backup Power. The program covered the turnkey deployment of 431 ReliOn fuel cell systems at 189 individual sites for AT&T and PG&E with ReliOn functioning as the primary equipment supplier and the project manager. The Final Technical Report provides an executive level summary, a comparison of the actual accomplishments vs. the goals and objectives of the project, as well as a summary of the project activity from the contract award date of August 1, 2009 through the contract expiration date of December 31, 2011. Two photos are included in the body of the report which show hydrogen storage and bulk hydrogen refueling technologies developed as a result of this program.

  6. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    community energy systems. Final report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems. Final report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems. Final report A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the

  7. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  8. CX-100 Final Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SAND2008-4648 Unlimited Release Printed July 2008 Blade System Design Studies Phase II: Final Project Report Derek S. Berry TPI Composites, Inc. 373 Market Street Warren, RI 02885 Abstract This report details the work completed under Phase II of the Sandia National Laboratories Blade System Design Study blade design and manufacturing project; an integrated 9 meter blade design, tooling design and manufacturing, assembly fixture design and fabrication, blade production, blade instrumentation and

  9. DOE Laminar Final Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1. Award #: DE-FG02-05ER46250 Institution: Cornell University. 2. Dates: Date of report: August 1, 2013. 3. Title: Transport Phenomena and Interfacial Kinetics in Planar Microfluidic Membraneless Fuel Cells P.I.: Héctor D. Abruña, Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University co-P.I.: Abraham D. Stroock, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University 4. Final Report Abstract: Our work is focused on membraneless laminar flow fuel cells, an unconventional fuel cell technology,

  10. Final Environmental Assessment

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    1995 :&,, ' - , i . -- Final Environmental Assessment for Device Assembly - Facility Operations f 3: >fi - , - , ' , 7 - . ' ' , , . I 8 ' , :-<:- L , a . ' ' ' -L. -1 , , ~ e m - . - I ! - , - # 8 , r I I , , , - , . .-- - ' - I S - . ! - , - , Y 2 L - . . 8 : L.-- , r Nevada ' f e s t ~ h e , Nye county, Nevada U. S. Department Of Energy - , 8 - - . 8 - I,, ' - 8 - - , , 8 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT for DEVICE ASSEMBLY FACIUTY OPERATIONS MAY 1995 TABLE OF CONTENTS LISTOFFIGURES . . . .

  11. Radionuclide characterization and associated dose from long-lived radionuclides in close-in fallout delivered to the marine environment at Bikini and Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Robison, W. L.

    1998-09-01

    Between June 1946 and October 1958, Enewetak and Bikini Atolls were used by the United States as testing grounds for 66 nuclear devices. The combined explosive yield from these tests was 107 Mt (Mt TNT equivalents). This testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with quantities of radioactive fission and particle activated products, and unspent radioactive nuclear fuel that entered the aquatic environment of the atolls. Today, the sediments in the lagoons are reservoirs for 10's of TBq of the transuranics and some long-lived fission and activation products. The larger amounts of contamination are associated with fine and coarse sediment material adjacent to the locations of the high yield explosions. Radionuclides are also distributed vertically in the sediment column to various depths in all regions of the lagoons. Concentrations greater than fallout background levels are found in filtered water sampled over several decades from all locations and depths in the lagoons. This is a direct indication that the radionuclides are continuously mobilized to solution from the solid phases. Of particular importance is the fact that the long-lived radionuclides are accumulated to different levels by indigenous aquatic plants and organisms that are used as food by resident people. One might anticipate finding continuous high contamination levels in many of the edible marine organisms from the lagoons, since the radionuclides associated with the sediments are not contained and are available to the different organisms in a relatively shallow water environment. This is not the case. We estimate that the radiological dose from consumption of the edible parts of marine foods at Enewetak and Bikini is presently about 0.05% of the total 50-year integral effective dose from all other exposure pathways that include ingestion of terrestrial foods and drinking water, external exposure and inhalation. The total radiological dose from the marine pathway is dominated by the natural radionuclides, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb. Man-made radionuclides presently contribute less than 0.3% of the dose from these natural radionuclides in the marine food chain.

  12. RADIONUCLIDE INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION: FOURMILE BRANCH, PEN BRANCH, AND STEEL CREEK IOUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiergesell, R.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-29

    As a condition to the Department of Energy (DOE) Low Level Waste Disposal Federal Facility Review Group (LFRG) review team approving the Savannah River Site (SRS) Composite Analysis (CA), SRS agreed to follow up on a secondary issue, which consisted of the consolidation of several observations that the team concluded, when evaluated collectively, could potentially impact the integration of the CA results. This report addresses secondary issue observations 4 and 21, which identify the need to improve the CA sensitivity and uncertainty analysis specifically by improving the CA inventory and the estimate of its uncertainty. The purpose of the work described herein was to be responsive to these secondary issue observations by re-examining the radionuclide inventories of the Integrator Operable Units (IOUs), as documented in ERD 2001 and Hiergesell, et. al. 2008. The LFRG concern has been partially addressed already for the Lower Three Runs (LTR) IOU (Hiergesell and Phifer, 2012). The work described in this investigation is a continuation of the effort to address the LFRG concerns by re-examining the radionuclide inventories associated with Fourmile Branch (FMB) IOU, Pen Branch (PB) IOU and Steel Creek (SC) IOU. The overall approach to computing radionuclide inventories for each of the IOUs involved the following components: Defining contaminated reaches of sediments along the IOU waterways Identifying separate segments within each IOU waterway to evaluate individually Computing the volume and mass of contaminated soil associated with each segment, or compartment Obtaining the available and appropriate Sediment and Sediment/Soil analytical results associated with each IOU Standardizing all radionuclide activity by decay-correcting all sample analytical results from sample date to the current point in time, Computing representative concentrations for all radionuclides associated with each compartment in each of the IOUs Computing the radionuclide inventory of each DOE-added radionuclide for the compartments of each IOU by applying the representative, central value concentration to the mass of contaminated soil Totaling the inventory for all compartments associated with each of the IOUs Using this approach the 2013 radionuclide inventories for each sub-compartment associated with each of the three IOUs were computed, by radionuclide. The inventories from all IOU compartments were then rolled-up into a total inventory for each IOU. To put the computed estimate of radionuclide activities within FMB, PB, and SC IOUs into context, attention was drawn to Cs-137, which was the radionuclide with the largest contributor to the calculated dose to a member of the public at the perimeter of SRS within the 2010 SRS CA (SRNL 2010). The total Cs-137 activity in each of the IOUs was calculated to be 9.13, 1.5, and 17.4 Ci for FMB, PB, and SC IOUs, respectively. Another objective of this investigation was to address the degree of uncertainty associated with the estimated residual radionuclide activity that is calculated for the FMB, PB, and SC IOUs. Two primary contributing factors to overall uncertainty of inventory estimates were identified and evaluated. The first related to the computation of the mass of contaminated material in a particular IOU compartment and the second to the uncertainty associated with analytical counting errors. The error ranges for the mass of contaminated material in each IOU compartment were all calculated to be approximately +/- 9.6%, or a nominal +/-10%. This nominal value was added to the uncertainty associated with the analytical counting errors that were associated with each radionuclide, individually. This total uncertainty was then used to calculate a maximum and minimum estimated radionuclide inventories for each IOU.

  13. Final Guidance for Effective Use of Programmatic NEPA Review | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Effective Use of Programmatic NEPA Review Final Guidance for Effective Use of Programmatic NEPA Review On December 18, 2014, CEQ published final guidance that provides clarification on when and how Federal agencies can use programmatic NEPA reviews in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the CEQ NEPA Regulations. Guidance on programmatic NEPA reviews has been requested by the agencies and attention on programmatic NEPA reviews has increased as agencies

  14. Final Rule (December 4, 2009) | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (December 4, 2009) Final Rule (December 4, 2009) Loan Guarantees for Projects that Employ Innovative Technologies: On October 23, 2007, the Department of Energy published a final rule establishing regulations for the loan guarantee program authorized by Section 1703 of Title XVII of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Section 1703 of Title XVII authorizes the Secretary of Energy to make loan guarantees for projects that "avoid, reduce, or sequester air pollutants or anthropogenic emissions of

  15. EIS-0303: Final Environmental Impact Statement | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    : Final Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0303: Final Environmental Impact Statement High-Level Waste Tank Closure DOE proposes to close the high-level waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in accordance with applicable laws and regulations, DOE Orders, and the Industrial Wastewater Closure Plan for F- and H-Area High-Level Waste Tank Systems (approved by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control), which specifies the management of residuals as waste

  16. Radionuclide release from spent fuel under geologic disposal conditions: An overview of experimental and theoretical work through 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, P.W.; Simonson, S.A.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents an overview of experimental and theoretical work on radionuclide release from spent fuel and uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) under geologic disposal conditions. The purpose of the report is to provide a source book of information that can be used to develop models that describe radionuclide release from spent fuel waste packages. Modeling activities of this nature will be conducted within the Waste Package Program (WPP) of the Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP). The topics discussed include experimental methods for investigating radionuclide release, how results have been reported from radionuclide release experiments, theoretical studies of UO/sub 2/ and actinide solubility, results of experimental studies of radionuclide release from spent fuel and UO/sub 2/ (i.e., the effects of different variables on radionuclide release), characteristics of spent fuel pertinent to radionuclide release, and status of modeling of radionuclide release from spent fuel. Appendix A presents tables of data from spent fuel radionuclide release experiments. These data have been digitized from graphs that appear in the literature. An annotated bibliography of literature on spent fuel characterization is provided in Appendix B.

  17. Microsoft Word - Final Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Assessment of the Performance of COBRA-TF for the Prediction of Subcooled Boiling Conditions in Rod Bundles Dr. J. Michael Doster NCSU September 30, 2013 CASL-8-2013-0201-000 Final Report L3.THM.CFD.P7.07 Dr. J. Michael Doster Nuclear Engineering Department North Carolina State University Assessment of the Performance of COBRA-TF for the Prediction of Subcooled Boiling Conditions in Rod Bundles September 30, 2013 CASL-U-2013-0201-000 INTRODUCTION An assessment has been performed of the

  18. Near-Final Agenda

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    09 26 2014 Near-Final Agenda Workshop on Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies September 30 - October 1, 2014 Washington, DC September 30 - Day One 8:00 a.m. Coffee and Registration 8:30 Welcome and Opening Remarks * Overview and purpose of the workshop o Comments by senior DOE Officials o Q&A (time permitting) * Around-the-room introductions 9:00 Framing the Issues * Three presentations on key issues * Facilitated discussion 10:15 BREAK 10:30 Estimating the

  19. Clean Fleet Final Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    2 P r o j e c t D e s i g n a n d I m p l e m e n t a t i o n FINAL REPORT December 1995 December 1995 This information was prepared by Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus Operations, through sponsorship by various companies and associations, the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District), and the California Energy Commission (Commission). Battelle has endeavored to produce a high quality study consistent with its contract commitments. However, because of the research and/or

  20. Clean Fleet Final Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    3 V e h i c l e M a i n t e n a n c e a n d D u r a b i l i t y FINAL REPORT December 1995 December 1995 December 1995 This information was prepared by Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus Operations, through sponsor- ship by various companies and associations, the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District), and the California Energy Commission (Commission). Battelle has endeavored to produce a high quality study consistent with its contract commitments. However, because of the

  1. Natural analogue studies of the role of colloids, natural organics and microorganisms on radionuclide transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, J.F.

    1994-10-01

    Colloids may be important as a geochemical transport mechanism for radionuclides at geological repositories if they are (1) present in the groundwater, (2) stable with respect to both colloidal and chemical stabilities, (3) capable of adsorbing radionuclides, especially if the sorption is irreversible, and (4) mobile in the subsurface. The available evidence from natural analogue and other field studies relevant to these issues is reviewed, as is the potential role of mobile microorganisms ({open_quotes}biocolloids{close_quotes}) on radionuclide migration. Studies have demonstrated that colloids are ubiquitous in groundwater, although colloid concentrations in deep, geochemically stable systems may be too low to affect radionuclide transport. However, even low colloid populations cannot be dismissed as a potential concern because colloids appear to be stable, and many radionuclides that adsorb to colloids are not readily desorbed over long periods. Field studies offer somewhat equivocal evidence concerning colloid mobility and cannot prove or disprove the significance of colloid transport in the far-field environment. Additional research is needed at new sites to properly represent a repository far-field. Performance assessment would benefit from natural analogue studies to examine colloid behavior at sites encompassing a suite of probable groundwater chemistries and that mimic the types of formations selected for radioactive waste repositories.

  2. Marine plankton as an indicator of low-level radionuclide contamination in the Southern Ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    We have initiated an investigation of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review shows that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10/sup 4/. In the years 1956-1958, considerable work was done on the accumulation and distribution of a variety of fission and activation products produced by the nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands. Since then, studies have largely been confined to a few selected radionuclides, and by far most of this work has been done in the northern hemisphere. We participated in Operation Deepfreeze 1981, collecting 32 plankton samples from the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Glacier on its Antarctic cruise, while Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories concurrently sampled air, water, rain and fallout. We were able to measure concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides /sup 7/Be, /sup 40/K and the U and th series, and we believe that we have detected low levels of /sup 144/Ce and /sup 95/Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68/sup 0/. There is a definite association between the radionuclide content of plankton and air filters, suggesting that aerosol resuspension of marine radioactivity may be occurring. Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and foraminifera content of the samples. 38 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Laub

    2008-12-29

    Our team of investigators from MIT (Michael Laub) and Stanford (Harley McAdams and Lucy Shapiro) conducted a multi-faceted, systematic experimental analysis of the 106 Caulobacter two-component signal transduction system proteins (62 histidine kinases and 44 response regulators) to understand how they coordinate cell cycle progression, metabolism, and response to environmental changes. These two-component signaling proteins were characterized at the genetic, biochemical, and genomic levels. The results generated by our laboratories have provided numerous insights into how Caulobacter cells sense and respond to a myriad of signals. As nearly all bacteria use two-component signaling for cell regulation, the results from this project help to deepen our general understanding of bacterial signal transduction. The tools and approaches developed can be applied to other bacteria. In particular, work from the Laub laboratory now enables the systematic, rational rewiring of two-component signaling proteins, a major advance that stands to impact synthetic biology and the development of biosensors and other designer molecular circuits. Results are summarized from our work. Each section lists publications and publicly-available resources which result from the work described.

  4. Final report on the meteorological database, December 1944--1949. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stage, S.A.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.; Berg, L.K.

    1993-11-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is estimating radiation doses that individuals may have received from operations at Hanford from 1944 to the present. A number of computer programs are being developed by the HEDR Project to estimate doses and confidence ranges associated with radionuclides transported through the atmosphere and the Columbia River. One computer program is the Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emissions Tracking (RATCHET). RATCHET combines release data with information on atmospheric conditions including wind direction and speed. The RATCHET program uses these data to produce estimates of time-integrated air concentrations and surface contamination. These estimates are used in calculating dose by the Dynamic EStimates of Concentrations And Radionuclides in Terrestrial EnvironmentS (DESCARTES) and the Calculations of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides (CIDER) computer programs. This report describes the final status of the meteorological database used by RATCHET. Data collection procedures and the preparation and control of the meteorological database are described, along with an assessment of the data quality.

  5. Workshop on development of radionuclide getters for the Yucca Mountain waste repository: proceedings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Lukens, Wayne W. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

    2006-03-01

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository, located in southern Nevada, is to be the first facility for permanent disposal of spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analysis has indicated that among the major radionuclides contributing to dose are technetium, iodine, and neptunium, all of which are highly mobile in the environment. Containment of these radionuclides within the repository is a priority for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). These proceedings review current research and technology efforts for sequestration of the radionuclides with a focus on technetium, iodine, and neptunium. This workshop also covered issues concerning the Yucca Mountain environment and getter characteristics required for potential placement into the repository.

  6. Apparatus for real-time airborne particulate radionuclide collection and analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smart, John E. (West Richland, WA); Perkins, Richard W. (Richland, WA)

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus for collecting and analyzing an airborne particulate radionuclide having a filter mounted in a housing, the housing having an air inlet upstream of the filter and an air outlet downstream of the filter, wherein an air stream flows therethrough. The air inlet receives the air stream, the filter collects the airborne particulate radionuclide and permits a filtered air stream to pass through the air outlet. The improvement which permits real time counting is a gamma detecting germanium diode mounted downstream of the filter in the filtered air stream. The gamma detecting germanium diode is spaced apart from a downstream side of the filter a minimum distance for a substantially maximum counting detection while permitting substantially free air flow through the filter and uniform particulate radionuclide deposition on the filter.

  7. Bounding Radionuclide Inventory and Accident Consequence Calculation for the 1L Target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelsey, Charles T. IV

    2011-01-01

    A bounding radionuclide inventory for the tungsten of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) IL Target is calculated. Based on the bounding inventory, the dose resulting from the maximum credible incident (MCI) is calculated for the maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOl). The design basis accident involves tungsten target oxidation following a loss of cooling accident. Also calculated for the bounding radionuclide inventory is the ratio to the LANSCE inventory threshold for purposes of inventory control as described in the target inventory control policy. A bounding radionuclide inventory calculation for the lL Target was completed using the MCNPX and CINDER'90 codes. Continuous beam delivery at 200 {micro}A to 2500 mA{center_dot}h was assumed. The total calculated activity following this irradiation period is 205,000 Ci. The dose to the MEOI from the MCI is 213 mrem for the bounding inventory. The LANSCE inventory control threshold ratio is 132.

  8. Verification of EPA's ''Preliminary Remediation Goals for radionuclides'' (PRG) electronic calculator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jannik, Tim; Stagich, Brooke

    2015-08-28

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requested an external, independent verification study of their updated Preliminary Remediation Goals for Radionuclides (PRG) electronic calculator. The calculator provides PRGs for radionuclides that are used as a screening tool at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) sites. These risk-based PRGs establish concentration limits under specific exposure scenarios. The purpose of this verification study is to determine that the calculator has no inherit numerical problems with obtaining solutions as well as to ensure that the equations are programmed correctly. There are 167 equations used in the calculator. To verify the calculator, all equations for each of seven receptor types (resident, construction worker, outdoor and indoor worker, recreator, farmer, and composite worker) were hand calculated using the default parameters. The same four radionuclides (Am-241, Co-60, H-3, and Pu-238) were used for each calculation for consistency throughout.

  9. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  10. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josef Michl

    2011-10-31

    In this project we have established guidelines for the design on organic chromophores suitable for producing high triplet yields via singlet fission. We have proven their utility by identifying a chromophore of a structural class that had never been examined for singlet fission before, 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran, and demonstrating in two independent ways that a thin layer of this material produces a triplet yield of 200% within experimental error. We have also designed a second chromophore of a very different type, again of a structural class that had not been examined for singlet fission before, and found that in a thin layer it produces a 70% triplet yield. Finally, we have enhanced the theoretical understanding of the quantum mechanical nature of the singlet fission process.

  11. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilitiesInternational Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden)Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis VlachoudisWorkshop Assistant: Graldine Jean

  12. FINAL/ SCIENTIFIC TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, Henry; Singh, Suminderpal

    2006-08-28

    The overall objective of the Chattanooga fuel cell demonstrations project was to develop and demonstrate a prototype 5-kW grid-parallel, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system that co-produces hydrogen, based on Ion Americas technology. The commercial viability of the 5kW SOFC system was tested by transporting, installing and commissioning the SOFC system at the Alternative Energy Laboratory at the University of Tennessee Chattanooga. The system also demonstrated the efficiency and the reliability of the system running on natural gas. This project successfully contributed to the achievement of DOE technology validation milestones from the Technology Validation section of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan. Results of the project can be found in the final technical report.

  13. Engineering test plan for field radionuclide migration experiments in climax granite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Stone, R.; Lord, D.; Rector, N.; Failor, R.

    1982-05-01

    This Engineering Test Plan (ETP) describes field studies of radionuclide migration in fractured rock designed for the Climax grainite at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of the ETP is to provide a detailed written document of the method of accomplishing these studies. The ETP contains the experimental test plans, an instrumentation plan, system schematics, a description of the test facility, and a brief outline of the laboratory support studies needed to understand the chemistry of the rock/water/radionuclide interactions. Results of our initial hydrologic investigations are presented along with pretest predictions based on the hydrologic test results.

  14. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites

  15. New Strategies for 0.5 mm Resolution, High Sensitivity, Multi- Radionuclide Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levin, Craig S; Levin, Craig

    2015-02-28

    This project constitutes a 0.5-millimeter resolution radionuclide detector system built from CZT. (1) A novel dual-crystal photon detector module design with cross-strip electrode patterns was developed; (2) The module mechanical assembly was built; (3) A data acquisition (DAQ) chain for the module was produced; (4) A software tool was developed to incorporate novel time and energy measurement calibration techniques. (5) A small multi-detector prototype of the radionuclide imaging system was built from this module for system-level characterizations.

  16. Analysis of natural radionuclides from uranium and thorium series in briney groundwaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Thomas, C.W.; Jackson, P.O.; Hubbard, N.

    1985-06-01

    Analytical procedures for measuring various radionuclides in the /sup 238/U and /sup 232/Th chains in briney waters are described. Using methods such as mass spectrometry, and alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry, the desired measurement sensitivity required for each of the radionuclides is achieved. Uranium-233, /sup 230/Th, /sup 208/Po, /sup 212/Pb, and /sup 133/Ba are used as tracers for chemical yield recoveries. Typical precision of the results range from 5 to 20%. 14 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Title XVII Final Rule | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Final Rule Title XVII Final Rule PDF icon Title XVII Final Rule More Documents & Publications Final Rule (December 4, 2009) Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (August 6, 2009) Final Rule (October 23, 2007)

  18. Radionuclide distributions and migration mechanisms at shallow land burial sites. 1982 annual report of research investigations on the distribution, migration and containment of radionuclides at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, L.J.

    1984-02-01

    Subsurface waters at Maxey Flats are anoxic, have a high alkalinity and contain high concentrations of ferrous, sulfide and ammonium ions and organic carbon. The trench leachates are extremely variable in composition. Prominent radionuclides include /sup 3/H, /sup 60/Co, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 238/ /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 241/Am. A wide spectrum of dissolved organic compounds is present in the leachates, including EDTA, polar organics and decomposition products from the waste forms. Cobalt-60 and plutonium are present as EDTA complexes and /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs are associated with carboxylic acid type compounds. The chemistry of these waters changes drastically as they become oxic and plutonium becomes less mobile under these new conditions. Water enters the trenches by infiltration through the trench caps, through subsidence areas, and through interfaces between new landfill and the original soil. Lateral flow is very complex and slow, and apparently occurs mainly by fracture flow. The plastic infiltration barrier installed in 1981 to 1982 has been effective in reducing soil moisture if cracks and leaks are eliminated. To date, no direct evidence of radionuclide transport to offsite locations by subsurface flow has been confirmed. The offsite distribution of radionuclides, except for tritium, is comparable to the ambient fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Tritium concentrations in water offsite are orders of magnitude below MPC levels. 24 figures, 31 tables.

  19. EA-1527: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Corrective Measures Study Report for Remediating Contamination at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  20. Determination Of Reportable Radionuclides For DWPF Sludge Batch 7B (Macrobatch 9)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C. L.; DiPrete, D. P.

    2013-08-22

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2011-0004; Rev. 0 entitled Sludge Batch 7b Qualification Studies. Specifically, this report details results from performing Subtask II, Item 2 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 6 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00247, Rev. 0 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), SRNL-RP-2011-00248, Rev. 0. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for SB7b (MB9), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energys (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes were excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, 27 radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB7b as specified by WAPS 1.2. The WCP and WQR require that all of the radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB7b, all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time during the 1100-year period between 2015 and 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be added to the list of reportable radionuclides in order to meet WAPS 1.6. All of the Pu isotopes (Pu-238, -239, -240, -241, and -242) and other U isotopes (U-233, -234, and -238) identified in WAPS 1.6 were already determined to be reportable according to WAPS 1.2 This brings the total number of reportable radionuclides for SB7b to 29. The radionuclide measurements made for SB7b are similar to those performed in the previous SB7a MB8 work. Some method development/refine

  1. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B (MACROBATCH 9)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C. L.; Diprete, D. P.

    2014-05-01

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu- 242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2011-0004; Rev. 0 entitled Sludge Batch 7b Qualification Studies. Specifically, this report details results from performing Subtask II, Item 2 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 6 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00247, Rev. 0 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), SRNL-RP-2011-00248, Rev. 0. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for SB7b (MB9), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energys (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U- 235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes were excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, 27 radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB7b as specified by WAPS 1.2. The WCP and WQR require that all of the radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB7b, all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time during the 1100- year period between 2015 and 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be added to the list of reportable radionuclides in order to meet WAPS 1.6. All of the Pu isotopes (Pu-238, -239, -240, -241, and -242) and other U isotopes (U-233, -234, and -238) identified in WAPS 1.6 were already determined to be reportable according to WAPS 1.2 This brings the total number of reportable radionuclides for SB7b to 29. The radionuclide measurements made for SB7b are similar to those performed in the previous SB7a MB8 work. Some method development/ref

  2. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander Pigarov

    2012-06-05

    This is the final report for the Research Grant DE-FG02-08ER54989 'Edge Plasma Simulations in NSTX and CTF: Synergy of Lithium Coating, Non-Diffusive Anomalous Transport and Drifts'. The UCSD group including: A.Yu. Pigarov (PI), S.I. Krasheninnikov and R.D. Smirnov, was working on modeling of the impact of lithium coatings on edge plasma parameters in NSTX with the multi-species multi-fluid code UEDGE. The work was conducted in the following main areas: (i) improvements of UEDGE model for plasma-lithium interactions, (ii) understanding the physics of low-recycling divertor regime in NSTX caused by lithium pumping, (iii) study of synergistic effects with lithium coatings and non-diffusive ballooning-like cross-field transport, (iv) simulation of experimental multi-diagnostic data on edge plasma with lithium pumping in NSTX via self-consistent modeling of D-Li-C plasma with UEDGE, and (v) working-gas balance analysis. The accomplishments in these areas are given in the corresponding subsections in Section 2. Publications and presentations made under the Grant are listed in Section 3.

  3. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander Fridman

    2005-06-01

    This DOE project DE-FC36-04GO14052 ''Plasma Pilot Plant Test for Treating VOC Emissions from Wood Products Plants'' was conducted by Drexel University in cooperation with Georgia-Pacific (G-P) and Kurchatov Institute (KI). The objective of this project was to test the Plasma Pilot Plant capabilities in wood industry. The final goal of the project was to replace the current state-of-the-art, regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology by Low-Temperature Plasma Technology (LTPT) in paper and wood industry for Volatile Organic Components (VOC) destruction in High Volume Low Concentration (HVLC) vent emissions. MetPro Corporation joined the team as an industrial partner from the environmental control business and a potential leader for commercialization. Concurrent Technology Corporation (CTC) has a separate contract with DOE for this technology evaluation. They prepared questionnaires for comparison of this technology and RTO, and made this comparison. These data are presented in this report along with the description of the technology itself. Experiments with the pilot plant were performed with average plasma power up to 3.6 kW. Different design of the laboratory and pilot plant pulsed coronas, as well as different analytical methods revealed many new peculiarities of the VOC abatement process. The work reported herein describes the experimental results for the VOCs removal efficiency with respect to energy consumption, residence time, water effect and initial concentration.

  4. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velasco, Mayda

    2013-11-01

    This work is focused on the design and construction of novel beam diagnostic and instrumentation for charged particle accelerators required for the next generation of linear colliders. Our main interest is in non-invasive techniques. The Northwestern group of Velasco has been a member of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) collaboration since 2003, and the beam instrumentation work is developed mostly at this facility1. This 4 kW electron beam facility has a 25-170 MeV electron LINAC. CTF3 performed a set of dedicated measurements to finalize the development of our RF-Pickup bunch length detectors. The RF-pickup based on mixers was fully commissioned in 2009 and the RF-pickup based on diodes was finished in time for the 2010-11 data taking. The analysis of all the data taken in by the summer of 2010 was finish in time and presented at the main conference of the year, LINAC 2010 in Japan.

  5. Final Report to DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail Gultepe

    2012-05-15

    This final report summarizes the accomplished goals and provide a list of the publications and presentations made during the project. The goals of the project were accomplished through the various publications submitted to Journals and presentations done at the DOE and international meetings and conferences. The 8 journal articles related to the goals of this project were accepted or submitted. The 23 presentations related to goals of the project were presented at the meetings. There were some minor changes regarding to project goals because of issues encountered during the analysis of the data. For example, a total water probe sensor mounted on the Convair-580 that can be used for defining mixed phase conditions and parameterization, had some problems to estimate magnitude of total water mass, and this resulted in issues providing an accurate parameterization for cloud fraction. Variability related aerosol number concentrations and their composition for direct and indirect effects were studied and published. Results were given to explain aerosol and ice microphysical effects on climate change studies. It is suggested that developed parameterizations should consider the variability in aerosol and ice parameters over the Arctic regions.

  6. Quality assurance program plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boom, R.J.

    1995-03-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan identifies quality assurance program requirements and addresses the various Westinghouse Hanford Company organizations and their particular responsibilities in regards to sample and data handling of airborne emissions. The Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions requirements are defined in National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1991a). Reporting of the emissions to the US Department of Energy is performed in compliance with requirements of US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE-RL 1988). This Quality Assurance Program Plan is prepared in accordance with and to the requirements of QAMS-004/80, Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Program Plans (EPA 1983). Title 40 CFR Part 61, Appendix B, Method 114, Quality Assurance Methods (EPA 1991b) specifies the quality assurance requirements and that a program plan should be prepared to meet the requirements of this regulation. This Quality Assurance Program Plan identifies NESHAP responsibilities and how the Westinghouse Hanford Company Environmental, Safety, Health, and Quality Assurance Division will verify that the methods are properly implemented.

  7. Interviewee Travel Regulations Scope

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23/2012 Interviewee Travel Regulations Scope These regulations apply to the reimbursement of round-trip travel expenses incurred by interviewees. These regulations do not apply to applicants who live within a 50-mile radius of Los Alamos based on the Rand McNally Standard Highway Mileage Guide. Reimbursement With the exception of airfare, interviewees will be reimbursed for travel expenses according to Federal travel regulations. For interviewees, airfare reimbursement is limited to the lesser

  8. Assessment of Dose to the Nursing Infant from Radionuclides in Breast Milk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-03-01

    A computer software package was developed to predict tissue doses to an infant due to intake of radionuclides in breast milk based on bioassay measurements and exposure data for the mother. The package is intended mainly to aid in decisions regarding the safety of breast feeding by a mother who has been acutely exposed to a radionuclide during lactation or pregnancy, but it may be applied to previous intakes during the mother s adult life. The package includes biokinetic and dosimetric information needed to address intake of Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-134, Cs-137, Ir-192, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, or Cf-252 by the mother. It has been designed so that the library of biokinetic and dosimetric files can be expanded to address a more comprehensive set of radionuclides without modifying the basic computational module. The methods and models build on the approach used in Publication 95 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 2004), Doses to Infants from Ingestion of Radionuclides in Mothers Milk . The software package allows input of case-specific information or judgments such as chemical form or particle size of an inhaled aerosol. The package is expected to be more suitable than ICRP Publication 95 for dose assessment for real events or realistic planning scenarios in which measurements of the mother s excretion or body burden are available.

  9. Impacts of uranium-utilization improvements on light water reactor radionuclide releases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaberg, R.L.

    1981-08-01

    This report discusses potential changes to radionuclide releases as a result of uranium-saving plant modifications and altered operating practices. Only releases to the environment from routine operation are considered; releases resulting from abnormal conditions outside the technical specifications covering plant operation are not considered.

  10. Annual report, October 1980-September 1981 Multimedia radionuclide exposure assessment modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whelan, G.; Onishi, Y.; Simmons, C.S.; Horst, T.W.; Gupta, S.K.; Orgill, M.M.; Newbill, C.A.

    1982-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are jointly developing a methodology for assessing exposures of the air, water, and plants to radionuclides as part of an overall development effort of a radionuclide disposal site evaluation methodology. Work in FY-1981 continued the development of the Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) methodology and initiated an assessment of radionuclide migration in Los Alamos and Pueblo Canyons, New Mexico, using the methodology. The AIRTRAN model was completed, briefly tested, and documented. In addition, a literature search for existing validation data for AIRTRAN was performed. The feasibility and advisability of including the UNSAT moisture flow model as a submodel of the terrestrial code BIOTRAN was assessed. A preliminary application of the proposed MCEA methodology, as it related to the Mortandad-South Mortandad Canyon site in New Mexico is discussed. This preliminary application represented a scaled-down version of the methodology in which only the terrestrial, overland, and surface water components were used. An update describing the progress in the assessment of radionuclide migration in Los Alamos and Pueblo Canyons is presented. 38 references, 47 figures, 11 tables.

  11. MTX final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, E.B.; Allen, S.L.; Brown, M.D.; Byers, J.A.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Foote, J.H.; Hoshino, K.

    1994-01-01

    The MTX experiment was proposed in 1986 to apply high frequency microwaves generated by a free-electron laser (FEL) to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in a high field, high density tokamak. As the absorption of microwaves at the electron cyclotron resonance requires high frequencies, the opportunity of applying a free-electron laser has appeal as the device is not limited to frequencies in the microwave or long millimeter wavelength regions, in contrast to many other sources. In addition, the FEL is inherently a high power source of microwaves, which would permit single units of 10 MW or more, optimum for reactors. Finally, it was recognized early in the study of the application of the FEL based on the induction linear accelerator, that the nonlinear effects associated with the intense pulses of microwaves naturally generated would offer several unique opportunities to apply ECRH to current drive, MHD control, and other plasma effects. It was consequently decided to adapt the induction accelerator based FEL to heating and controlling the tokamak, and to conduct experiments on the associated physics. To this end, the Alcator C tokamak was moved from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where it was installed in Building 431 and operated from March, 1989, until the conclusion of the experiment in October, 1992. The FEL, based on the ETA-11 accelerator and IMP wiggler was brought into operation by the LLNL Electron Beam Group and power injected into the tokamak during an experimental run in the Fall, 1989. Following an upgrade by the MTX group, a second experimental run was made lasting from the Winter, 1992 through the end of the experiment. Significant contributions to the ECRH experiments were made by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).

  12. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  13. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  14. LIVE_NSB_final.wmv

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    National Science Bowl finals and awards at the National Building Museum in Washington D.C. Monday 5/3/2010

  15. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2012 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE August 9, 2012 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Committee Business ...................................................................................................................................... 4 Attachments

  16. EA-1637: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    10 CFR 431 Energy Conservation Program for Commerical and Industrial Equipment: Packaged Terminal Air Conditioner and Packaged Terminal Heat Pump Energy Conservation Standards; Final Rule

  17. Technical Support Document for the Department of Energy's Notice of Final

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rulemaking | Department of Energy Technical Support Document for the Department of Energy's Notice of Final Rulemaking Technical Support Document for the Department of Energy's Notice of Final Rulemaking In this Technical Support Document, DOE presents each of the changes to its NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR part 1021, Subparts B, C, and D) and provides supplementary support for the changes. The left column of the table below shows the changes to the existing regulations and the

  18. DOE/EA-1753 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BEACON POWER CORPORATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BEACON POWER CORPORATION FLYWHEEL FREQUENCY REGULATION PLANT, CHICAGO HEIGHTS, ILLINOIS (SITE 1), AND HAZLE TOWNSHIP, PENNSYLVANIA (SITE 2) U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Arpil 2011 DOE/EA-1753 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BEACON POWER CORPORATION FLYWHEEL FREQUENCY REGULATION PLANT, CHICAGO HEIGHTS, ILLINOIS (SITE 1), AND HAZLE TOWNSHIP, PENNSYLVANIA (SITE 2) U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology

  19. Technical Support Document for the Department of Energy's Notice of Final

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Rulemaking | Department of Energy Technical Support Document for the Department of Energy's Notice of Final Rulemaking Technical Support Document for the Department of Energy's Notice of Final Rulemaking In this Technical Support Document, DOE presents each of the changes to its NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR part 1021, Subparts B, C, and D) and provides supplementary support for the changes. The left column of the table below shows the changes to the existing regulations and the

  20. GSA Federal Advisory Committee Management; Final Rule -- 41CFR Parts 101-6

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and 102-3 | Department of Energy GSA Federal Advisory Committee Management; Final Rule -- 41CFR Parts 101-6 and 102-3 GSA Federal Advisory Committee Management; Final Rule -- 41CFR Parts 101-6 and 102-3 Federal Register document for the General Services Administration (GSA) revision of Federal Property Management Regulations (FPMR) coverage on federal advisory committee management and moving it into the Federal Management Regulation (FMR). PDF icon Federal Advisory Committee Management;

  1. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    community energy systems. Final report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems. Final report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems. Final report × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  2. Final Rulison Path Forward

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management developed this report as a guide for discussions with the Colorado State regulators and other interested stakeholders in response to increased drilling for natural gas reserves near the underground nuclear explosion site at Rulison, Colorado. The Rulison site is located in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado, 40 miles northeast of Grand Junction. The Rulison test was the second natural gas reservoir stimulation experiment in the Plowshare Program, which was designed to develop peaceful uses for nuclear energy. On September 10, 1969, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of DOE, detonated a 40-kiloton nuclear device 8426 feet below the ground surface in an attempt to release commercially marketable quantities of natural gas. The blast vaporized surrounding rock and formed a cavity about 150 feet in diameter. Although the contaminated materials from drilling operations were subsequently removed from the surface of the blast site, no feasible technology exists to remove subsurface radioactive contamination in or around the test cavity. An increase in drilling for natural gas near the site has raised concern about the possibility of encountering residual radioactivity from the area of the detonation. DOE prohibits drilling in the 40-acre lot surrounding the blast site at a depth below 6000 feet. DOE has no evidence that indicates contamination from the Rulison site detonation has migrated or will ever migrate beyond the 40-acre institutional control boundary. The Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) established two wider boundaries around the site. When a company applies for a permit to drill within a 3-mile radius of surface ground zero, COGCC notifies DOE and provides an opportunity to comment on the application. COGCC also established a half-mile radius around surface ground zero. An application to drill within one-half mile requires a full hearing before the commission. This report outlines DOE's recommendation that gas developers adopt a conservative, staged drilling approach allowing gas reserves near the Rulison site to be recovered in a manner that minimizes the likelihood of encountering contamination. This staged approach calls for collecting data from wells outside the half-mile zone before drilling closer, and then drilling within the half-mile zone in a sequential manner, first at low contamination probability locations and then moving inward. DOE's recommended approach for drilling in this area will protect public safety while allowing collection of additional data to confirm that contamination is contained within the 40-acre institutional control boundary.

  3. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers. Phase 2. Field sampling program for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.H.; Ecker, R.M.; Onishi, Y.

    1982-04-01

    As part of a study on sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the effect of sediment on the transport of radionuclides in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York. A source of radioactivity in these creeks is the Western New York Nuclear Service Center which consists of a low-level waste disposal site and a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Other sources of radioactivity include fallout from worldwide weapons testing and natural background radioactivity. The major objective of the PNL Field Sampling Program is to provide data on sediment and radionuclide characteristics in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks to verify the use of the Sediment and Radionuclide Transport model, SERATRA, for nontidal rivers. This report covers the results of field data collection conducted during September 1978. Radiological analysis of sand, silt, and clay size fractions of suspended and bed sediment, and water were performed. Results of these analyses indicate that the principal radionuclides occurring in these two water courses, with levels significantly higher than background levels, during the Phase 2 sampling program were Cesium-137 and Strontium-90. These radionuclides had significantly higher activity levels above background in the bed sediment, suspended sediment, and water samples. Other radionuclides that are possibly being released into the surface water environment by the Nuclear Fuel Services facilities are Plutonium-238, 239, and 240, Americium-241, Curium-244, and Tritium. More radionuclides were consistently found in the bed sediment as compared to suspended sediment. The fewest radionuclides were found in the water of Buttermilk and Cattaraugus Creeks. The higher levels were found in the bed sediments for the gamma-emitters and in the suspended sediment for the alpha and beta-emitters (not including Tritium).

  4. Final Report Strings 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witten, Edward

    2015-10-21

    DOE Final Report Strings 2014 PI: Edward Witten, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 CO-PI: Igor Klebanov, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 DOE Grant Number: DE-SC0011919 The Strings 2014 meeting was held at Princeton University in June 2014, co-sponsored by Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study. Plenary lectures at Strings 2014 were held in Richardson Auditorium of Princeton University. This comfortable and spacious facility easily accommodated the 616 participants registered participants at Strings 2014. The rental fee for the auditorium was $11,000. This grant provided $5,500 from the Department of Energy to pay for one-half of the cost of the facility rental and videotaping. Speakers were supported with funds from the National Science Foundation Clay Mathematics Institute, the Institute for Advanced Study and Princeton University. The organization of Strings 2014 consisted of an International Organizing Committee of 60 prominent scientists around the world, and a Local Advisory Committee consisting of an additional 15 distinguished scientists from neighboring institutions. Additionally, the Local Organizing Committee assisted them with about 15 members (mostly faculty at Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study). These groups (which are listed at the end of this narrative) offered important input concerning the selection of speakers and helped to ensure that the speakers were selected from the broadest possible pool. The conference was held on June 23-7 at Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study. The 616 registered participants included 272 participants from the United States and 344 from 32 institutions outside of the U.S. We believe that we were successful at providing a stimulating and up-to-date overview of research in string theory and its relations to other areas of physics and mathematics, ranging from geometry to quantum field theory, condensed matter physics, and more. There were a total of 45 plenary speakers and 27 speakers at parallel sessions. (Parallel sessions were held at the Institute for Advanced Study.) Overall the speakers did an excellent job of presenting their topics and some presented surprising and novel results. The talks at Strings 2014 were videotaped and are available on the conference website: http://physics.princeton.edustrings2014/Talk_titles.shtml. One important facet of Strings 2014 and one of the reasons it was so well-attended was that it had a strong educational component. The week before the meeting, there was a summer school, Prospects in Theoretical Physics (PiTP), held at the Institute for Advanced Study on the subject of string theory. 260 graduate students attended both PiTP and Strings 2014. The group consisted of 25 females and 235 males; 208 graduate students and 52 postdocs. 129 participants were from the United States, and 131 participants came from institutions in 25 countries outside of the U.S. The Institute for Advanced Study substantially subsidized the summer school for students. Over two dozen students had the chance to give short (six minute) talks at the gong shows that were held at PiTP and Strings 2014, and nearly 60 students and postdocs made poster presentations at Strings 2014.

  5. Determination of Reportable Radionuclides for DWPF Sludge Batch 3 (Macrobatch 4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C

    2005-05-01

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that ''The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115''. As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, IAEA Safeguards Reporting for HLW, requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from High Level Waste Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the previous contents of Tank 40 (Sludge Batch 2) and the sludge that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge from Tank 51 and Tank 40 defines Macrobatch 4 (also referred to as Sludge Batch 3). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities and determines the radionuclide activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Task Technical Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-03-0005, Revision 1 entitled Sludge Batch 3 SRTC Shielded Cells Testing. Specifically, this report details results from performing, in part, Subtask 3 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 6 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), WSRC-RP-2003-00249, Rev. 1 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), WSRC-RP-2004-00262. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for Sludge Batch 3 (Macro Batch 4), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes excluded from the projection calculations.

  6. Radionuclide release from PWR fuels in a reference tuff repository groundwater subsquently changed to Radionuclide release from PWR fuels in J-13 well water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.; Oversby, V.M.

    1985-04-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project (NNWSI) is studying the suitability of the welded devitrified Topopah Spring tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, for potential use as a high level nuclear waste repository. In support of the Waste Package task of NNWSI, tests have been conducted under ambient air environment to measure radionuclide release from two pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuels in water obtained from the J-13 well near the Yucca Mountain site. Four specimen types, representing a range of fuel physical conditions that may exist in a failed waste canister containing a limited amount of water were tested. The specimen types were: (1) fuel rod sections split open to expose bare fuel particles; (2) rod sections with water-tight end fittings with a 2.5-cm long by 150-{mu}m wide slit through the cladding; (3) rod sections with water-tight end fittings and two 200-{mu}m diameter holes through the cladding; and (4) undefected rod segments with water-tight end fittings. Radionuclide release results from the first 223-day test runs on H.B. Robinson spent fuel specimens in J-13 water are reported and compared to results from a previous test series in which similar Turkey Point reactor spent fuel specimens were tested in deionized water. Selected initial results are also given for Turkey Point fuel specimens tested in J-13 water. Results suggest that the actinides Pu, Am, Cm and Np are released congruently with U as the UO{sub 2} spent fuel matrix dissolves. Fractional release of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 99}Tc was greater than that measured for the actinides. Generally, lower radionuclide releases were measured for the H.B. Robinson fuel in J-13 water than for Turkey Point Fuel in deionized water.

  7. New Stochastic Annual Limits on Intake for Selected Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2009-08-24

    Annual limits on intake (ALI) have historically been tabulated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (e.g., ICRP 1979, 1961) and also by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). These compilations have been rendered obsolete by more recent ICRP dosimetry methods, and, rather than provide new ALIs, the ICRP has opted instead to provide committed dose coefficients from which an ALI can be determined by a user for a specific set of conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy historically has referenced compilations of ALIs and has defined their method of calculation in its radiation protection regulation (10 CFDR 835), but has never provided a specific compilation. Under June 2007 amendments to 10 CFR 835, ALIs can be calculated by dividing an appropriate dose limit, either 5-rem (0.05 Sv) effective dose or 50 rem (0.5 Sv) equivalent dose to an individual organ or tissue, by an appropriate committed dose coefficient. When based on effective dose, the ALI is often referred to as a stochastic annual limit on intake (SALI), and when based on the individual organ or tissue equivalent limit, it has often been called a deterministic annual limit on intake (DALI).

  8. Final ECR 2008 Report | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Final ECR 2008 Report Final ECR 2008 Report Final ECR 2008 Report PDF icon Environmental Conflict Resolution Third Annual Report January 2009 More Documents & Publications Environmental Conflict Resolution 2009 ECR FINAL REPORT 2010 test

  9. CASCADER: An M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. Volume 4 -- Users guide to CASCADR9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Lindstrom, F.T.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-09-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes through advection and/or dispersion. Additionally during the transport of parent and daughter radionuclides in soil, radionuclide decay may occur. This version of CASCADER called CASCADR9 starts with the concepts presented in volumes one and three of this series. For a proper understanding of how the model works, the reader should read volume one first. Also presented in this volume is a set of realistic scenarios for buried sources of radon gas, and the input and output file structure for CASCADER9.

  10. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA); Dilgard, Lemoyne W. (Willits, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

  11. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

    1995-10-10

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

  12. WORKSHOP ON DEVELOPMENT OF RADIONUCLIDE GETTERS FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Holt

    2006-03-13

    One of the important that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently undertaking is the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository to be located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Concern is generated by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is due to potential releases as groundwater contamination, as described in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The dose to an off-site individual using this groundwater for drinking and irrigation is dominated by four radionuclides: Tc-99, I-127, Np-237, and U-238. Ideally, this dose would be limited to a single radionuclide, U-238; in other words, YMP would resemble a uranium ore body, a common geologic feature in the Western U.S. For this reason and because of uncertainties in the behavior of Tc-99, I-127, and Np-237, it would be helpful to limit the amount of Tc, I, and Np leaving the repository, which would greatly increase the confidence in the long-term performance of YMP. An approach to limiting the migration of Tc, I, and Np that is complementary to the existing YMP repository design plans is to employ sequestering agents or ''getters'' for these radionuclides such that their migration is greatly hindered, thus decreasing the amount of radionuclide leaving the repository. Development of such getters presents a number of significant challenges. The getter must have a high affinity and high selectivity for the radionuclide in question since there is approximately a 20- to 50-fold excess of other fission products and a 1000-fold excess of uranium in addition to the ions present in the groundwater. An even greater challenge is that the getters must function over a period greater than the half-life of the radionuclide (greater than 5 half-lives would be ideal). Typically, materials with a high affinity for Tc, I, or Np are not sufficiently durable. For example, strong-base ion exchange resins have a very high affinity for TcO{sub 4}{sup -} but are not expected to be durable. On the other hand, durable materials, such as hydrotalcite, do not have sufficient affinity to be useful getters. Despite these problems, the great increase in the repository performance and corresponding decrease in uncertainty promised by a useful getter has generated significant interest in these materials. This report is the result a workshop sponsored by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management and Office of Science and Technology and International of the DOE to assess the state of research in this field.

  13. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenzel, Reiner; Urrutia, J. Manuel

    2009-09-08

    The nonlinear physics of electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) in plasmas. Time-varying wave magnetic field exceeding the background magnetic field produces highly nonlinear whistler mode since the wave dispersion depends on the total magnetic field. There exists no theory for such whistler modes. The present experimental work is the first one to explore this regime of nonlinear whistlers. A field-reversed configuration has been found which has the same vortex topology as an MHD spheromak, termed a whistler spheromak. Whistler mirrors have compressed and twisted field lines propagating in the whistler mode. Their helicity properties have been studied. Whistler spheromaks and mirrors have different propagation and damping characteristics. Wave collisions have been studied. Head-on collisions of two whistler spheromaks form a stationary field-reversed configuration (FRC) without helicity. When whistler spheromaks are excited the toroidal current flows mainly in the toroidal null line. It is only carried by electrons since ion currents and displacement currents are negligible. A change in the poloidal (axial) magnetic field induces a toroidal electric field which drives the current. Magnetic energy is dissipated and converted into electron kinetic energy. This process is called magnetic reconnection in 2D geometries, which are simplifications for theoretical convenience but rarely occur in nature. A crucial aspect of reconnection is its rate, determined by the electron collisionality. Regular Coulomb collisions can rarely account for the observed reconnection rates. In the present experiments we have also observed fast reconnection and explained it by electron transit time damping in the finite-size null layer. Electrons move faster than a whistler spheromak, hence transit through the toroidal null line where they are freely accelerated. The transit time is essentially the collision time but no particle collisions are required. Strong electron heating and visible light emissions are only observed in whistler spheromaks and FRCs but not in mirrors or asymmetric configurations lacking magnetic null lines. The collisionless electron energization in a toroidal null line usually produces non-Maxwellian distributions. Off the null axis electrons gain more perpendicular than parallel energy. Distributions with T{sub {perpendicular}} > T{sub {parallel}} lead to whistler instabilities which have been observed. A whistler spheromak is a source of high-frequency whistler emissions. These are usually small amplitude whistlers propagating in a complicated background magnetic field. The waves are emitted from a moving source. High frequency whistlers propagate faster than the spheromak, thus partly move ahead of it and partly in the reverse direction. In test wave experiments wave growth opposite to the direction of the hot electron flow has been observed, confirming that Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance instabilities account for the emission process. Propagating whistler mirrors produce no significant instabilities except when they interact with other fields which exhibit null lines. For example, a whistler mirror has been launched against a stationary FRC, resulting in strong FRC heating and whistler instabilities. In the whistler mirror configuration the antenna near-zone field produces a toroidal null line outside the coil which can also become a source for whistler emissions. Finally, nonlinear EMHD research has been extended to initially unmagnetized plasmas where a new nonlinear skin depth has been discovered. When a small-amplitude oscillating magnetic field is applied to a plasma the field penetration is governed by the skin depth, collisional or collisionless depending on frequency, collision frequency and plasma frequency. However, when the magnetic field increases the electrons become magnetized and the field penetration occurs in the whistler mode if the cyclotron frequency exceeds the oscillating frequency. This phenomenon has been observed. A loop antenna creates a dipole field which is frozen into the plasma for a half cycle and becomes the background field for the wave launched by the next half cycle. The field topology consists of field-reversed dipoles of decreasing strength with distance. The propagation region depends on field amplitude but not on the skin depth. Our research has been published in 13 scientific papers.

  14. Radiation dose assessment methodology and preliminary dose estimates to support US Department of Energy radiation control criteria for regulated treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes and materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Rhoads, K.; Jarvis, M.F.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides unit dose to concentration levels that may be used to develop control criteria for radionuclide activity in hazardous waste; if implemented, these criteria would be developed to provide an adequate level of public and worker health protection, for wastes regulated under U.S, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements (as derived from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA] and/or the Toxic Substances Control Act [TSCA]). Thus, DOE and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission can fulfill their obligation to protect the public from radiation by ensuring that such wastes are appropriately managed, while simultaneously reducing the current level of dual regulation. In terms of health protection, dual regulation of very small quantities of radionuclides provides no benefit.

  15. Policy and Regulations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regulations Policy and Regulations map-1019833_960_720.jpg

  16. Resources for Utility Regulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SEE Action

    2012-06-01

    Provides a summary of State and Local Energy Efficiency Action Network (SEE Action) information resources available to utility regulators, organized by topic.

  17. Final Technical Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the role of microbial phosphohydrolase enzymes in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of the radionuclide uranium...

  18. FinalProgramReportfinal.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 8, 2004 Paul Wambach EH-53/270 Corporate Square Building U. S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Germantown, MD 20585-0270 CONTRACT NO. DE-AC05-00OR22750: FY04 FINAL REPORT FOR THE FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS The enclosed subject final report prepared by Joe M. Aldrich is submitted as stated in the Fiscal Year 2004 Field Work Proposal for the Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats. This is the final

  19. Hawaii Clean Energy Final PEIS

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    A 1 2 Public Notices 3 Notices about the Draft Programmatic EIS Appendix A Hawai i Clean Energy Final PEIS A-1 September 2015 DOE/EIS-0459 The following Notice of Availability appeared in the Federal Register on April 18, 2014. Appendix A Hawai i Clean Energy Final PEIS A-2 September 2015 DOE/EIS-0459 Appendix A Hawai i Clean Energy Final PEIS A-3 September 2015 DOE/EIS-0459 DOE-Hawaii placed the following advertisement in The Garden Island on May 5 and 9, 2014. Appendix A Hawai i Clean Energy

  20. TERRA: a computer code for simulating the transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1984-11-01

    TERRA is a computer code which calculates concentrations of radionuclides and ingrowing daughters in surface and root-zone soil, produce and feed, beef, and milk from a given deposition rate at any location in the conterminous United States. The code is fully integrated with seven other computer codes which together comprise a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System, CRRIS. Output from either the long range (> 100 km) atmospheric dispersion code RETADD-II or the short range (<80 km) atmospheric dispersion code ANEMOS, in the form of radionuclide air concentrations and ground deposition rates by downwind location, serves as input to TERRA. User-defined deposition rates and air concentrations may also be provided as input to TERRA through use of the PRIMUS computer code. The environmental concentrations of radionuclides predicted by TERRA serve as input to the ANDROS computer code which calculates population and individual intakes, exposures, doses, and risks. TERRA incorporates models to calculate uptake from soil and atmospheric deposition on four groups of produce for human consumption and four groups of livestock feeds. During the environmental transport simulation, intermediate calculations of interception fraction for leafy vegetables, produce directly exposed to atmospherically depositing material, pasture, hay, and silage are made based on location-specific estimates of standing crop biomass. Pasture productivity is estimated by a model which considers the number and types of cattle and sheep, pasture area, and annual production of other forages (hay and silage) at a given location. Calculations are made of the fraction of grain imported from outside the assessment area. TERRA output includes the above calculations and estimated radionuclide concentrations in plant produce, milk, and a beef composite by location.

  1. Nanoporous Al2O3 as a "Getter" for Volatile Radionuclides into

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanostructued Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms - Energy Innovation Portal Nanoporous Al2O3 as a "Getter" for Volatile Radionuclides into Nanostructued Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (738 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryThe first phase of this project is capture and encapsulation which is achieved by using nanoporous alumina to confine gaseous iodine, for example, from fission or

  2. Radionuclide Concentrations in Deer and Elk from Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1991-1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. H. Kraig; J. K. Ferenbaugh; J. R. Biggs; K. D. Bennett; M. A. Mullen; P. R. Fresquez

    1998-12-01

    Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) forage in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This paper summarizes radionuclide concentrations 3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, and total uranium in muscle and bone tissue of deer and elk collected from LANL lands from 1991 through 1998. Also, the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) and the risk of excess cancer fatalities (RECF) to people who ingest muscle and bone from deer and elk collected from LANL lands were estimated. Most radionuclide concentrations in muscle and bone from individual deer and elk collected from LANL lands were either at less than detectable quantities (where the analytical result was smaller than two counting uncertainties) and/or within upper (95%) level background (BG) concentrations. As a group, most radionuclides in muscle and bone of deer and elk from LANL lands were not significantly higher (p<0.10) than in similar tissues from deer and elk collected from BG locations. Also, elk that had been radio collared and tracked for two years and spent an average time of 50% on LANL lands were not significantly different in most radionuclides from road kill elk that have been collected as part of the environmental surveillance program. Overall, the upper (95%) level net CEDES (the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background) at the most conservative ingestion rate (51 lbs of muscle and 13 lbs of bone) were as follows: deer muscle = 0.220, deer bone = 3.762, elk muscle = 0.117, and elk bone = 1.67 mrendy. AU CEDES were far below the International Commission on Radiological Protection guideline of 100 mrem/y, and the highest muscle plus bone CEDE (4.0 mrendy) corresponded to a RECF of 2E-06 which is far below the Environmental Protection Agency upper level guideline of 1E04.

  3. Technical Assessment of DOE Savannah River Site-Sponsored Radionuclide Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessment of DOE Savannah River Site-Sponsored Radionuclide Monitoring Efforts in the Central Savannah River Area Prepared by the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory at the Request of The Department of Energy - Savannah River Site in Response to the Savannah River Site Citizens Advisory Board Recommendation 317 Submitted: June 24, 2014 Prepared By: (in alphabetical Order) Mr. Dean Fletcher (Research Professional III) Ms. Angela Lindell (Research Professional III) Dr. Gary Mills (Associate

  4. SELECTING SPECIES FOR MARINE ASSESSMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES AROUND AMCHITKA: PLANNING FOR DIVERSE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Monitoring and Assessment (2006) 123: 371-391 DOI: 10.1007/~10661-006-9203-2 @ Springer 2006 SELECTING SPECIES FOR MARINE ASSESSMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES AROUND AMCHITKA: PLANNING FOR DIVERSE GOALS AND INTERESTS JOANNA BURGER*, MICHAEL GOCHFELD and STEPHEN JEWETT Rutgers University ('author for correspondence, e-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu) (Received 27 October 2005; accepted 16 January 2006) Abstract. Considerable attention has been devoted to selecting bioindicator species as part of moni-

  5. WIPP Documents - Federal Regulations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Federal Regulations 40 CFR Part 191 Environmental radiation protection standards for management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes. 40 CFR Part 194 Criteria for the certification and re-certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's compliance with the 40 CFR Part 191 disposal regulations.

  6. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 12, 2014 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE November 12, 2014 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 100 F-Area Record of Decision .................................................................................................................... 1 Central Plateau Inner Area Cleanup

  7. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 13, 2014 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD TANK WASTE COMMITTEE November 13, 2014 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Tank Farm Vapor Issues (joint w/ HSEP) .................................................................................................... 1 Direct Feed Low-Activity Waste Treatment

  8. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2015 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD TANK WASTE COMMITTEE January 7, 2015 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Risk-Based Retrieval, Treatment, and Closure ............................................................................................. 1 Waste Management Area C Performance Assessment

  9. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 10, 2015 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE March 10, 2015 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Central Plateau Inner Area Guidelines .......................................................................................................... 1 2014/15 Budget and RL Cleanup, Lifecycle

  10. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 11, 2015 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD TANK WASTE COMMITTEE March 11, 2015 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Cesium Treatment and Disposition Issue Manager Update .......................................................................... 2 Waste Treatment Plant Issue Manager Update

  11. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 15, 2015 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD TANK WASTE COMMITTEE April 15, 2015 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 C-Farm Closure Swim Lanes ........................................................................................................................ 2 PHOENIX Tank Farms Application

  12. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    September 23, 2015 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD TANK WASTE COMMITTEE September 23, 2015 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Low-Activity Waste Pretreatment System Critical Decision - 1 .................................................................. 3 A and AX Farms Retrieval

  13. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 8, 2015 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE December 8, 2015 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Update on 100-D/H Proposed Plan ............................................................................................................... 2 WA-1 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility

  14. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 18, 2015 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD HEALTH, SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION COMMITTEE June 18, 2015 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Tank Farm Vapors Advice Response ............................................................................................................ 1 Effectiveness of

  15. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 9, 2012 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION COMMITTEE August 9, 2012 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Draft Advice - Integrated Safety Management ............................................................................................ 2 DOE-RL Maintenance

  16. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 5, 2014 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT COMMITEE March 5, 2014 Kennewick, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Welcome and Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 1 State of the Site Meetings ............................................................................................................................. 2 RCRA Permit Modifications

  17. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Communication Committee April 7, 2015 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT AND COMMUNICATION COMMITTEE April 7, 2015 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 TPA Public Involvement Survey ..................................................................................................................

  18. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    September 3, 2014 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT COMMITTEE September 3, 2014 Pasco, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Welcome ....................................................................................................................................................... 1 PIC Role Framing ......................................................................................................................................... 1 State of the Site Meetings

  19. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    September 8, 2015 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT AND COMMUNICATION COMMITTEE September 8, 2015 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 TPA Public Involvement ............................................................................................................................... 1 TPA

  20. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 3, 2015 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT AND COMMUNICATION COMMITTEE November 3, 2015 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Tri-Party Agreement Agency Public Involvement ....................................................................................... 2 Waste Treatment Plant

  1. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 10, 2013 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT COMMITEE December 10, 2013 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Welcome ....................................................................................................................................................... 1 Strategic Public Involvement - Tool Time! .................................................................................................. 3 100-F Area Public Involvement

  2. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2014 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE October 7, 2014 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Consortium for Risk Evaluation and Stakeholder Participation Hanford Site-wide Risk Review Project Discussion

  3. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 6, 2013 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE March 6, 2013 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Briefing on Post-2015 Priorities ................................................................................................................... 1 Update on Deep Vadose Zone Remediation

  4. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2012 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE October 9, 2012 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) Injury Assessment Plan ................................................... 3 100 Area Schedule for Documents/Decisions

  5. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6, 2012 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE November 6, 2012 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ........................................................................................................................................... 1 F-Reactor Area Operable Unit ........................................................................................................ 1 Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Update

  6. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 13, 2013 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE November 13, 2013 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Update on Work in the River Corridor ......................................................................................................... 1 Briefing on the Plutonium Finishing

  7. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 2014 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD TANK WASTE COMMITTEE February 13, 2014 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 DOE Framework Topic Briefing: Direct Feed Low-Activity Waste ............................................................ 1 System Plan 7

  8. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 7, 2012 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD TANK WASTE COMMITTEE November 7, 2012 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Update on Double-Shell Tank AY-102 ........................................................................................................ 1 Update on Single-Shell Tank Retrievals

  9. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 8, 2014 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD TANK WASTE COMMITTEE October 8, 2014 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Safety Culture Improvement Efforts (joint w/ HSEP) .................................................................................. 1 Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Progress

  10. Final Report: Axion "Roadmap" Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, Leslie J

    2013-03-19

    Final report for "Vistas in Axion Physics: A Roadmap for Theoretical and Experimental Axion Physics through 2025", which was held at the University of Washington, INT, from April 23 - 26, 2012.

  11. Hanford_FinalReport_20140130

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    209054 - Hanford PSHA Seismicity Analysis - Felix Waldhauser - Final Report - 1/31/14 3:37 PM 1 Final Report Project Name: Hanford Site-Wide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA): High-Resolution Seismicity Analysis of the Yakima Fold and Thrust Belt Region, Washington Contract Number: Battelle - 209054 Prepared by: Dr. Felix Waldhauser 423 W 120 th Street, Apt 88 New York, NY 10027 Tel: 212 678 4804 Email: felixw@ldeo.columbia.edu Prepared for: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  12. Waste Form and Indrift Colloids-Associated Radionuclide Concentrations: Abstraction and Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Aguilar

    2003-06-24

    This Model Report describes the analysis and abstractions of the colloids process model for the waste form and engineered barrier system components of the total system performance assessment calculations to be performed with the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application model. Included in this report is a description of (1) the types and concentrations of colloids that could be generated in the waste package from degradation of waste forms and the corrosion of the waste package materials, (2) types and concentrations of colloids produced from the steel components of the repository and their potential role in radionuclide transport, and (3) types and concentrations of colloids present in natural waters in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. Additionally, attachment/detachment characteristics and mechanisms of colloids anticipated in the repository are addressed and discussed. The abstraction of the process model is intended to capture the most important characteristics of radionuclide-colloid behavior for use in predicting the potential impact of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport on repository performance.

  13. RESULTS FOR THE THIRD QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.

    2011-10-20

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Third Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on July 7, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report.

  14. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C.

    2012-01-31

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Fourth Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on October 12, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report.

  15. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

  16. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Viner, Brian J.; Jannik, Tim; Stone, Daniel; Hepworth, Allan; Naeher, Luke; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Blake, John; Eddy, Teresa

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 ×more » 107 Bq ha–1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. Potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2 m s–1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. As a result, our approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.« less

  17. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo Gardens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1995-05-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium) concentrations were determined in soils and produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens. All radionuclides in soils from Pueblo areas were within or just above regional statistical (natural and/or worldwide fallout) reference levels. Similarily, the average levels of radionuclides in produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens were not significantly different in produce collected from regional (background) locations. The effective (radiation) dose equivalent from consuming 352 lb of produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.036 ({+-}0.016), 0.072 ({+-}0.051), 0.012 ({+-}0.027), and 0.110 ({+-}0.102) mrem/yr, respectively. The highest calculated dose, based on the mean + 2 std dev (95% confidence level), was 0.314 mrem/yr; this was <0.4% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public.

  18. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viner, Brian J.

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 x 107Bq ha-1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. The potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2ms-1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. This approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.

  19. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viner, Brian J.; Jannik, Tim; Stone, Daniel; Hepworth, Allan; Naeher, Luke; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Blake, John; Eddy, Teresa

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 107 Bq ha1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. Potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2 m s1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. As a result, our approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.

  20. LEACHING OF SLAG FROM STEEL RECYCLING: RADIONUCLIDES AND STABLE ELEMENTS. DATA REPORT, JAN.15, 1997, REVISED SEPT.9, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FUHRMANN,M.SCHOONEN,M.

    2003-07-31

    Of primary importance to this study are releases of radionuclides from slags. However, releases of other constituents also provide valuable information on releases of elements that may be toxic (e.g. Cr) or that may be used as analogs for radionuclides (e.g. K for Cs). In addition, leaching of bulk constituents from the slag gives information on weathering rates of the bulk material that can be used to estimate releases of non-leachable elements. Consequently, we have examined leaching of: radionuclides from those sloags that contain them; bulk elemental constituents of the slags; anionic constituents; trace elements, through spot checks of concentrations in leachates. Analysis by ICP of elemental constituents in leachates from radioactive samples was limited to those leachate samples that contained no detectable radionuclides, to avoid contamination of the ICP. In this data report we present leaching results for five slags that were produced by recycling steel. Two of the slags were generated at facilities that treat radioactively contaminated scrap, consequently the slag contains radionuclides. The slag from the other three was not contaminated. Because of this, we were able to examine the chemical composition of the slag and of the leachate generated during tests of these slags. For these materials we believe that leach rates of the stable elements can be used as analogs for radionuclides if the same steel processing method were used for radioactive material.

  1. Microsoft Word - Final Mitigated Action Plan - CNMI.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | P a g e MITIGATION ACTION PLAN FOR THE FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE GREEN ENERGY SCHOOL WIND PROJECT SAIPAN, COMMONWEALTH OF THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS U.S. Department of Energy Golden Service Center Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy DOE/EA-1923 2 | P a g e ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AMC Adaptive Management Committee CFR Code of Federal Regulations DOE U.S. Department of Energy EA environmental assessment ESA Endangered Species Act FONSI finding of no significant

  2. DOE NEPA Implementing Procedures: Final Rule (61 Fed Reg 36222) |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy 36222) DOE NEPA Implementing Procedures: Final Rule (61 Fed Reg 36222) DOE amended its existing regulations governing compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The amendments incorporate changes that improve DOE's efficiency in implementing NEPA requirements by reducing costs and preparation time while maintaining quality, consistent with the DOE Secretarial Policy Statement on NEPA issued in June 1994. These amendments also incorporate changes

  3. Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works (2nd Edition)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmisano, Anna; Hazen, Terry

    2003-09-30

    This primer is intended for people interested in environmental problems of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. The second edition of the primer incorporates recent findings by researchers in DOE's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on the physical-chemical environment, microbial communities, and nature of the contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through the addition of nutrients (biostimulation) or inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation). Over the past few years, interest in bioremediation has increased. It has become clear that many organic contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels can be degraded to relatively harmless products such as CO{sub 2} (the end result of the degradation process). Waste water managers and scientists have also found that microorganisms can interact with metals and convert them from one chemical form to another. Laboratory tests and ex situ bioremediation applications have shown that microorganisms can change the valence, or oxidation state, of some heavy metals (e.g., chromium and mercury) and radionuclides (e.g., uranium) by using them as electron acceptors. In some cases, the solubility of the altered species decreases and the contaminant is immobilized in situ, i.e., precipitated into an insoluble salt in the sediment. In other cases, the opposite occurs--the solubility of the altered species increases, increasing the mobility of the contaminant and allowing it to be more easily flushed from the environment. Both of these kinds of transformations present opportunities for bioremediation of metals and radionuclides--either to lock them in place, or to accelerate their removal. DOE's goal is to reduce the risk and related exposure to ground water, sediment, and soil contamination at Department of Energy facilities. Subsurface bioremediation of metals and radionuclides at the site of contamination (in situ bioremediation) is not yet in widespread use. However, successful in situ applications of bioremediation to petroleum products and chlorinated solvents provide experience from which scientists can draw. Taken together, the accomplishments in these areas have led scientists and engineers to be optimistic about applying this technology to the mixtures of metals and radionuclides that are found at some of the most contaminated DOE sites. This primer examines some of the basic microbial and chemical processes that are a part of bioremediation, specifically the bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. The primer is divided into six sections, with the information in each building on that of the previous. The sections include features that highlight topics of interest and provide background information on specific biological and chemical processes and reactions. The first section briefly examines the scope of the contamination problem at DOE facilities. The second section gives a summary of some of the most commonly used bioremediation technologies, including successful in situ and ex situ techniques. The third discusses chemical and physical properties of metals and radionuclides found in contaminant mixtures at DOE sites, including solubility and the most common oxidation states in which these materials are found. The fourth section is an overview of the basic microbial processes that occur in bioremediation. The fifth section looks at specific in s

  4. FINAL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Introduction DOEEA-1712 1-4 electric drive vehicles would support the DOE's Energy Strategic Goal of "protecting our national and economic security by promoting a diverse...

  5. Of Refrigerators & Regulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from The White House Blog. The President took a moment during his speech to put the debate over regulation in a different perspective.

  6. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 1, Autopsy and In Vivo Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-02-25

    This paper is part one of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. The goal of part one of this work was to review, summarize, and characterize all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Forty-five papers and reports were obtained and their data reviewed, and three data sets were obtained via private communication. The 45 radionuclides of interest are the 238U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by 235U; 11 nuclides), and the 232Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides 87Rb and 40 K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides 14C and 3H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs-137mBa, 129I, and 90Sr-90Y. Measurements judged to be relevant were available for only 15 of these radionuclides: 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 137Cs, 87Rb, 40K, 14C, and 3H. Recent and relevant measurements were not available for 129I and 90Sr-90Y. A total of 11,714 radionuclide concentration measurements were found in one or more tissues or organs from 14 States. Data on age, sex, geographic locations, height, and weight of subjects were available only sporadically. Too often authors did not provide meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. The following papers detail how these shortcomings are overcome to achieve the goals of the three-part series.

  7. MINIMARS conceptual design: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.D.

    1986-09-01

    This volume contains the following sections: (1) fueling systems; (2) blanket; (3) alternative blanket concepts; (4) halo scraper/direct converter system study and final conceptual design; (5) heat-transport and power-conversion systems; (6) tritium systems; (7) minimars air detritiation system; (8) appropriate radiological safety design criteria; and (9) cost estimate. (MOW)

  8. BP-12 Final Models Datasets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MB, XLS) Tier 2 Module of RAM RAM Tier 2 Pricing Module (4.8 MB, XLS) Tool Kit Files (TPP) ToolKit v4.8.1 BP-12 Final Studies Release 4-Aug-11 (12.5 MB, XLS) Risk Mod Output...

  9. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health, Safety, and Environmental Protection Committee November 8, 2012 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD HEALTH SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION COMMITTEE November 8, 2012 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ............................................................................................................................................................ 1 DOE-ORP's Response to HAB Advice #258 (Safety at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant [WTP]) -

  10. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6, 2014 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE May 6, 2014 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Advice Development: 100-F Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) and Proposed Plan Revision 0

  11. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 11, 2014 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE December 11, 2014 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 100-F Area ROD, Follow-up to HAB Advice #280 ..................................................................................... 1 Central Plateau Inner Area Cleanup Principles

  12. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    September 22, 2015 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE September 22, 2015 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation Hanford Site-Wide Risk Review Project Interim Progress Report (joint w/ Oregon Hanford Cleanup Board members)

  13. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 9, 2015 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD TANK WASTE COMMITTEE December 9, 2015 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Update on the Status of Double-Shell Tank AY-102.................................................................................... 1 Safety Culture (joint w/ HSEP)

  14. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 10, 2015 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD HEALTH, SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION COMMITTEE December 10, 2015 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Enterprise Assessment of Safety Culture at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (joint w/ TWC)

  15. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 12, 2016 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE January 12, 2016 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Draft Advice on the 100-D/H Proposed Plan ................................................................................................ 1 Letter on Consortium for Risk Evaluation

  16. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 5, 2013 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT & COMMUNICATION COMMITTEE June 5, 2013 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Results of Recent Hanford Public Involvement Surveys .............................................................................. 2 Planning for the State of the Site

  17. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 7, 2014 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE January 7, 2014 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Briefing on 100-F Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and Proposed Plan (Revision 0) .................... 1 Briefing on the Annual Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring Report

  18. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    River and Plateau Committee January 8, 2013 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE January 8, 2013 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Change Package............................................................................................... 1 100 F/IU Operable

  19. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2013 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE April 9, 2013 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Briefing on 300 Area Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and Proposed Plan Revision 0 ................. 1 Briefing on ROD Development for 100-F Area

  20. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 10, 2014 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD RIVER AND PLATEAU COMMITTEE June 10, 2014 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Briefing on Interim Storage of Transuranic and Mixed Waste at the Central Waste Complex .................... 1 Update on the Plutonium Finishing Plant

  1. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2013 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD TANK WASTE COMMITTEE January 9, 2013 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Update on Double-Shell Tank AY-102 (joint with PIC) .............................................................................. 1 Issue Manager Framing: Radiation Damage to Concrete at the Waste

  2. Final Meeting Summary Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page 1 Health, Safety and Environmental Protection Committee May 8, 2014 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD HEALTH, SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION COMMITTEE May 8, 2014 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Opening ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Hanford Site Policies and Procedures for Worker Injuries and Illnesses (joint w/ TWC)

  3. Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-08-31

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of diffusion of radionuclides may be affected by the formation of structural cracks in concrete, the carbonation of the buried waste form, and any potential effect of metallic iron (in the form of rebars) on the mobility of radionuclides. The radionuclides iodine-129 ({sup 129}I), technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), and uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) are identified as long-term dose contributors in Category 3 waste (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, and carbonate-complexed {sup 238}U may readily leach into the subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989, 1992a, b, 1993, and 1995). The leachability and/or diffusion of radionuclide species must be measured to assess the long-term performance of waste grouts when contacted with vadose-zone pore water or groundwater. Although significant research has been conducted on the design and performance of cementitious waste forms, the current protocol conducted to assess radionuclide stability within these waste forms has been limited to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Method 1311 Federal Registry (EPA 1992) and ANSI/ANS-16.1 leach test (ANSI 1986). These tests evaluate the performance under water-saturated conditions and do not evaluate the performance of cementitious waste forms within the context of waste repositories which are located within water-deficient vadose zones. Moreover, these tests assess only the diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste forms and neglect evaluating the mechanisms of retention, stability of the waste form, and formation of secondary phases during weathering, which may serve as long-term secondary hosts for immobilization of radionuclides. The results of recent investigations conducted under arid and semi-arid conditions (Al-Khayat et al. 2002; Garrabrants et al. 2002; Garrabrants and Kosson 2003; Garrabrants et al. 2004; Gervais et al. 2004; Sanchez et al. 2002; Sanchez et al. 2003) provide valuable information suggesting structural and chemical changes to concrete waste forms which may affect contaminant containm

  4. Radionuclide release from PWR fuels in a reference tuff repository groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.; Oversby, V.M.

    1985-03-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project (NNWSI) is studying the suitability of the welded devitrified Topopah Spring tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, for potential use as a high-level nuclear waste repository. In support of the Waste Package task of NNWSI, tests have been conducted under ambient air environment to measure radionuclide release from two pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuels in water obtained from the J-13 well near the Yucca Mountain site. Four specimen types, representing a range of fuel physical conditions that may exist in a failed waste canister containing a limited amount of water were tested. The specimen types were: fuel rod sections split open to expose bare fuel particles; rod sections with water-tight end fittings with a 2.5-cm long by 150-{mu}m wide slit through the cladding; rod sections with water-tight end fittings and two 200-{mu}m-diameter holes through the cladding; and undefected rod segments with water-tight end fittings. Radionuclide release results from the first 223-day test runs on H.B. Robinson spent fuel specimens in J-13 water are reported and compared to results from a previous test series in which similar Turkey Point reactor spent fuel specimens were tested on deionized water. Selected initial results are also given for Turkey Point fuel specimens tested on J-13 water. Results suggest that the actinides Pu, Am, Cm and Np are released congruently with U as the UO{sub 2} spent fuel matrix dissolves. Fractional release of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 99}Tc was greater than that measured for the actinides. Generally, lower radionuclide releases were measured for the H.B. Robinson fuel in J-13 water than for Turkey Point Fuel in deionized water. 8 references, 7 figures, 9 tables.

  5. Volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides from soil heated in an induction ``cold`` crucible melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aloy, A.S.; Belov, V.Z.; Trofimenko, A.S. [Khlopin Radium Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, S.A.; Stefanovsky, S.V. [SIA Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gombert, D.; Knecht, D.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The behavior of heavy metals and radionuclides during high-temperature treatment is very important for the design and operational capabilities of the off-gas treatment system, as well as for a better understanding of the nature and forms of the secondary waste. In Russia, a process for high-temperature melting in an induction heated cold crucible system is being studied for vitrification of Low Level Waste (LLW) flyash and SYNROC production with simulated high level waste (HLW). This work was done as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) funded research project for thermal treatment of mixed low level waste (LLW). Soil spiked with heavy metals (Cd, Pb) and radionuclides (Cs-137, U-239, Pu-239) was used as a waste surrogate. The soil was melted in an experimental lab-scale system that consisted of a high-frequency generator (1.76 MHz, 60 kW), a cold crucible melter (300 mm high and 90 mm in diameter), a shield box, and an off-gas system. The process temperature was 1,350--1,400 C. Graphite and silicon carbide were used as sacrificial conductive materials to start heating and initial melting of the soil batch. The off-gas system was designed in such a manner that after each experiment, it can be disconnected to collect and analyze all deposits to determine the mass balance. The off-gases were also sampled during an experiment to analyze for hydrogen, NO{sub x}, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and chlorine formation. This paper describes distribution and mass balance of metals and radionuclides in various parts of the off-gas system. The leach rate of the solidified blocks identified by the PCT method is also reported.

  6. Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Print The plant hormone auxin regulates many plant growth and development processes, including shoot growth, root branching, fruit...

  7. Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Print Wednesday, 29 August 2007 00:00 The plant hormone auxin regulates many plant growth and development processes, including shoot growth,...

  8. Expedited technology demonstration project final report: final forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopper, R W

    1999-05-01

    ETDP Final Forms was an attempt to demonstrate the fabrication and performance of a ceramic waste form immobilizing the hazardous and radioactive elements of the MSO/SR mineral residues. The ceramic material had been developed previously. The fabrication system was constructed and functioned as designed except for the granulator. Fabrication of our particular ceramic, however, proved unsatisfactory. The ceramic material design was therefore changed toward the end of the project, replacing nepheline with zircon as the sink for silica. Preliminary results were encouraging, but more development is needed. Fabrication of the new ceramic requires major changes in the processing: Calcination and granulation would be replaced by spray drying; and sintering would be at higher temperature. The main goal of the project--demonstrating the fabrication and performance of the waste form--was not achieved. This report summarizes Final Forms' activities. The problem of immobilizing the MSO/SR mineral residues is discussed.

  9. Congressional Final House Final Senate Current Request Mark

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY 2010 FY 2010 FY 2010 ($ in thousands) Congressional Final House Final Senate Current Request Mark Mark Appropriation FOSSIL ENERGY R&D Coal 368,865 394,315 428,200 393,485 Natural Gas Technologies 25,000 25,000 25,000 17,364 Unconventional Fossil Energy Technologies 0 0 25,000 19,474 Program Direction 158,000 158,000 158,000 158,000 Plant & Capital Equipment 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 Environmental Restoration 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 Cooperative Res. & Development 0 0 5,000

  10. A groundwater flow and transport model of long-term radionuclide migration in central Frenchman flat, Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwicklis, Edward Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Becker, Naomi M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ruskauff, Gregory [NAVARRO-INTERA, LLC.; De Novio, Nicole [GOLDER AND ASSOC.; Wilborn, Bill [US DOE NNSA NSO

    2010-11-10

    A set of groundwater flow and transport models were created for the Central Testing Area of Frenchman Flat at the former Nevada Test Site to investigate the long-term consequences of a radionuclide migration experiment that was done between 1975 and 1990. In this experiment, radionuclide migration was induced from a small nuclear test conducted below the water table by pumping a well 91 m away. After radionuclides arrived at the pumping well, the contaminated effluent was discharged to an unlined ditch leading to a playa where it was expected to evaporate. However, recent data from a well near the ditch and results from detailed models of the experiment by LLNL personnel have convincingly demonstrated that radionuclides from the ditch eventually reached the water table some 220 m below land surface. The models presented in this paper combine aspects of these detailed models with concepts of basin-scale flow to estimate the likely extent of contamination resulting from this experiment over the next 1,000 years. The models demonstrate that because regulatory limits for radionuclide concentrations are exceeded only by tritium and the half-life of tritium is relatively short (12.3 years), the maximum extent of contaminated groundwater has or will soon be reached, after which time the contaminated plume will begin to shrink because of radioactive decay. The models also show that past and future groundwater pumping from water supply wells within Frenchman Flat basin will have negligible effects on the extent of the plume.

  11. Method for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes using a solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich (St. Petersburg, RU); Smirnov, Igor V. (St. Petersburg, RU); Babain, Vasiliy A. (St. Petersburg, RU); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  12. Solvent for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich (St. Petersburg, RU); Smirnov, Igor V. (St. Petersburg, RU); Babain, Vasiliy A. (St. Petersburg, RU); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  13. Results for the second quarter 2014 tank 50 WAC slurry sample chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C.

    2014-09-04

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  14. Results For The Second Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-07-31

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Saltstone Facility Engineering (SFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  15. Results for the Third Quarter 2012 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical and Radionuclide Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C. J.

    2012-10-26

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2012 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  16. Distributed Production of Radionuclide Mo-99 Charles A. Gentile, Adam B.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cohen and George Ascione | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Distributed Production of Radionuclide Mo-99 Charles A. Gentile, Adam B. Cohen and George Ascione This invention is for the production of Technetium-99m (Tc-99m), a widely used medical isotope in a distributed and in-situ fashion. Tc-99m results when Molybdenum 99 (Mo-99) decays. Mo-99 is typically produced in a nuclear reactor, but it can be produced from naturally occurring Molybdenum 100 or from Molybdenum 98 using either neutrons or

  17. Results For The Fourth Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.

    2015-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the Calendar Year (CY) 2014 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  18. Summary of radionuclide air emissions from Department of Energy facilities for CY 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    DOE facilities submit annual reports to their respective EPA regional offices and to EPA headquarters describing their activities during the previous year, including estimates of atmospheric radionuclide emissions and the resulting dose to the maximally exposed member of the public. This report summarizes the information submitted to EPA by DOE facilities in their air emission reports for calendar year 1992. An overview of DOE facility compliance with the NESHAPs Subpart H dose standard is provided. In addition to the required compliance information, supplemental information on air emissions is discussed.

  19. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters from J-13 well at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Maiti, T.C.

    1990-04-01

    The concentrations of U-238 and Th-232 chain members are extremely low in J-13 water, suggesting that their concentrations in groundwaters are largely governed by sorption/desorption processes. Relative to radon (gas), uranium, thorium, radium, and polonium radionuclides are highly sorbed in a tuffaceous matrix, and the retardation factors range from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 5}. Uranium, unlike Th, is in the +6 state and is soluble as carbonate complex (UO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), and the aquifer`s environment is oxidizing. There is no colloidal effect down to <0.10 {mu}m. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Natural radionuclides in groundwater from J-13 well at the Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Maiti, T.C.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the concentrations of U-238 and Th-232 chain members which are extremely low in J-13 water, suggesting that their concentrations in groundwaters are largely governed by sorption/desorption processes. Relative to radon (gas), uranium, thorium, radium, and polonium radionuclides are highly sorbed in a tuffaceous matrix, and the retardation factors range from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 5}. Uranium, unlike Th, is in the + 6 state and is soluble as carbonate complex (UO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), and the aquifer`s environment is oxidizing. There is no colloidal effect down to {lt}0.10 {mu}m.

  1. Radionuclide disequilibria studies for investigating the integrity of potential nuclear waste disposal sites: subseabed studies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Thomas, C.W.; Petersen, M.R.; Perkins, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    This study of subseabed sediments indicates that natural radionuclides can be employed to define past long-term migration rates and thereby evaluate the integrity of potential disposal sites in ocean sediments. The study revealed the following conclusions: (1) the sedimentation rate of both the long and short cores collected in the North Pacific is 2.5 mm/1000 yr or 2.5 m/m.yr in the upper 3 meters; (2) the sedimentation rate has been rather constant over the last one million years; and (3) slow diffusive processes dominate within the sediment. Reworking of the sediment by physical processes or organisms is not observed.

  2. Reviving regulation - and antitrust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, W.G.

    1994-06-01

    The ills of utility regulation have been overstated by interested players and at least some academics. One can have the best features of both competition and regulation by a paradigm that combines some regulation with stronger antitrust enforcement. It is now obvious that the success of deregulation actually depends crucially on whether antitrust policy is effective in preventing monopoly. In fact, antitrust policies have been extremely weak since 1980, under a deliberate Reagan administration withdrawal of enforcement. Where deregulation has led to market dominance, which antitrust cannot well cure, the policy changes of the 1980`s may have created costly and irreversible mistakes in a number of major sectors. Yet fast-paced events are currently creating a frenzy of even more deregulation, supposedly to fit new {open_quotes}revolutions{close_quotes} in technology and the impacts of large mergers. Instead it is time for particular caution in electricity.

  3. Waste/Rock Interactions Technology Program: the status of radionuclide sorption-desorption studies performed by the WRIT program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R.J.; Relyea, J.F.

    1982-04-01

    The most credible means for radionuclides disposed as solid wastes in deep-geologic repositories to reach the biosphere is through dissolution of the solid waste and subsequent radionuclide transport by circulating ground water. Thus safety assessment activities must consider the physicochemical interactions between radionculides present in ground water with package components, rocks and sediments since these processes can significantly delay or constrain the mass transport of radionuclides in comparison to ground-water movement. This paper focuses on interactions between dissolved radiouclides in ground water and rocks and sediments away from the near-field repository. The primary mechanism discussed is adsorption-desorption, which has been studied using two approaches. Empirical studies of adsorption-desorption rely on distribution coefficient measurements while mechanism studies strive to identify, differentiate and quantify the processes that control nuclide retardation.

  4. Comparison of Radionuclide Ratios in Atmospheric Nuclear Explosions and Nuclear Releases from Chernobyl and Fukushima seen in Gamma Ray Spectormetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Lucas, Dawn D.

    2013-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has remote radionuclide monitoring followed by an On Site Inspection (OSI) to clarify the nature of a suspect event. An important aspect of radionuclide measurements on site is the discrimination of other potential sources of similar radionuclides such as reactor accidents or medical isotope production. The Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear reactor disasters offer two different reactor source term environmental inputs that can be compared against historical measurements of nuclear explosions. The comparison of whole-sample gamma spectrometry measurements from these three events and the analysis of similarities and differences are presented. This analysis is a step toward confirming what is needed for measurements during an OSI under the auspices of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  5. Distribution of radionuclides and water in Bandelier Tuff beneath a former Los Alamos liquid waste disposal site after 33 years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.; Abeele, W.V.; Trujillo, G.; Herrera, W.J.; Wheeler, M.L.; Booth, J.W.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1984-07-01

    The distribution of radionuclides and water in Bandelier Tuff beneath a former liquid waste disposal site at Los Alamos was investigated. The waste use history of the site was described, as well as several pertinent laboratory and field studies of water and radionuclide migration in Bandelier Tuff. The distribution of plutonium, /sup 241/Am, and water was determined in a set of about 800 tuff samples collected to sampling depths of 30 m beneath two absorption beds. These data were then related to site geohydrologic data. Water and radionuclide concentrations found after 33 years were compared with the results of similar studies previously performed at this site, and the implications of these comparisons are discussed relative to nuclear waste management. 19 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  6. Final DOE Areas Feasibility Study

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Management, Washington, DC Weiss Associates Environmental Science, Engineering and Management FINAL DOE AREAS FEASIBILITY STUDY for the: LABORATORY FOR ENERGY-RELATED HEALTH RESEARCH UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS Prepared for: SM Stoller Corporation 2597 B ¾ Road Grand Junction, Colorado 81503 Prepared by: Weiss Associates 5801 Christie Avenue, Suite 600 Emeryville, California 94608-1827 March 07, 2008 Rev. 0 J:\DOE_STOLLER\4110\143\FEASIBILITY_STUDY\20080307_FS_TEXT_REV0.DOC WEISS ASSOCIATES

  7. Modeling the resuspension of radionuclides in Ukranian regions impacted by Chernobyl fallout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, S.K.; Thiessen, K.M.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1997-01-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl event, large amounts of radioactive materials were deposited in nearby areas. Concentrations of various radionuclides were measured in air and surface soil. To study the resuspension of radioactive particulate, three different exposure situations were developed on the basis of the collected data under the auspices of the international BIOMOVS II (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) project. Modelers were asked to predict seasonal air concentrations and resuspension factors at several locations at different distances from Chernobyl for six successive years following the accident. Measurements of radionuclide deposition on topsoil were provided for each site along with information on soil, vegetation, land use, surface roughness, meteorology, and climate. In this paper, the three exposure situations are described, along with the initial data set provided to the modelers; two modeling approaches used to make the endpoint predictions are also presented. After the model predictions were submitted, the measured air concentrations and resuspension factors were released to the modelers. Generally, the predictions were well within an order of magnitude of the measured values. Time-dependent trends in predictions and measurements were in good agreement with one of the models, which (a) explicitly accounted for loss processes in soil and (b) used calibration to improve its predictive capabilities. Reasons for variations between predictions and measurements, suggestions for the improvement of models, and conclusions from the model validation study are presented. 12 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (?est: 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (?est: 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 104 m3 d1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  9. SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION SAMPLING OF FIRE DEBRIS RESIDUES IN THE PRESENCE OF RADIONUCLIDE SURROGATE METALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, M; Keisha Martin, K; S Crump, S

    2007-03-23

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating highly radioactive fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of FD residue from radionuclide metals involves using solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers to remove the residues of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most (radioactive) metals. The focus of this research was to develop an examination protocol that was applicable to safe work in facilities where high radiation doses are shielded from the workers (as in radioactive shielded cells or ''hot cells''). We also examined the affinity of stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr and Nd) for sorption by the SPME fibers. This was done under exposure conditions that favor the uptake of FD residues under conditions that will provide little contact between the SPME and the FD material (such as charred carpet or wood that contains commonly-used accelerants). Our results from mass spectrometric analyses indicate that SPME fibers show promise for use in the room temperature head space uptake of organic FD residue (namely, diesel fuel oil, kerosene, gasoline and paint thinner) with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. No inorganic forms of ignitable fluids were included in this study.

  10. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Radionuclides - A Green Technology for Nuclear Waste Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wai, Chien M.

    2003-09-10

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) is capable of extracting radionuclides including cesium, strontium, uranium, plutonium and lanthanides directly from liquid and solid samples with proper complexing agents. Of particular interest is the ability of SF-CO2 to dissolve uranium dioxide directly using a CO2-soluble tri-nbutylphosphate- nitric acid (TBP-HNO3) extractant to form a highly soluble UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2 complex that can be transported and separated from Cs, Sr, and other transition metals. This method can also dissolve plutonium dioxide in SF-CO2. The SF-CO2 extraction technology offers several advantages over conventional solvent-based methods including ability to extract radionuclides directly from solids, easy separation of solutes from CO2, and minimization of liquid waste generation. Potential applications of the SF-CO2 extraction technology for nuclear waste treatment and for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels will be discussed. Information on current demonstrations of the SF-CO2 technology by nuclear companies and research organizations in different countries will be reviewed.

  11. Radionuclide Retention Mechanisms in Secondary Waste-Form Testing: Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Yang, Jungseok; Engelhard, Mark H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Parker, Kent E.; Wang, Guohui; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-26

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate candidate stabilization technologies that have the potential to successfully treat liquid secondary waste stream effluents produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). WRPS is considering the design and construction of a Solidification Treatment Unit (STU) for the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. The ETF, a multi-waste, treatment-and-storage unit that has been permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed wastewaters for treatment. The STU needs to be operational by 2018 to receive secondary liquid waste generated during operation of the WTP. The STU will provide the additional capacity needed for ETF to process the increased volume of secondary waste expected to be produced by WTP. This report on radionuclide retention mechanisms describes the testing and characterization results that improve understanding of radionuclide retention mechanisms, especially for pertechnetate, {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in four different waste forms: Cast Stone, DuraLith alkali aluminosilicate geopolymer, encapsulated fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) product, and Ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramic. These data and results will be used to fill existing data gaps on the candidate technologies to support a decision-making process that will identify a subset of the candidate waste forms that are most promising and should undergo further performance testing.

  12. A search for cosmogenic production of β-neutron emitting radionuclides in water

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dazeley, S.; Askins, M.; Bergevin, M.; Bernstein, A.; Bowden, N. S.; Shokair, T. M.; Jaffke, P.; Rountree, S. D.; Sweany, M.

    2016-03-08

    Here we present the first results of WATCHBOY, a water Cherenkov detector designed to measure the yield of β-neutron emitting radionuclides produced by cosmic ray muons in water. In addition to the β-neutron measurement, we also provide a first look at isolating single-β producing radionuclides following muon-induced hadronic showers as a check of the detection capabilities of WATCHBOY. The data taken over 207 live days indicates a 9Li production yield upper limit ofmore » $$1.9\\times10^{-7}\\mu^{-1}g^{-1}\\mathrm{cm}^2$$ at $$\\sim400$$ meters water equivalent (m.w.e.) overburden at the 90% confidence level. In this work the 9Li signal in WATCHBOY was used as a proxy for the combined search for 9Li and 8He production. This result will provide a constraint on estimates of antineutrino-like backgrounds in future water-based antineutrino detectors.« less

  13. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n =more » 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.« less

  14. Dynamics of radionuclide exchange in the calcareous algae Halimeda at Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spies, R.B.; Marsh, K.V.; Kercher, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of /sup 239 +240/Pu in the detrital inclusions and in acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions of Halimeda macrophysa showed a 10-fold higher concentration in the acid-insoluble coenocytic filaments than in the acid-soluble fraction. In a depuration experiment with Halimeda incrassata at Enewetak Atoll the loss rate of six radionuclides was measured. Data for /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 102//sup m/Rh were fit to loss curves by using one term for exponential loss; data for /sup 155/Eu, /sup 239 +240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am required two terms. For each radionuclide, compartment size and transfer functions were determined for the apropriate one- and two-compartment models. Of 26 possible two-compartment models, only seven gave solutions with our data. Nearly identical loss rates were obtained for /sup 155/Eu, /sup 239 +240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am in the fast-exchanging compartments for all seven models. The uptake rates for these nuclides were also similar when uptake rates were normalized to local sediment concentrations. The fast-exchanging compartment probably corresponds to the mucilage surface layer of the coenocytic filaments. The identity of the slow-exchanging compartment is less certain but it may correspond to the skeletal surface.

  15. Radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll: Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation, soil, animals, cistern water, and ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Stuart, M.L.

    1988-05-31

    This report is intended as a resource document for the eventual cleanup of Bikini Atoll and contains a summary of the data for the concentrations of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am in vegetation through 1987 and in soil through 1985 for 14 islands at Bikini Atoll. The data for the main residence island, Bikini, and the most important island, Eneu, are extensive; these islands have been the subject of a continuing research and monitoring program since 1974. Data for radionuclide concentrations in ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, and pigs from Bikini and Eneu Islands are presented. Also included are general summaries of our resuspension and rainfall data from Bikini and Eneu Islands. The data for the other 12 islands are much more limited because samples were collected as part of a screening survey and the islands have not been part of a continuing research and monitoring program. Cesium-137 is the radionuclide that produces most of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake by terrestrial foods and secondly by direct external gamma exposure. Remedial measures for reducing the /sup 137/Cs uptake in vegetation are discussed. 40 refs., 32 figs., 131 tabs.

  16. Dynamics of radionuclide exchange in the calcareous algae Halimeda at Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spies, R.B.; Marsh, K.V.; Kercher, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of /sup 239+240/Pu in the detrital inclusions and in acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions of Halimeda macrophysa showed a 10-fold higher concentration in the acid-insoluble coenocytic filaments than in the acid-soluble fraction. In a depuration experiment with Halimeda incrassata at Enewetak Atoll the loss rate of six radionuclides was measured. Data for /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 102m/Rh were fit to loss curves by using one term for exponential loss; data for /sup 155/Eu, /sup 239+240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am required two terms. For each radionuclide, compartment size and transfer functions were determined for the appropriate one- and two-compartment models. Of 26 possible two-compartment models, only seven gave solutions with our data. Nearly identical loss rates were obtained for /sup 155/Eu, /sup 239+240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am in the fast-exchanging compartments for all seven models. The uptake rates for these nuclides were also similar when uptake rates were normalized to local sediment concentrations. The fast-exchanging compartment probably corresponds to the mucilage surface layer of the coenocytic filaments. The identity of the slow-exchanging compartment is less certain but it may correspond to the skeletal surface.

  17. Final Design RM | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Final Design RM Final Design RM The Final Design (FD) Review Module (RM) is a tool that assists Department of Energy (DOE) federal project review teams in evaluating the technical sufficiency of the final design prior to CD-3 approval. The FD RM focuses on the engineering design, technology, safety, and quality assurance to determine whether it meets overall design commitments, technical and safety requirements. PDF icon Final Design RM More Documents & Publications Seismic Design

  18. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  19. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Project Shoal Site ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT END STATE VISION Final

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Project Shoal Site Environmental Management End State Vision - January 2005 DOE/NV--955 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Project Shoal Site ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT END STATE VISION Final Final - Project Shoal Site Environmental Management End State Vision - January 2005 Executive Summary The Environmental Management End State Vision is to be used as the primary tool for communicating the individual site end state to the involved parties (e.g., U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], regulators, public

  20. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Rulison Site ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT END STATE VISION Final

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Rulison Site Environmental Management End State Vision - January 2005 DOE/NV--950 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Rulison Site ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT END STATE VISION Final Final - Rulison Site Environmental Management End State Vision - January 2005 Executive Summary The Environmental Management End State Vision is to be used as the primary tool for communicating the individual site end state to the involved parties (e.g., U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], regulators, public stakeholders, Tribal

  1. Final For-Profit Audit Guidance (FY 2011 - FY 2014) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final For-Profit Audit Guidance (FY 2011 - FY 2014) Final For-Profit Audit Guidance (FY 2011 - FY 2014) NOTE THE ATTACHED APPLIES TO AUDITS FOR RECIPIENT'S FYS 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. The following General Audit Program provides requirements and guidance for independent audit organizations in conducting program compliance audits of for-profit recipients of federal financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE's Financial Assistance regulations at 10 CFR 600.316. The

  2. A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, L.P.; Killey, D.R.W.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, P.C.F.

    1992-09-01

    A project to remove groundwater contaminants by an improved treatment process was performed during 1990 October--1992 March by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the United States Department of Energy, managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The goal was to generate high-quality effluent while minimizing secondary waste volume. Two effluent target levels, within an order of magnitude, or less than the US Drinking Water Limit, were set to judge the process effectiveness. The program employed mixed waste feeds containing cadmium, uranium, lead, iron, calcium, strontium-85-90, cesium-137, benzene and trichlorethylene in simulated and actual groundwater and soil leachate solutions. A combination of process steps consisting of sequential chemical conditioning, cross-flow microfiltration and dewatering by low temperature-evaporation, or filter pressing were effective for the treatment of mixed waste having diverse physico-chemical properties. A simplified single-stage version of the process was implemented to treat ground and surface waters contaminated with strontium-90 at the Chalk River Laboratories site. Effluent targets and project goals were met successfully.

  3. Field practice internship final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, T.

    1994-05-01

    This field practice internship final report gives an overview of the field practice, which was completed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Management Department, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The field practice focused on the completion of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Section 312, Tier II Report. The field practice internship was conducted on a full-time basis between December 13, 1993 through February 18, 1994. Sheila Poligone, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Coordinator served as the field practice preceptor.

  4. Microsoft Word - REPORT.13.final

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Grantee The George Washington University Department of Chemistry 725 21 st St., NW Corcoran Hall Washington, DC 20052 Grant Number DE-FG02-02ER15366 Project Title Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration P/I Dr. H. Henry Teng 202-994-0112 hteng@gwu.edu Co-PI Dr. Huifang Xu Dept. Geoscience University of Wisconsin-Madison 1215 W Dayton St Madison, WI 53706 FINAL REPORT Background Vast majority of literature work concludes that

  5. Virtualized Network Control. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghani, Nasir

    2013-02-01

    This document is the final report for the Virtualized Network Control (VNC) project, which was funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. This project was also informally referred to as Advanced Resource Computation for Hybrid Service and TOpology NEtworks (ARCHSTONE). This report provides a summary of the project's activities, tasks, deliverable, and accomplishments. It also provides a summary of the documents, software, and presentations generated as part of this projects activities. Namely, the Appendix contains an archive of the deliverables, documents, and presentations generated a part of this project.

  6. UM-ASU Final Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    8 21 UM-ASU Final Report Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of Uranium by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Grant Number: DE-SC0001642 December 31, 2013 Report Period: September 1, 2009 to August 31, 2013 Kim F. Hayes (PI), Yuqiang Bi, Julian Carpenter, and Sung Pil Hyun University of Michigan Bruce E. Rittmann (co-PI), Chen Zhou, Raveender Vannela Arizona State University James A. Davis (co-I) LBNL Executive Summary This four-year project's overarching aim was to

  7. SPECIAL REREVIEW FINAL DETERMINATION UNCLASSIFIED

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    SPECIAL REREVIEW FINAL DETERMINATION UNCLASSIFIED , ?4~0180N SctuAnr P. 0. 00x *a STATION F New YORK, N. Y. IN RLPLY RCFSRTO EID?f A- 43 MS ~-7405 eng-8 ". Subject: Contract No.H-7405 eng-8 with Metal Hydrides Incorporated. MEMORAhDUM to the Files. 1. Reference is made to basi.c communication dated 27 September 1945, Symbol No. EIDM 1%-30-b, requesting certain information with respect to the subject contract. 2. Reference pars,?-raph a. The Government committed to restore Contractor's plant

  8. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr

    1996-06-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Information has been presented by a number of researchers, which indicated that those tests may be inappropriate for examining microbial degradation of cement-solidified LLW. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program was to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that would be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluation of the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. The procedures that have been developed in this work are presented and discussed. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites were employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this final report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides developed during this study are presented.

  9. RESULTS FOR THE SECOND QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eibling, R.

    2011-08-25

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, the DDA (Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment) process, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are listed in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Second Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on April 4, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limit for {sup 59}Ni is above the requested limit from Reference 2 but below the established limit in Reference 3. (3) The reported detection limit for {sup 94}Nb is above the requested limit from Reference 2; however, it is below the established limits in Reference 3. (4) The reported concentration of {sup 242m}Am is above the target in Listed in Attachment 8.4 of the Saltstone WAC. (5) {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 2. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3. (6) The reported detection limit for Norpar 13{sup 5} is greater than the limit from Table 4 and Attachment 8.2 of the WAC. (7) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (8) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the instrument; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  10. Coupling of Nuclear Waste Form Corrosion and Radionuclide Transports in Presence of Relevant Repository Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Nathalie A.; Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2015-09-30

    Assessments of waste form and disposal options start with the degradation of the waste forms and consequent mobilization of radionuclides. Long-term static tests, single-pass flow-through tests, and the pressurized unsaturated flow test are often employed to study the durability of potential waste forms and to help create models that predict their durability throughout the lifespan of the disposal site. These tests involve the corrosion of the material in the presence of various leachants, with different experimental designs yielding desired information about the behavior of the material. Though these tests have proved instrumental in elucidating various mechanisms responsible for material corrosion, the chemical environment to which the material is subject is often not representative of a potential radioactive waste repository where factors such as pH and leachant composition will be controlled by the near-field environment. Near-field materials include, but are not limited to, the original engineered barriers, their resulting corrosion products, backfill materials, and the natural host rock. For an accurate performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository, realistic waste corrosion experimental data ought to be modeled to allow for a better understanding of waste form corrosion mechanisms and the effect of immediate geochemical environment on these mechanisms. Additionally, the migration of radionuclides in the resulting chemical environment during and after waste form corrosion must be quantified and mechanisms responsible for migrations understood. The goal of this research was to understand the mechanisms responsible for waste form corrosion in the presence of relevant repository sediments to allow for accurate radionuclide migration quantifications. The rationale for this work is that a better understanding of waste form corrosion in relevant systems will enable increased reliance on waste form performance in repository environments and potentially decrease the need for expensive engineered barriers.Our current work aims are 1) quantifying and understanding the processes associated with glass alteration in contact with Fe-bearing materials; 2) quantifying and understanding the processes associated with glass alteration in presence of MgO (example of engineered barrier used in WIPP); 3) identifying glass alteration suppressants and the processes involved to reach glass alteration suppression; 4) quantifying and understanding the processes associated with Saltstone and Cast Stone (SRS and Hanford cementitious waste forms) in various representative groundwaters; 5) investigating positron annihilation as a new tool for the study of glass alteration; and 6) quantifying and understanding the processes associated with glass alteration under gamma irradiation.

  11. Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jannik, G. T.; Baker, R. A.; Lee, P. L.; Eddy, T. P.; Blount, G. C.; Whitney, G. R.

    2012-11-06

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, indepth statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 millisievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the ''effective'' half-life of Cs-137 in deer (including the physical decay half-life and the environmental dispersion half-life) is provided. The ''creek mouth'' fisherman is the next most critical pathway at SRS. On an annual basis, three species of fish (panfish, catfish, and bass) are sampled from the mouths of the five SRS streams. Three composites of up to five fish of each species are analyzed from each sampling location. Long-term trending of the Cs-137 concentrations in fish and the subsequent doses from consumption of SRS fish is provided.

  12. Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data | Department of Energy Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data The Wind Program hosted a two-day workshop on July 24-25, 2012 with scientists and regulators engaged in marine ecological survey, modeling, and database efforts pertaining to the waters of the Mid-Atlantic region. PDF icon Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to

  13. A methodology to assess the radionuclide migration parameters through bentonite-sand backfill in a short experimental duration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurumoorthy, C.; Kusakabe, O.

    2007-07-01

    Bentonite-Sand Backfill is a part of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) widely used in a Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF) to delay migration of radionuclides from the disposed nuclear waste in a geo environment. Laboratory migration experiments have been conducted to understand the advection/diffusion mechanisms of various radionuclides through backfill and to evaluate their migration rates in order to assess the performance of EBS. Migration through backfill is an extremely slow process and the experiments are time consuming. Also, these experiments have limitations to simulate the field stress conditions. Various researchers have experienced the advantages of centrifuge modeling technique to model contaminant transport problems of geo-environment. However, no such studies have been carried out adopting this technique to model the behaviour of bentonite-sand mixture as backfill in NSDF. An attempt has been made in the present study to investigate the validity of this technique to carry out such studies. Significance of geotechnical centrifuge modeling to simulate the prototype radionuclide migration mechanisms through backfill is highlighted. This paper presents the dimensional analysis of various scale factors to construct a physical model for centrifuge tests to monitor online the migration phenomena of radionuclides through bentonite-sand mixture. Studies reveal the feasibility of the technique to evaluate the migration parameters in a short experimental duration. Such studies help in improving EBS design and assessing the long-term performance of EBS in NSDF. (authors)

  14. US Department of Energy radionuclide air emissions annual report (under Subpart H of 40 CFR Part 61) calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report contains information collected by the Rocky Flats Plant concerning the emission of radionuclides into the air. Topics discussed include: Facility information, source description, air emissions data, dose assessments, point and non-point sources, and supplemental information on decontamination of concrete docks.

  15. Federal Acquisition Regulation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 & 2005-74 Summary of Rules FAC 2005-73 Item Subject FAR Case I Positive Law Codification of Title 41 2011-018 II Technical Amendments Item I--Positive Law Codification of Title 41 (FAR Case 2011-018) Title 41 of the United States Code, "Public Contracts" was enacted into positive law on January 4, 2011 (Pub.L 111-350). This codification reorganized and renumbered the statutes, but did not change their meaning or legal effect. This final rule amended the Federal Acquisition

  16. TESTING OF A FULL-SCALE ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR THE ENHANCED PROCESS FOR RADIONUCLIDES REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D; David Stefanko, D; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2009-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers are investigating and developing a rotary microfilter for solid-liquid separation applications in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. One application involves use in the Enhanced Processes for Radionuclide Removal (EPRR) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). To assess this application, the authors performed rotary filter testing with a full-scale, 25-disk unit manufactured by SpinTek Filtration with 0.5 micron filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation. The filter includes proprietary enhancements by SRNL. The most recent enhancement is replacement of the filter's main shaft seal with a John Crane Type 28LD gas-cooled seal. The feed material was SRS Tank 8F simulated sludge blended with monosodium titanate (MST). Testing examined total insoluble solids concentrations of 0.06 wt % (126 hours of testing) and 5 wt % (82 hours of testing). The following are conclusions from this testing.

  17. Radionuclide tracers for the fate of metals in the Savannah estuary: River-ocean exchange processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.R.; Thein, M.; Larsen, I.L.; Byrd, J.T.; Windom, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    Plutonium-238 from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant labels riverborne particles, providing a unique opportunity for examining the fate of metals in estuaries and for tracing river-ocean exchange processes. Results indicate that plutonium and lead-210 are enriched on estuarine particles and that inputs of plutonium from oceanic sources greatly exceed inputs from riverborne or drainage-basin sources as far upstream as the landward limit of seawater penetration. We suggest that these radionuclides (and other chemically reactive metals) are being scavenged from oceanic water by sorption onto particles in turbid estuarine and coastal areas. Since estuaries, bays, mangroves, and intertidal areas serve as effective traps for fine particles and associated trace substances, these results have important implications concerning the disposal of chemically reactive substances in oceanic waters. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. An Empirical Method for deriving RBE values associated with Electrons, Photons and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellamy, Michael B; Eckerman, Keith F; Hertel, Nolan

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial evidence to justify using relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values greater than one for low-energy electrons and photons. But, in the field of radiation protection, radiation associated with low linear energy transfer (LET) has been assigned a radiation weighting factor $w_R$ of one. This value may be suitable for radiation protection but, for risk considerations, it is important to evaluate the potential elevated biological effectiveness of radiation to improve the quality of risk estimates. RBE values between 2 and 3 for tritium are implied by several experimental measurements. Additionally, elevated RBE values have been found for other similar low-energy radiation sources. In this work, RBE values are derived for electrons based upon the fractional deposition of absorbed dose of energies less than a few keV. Using this empirical method, RBE values were also derived for monoenergetic photons and 1070 radionuclides from ICRP Publication 107 for which photons and electrons are the primary emissions.

  19. Uncertainty quantification of a radionuclide release model using an adaptive spectral technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilli, L.; Hoogwerf, C.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J. L.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we present the application of a non-intrusive spectral techniques we recently developed for the evaluation of the uncertainties associated with a radionuclide migration problem. Spectral techniques can be used to reconstruct stochastic quantities of interest by means of a Fourier-like expansion. Their application to uncertainty propagation problems can be performed by evaluating a set of realizations which are chosen adaptively, in this work the main details about how this is done are presented. The uncertainty quantification problem we are going to deal with was first solved in a recent work where the authors used a spectral technique based on an intrusive approach. In this paper we are going to reproduce the results of this reference work, compare them and discuss the main numerical aspects. (authors)

  20. A simplified radionuclide source term for total-system performance assessment; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    A parametric model for releases of radionuclides from spent-nuclear-fuel containers in a waste repository is presented. The model is appropriate for use in preliminary total-system performance assessments of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; for this reason it is simpler than the models used for detailed studies of waste-package performance. Terms are included for releases from the spent fuel pellets, from the pellet/cladding gap and the grain boundaries within the fuel pellets, from the cladding of the fuel rods, and from the radioactive fuel-assembly parts. Multiple barriers are considered, including the waste container, the fuel-rod cladding, the thermal ``dry-out``, and the waste form itself. The basic formulas for release from a single fuel rod or container are extended to formulas for expected releases for the whole repository by using analytic expressions for probability distributions of some important parameters. 39 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Technical and Policy Challenges in Deep Vadose Zone Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Freshley, Mark D.; Dresel, P. E.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2012-03-21

    Deep vadose zone contamination is a significant issue facing the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). Contamination in the deep vadose zone is isolated from exposure such that direct contact is not a factor in risk to human health and the environment; rather, movement of contamination from the deep vadose zone to the groundwater creates the potential for exposure and risk to receptors. Transport of deep vadose zone contamination and discharge to the groundwater creates the potential for exposure and risk to receptors, so limiting flux to groundwater is key for protection of groundwater resources. Remediation approaches for the deep vadose zone need to be considered within the regulatory context, targeted at mitigating the source of contamination and reduce contaminant flux to groundwater. This paper reviews the processes for deep vadose zone metal and radionuclide remediation as well as challenges and opportunities for implementation.

  2. Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    A method for preparing a coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta is disclosed. The method comprises preparing a soluble metal adduct of said isonitrile ligand by admixing said ligand with a salt of a displaceable metal having a complete d-electron shell selected from the group consisting of Zn, Ga, Cd, In, Sn, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi to form a soluble metal-isonitrile salt, and admixing said metal isonitrile salt with a salt comprising said radioactive metal in a suitable solvent to displace said displaceable metal with the radioactive metal thereby forming said coordination. The complex is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

  3. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.

    2010-01-27

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, the DDA (Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment) process, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are listed in the current Saltstone WAC. SRS Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2009 Fourth Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on October 2, 2009 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report. This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2009 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (3) The reported detection limits for {sup 59}Ni and {sup 94}Nb are above the requested limits from Reference 4. However, they are each below the limits established in Reference 3. (4) The reported detection limit for isopropanol is greater than the requested limit from Table 4 of the WAC. (5) The reported detection limits for {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 4. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3. (6) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the GC/MS; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  4. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  5. Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, I.K.

    1993-12-31

    The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information.

  6. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heames, T.J. ); Williams, D.A.; Johns, N.A.; Chown, N.M. ); Bixler, N.E.; Grimley, A.J. ); Wheatley, C.J. )

    1990-10-01

    This document provides a description of a model of the radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident. This document serves as the user's manual for the computer code called VICTORIA, based upon the model. The VICTORIA code predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions between fission products and structural materials, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. This document provides a detailed description of each part of the implementation of the model into VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided. The VICTORIA code was developed upon a CRAY-XMP at Sandia National Laboratories in the USA and a CRAY-2 and various SUN workstations at the Winfrith Technology Centre in England. 60 refs.

  7. A systematic investigation of PET Radionuclide Specific Activity on Miniaturization of Radiochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeanne M Link, PhD

    2012-03-08

    The PET radionuclides, 18F and 11C consist of very high radiation to mass amounts and should be easily adapted to new technologies such as â??chip chemistryâ? with nanofluidics. However, environmental contamination with nonradioactive fluorine, carbon and other trace contaminants add sufficient mass, micrograms to milligrams, to prevent adapting PET radiochemistry to the nanochip technologies. In addition, the large volumes of material required for beam irradiation make it necessary to also remove the 18F and 11C from their chemical matrices. These steps add contaminants. The work described in this report was a systematic investigation of sources of these contaminants and methods to reduce these contaminants and the reaction volumes for radiochemical synthesis. Several methods were found to lower the contaminants and matrices to within a factor of 2 to 100 of those needed to fully implement chip technology but further improvements are needed.

  8. Interrelationship of Program Regulations and Financial Assistance Regulations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1980-04-24

    The purpose of this Order is to set forth the interrelationship between all program regulations which will result in assistance awards (Program Regulations) and the Department of Energy Assistance Regulations (DOE-AR, 10 CRF Part 600), including procedures for exceptions, deviations or waivers.

  9. Development of a new generation of waste form for entrapment and immobilization of highly volatile and soluble radionuclides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Murphy, Andrew Wilson; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Turnham, Rigney; Kruichak, Jessica Nicole; Tellez, Hernesto; Miller, Andy; Xiong, Yongliang; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Ockwig, Nathan W.; Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2010-09-01

    The United States is now re-assessing its nuclear waste disposal policy and re-evaluating the option of moving away from the current once-through open fuel cycle to a closed fuel cycle. In a closed fuel cycle, used fuels will be reprocessed and useful components such as uranium or transuranics will be recovered for reuse. During this process, a variety of waste streams will be generated. Immobilizing these waste streams into appropriate waste forms for either interim storage or long-term disposal is technically challenging. Highly volatile or soluble radionuclides such as iodine ({sup 129}I) and technetium ({sup 99}Tc) are particularly problematic, because both have long half-lives and can exist as gaseous or anionic species that are highly soluble and poorly sorbed by natural materials. Under the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Laboratory-Directed Research & Development (LDRD), we have developed a suite of inorganic nanocomposite materials (SNL-NCP) that can effectively entrap various radionuclides, especially for {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc. In particular, these materials have high sorption capabilities for iodine gas. After the sorption of radionuclides, these materials can be directly converted into nanostructured waste forms. This new generation of waste forms incorporates radionuclides as nano-scale inclusions in a host matrix and thus effectively relaxes the constraint of crystal structure on waste loadings. Therefore, the new waste forms have an unprecedented flexibility to accommodate a wide range of radionuclides with high waste loadings and low leaching rates. Specifically, we have developed a general route for synthesizing nanoporous metal oxides from inexpensive inorganic precursors. More than 300 materials have been synthesized and characterized with x-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area measurements, and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The sorption capabilities of the synthesized materials have been quantified by using stable isotopes I and Re as analogs to {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc. The results have confirmed our original finding that nanoporous Al oxide and its derivatives have high I sorption capabilities due to the combined effects of surface chemistry and nanopore confinement. We have developed a suite of techniques for the fixation of radionuclides in metal oxide nanopores. The key to this fixation is to chemically convert a target radionuclide into a less volatile or soluble form. We have developed a technique to convert a radionuclide-loaded nanoporous material into a durable glass-ceramic waste form through calcination. We have shown that mixing a radionuclide-loaded getter material with a Na-silicate solution can effectively seal the nanopores in the material, thus enhancing radionuclide retention during waste form formation. Our leaching tests have demonstrated the existence of an optimal vitrification temperature for the enhancement of waste form durability. Our work also indicates that silver may not be needed for I immobilization and encapsulation.

  10. Survival of tumor and normal cells upon targeting with electron-emitting radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajon, Didier; Bolch, Wesley E.; Howell, Roger W.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown that the mean absorbed dose to a tissue element may not be a suitable quantity for correlating with the biological response of cells in that tissue element. Cell survival can depend strongly on the distribution of radioactivity at the cellular and multicellular levels. Furthermore, when cellular absorbed doses are examined, the cross-dose from neighbor cells can be less radiotoxic than the self-dose component. To better understand how the nonuniformity of activity among cells can affect the dose response, a computer model of a 3D tissue culture was previously constructed and showed that activity distribution among cells is significantly more relevant than the mean absorbed dose for low-energy-electron emitters. The present work greatly expands upon those findings. Methods: In the present study, we used this same computer model but restricted the number of labeled cells to a fraction of the whole cell population (50%, 10%, and 1%, respectively). The labeled cells were randomly distributed among the whole cell population. Results: While the activity distribution is an important factor in determining the tissue response for low-energy-electron emitters, the fraction of labeled cells has an even more pronounced effect on survival response. For all electron energies studied, reducing the percentage of cells labeled significantly increases the surviving fraction of the whole population. Conclusions: This study provides abundant information on killing tumor and normal cells under some conditions relevant to targeted radionuclide therapy of isolated tumor cells and micrometastases. The percentage of cells labeled, activity distribution among the labeled cells, and electron energy play key roles in determining their response. Most importantly, and not previously demonstrated, lognormal activity distributions can have a profound impact on the response of the tumor cells even when the radionuclide emits high-energy electrons.

  11. Radionuclide concentrations in fish collected from Jemez, Nambe, and San Ildefonso Tribal Lakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1995-02-01

    Radionuclide concentrations ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu,and total uranium) were determined in fish collected from Jemez, Nambe, and San Ildefonso tribal lakes. With the exception of {sup 137}Cs, all other radionuclides were not significantly different in (stocked) rainbow trout collected from Jemez and Nambe as compared with game fish collected from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado Reservoirs. Although {sup 137}Cs levels in trout from Jemez (3.2 {times} 10{sup -2} pCi per dry gram) and Nambe (7.5 {times} 10{sup -2} pCi per dry gram) were significantly higher than {sup 137}Cs concentrations in fish from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado, they were still well below the regional statistical (worldwide fallout) reference level (i.e., < 28 {times} 10{sup -2} pCi per dry gram). Game and nongame fish collected from San Ildefonso contained higher and significantly higher concentrations of uranium, respectively, as compared with fish collected from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado. The higher uranium concentrations in fish from San Ildefonso as compared with fish from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado were attributed to the higher natural soil uranium contents in the area as compared with the geology of the area upstream of San Ildefonso. The effective (radiation) dose equivalent (EDE) from consuming 46 lb of game fish from Jemez, Nambe, and San Ildefonso lakes, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.013 ({+-}0.002), 0.019 ({+-}0.012), and 0.017 ({+-}0.028) mrem/yr, respectively. Similarly, the EDE from consuming nongame fish from San Ildefonso was 0.0092 ({+-}0.0084) mrem/yr. The highest calculated dose, based on the mean + 2 standard deviation (95% confidence level), was 0.073 mrem/yr; this was <0.08% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public.

  12. GDB - Human Genome Database final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, C. Conover, Jr.

    2002-01-08

    This is the DOE final report for the GDB, Human Genome Database, project at the Johns Hopkins University.

  13. Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) Uranium Leasing...

  14. Disequilibrium study of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium series in cores and briny groundwaters from Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1988-05-01

    The concentrations of natural radionuclides of the /sup 238/U and /232/Th series are reported in several cores and in ten deep and five shallow briny groundwaters from various formations in the Palo Duro Basin. The formations include Granite Wash, Pennsylvanian Granite Wash, Wolfcamp Carbonate, Pennsylvanian Carbonate, Seven River, Queen Grayburg, San Andres, Yates and Salado. The natural radionuclide data in cores suggest that the radionuclides have not migrated or been leached for at least a period of about 1 million years. Relative to the U and Th concentrations in cores, the brines are depleted by a factor of 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 5/, indicating extremely low solubility of U and Th in brines. The natural radionuclide data in brines suggest that radium is not sorbed significantly and thus not retarded in nine deep brines. Radium is somewhat sorbed in one deep brine of Wolfcamp Carbonate and significantly sorbed in shallow brines. Relative to radium, the U, Th, Pb, Bi, and Po radionuclides are highly retarded by sorption. The retardation factors for /sup 228/Th range from 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 3/, whereas those for /sup 230/Th and /sup 234/U range from 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 5/, depending on the formation. The /sup 234/U//sup 238/U ratios in these brines are constant at about 1.5. The magnitude of the /sup 234/U//sup 230/Th ratio appears to reflect the degree of redox state of the aquifer's environment. The /sup 234/U//sup 230/Th ratio in nine deep brines is about unity, suggesting that U, like Th/sup +4/, is in the +4 state, which in turn suggests a reduced environment. 49 refs., 23 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. CCSTF - Final Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CCSTF - Final Report CCSTF - Final Report PDF icon Carbon Capture and Storage Task Force - Final Report More Documents & Publications Before the Subcommittee on Energy -- House Science, Space, and Technology Committee Before the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations

  16. Download the Final Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Download the Final Agenda Download the Final Agenda PDF icon SunShot Summit Agenda FINAL.pdf More Documents & Publications 2014 SunShot Summit Awardee Poster List Technology Forum Map and List of Awardees' Posters and Exhibits 2014 SunShot Initiative Concentrating Solar Power Subprogram Overview

  17. Self-regulating valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphreys, D.A.

    1982-07-20

    A variable, self-regulating valve having a hydraulic loss coefficient proportional to a positive exponential power of the flow rate. The device includes two objects in a flow channel and structure which assures that the distance between the two objects is an increasing function of the flow rate. The range of spacing between the objects is such that the hydraulic resistance of the valve is an increasing function of the distance between the two objects so that the desired hydraulic loss coefficient as a function of flow rate is obtained without variation in the flow area.

  18. Strategic Asia 2002 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Ellings; Aaron Friedberg; Michael Wills

    2002-09-01

    The Strategic Asia Program made considerable progress over the course of 2002--the program's first year with support from the Department of Energy--and completed all its tasks on schedule and within budget. Following a planning meeting in Washington in February 2002, a team of leading specialists wrote a series of original assessments regarding the impact of September 11 on the strategic environment in Asia, examining how perceptions and strategies of countries in the region changed following the terrorist attacks. The final products, Strategic Asia 2002-03: Asian Aftershocks and its accompanying executive summary, were published in September 2002. The program's research findings (some of which are summarized) were presented to policymakers in Washington and elsewhere throughout the year, and almost 2,000 copies of the book had been distributed by mid-2003.

  19. Fort Polk EEAP. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, R.D.; Scheuch, K.E.; Shishman, T.T.

    1986-07-17

    This Final Presentation provides a summary of the work done under Increments A, B, E, and G of the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) for Fort Polk Louisiana. The work was accomplished under Contract DACA63-80-C-0166 plus modifications with the Fort Worth District, Corps of Engineers. The vast majority of consumed energy at Fort Polk consists of electricity and natural gas. In FY75, Fort Polk used 48,399,000 kWh of electricity at a cost of $600,000. During that same period, 782,637 MCF of natural gas was purchased for $484,000. The total FY75 energy use was 1,368,327 MBtu.

  20. Regulators, Boards, Councils - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulators, Boards, Councils Hanford Advisory Board Hanford Natural Resource Trustee Council Environmental Protection Agency Washington State Department of Ecology Defense...