National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for regular grade retail

  1. Price of Motor Gasoline Through Retail Outlets

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    & Stocks by State (Dollars per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Data Series: Retail Price - Motor Gasoline Retail Price - Regular Gasoline Retail Price - Midgrade Gasoline Retail Price...

  2. Retail Prices for Regular Gasoline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    East Coast (PADD1) 2.097 2.126 2.215 2.217 2.216 2.248 1992-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 2.155 2.188 2.250 2.270 2.263 2.315 1993-2016 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 2.171 2.201 2.269 ...

  3. Retail Unbundling

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    This special report provides a brief summary of the status of retail unbundling programs (also known as "customer choice" programs) for residential natural gas customers in various states,

  4. Retail Prices for Regular Gasoline - Reformulated Areas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2.017 1.961 1994-2016 East Coast (PADD1) 1.997 1.975 1.906 1.880 1.850 1.806 1994-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 2.025 1.988 1.934 1.904 1.875 1.827 1994-2016 Central Atlantic (PADD...

  5. Retail Prices for Regular Gasoline - Conventional Areas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1.933 1.922 1990-2016 East Coast (PADD1) 2.075 2.060 2.033 2.029 2.013 2.000 1992-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 2.205 2.197 2.156 2.130 2.106 2.097 1993-2016 Central Atlantic (PADD...

  6. Retailer Energy Alliance Subcommittees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the Retailer Energy Alliances Subcommittees: Lighting and Electrical, Restaurant and Food Preparation, Refrigeration, HVAC, and Whole Building Systems.

  7. Retail Prices for Gasoline, All Grades

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 2.835 3.576 3.680 3.575 3.437 2.520 1993-2015 East Coast (PADD1) 2.824 3.587 3.695 3.599 3.470 2.483 1993-2015 New England (PADD 1A) ...

  8. Retail Prices for Gasoline, All Grades

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    240 2.265 2.342 2.325 2.345 2.403 1993-2016 East Coast (PADD1) 2.230 2.258 2.346 2.350 2.350 2.384 1993-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 2.253 2.284 2.345 2.366 2.359 2.407 1993-2016 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 2.303 2.331 2.399 2.408 2.413 2.447 1993-2016 Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) 2.170 2.195 2.307 2.302 2.301 2.331 1993-2016 Midwest (PADD 2) 2.139 2.181 2.269 2.202 2.263 2.365 1993-2016 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 2.013 2.019 2.099 2.094 2.093 2.171 1993-2016 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 2.165 2.204 2.257 2.302

  9. PADD 5 Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.299 2.325 2.325 2.368 2.376 2.432 1995-2016 All Grades - ... Regular 2.570 2.580 2.563 2.591 2.596 2.635 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 2.234 2.261 2.260 ...

  10. Texas Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 1.954 1.961 1.924 2.000 2.005 2.087 2000-2016 All Grades - ... Regular 1.870 1.885 1.845 1.915 1.915 1.984 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 1.862 1.873 1.836 ...

  11. New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.215 2.227 2.247 2.323 2.354 2.404 2000-2016 All Grades - ... Regular 2.102 2.125 2.142 2.221 2.257 2.317 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.110 2.123 2.139 ...

  12. Information for Retailers of Lighting Products | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Retailers of Lighting Products Information for Retailers of Lighting Products Information for Retailers of Lighting Products U.S. retailers who sell lighting products can use the...

  13. Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and EIA-782B, "Resellers'Retailers' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type 28 Energy Information Administration ...

  14. PADD 4 Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.029 2.049 2.086 2.165 2.204 2.257 1994-2016 Regular 1.947 1.969 2.001 2.078 2.116 2.167 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 1.947 1.969 2.001 2.078 2.116 ...

  15. Seattle Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.359 2.371 2.340 2.362 2.380 2.447 2003-2016 Regular 2.307 2.319 2.285 2.309 2.327 2.393 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.307 2.319 2.285 2.309 2.327 ...

  16. Miami Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.396 2.402 2.384 2.435 2.425 2.531 2003-2016 Regular 2.236 2.243 2.217 2.278 2.266 2.371 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.236 2.243 2.217 2.278 2.266 ...

  17. Minnesota Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.014 1.958 1.961 2.093 2.069 2.174 2000-2016 Regular 1.957 1.902 1.903 2.035 2.010 2.116 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 1.957 1.902 1.903 2.035 2.010 ...

  18. Ohio Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.013 2.080 2.137 2.178 2.258 2.402 2003-2016 Regular 1.912 1.979 2.035 2.076 2.156 2.300 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 1.912 1.979 2.035 2.076 2.156 ...

  19. Washington Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.309 2.330 2.320 2.362 2.384 2.453 2003-2016 Regular 2.243 2.266 2.254 2.297 2.317 2.387 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.243 2.266 2.254 2.297 2.317 ...

  20. Houston Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Reformulated Areas 1.639 1.664 1.863 1.913 1.976 1.971 2000-2016 Regular 1.507 1.537 1.736 1.787 1.848 1.842 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 1.507 1.537 1.736 1.787 1.848 ...

  1. Massachusetts Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Reformulated Areas 1.883 1.882 1.980 2.006 2.109 2.114 2003-2016 Regular 1.744 1.746 1.857 1.879 1.999 2.008 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 1.744 1.746 1.857 1.879 1.999 ...

  2. Dominion Retail Inc (Connecticut) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dominion Retail Inc (Connecticut) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dominion Retail Inc Place: Connecticut Phone Number: 1-888-216-3718 Website: www.dominionenergy.comen Outage...

  3. Retail Replacement Lamps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CALiPER Testing » Application Reports » Retail Replacement Lamps Retail Replacement Lamps Annual CALiPER testing of A19, G25, candelabra, night light, MR16/PAR16, PAR20, and PAR30 replacement lamps - purchased directly from store shelves - offers insights on performance trends from year to year. The report findings offer valuable insights for manufacturers and retailers alike. Retail Lamps Study 3 (48 pages, February 2014) Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality

  4. West Coast less California Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.299 2.325 2.325 2.368 2.376 2.432 2000-2016 All Grades - ... Regular 2.206 2.242 2.241 2.279 2.286 2.334 1998-2016 Conventional Areas 2.234 2.261 2.260 ...

  5. U.S. Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.079 2.095 2.085 2.155 2.182 2.271 1994-2016 All Grades - ... Regular 2.066 2.083 2.069 2.137 2.162 2.240 1990-2016 Conventional Areas 1.976 1.994 1.981 ...

  6. Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 1.963 1.962 1.931 2.009 2.019 2.109 1994-2016 All Grades - ... Regular 1.863 1.869 1.835 1.910 1.913 1.995 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 1.858 1.858 1.827 ...

  7. Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.142 2.142 2.129 2.172 2.199 2.314 1994-2016 All Grades - ... Regular 1.995 1.997 1.980 2.023 2.051 2.163 1993-2016 Conventional Areas 1.998 2.000 1.983 ...

  8. Midwest (PADD 2) Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.016 2.047 2.032 2.119 2.155 2.243 1994-2016 All Grades - ... Regular 1.957 1.988 1.965 2.057 2.097 2.183 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 1.938 1.968 1.952 ...

  9. Los Angeles Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    55 2.876 2.886 2.928 2.874 2.876 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.855 2.876 2.886 2.928 2.874 2.876 2000-2016 Regular 2.807 2.826 2.837 2.879 2.819 2.825 2000-2016 ...

  10. San Francisco Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    452 2.505 2.645 2.721 2.847 2.856 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.452 2.505 2.645 2.721 2.847 2.856 2000-2016 Regular 2.396 2.451 2.591 2.670 2.793 2.800 2000-2016 ...

  11. Category:StandAloneRetail | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    IN Duke Energy Indiana Inc.png SVStandAloneRetail Ind... 66 KB SVStandAloneRetail Jackson MS Entergy Mississippi Inc.png SVStandAloneRetail Jac... 63 KB SVStandAloneRetail...

  12. Dominion Retail Inc (Maine) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dominion Retail Inc (Maine) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dominion Retail Inc Place: Maine Phone Number: 1-866-366-4357 Website: www.dom.com Outage Hotline: 1-866-366-4357...

  13. Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the second half of 2014, the national average retail price per gallon of gasoline (all grades) fell from a high of $3.77 in June to a low of $2.63 in December – a difference of $1.14 per gallon....

  14. The calm before the storm. [Retail wheeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studness, C.M.

    1993-05-15

    The right to refuse retail wheeling requests is one of the cornerstones of a utility's monopoly power. Utilities have fought staunchly to preserve it, most recently in preventing retail wheeling from becoming an important issue in the congressional debate over deregulation; the Energy Policy Act of 1992 steered clear of it. For the present, the prohibition of retail wheeling gives utilities enormous power over the retail electric power market. The ability to refuse retail wheeling requests, of course, prevents retail customers from buying power from third parties. This enables a utility to sell retail customers all the power it can generate, at a price that covers its cost plus an allowed return-even if its price exceeds that of power available in the wholesale market. The denial of retail wheeling thus protects a utility's inefficiencies, whose price is ultimately shouldered onto customers through cost-plus electric rates. Allowing retail wheeling would remove the foundation for much of the current monopoly power that utilities enjoy. Third parties could sell power to a utility's retail customers, since the utility would be required to wheel it. Retail customers would be able to bypass the local distribution utility to buy power from the cheapest source available. Market forces would drive pricing rather than the cost-plus ratemaking process. A utility whose electric rates were above market would have to meet the competitive price or lose sales.

  15. Refiner Prices of Gasoline, All Grades - Through Retail Outlets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 1.892 2.306 3.058 3.168 3.068 2.876 1978-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 1.871 2.291 3.054 3.172 3.058 2.716 1983-2014 New England (PADD...

  16. Dominion Retail Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Buying Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  17. ,"Motor Gasoline Sales Through Retail Outlets Prices "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Motor Gasoline Sales Through Retail Outlets Prices ",60,"Annual",2014,"6301984" ,"Release...

  18. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Retailer Business Model Conclusion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Retailer Business Model Conclusion, Summary of Retailer Insights.

  19. U.S. Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.071 2.216 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.188 2.052 1.949 1.788 1.996 ... Regular 2.158 2.038 1.949 1.764 1.969 2.113 1990-2016 Conventional Areas 2.088 1.946 1.843 ...

  20. U.S. Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.437 2.520 1993-2015 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.793 3.528 3.610 3.511 3.376 ... Regular 2.782 3.521 3.618 3.505 3.358 2.429 1990-2015 Conventional Areas 2.742 3.476 3.552 ...

  1. New York City Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Reformulated Areas 1.859 1.872 1.965 1.996 2.090 2.119 2000-2016 Regular 1.721 1.732 1.833 1.864 1.957 1.991 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 1.721 1.732 1.833 1.864 1.957 ...

  2. Information for Retailers of Lighting Products | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retailers of Lighting Products Information for Retailers of Lighting Products Information for Retailers of Lighting Products U.S. retailers who sell lighting products can use the information below to help their customers better understand energy-efficient lighting choices. New information will be added as it becomes available. U.S. retailers are welcome to use parts of these materials in their retail displays. In those cases, please do so without the Department of Energy's name, since we will

  3. Innovation for Food Retail: The 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovation for Food Retail: The 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores Innovation for Food Retail: The 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores Find the ...

  4. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Delaware) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Delaware) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: Delaware References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final...

  5. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Connecticut) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Connecticut) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: Connecticut Phone Number: 212-997-8500...

  6. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (District of Columbia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (District of Columbia) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: District of Columbia References:...

  7. Prices of Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product/ Sales Type: Gasoline, All Grades - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Through Retail Outlets Gasoline, All Grades - Other End Users Gasoline, All Grades - Sales for Resale Gasoline, All Grades - DTW (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Rack (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Bulk (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Through Retail Outlets Regular Gasoline - Other End Users Regular Gasoline - Sales for Resale Regular Gasoline -

  8. Texas Retail Energy, LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 50046 Utility Location Yes Ownership R ISO Ercot Yes ISO NY Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help...

  9. CPL Retail Energy, LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 13151 Utility Location Yes Ownership R NERC ERCOT Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a...

  10. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  11. Property:Building/FloorAreaOtherRetail | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Property:BuildingFloorAreaOtherRetail Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Floor area for Other retail Pages using the...

  12. Texas Retail Energy, LLC (Texas) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Texas Retail Energy, LLC (Texas) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Texas Retail Energy, LLC Address: 2001 SE 10th St Place: Bentonville, AR Zip: 72712 Phone Number: (479) 204-0845...

  13. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Maine) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Maine) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: Maine Phone Number: 1-800-437-7645 Website:...

  14. Retail wheeling: Is this revolution necessary?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cudahy, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    As of a former state regulator and a once enthusiastic practitioner of public utility law, I find it fascinating to see the latest nostrum to burst on the electric utility scene: retail wheeling. Wheeling became a personal interest in the Texas interconnection fight of the late seventies and may have led to the interconnection and wheeling provision of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). Retail wheeling contemplates that every electric power customer should be given an opportunity to seek out the lowest cost source of power wherever it can be found. As a practical matter, the drums for retail wheeling are presently being beaten by large industrial users, who believe that they have the capability to find low cost sources and to make advantageous commercial arrangements to acquire electricity. Large industrials have long been fighting the utilities for cheaper electricity, frequently using the threat of self-generation and cogeneration.

  15. Boston Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    205 2.247 2.305 2.335 2.319 2.364 2003-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.205 2.247 2.305 2.335 2.319 2.364 2003-2016 Regular 2.104 2.148 2.211 2.239 2.222 2.272 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.104 2.148 2.211 2.239 2.222 2.272 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.336 2.362 2.411 2.444 2.422 2.462 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.336 2.362 2.411 2.444 2.422 2.462 2003-2016 Premium 2.529 2.567 2.615 2.651 2.643 2.669 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.529 2.567 2.615 2.651 2.643 2.669

  16. California Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    825 2.830 2.864 2.842 2.844 2.860 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.825 2.830 2.864 2.842 2.844 2.860 1995-2016 Regular 2.771 2.775 2.809 2.786 2.789 2.804 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.771 2.775 2.809 2.786 2.789 2.804 1995-2016 Midgrade 2.895 2.901 2.935 2.917 2.915 2.930 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.895 2.901 2.935 2.917 2.915 2.930 1995-2016 Premium 3.013 3.018 3.052 3.034 3.034 3.052 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 3.013 3.018 3.052 3.034 3.034 3.052 1995-2016 Diesel (On-Highway)

  17. Chicago Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    368 2.495 2.558 2.454 2.542 2.617 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.368 2.495 2.558 2.454 2.542 2.617 2000-2016 Regular 2.249 2.376 2.439 2.333 2.421 2.499 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.249 2.376 2.439 2.333 2.421 2.499 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.556 2.688 2.750 2.648 2.738 2.807 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.556 2.688 2.750 2.648 2.738 2.807 2000-2016 Premium 2.896 3.016 3.080 2.983 3.077 3.137 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.896 3.016 3.080 2.983 3.077 3.137 2000

  18. Cleveland Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    223 2.300 2.428 2.293 2.363 2.478 2003-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.223 2.300 2.428 2.293 2.363 2.478 2003-2016 Regular 2.102 2.181 2.313 2.178 2.247 2.364 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.102 2.181 2.313 2.178 2.247 2.364 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.379 2.452 2.577 2.449 2.515 2.617 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.379 2.452 2.577 2.449 2.515 2.617 2003-2016 Premium 2.667 2.733 2.847 2.707 2.784 2.898 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.667 2.733 2.847 2.707 2.784 2.898 2003

  19. Colorado Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 2.166 2.199 2.230 2.234 2.319 2000-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.152 2.166 2.199 2.230 2.234 2.319 2000-2016 Regular 2.050 2.065 2.098 2.129 2.133 2.217 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.050 2.065 2.098 2.129 2.133 2.217 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.308 2.321 2.354 2.386 2.392 2.476 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.308 2.321 2.354 2.386 2.392 2.476 2000-2016 Premium 2.557 2.569 2.601 2.635 2.637 2.726 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.557 2.569 2.601 2.635 2.637 2.726 2000

  20. Denver Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    158 2.166 2.198 2.229 2.230 2.313 2000-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.158 2.166 2.198 2.229 2.230 2.313 2000-2016 Regular 2.046 2.056 2.089 2.119 2.119 2.203 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.046 2.056 2.089 2.119 2.119 2.203 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.335 2.335 2.367 2.399 2.401 2.483 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.335 2.335 2.367 2.399 2.401 2.483 2000-2016 Premium 2.591 2.592 2.620 2.658 2.660 2.738 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.591 2.592 2.620 2.658 2.660 2.738 2000

  1. Florida Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    153 2.162 2.327 2.308 2.288 2.306 2003-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.153 2.162 2.327 2.308 2.288 2.306 2003-2016 Regular 2.018 2.027 2.195 2.170 2.148 2.164 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.018 2.027 2.195 2.170 2.148 2.164 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.271 2.277 2.441 2.431 2.411 2.426 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.271 2.277 2.441 2.431 2.411 2.426 2003-2016 Premium 2.507 2.517 2.676 2.667 2.654 2.680 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.507 2.517 2.676 2.667 2.654 2.680

  2. Table 9. Retail electricity sales statistics, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4560,1201929.7,"NA","NA","NA",7923662.4 "Percentage of revenue",62.5,18.74,3.59,15.17,"NA","NA","NA",100 "Average retail price (centskWh)",9.02,9.15,4.92,11.02,"NA","NA","NA",9.02...

  3. Table 9. Retail electricity sales statistics, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3,"NA",1063623.3,"NA","NA","NA",3703710.6 "Percentage of revenue",58.49,12.8,"NA",28.72,"NA","NA","NA",100 "Average retail price (centskWh)",7.81,7.9,"NA",8.22,"NA","NA","NA",7.93...

  4. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other uses, such as in enclosed luminaires, may require more development. At the same price point, lamps purchased in 2013 tended to have higher output and slightly higher efficacy than in 2011 or 2010. Over 30% of the products purchased in 2013 exceeded the maximum efficacy measured in 2011 (71 lm/W), with the most efficacious product measured at 105 lm/W. There appears to be increasing consistency in color quality, with a vast majority of products having a CCT of 2700 K or 3000 K and a CRI between 80 and 85. There were also fewer poor performing products tested and more high-performing products available in 2013 than in previous years. The accuracy of equivalency and performance claims was better than in 2011, but remains a concern, with 43% of tested products failing to completely meet their equivalency claim and 20% of products failing to match the manufacturer’s performance data. Although progress has been substantial, on average LED lamps remain more expensive than other energy efficiency lighting technologies -- although some aspects can be superior. Although not universal to all product lines or all product types, the issue of insufficient lumen output from LED lamps is waning. Thus, manufacturers can focus on other issues, such as reducing cost, improving electrical/dimmer compatibility, eliminating flicker, or improving color quality. While these issues are not inherent to all products, they remain a concern for the broader market.

  5. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LBNL-1470E Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool Ranjit Bharvirkar, Grayson Heffner and Charles Goldman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Environmental Energy Technologies Division January 2009 The work described in this report was funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Permitting, Siting and Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Disclaimer This document was

  6. Financial Management for Retail Energy Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Financial Management for Retail Energy Efficiency Financial Management for Retail Energy Efficiency Lead Performer: Retail Industry Leaders Association (RILA) - Arlington, VA Partners: -- Deloitte - New York, NY -- Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) - Boston, MA -- Institute for Market Transformation (IMT) - Washington, D.C. -- Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Boston, MA DOE Total Funding: $750,000 Cost Share: $750,000 Project Term: April 1, 2015 - June 30, 2018 Funding Opportunity:

  7. Retail Electric Competition: A Blueprint for Consumer Protection |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Retail Electric Competition: A Blueprint for Consumer Protection Retail Electric Competition: A Blueprint for Consumer Protection This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Regional Support Office (Purchase Order DE-AP45-97R553188). Funding was provided by the Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies, Ofiice of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. PDF icon Retail Electric Competition: A Blueprint for Consumer Protection More

  8. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating

  9. Retail Building Guide for Entrance Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, J.; Kung, F.

    2012-03-01

    This booklet is based on the findings of an infiltration analysis for supermarkets and large retail buildings without refrigerated cases. It enables retail building managers and engineers to calculate the energy savings potential for vestibule additions for supermarkets; and bay door operation changes in large retail stores without refrigerated cases. Retail managers can use initial estimates to decide whether to engage vendors or contractors of vestibules for pricing or site-specific analyses, or to decide whether to test bay door operation changes in pilot stores, respectively.

  10. Reliant Energy Retail Services, LLC Smart Grid Project | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deploys new services and market offerings for retail customers in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) region. Reliant is deploying in-home energy displays,...

  11. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Pennsylvania) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pennsylvania) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: Pennsylvania References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File220101...

  12. Regular, Postdoc and Student Hires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regular, Postdocs, Students Regular, Postdoc and Student Hires Employees and retirees are the building blocks of the Lab's success. Our employees get to contribute to the most pressing issues facing the nation. Contact Us (505) 667-4451, Option 5 Email The New Hire process, including the official pre-arrival period, does not begin until you receive and accept your written offer letter. Pre-Arrival New Hire Process Benefit Options For your convenience, download the New Employee App from iTunes

  13. U.S. Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Gasoline, All Grades Sales to End Users (Average) 2.301 3.050 3.154 3.049 2.855 2.003 1978-2015 Through Retail Outlets 2.306 3.058 3.168 ...

  14. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energys Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  15. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  16. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  17. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arkansas" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  18. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alaska" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  19. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  20. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  1. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Idaho" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  2. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kentucky" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  3. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hampshire" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  4. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jersey" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  5. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    York" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  6. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  7. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  8. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  9. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  10. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  11. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  12. The great ``retail wheeling`` illusion, and more productive energy futures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavanagh, R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper sets out the reasons why many environmental and public interest organizations oppose retail wheeling. Cavanagh argues that retail wheeling would destroy incentives for energy efficiency improvements and renewable energy generation--benefits that reduce long-term energy service costs to society as a whole. The current debate over the competitive restructuring of the electric power industry is critical from both economic and environmental perspectives. All attempts to introduce broad-scale retail wheeling in the United States have failed; instead, state regulators are choosing a path that emphasizes competition and choice, but acknowledges fundamental differences between wholesale and retail markets. Given the physical laws governing the movement of power over centrally controlled grids, the choice offered to customers through retail wheeling of electricity is a fiction -- a re-allocation of costs is all that is really possible. Everyone wants to be able to claim the cheapest electricity on the system; unfortunately, there is not enough to go around. By endorsing the fiction of retail wheeling for certain types of customers, regulators would be recasting the retail electricity business as a kind of commodity exchange. That would reward suppliers who could minimize near-term unit costs of electricity while simultaneously destroying incentives for many investments, including cost-effective energy efficiency improvements and renewable energy generation, that reduce long-term energy service costs to society as a whole. This result, which has been analogized unpersuasively to trends in telecommunications and natural gas regulation, is neither desirable nor inevitable. States should go on saying no to retail wheeling in order to be able to create something better: regulatory reforms that align utility and societal interests in pursuing a least-cost energy future. An appendix contains notes on some recent Retail Wheeling Campaigns.

  13. Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    303 2.331 2.399 2.408 2.413 2.447 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.375 2.414 2.474 2.483 2.491 2.519 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.258 2.280 2.353 2.363 2.364 2.403 1994-2016 Regular 2.171 2.201 2.269 2.280 2.282 2.316 1993-2016 Conventional Areas 2.257 2.301 2.353 2.362 2.371 2.402 1993-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.116 2.138 2.216 2.228 2.226 2.262 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.439 2.465 2.532 2.538 2.543 2.584 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.483 2.518 2.584 2.591 2.603 2.633

  14. East Coast (PADD 1) Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    30 2.258 2.346 2.350 2.350 2.384 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.223 2.253 2.353 2.348 2.351 2.379 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.241 2.266 2.336 2.352 2.350 2.394 1994-2016 Regular 2.097 2.126 2.215 2.217 2.216 2.248 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 2.088 2.120 2.218 2.212 2.213 2.238 1992-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.110 2.135 2.209 2.226 2.221 2.265 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.353 2.378 2.469 2.471 2.473 2.510 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.334 2.359 2.464 2.460 2.464 2.498

  15. Net-Zero Energy Retail Store Debuts in Illinois

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Walgreens on November 21 opened a net-zero energy retail store in Evanston, Illinois that it anticipates will generate at least as much energy as it consumes over the course of a year.

  16. DOE Publishes New CALiPER Report on Retail Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released a special report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. While previous reports in...

  17. DOE Publishes Special CALiPER Report on Retail Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released a special report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. The report follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012.

  18. Mercantile (Retail Other Than Mall) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Other Than Mall) Definition Buildings used for the sale and display of goods other than food. Sub Categories retail store; beer, wine, or liquor store; rental center; dealership or...

  19. NextEra Retail of Texas LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 56620 Utility Location Yes Ownership R NERC ERCOT Yes ISO Ercot Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This...

  20. Duke Energy Retail Sales, LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 56502 Utility Location Yes Ownership R Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can...

  1. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Maryland) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maryland) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: Maryland References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File220101 EIA Form...

  2. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Massachusetts) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: Massachusetts Phone Number: 212-997-8500 Website: www.hess.com Twitter: @HessCorporation Facebook: https:www.facebook.com...

  3. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Rhode Island) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rhode Island) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: Rhode Island References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File220101...

  4. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (New Hampshire) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: New Hampshire Phone Number: 1-800-437-7645 Website: www.hess.com Twitter: @HessCorporation Facebook: https:www.facebook.com...

  5. DOE Publishes Long-Term Testing Investigation of Retail Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released another special report on LED lamps that are available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. CALiPER...

  6. Retail Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Business Case for E85 Fuel Retailers

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Business Case for E85 Fuel Retailers to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Business Case for E85 Fuel Retailers on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Business Case for E85 Fuel Retailers on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Business Case for E85 Fuel Retailers on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Business Case for E85 Fuel Retailers on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Business Case for E85 Fuel Retailers on Digg Find

  8. An Investigation into Variational Nonlocal Regularization in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Regularization in Finite Deformational Elasticity. Authors: Foulk, James W., III ; Mota, Alejandro ; Ostien, Jakob ; O'Connor, Devin Publication Date: 2012-10-01 OSTI...

  9. Replaces DOE F 3530.1 5. HOW LONG IN PRESENT POSITION GRADE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (07-95) Replaces DOE F 3530.1 5. HOW LONG IN PRESENT POSITION GRADE 6. DATE NEXT REGULAR STEP INCREASE IS DUE: 7. LIST ANY AWARDS OR QUALITY INCREASES RECEIVED IN LAST 5 YEARS...

  10. The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose slightly to 3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's ...

  11. Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality ...

  12. Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A ...

  13. Energy options: Cogen V and retail wheeling alternatives technical conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The Energy Options technical conference proceedings contains 265 papers, of which 17 were selected for the database. The conference was split into two primary topics: cogeneration and retail wheeling. Subtopics under cogeneration included: the state of cogeneration in the United States, case studies in facility ownership, fuels considerations for tomorrow, and plant design considerations for cogeneration systems. Retail wheeling alternatives subtopics included U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission rulings, end-user options for retail wheeling, deregulation issues, and forecasting of electricity generating costs. Papers not selected for the database, while clearly pertinent topics of interest, consisted of viewgraphs which were judged not to have sufficient technical information and coherence without the corresponding presentation. However, some papers which did consist of viewgraphs were included.

  14. Transport Code for Regular Triangular Geometry

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-06-09

    DIAMANT2 solves the two-dimensional static multigroup neutron transport equation in planar regular triangular geometry. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous problems subject to vacuum, reflective or input specified boundary flux conditions are solved. Anisotropy is allowed for the scattering source. Volume and surface sources are allowed for inhomogeneous problems.

  15. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Contractor/Retailer Business Models

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Business models information focused on remodelers, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) contractors, home performance contractors, or retailers.

  16. Mountain Retail Stores Become Showcase for Solar Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mountain Retail Stores Become Showcase for Solar Energy Local Officials, Business Leaders to Gather for Groundbreaking Ceremony For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., June 7, 1999 — A retail development owner who wants to set an example is helping make possible a new showcase for energy efficient buildings in the Colorado high country. Ground will be broken June 9 on the BigHorn Home Improvement Center in Silverthorne, which will boast a series of "firsts"

  17. CALiPER Exploratory Study Retail Replacement Lamps – 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-02

    In 2010, CALiPER conducted a study on LED replacement lamps found in retail stores. The results were less than satisfactory, and many products were classified as being unlikely to meet consumer expectations. In November 2011, CALiPER purchased a new sample of products for a follow-up study, with the intent of characterizing the progress of this essential market segment.

  18. Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008 – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008

  19. Benefits Summary - Term Appointments in Regular Job Class | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Term Appointments in Regular Job Class Download a brochure on benefits offered to term appointments in the regular job class (over 6 months). 2015 Long Term Appts. in Regular...

  20. REPORT TO CONGRESS ON COMPETITION IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL MARKETS

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    REPORT TO CONGRESS ON COMPETITION IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL MARKETS FOR ELECTRIC ENERGY Pursuant to Section 1815 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 The Electric Energy Market Competition Task Force The Electric Energy Market Competition Task Force Members: J. Bruce McDonald, Department of Justice Michael Bardee, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission John H. Seesel, Federal Trade Commission David Meyer, Department of Energy Karen Larsen, Department of Agriculture Report Contributors: Robin Allen -

  1. FGD markets & business in an age of retail wheeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.C.; Dalton, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses (1) the market and technology outlook for flue gas desulfurization ({open_quotes}FGD{close_quotes}) systems, with particular emphasis on wet systems in North America and the implications of retail wheeling of electricity and emission allowances for the utility industry, and (2) implications for the utility industry of architect/engineering ({open_quotes}A/E{close_quotes}) firm tendencies to reduce greatly the FGD vendor`s scope of award. The paper concludes that (1) the FGD market will be modest domestically and robust offshore over the forecast period (5-10 years), although the utility industry`s response to federal and state air toxics rules and retail wheeling may eventually grow the FGD market domestically beyond that created by compliance with Phase II of the Clean Air Act`s Title IV acid rain program alone, (2) new designs are likely to follow trends established in the past few years, but will likely include advanced processes that use higher velocity and smaller space, and possibly multi-pollutant control to remain competitive, and (3) shrinking of the FGD vendor`s scope may have adverse implications for the utility end-user, while retail wheeling may increase third-party ownership of FGD technology

  2. Consumer Light Bulb Changes: Briefing and Resources for Media and Retailers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Consumer Light Bulb Changes: Briefing and Resources for Media and Retailers Consumer Light Bulb Changes: Briefing and Resources for Media and Retailers This presentation provides helpful background information on the new legislation and the types of energy-efficient lighting available today. PDF icon Consumer Light Bulb Changes: Briefing and Resources for Media and Retailers More Documents & Publications Interior Lighting Efficiency for Municipalities Lighting Tip

  3. Commercial Grade Dedication Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Guide provides an acceptable process (Commercial Grade Dedication [CGD]) for EM facilities and projects to dedicate an itemor service that performs a nuclear safety function that was not...

  4. Commercial Grade Dedication RM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this Standard Review Plan (SRP) on Commercial Grade Dedication (CGD) is to provide guidance for a uniform review of the CGD activities for office of Environmental Management...

  5. Grades K-4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Build a Tower Grades K-4 Learning objective: Students will develop teamwork skills as they work together to design and construct a tower, problem-solving along the way. These are...

  6. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Reliant Energy Retail Services","Investor-owned",38670...

  7. Regular and chaotic behavior of multimode lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunner, W.; Fischer, R.; Paul, H.

    1985-01-01

    Results of recent numerical studies of the output characteristics of standing-wave lasers in cases of (1) large inhomogeneous line broadening dominating homogeneous line broadening and (2) purely homogeneous line broadening are presented. In dependence on such relevant parameters as homogeneous linewidth in relation to the mode spacing, inhomogeneous linewidth, and the lifetimes of the atomic levels, we found both regular and chaotic output characteristics in case (1), whereas in case (2) the behavior generally proved to be regular. This means that the laser system approaches a steady state characterized by constant amplitudes in the oscillating modes and phase locking. Besides the familiar types of amplitude-modulation and frequency-modulation phase locking, more-complex locking phenomena were also found to occur.

  8. A regular version of Smilansky model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barseghyan, Diana; Exner, Pavel; Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, 25068 ?e near Prague

    2014-04-15

    We discuss a modification of Smilansky model in which a singular potential channel is replaced by a regular, below unbounded potential which shrinks as it becomes deeper. We demonstrate that, similarly to the original model, such a system exhibits a spectral transition with respect to the coupling constant, and determine the critical value above which a new spectral branch opens. The result is generalized to situations with multiple potential channels..

  9. New England (PADD 1A) Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    53 2.284 2.345 2.366 2.359 2.407 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.300 2.318 2.375 2.389 2.384 2.427 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.241 2.276 2.337 2.360 ...

  10. Multichannel image regularization using anisotropic geodesic filtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grazzini, Jacopo A

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends a recent image-dependent regularization approach introduced in aiming at edge-preserving smoothing. For that purpose, geodesic distances equipped with a Riemannian metric need to be estimated in local neighbourhoods. By deriving an appropriate metric from the gradient structure tensor, the associated geodesic paths are constrained to follow salient features in images. Following, we design a generalized anisotropic geodesic filter; incorporating not only a measure of the edge strength, like in the original method, but also further directional information about the image structures. The proposed filter is particularly efficient at smoothing heterogeneous areas while preserving relevant structures in multichannel images.

  11. Engine performance comparison associated with carburetor icing during aviation grade fuel and automotive grade fuel operation. Final report Jan-Jul 82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavage, W.; Newcomb, J.; Biehl, K.

    1983-05-01

    A comprehensive sea-level-static test cell data collection and evaluation effort to review operational characteristics of 'off-the-shelf' carburetor ice detection/warning devices for general aviation piston engine aircraft during operation on aviation grade fuel and automotive grade fuel. Presented herein are results, observations and conclusions drawn from over 250 hours of test cell engine operation on 100LL aviation grade fuel, unleaded premium and unleaded regular grade automotive fuel. Sea-level-static test cell engine operations were conducted utilizing a Teledyne Continental Motors 0-200A engine and a Cessna 150 fuel system to review engine operational characteristics of 100LL aviation grade fuel and various blends of automotive grade fuel as well as carburetor ice detectors/warning devices sensitivity/effectiveness during actual carburetor icing. The primary purpose of test cell engine operation was to observe real-time carburetor icing characteristics associated with possible automotive grade fuel utilization by piston-powered light general aviation aircraft. In fulfillment of this task, baseline engine operations were established with 100LL aviation grade fuel followed by various blend of automotive grade fuel prior to imposing carburetor icing conditions and assessing operational characteristics.

  12. Chiral anomalies and zeta-function regularization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, M.

    1985-03-15

    The zeta-function method for regularizing determinants is used to calculate the chiral anomalies of several field-theory models. In SU(N) gauge theories without ..gamma../sub 5/ couplings, the results of perturbation theory are obtained in an unambiguous manner for the full gauge theory as well as for the corresponding external-field problem. If axial-vector couplings are present, different anomalies occur for the two cases. The result for the full gauge theory is again uniquely determined; for its nongauge analog, however, ambiguities can arise. The connection between the basic path integral and the operator used to construct the heat kernel is investigated and the significance of its Hermiticity and gauge covariance are analyzed. The implications of the Wess-Zumino conditions are considered.

  13. Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2008-07-15

    Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to be less difficult than one could think of it.

  14. Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Characteristics of LED A Lamps | Department of Energy Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps PDF icon caliper_retail-study_3-1.pdf More Documents & Publications Report 22.1: Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps Report 20.3: Stress Testing of LED PAR38 Lamps DOE Booth Presentations from LIGHTFAIR International 2015

  15. Regularization scheme independence and unitarity in QCD cross sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catani, S.; Seymour, M.H.; Trocsanyi, Z.

    1997-06-01

    When calculating next-to-leading order QCD cross sections, divergences in intermediate steps of the calculation must be regularized. The final result is independent of the regularization scheme used, provided that it is unitary. In this paper we explore the relationship between regularization scheme independence and unitarity. We show how the regularization scheme dependence can be isolated in simple universal components, and how unitarity can be guaranteed for any regularization prescription that can consistently be introduced in one-loop amplitudes. Finally, we show how to derive transition rules between different schemes without having to do any loop calculations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions December 2014 Prepared for: Solid-State Lighting Program Building ...

  17. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (New York) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: New York References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File220101 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 22509 This article is a...

  18. Wave dynamics of regular and chaotic rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, S.W.

    1983-09-01

    In order to investigate general relationships between waves and rays in chaotic systems, I study the eigenfunctions and spectrum of a simple model, the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation in a stadium boundary, for which the rays are ergodic. Statistical measurements are performed so that the apparent randomness of the stadium modes can be quantitatively contrasted with the familiar regularities observed for the modes in a circular boundary (with integrable rays). The local spatial autocorrelation of the eigenfunctions is constructed in order to indirectly test theoretical predictions for the nature of the Wigner distribution corresponding to chaotic waves. A portion of the large-eigenvalue spectrum is computed and reported in an appendix; the probability distribution of successive level spacings is analyzed and compared with theoretical predictions. The two principal conclusions are: 1) waves associated with chaotic rays may exhibit randomly situated localized regions of high intensity; 2) the Wigner function for these waves may depart significantly from being uniformly distributed over the surface of constant frequency in the ray phase space.

  19. DOE Awards $15 Million in Technical Assistance to Support Major Retailers,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Financial Institutions and Real Estate Firms to Adopt Energy-Efficient Technologies | Department of Energy 5 Million in Technical Assistance to Support Major Retailers, Financial Institutions and Real Estate Firms to Adopt Energy-Efficient Technologies DOE Awards $15 Million in Technical Assistance to Support Major Retailers, Financial Institutions and Real Estate Firms to Adopt Energy-Efficient Technologies September 26, 2008 - 3:43pm Addthis Awards Encourage Adoption of Energy-Saving

  20. REPORT TO CONGRESS ON COMPETITION IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL MARKETS FOR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ELECTRIC ENERGY | Department of Energy REPORT TO CONGRESS ON COMPETITION IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL MARKETS FOR ELECTRIC ENERGY REPORT TO CONGRESS ON COMPETITION IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL MARKETS FOR ELECTRIC ENERGY The enclosed report is submitted to Congress pursuant to section 1815 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Section 1815 of the Act established a five-member Electric Energy Market Competition Task Force. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005)1 was designed to provide a comprehensive

  1. Effect of increases in energy-related labor forces upon retailing in Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robicheaux, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    The heightened mining employment that will result from increased extraction of coal from Alabama's Warrior Coal Basin will boost retail sales and employment. The Warrior Coal Basin counties (Fayette, Jefferson, Tuscaloosa and Walker) are heavily dependent upon coal mining as a source of employment and wages. Further, since the counties' economies grew increasingly dependent upon coal mining activities throughout the 1970s, it was believed that it would be possible to measure, with some acceptable level of reliability, the impact of the steadily rising mining activity upon the area's retailing sector. Therefore, a small scale econometric model was developed which represents the interrelationships among income, mining and trade employment and retail sales in the four-county Warrior Coal Basin area. The results of two versions of the model are presented. In the first version, area-wide retail sales are treated in the aggregate. In the second version, retail sales are disaggregated into twelve categories (e.g., food, apparel, furniture, etc.). The models were specified using 1960 to 1976 data. The mining employment growth scenario used in this report called for steady increases in mining employment that culminated in an employment level that is 4000 above the baseline employment projections by 1985. Both versions of the model predicted that cumulative real regional income would increase by $1.39 billion over seven years with the added mining employment. The predicted impacts on trade employment and real retail sales varied between the two models, however. The aggregate model predicts the addition of 7500 trade workers and an additional $1.35 billion in real retail sales. The disaggregate model suggests that food stores, automobile dealers, general merchandise stores, gas stations and lumber and building materials retailers would enjoy the greatest positive benefits.

  2. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3 Table 5.24 Retail Motor Gasoline and On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Gallon) Year Motor Gasoline by Grade Regular Motor Gasoline by Area ...

  3. U.S. drivers continue to see low gasoline prices in December

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the retail price for regular-grade gasoline averages 1.90 per gallon in February. That's the lowest ...

  4. Summer gasoline price forecast slightly higher, but drivers still...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the retail price for regular grade gasoline will average 2.21 per gallon this summer. While that's 17 ...

  5. Impact of residential PV adoption on Retail Electricity Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, DWH; Adlakha, S; Low, SH; De Martini, P; Chandy, KM

    2013-11-01

    The price of electricity supplied from home rooftop photo voltaic (PV) solar cells has fallen below the retail price of grid electricity in some areas. A number of residential households have an economic incentive to install rooftop PV systems and reduce their purchases of electricity from the grid. A significant portion of the costs incurred by utility companies are fixed costs which must be recovered even as consumption falls. Electricity rates must increase in order for utility companies to recover fixed costs from shrinking sales bases. Increasing rates will, in turn, result in even more economic incentives for customers to adopt rooftop PV. In this paper, we model this feedback between PV adoption and electricity rates and study its impact on future PV penetration and net-metering costs. We find that the most important parameter that determines whether this feedback has an effect is the fraction of customers who adopt PV in any year based solely on the money saved by doing so in that year, independent of the uncertainties of future years. These uncertainties include possible changes in rate structures such as the introduction of connection charges, the possibility of PV prices dropping significantly in the future, possible changes in tax incentives, and confidence in the reliability and maintainability of PV. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy and IAQ Implications of Alternative Minimum Ventilation Rates in California Retail and School Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutton, Spencer M.; Fisk, William J.

    2015-01-01

    For a stand-alone retail building, a primary school, and a secondary school in each of the 16 California climate zones, the EnergyPlus building energy simulation model was used to estimate how minimum mechanical ventilation rates (VRs) affect energy use and indoor air concentrations of an indoor-generated contaminant. The modeling indicates large changes in heating energy use, but only moderate changes in total building energy use, as minimum VRs in the retail building are changed. For example, predicted state-wide heating energy consumption in the retail building decreases by more than 50% and total building energy consumption decreases by approximately 10% as the minimum VR decreases from the Title 24 requirement to no mechanical ventilation. The primary and secondary schools have notably higher internal heat gains than in the retail building models, resulting in significantly reduced demand for heating. The school heating energy use was correspondingly less sensitive to changes in the minimum VR. The modeling indicates that minimum VRs influence HVAC energy and total energy use in schools by only a few percent. For both the retail building and the school buildings, minimum VRs substantially affected the predicted annual-average indoor concentrations of an indoor generated contaminant, with larger effects in schools. The shape of the curves relating contaminant concentrations with VRs illustrate the importance of avoiding particularly low VRs.

  7. Commercial Grade Dedication Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Grade Dedication Resources Commercial Grade Dedication Resources Resource List Commercial Grade Dedication at NRC Commercial-Grade Dedication of Software, June 12, 2014 NRC Vendor Workshop Software Dedication Using the ASME NQA-1 Approach Plant Engineering: Guideline for the Acceptance of Commercial-Grade Design and Analysis Computer Programs Used in Nuclear Safety-Related Applications: EPRI report # 1025243 NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Requirements Subpart 2.14, NQA-1a-2009, and

  8. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Commercial Grade Dedication Resources Commercial Grade Dedication Resources Resource List Commercial Grade Dedication at NRC Commercial-Grade Dedication of Software, June 12, 2014 NRC Vendor Workshop Software Dedication Using the ASME NQA-1 Approach Plant Engineering: Guideline for the Acceptance of Commercial-Grade Design and Analysis Computer Programs Used in Nuclear Safety-Related Applications: EPRI report # 1025243 NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Requirements Subpart 2.14, NQA-1a-2009, and

  9. The political economy of retail wheeling, or how to not re-fight the last war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, A.; Kihm, S.

    1994-04-01

    Disparities in utility rates - observably the result of poor supply-side resource planning - have been small before and will be small once again. Retail wheeling`s promise of short-run gains for a few would, ironically, destroy integrated resource processes in place today that guard against a repeat of yesterday`s planning mistakes. The authors argue that retail wheeling is a troubling answer to a mis-diagnosis of yesterday`s problem. They believe that a variety of other policies offer most of the benefits and few of the risks that retail wheeling poses. These include aggressive wholesale competition, judicious pruning of uneconomic capacity, and serious incorporation of environmental risks into utility planning and regulation.

  10. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To achieve a sizable and self-sustaining market for grid-connected, customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, solar will likely need to be competitive with retail electricity rates. In this report, we examine the impact of retail rate design on the economic value of commercial PV systems in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial customer retail rates currently offered in the state. We find that the specifics of the rate structure, combined with the characteristics of the customer’s underlying load and the size of the PV system, can have a substantial impact on the customer-economics of commercial PV systems.

  11. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines the characteristics of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3 in more detail. Specifically, it focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers.

  12. Innovation for Food Retail: The 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grocery Stores | Department of Energy Innovation for Food Retail: The 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores Innovation for Food Retail: The 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores Find the presentation for the June 3, 2015 webinar on the 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores below. The guide shows practical ways for grocery stores to achieve a 50% energy savings over ASHRAE 90.1-2004 and exceeds the requirements of 90.1-2013. Intended for grocery

  13. ,"Los Angeles Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Los Angeles Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Los Angeles Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices",8,"Weekly","5/23/2016","6/5/2000" ,"Release Date:","5/23/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  14. ,"New York City Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York City Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices",8,"Weekly","5/23/2016","6/5/2000" ,"Release Date:","5/23/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  15. ,"New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices",12,"Weekly","5/23/2016","6/5/2000" ,"Release Date:","5/23/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  16. ,"San Francisco Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    San Francisco Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","San Francisco Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices",8,"Weekly","5/23/2016","6/5/2000" ,"Release Date:","5/23/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel

  17. The interplay between regular and chaotic motion in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotter, I.

    1987-04-01

    The regular motion of nucleons in the low-lying nuclear states and the chaotic motion in the compound nuclei are shown to arise from the interplay of conservative and dissipative forces in the open quantum mechanical nuclear system. The regularity at low level density is caused by self-organization in a conservative field of force. At high level density, chaoticity appears since information on the environment is transferred into the system by means of dissipative forces.

  18. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #31 - Procedures for Regularizing Illegal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appointments | Department of Energy 1 - Procedures for Regularizing Illegal Appointments POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #31 - Procedures for Regularizing Illegal Appointments As part of the Department's ongoing effort to ensure the integrity of merit system principles (§5 USC 2301(b)) and to prevent the appearance of, or violation of any of the prohibited personnel practices (§5 USC 2302 (b)), this policy guidance establishes a uniform process for managing cases that result in illegal or

  19. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices - Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Residential CommercialInstitutional Industrial Through Retail Outlets Petro-Chemical Other End Users Sales for Resale Period: Monthly ...

  20. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Contractor/Retailer Description

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The home improvement market includes a range of private-sector entities that currently provide or could offer home energy upgrade services. Most of these entities are remodelers, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) contractors, home performance contractors, or retailers; other actors are present in the sector (such as window installers and insulators), but this analysis focuses on these four main categories.

  1. New Hire Process for Regular, Term, Postdocs and Students

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Hire Process New Hire Process for Regular, Term, Postdocs and Students Employees and retirees are the building blocks of the Lab's success. Our employees get to contribute to the most pressing issues facing the nation. Contact (505) 667-4451, Option 5 Email New Hire Orientation Agenda for Regular, Term, Postdoc and Student Hires (pdf) Agenda for Summer Students (pdf) - This agenda only applies to students hired on May 17, 24, and June 2, 7, 14, 21 of 2016. New Hire forms Review and

  2. ALL GRADE 5 AND GRADE 8 FASTENERS WHICH DO NOT BEAR ANY MANUFACTURERS'

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ALL GRADE 5 AND GRADE 8 FASTENERS WHICH DO NOT BEAR ANY MANUFACTURERS' HEADMARKS Grade 5 Grade 8 GRADE 5 FASTENERS WITH THE FOLLOWING MANUFACTURERS' HEADMARKS: GRADE 8 FASTENERS WITH THE FOLLOWING MANUFACTURERS' HEADMARKS: MARK KS MARK J (CA TW JP YU) (Greater than 1/2 inch dia) MARK A NF H M MS Hollow Triangle E MARK KS RT FM KY J UNY A KS RT KY J UNY NF H M MS E FM GRADE 8.2 FASTENERS WITH THE FOLLOWING HEADMARKS: MARK KS KS J KS GRADE A325 FASTENERS WITH THE FOLLOWING HEADMARKS: MARK A325 KS

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FUELS Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES SERIES: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios A Study Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy April 2013 Prepared by NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY Golden, Colorado 80401-3305 managed by

  4. Commercial Grade Dedication Procedure (LMS-PROC-116 Rev 3) |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Commercial Grade Dedication Record (ANL-746 Revised) Commercial Grade Dedication Guidance Commercial Grade Dedication of Software, TFC-ENG-DESIGN-C-65...

  5. The Impact of Retail Rate Structure on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact of Retail Rate Structure on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California Ryan Wiser, Andrew Mills, Galen Barbose & William Golove State Energy Advisory Board Meeting Berkeley, CA August 14, 2007 The Electricity Markets and Policy Group Conducts research and provides assistance to policy makers on issues related to: ¾ Energy Efficiency and Demand Response (Chuck Goldman) - Tracking industry trends - Program administration, planning, implementation, and evaluation -

  6. Retail Infrastructure Costs Comparison for Hydrogen and Electricity for Light-Duty Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M.; Sun, Y.; Bush, B.

    2014-08-01

    Both hydrogen and plug-in electric vehicles offer significant social benefits to enhance energy security and reduce criteria and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. However, the rollout of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and hydrogen retail stations (HRS) requires substantial investments with high risks due to many uncertainties. We compare retail infrastructure costs on a common basis - cost per mile, assuming fueling service to 10% of all light-duty vehicles in a typical 1.5 million person city in 2025. Our analysis considers three HRS sizes, four distinct types of EVSE and two distinct EVSE scenarios. EVSE station costs, including equipment and installation, are assumed to be 15% less than today's costs. We find that levelized retail capital costs per mile are essentially indistinguishable given the uncertainty and variability around input assumptions. Total fuel costs per mile for battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are, respectively, 21% lower and 13% lower than that for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) under the home-dominant scenario. Including fuel economies and vehicle costs makes FCEVs and BEVs comparable in terms of costs per mile, and PHEVs are about 10% less than FCEVs and BEVs. To account for geographic variability in energy prices and hydrogen delivery costs, we use the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model and confirm the aforementioned estimate of cost per mile, nationally averaged, but see a 15% variability in regional costs of FCEVs and a 5% variability in regional costs for BEVs.

  7. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-05-11

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05/kWh to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when commercial PV systems represent a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  8. The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-06-24

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-min interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05 to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when energy from commercial PV systems represents a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  9. Word Pro - S9

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review May 2016 Table 9.4 Retail Motor Gasoline and On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices (Dollars a per Gallon, Including Taxes) Platt's / Bureau of Labor Statistics Data U.S. Energy Information Administration Data Motor Gasoline by Grade Regular Motor Gasoline by Area Type On-Highway Diesel Fuel Leaded Regular Unleaded Regular Unleaded Premium b All Grades c Conventional Gasoline Areas d Reformulated Gasoline Areas e All Areas 1950 Average

  10. Regularities and symmetries of subsets of collective 0{sup +} states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonatsos, Dennis; McCutchan, E. A.; Casten, R. F.; Casperson, R. J.; Werner, V.; Williams, E.

    2009-09-15

    The energies of subsets of excited 0{sup +} states in geometric collective models are investigated and found to exhibit intriguing regularities. In models with an infinite square well potential, it is found that a single formula, dependent on only the number of dimensions, describes a subset of 0{sup +} states. The same behavior of a subset of 0{sup +} states is seen in the large boson number limit of the interacting boson approximation (IBA) model near the critical point of a first-order phase transition, in contrast to the fact that these 0{sup +} state energies exhibit a harmonic behavior in all three limiting symmetries of the IBA. Finally, the observed regularities in 0{sup +} energies are analyzed in terms of the underlying group theoretical framework of the different models.

  11. Regularities and symmetries of subsets of collective 0{sup+} states.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonatsos, D.; McCutchan, E. A.; Casten, R. F.; Casperson, R. J.; Werner, V.; Williams, E.; Physics; N.C.S.R.; Yale Univ.

    2009-09-01

    The energies of subsets of excited 0{sup +} states in geometric collective models are investigated and found to exhibit intriguing regularities. In models with an infinite square well potential, it is found that a single formula, dependent on only the number of dimensions, describes a subset of 0{sup +} states. The same behavior of a subset of 0{sup +} states is seen in the large boson number limit of the interacting boson approximation (IBA) model near the critical point of a first-order phase transition, in contrast to the fact that these 0{sup +} state energies exhibit a harmonic behavior in all three limiting symmetries of the IBA. Finally, the observed regularities in 0{sup +} energies are analyzed in terms of the underlying group theoretical framework of the different models.

  12. Regularities and symmetries of collective 0{sup+} states.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonatsos, D.; McCutchan, E. A.; Casten, R. F.; Casperson, R. J.; Werner, V.; Williams, E.; Physics; N.C.S.R.

    2009-01-01

    The energies of subsets of excited 0{sup +} states in geometric collective models are investigated and found to exhibit intriguing regularities. In models with an infinite square well potential, it is found that a single formula, dependent on only the number of dimensions, describes a subset of 0{sup +} states. The same behavior of a subset of 0{sup +} states is seen in the large boson number limit of the interacting boson approximation (IBA) model near the critical point of a first-order phase transition, in contrast to the fact that these 0{sup +} state energies exhibit a harmonic behavior in all three limiting symmetries of the IBA. Finally, the observed regularities in 0{sup +} energies are analyzed in terms of the underlying group theoretical framework of the different models.

  13. Pre-Arrival for Regular, Postdoc and Student Hires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pre-Arrival Pre-Arrival for Regular, Postdoc and Student Hires Employees and retirees are the building blocks of the Lab's success. Our employees get to contribute to the most pressing issues facing the nation. Contact (505) 667-4451, Option 5 Email Information you should know prior to attending New Hire Orientation Before attending New Hire Orientation, ensure you have reviewed, signed, and returned your Offer Letter to a Human Resources (HR) Division Representative. Do NOT report to the

  14. Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop Document offers the standard agenda for the investment-grade audit review workshop. File Download the Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop Agenda. More Documents & Publications Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting FEMP ESPC Project Development Resource Guide Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda

  15. Trigonometric Pade approximants for functions with regularly decreasing Fourier coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labych, Yuliya A; Starovoitov, Alexander P [Gomel State University, Gomel (Belarus)

    2009-08-31

    Sufficient conditions describing the regular decrease of the coefficients of a Fourier series f(x)=a{sub 0}/2 + {sigma} a{sub n} cos kx are found which ensure that the trigonometric Pade approximants {pi}{sup t}{sub n,m}(x;f) converge to the function f in the uniform norm at a rate which coincides asymptotically with the highest possible one. The results obtained are applied to problems dealing with finding sharp constants for rational approximations. Bibliography: 31 titles.

  16. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Survey and Training Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training The following is a sample plan to perform a CGD survey. The checklist items are included. In addition to,...

  17. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In another embodiment, a method for forming a functionally graded porous nanostructure includes adding particles of an impurity and a solution to an EPD chamber, applying a voltage ...

  18. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and ... and depositing the material onto surfaces of the particles of the impurity to form ...

  19. E85 Retail Business Case: When and Why to Sell E85

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    A national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future E85 Retail Business Case: When and Why to Sell E85 C. Johnson and M. Melendez Technical Report NREL/TP-540-41590 December 2007 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 *

  20. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.7 Retail Markets and Companies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 2010 Top Supermarkets, by Sales 2010 All Commodity Supermarket Wal-Mart Stores 3,001 Kroger Co. 2,460 Safeway, Inc. 1,461 Supervalu, Inc. 1,504 Ahold USA, Inc. (Stop and Shop, Giant) 746 Publix Super Markets, Inc. 1,035 Delhaize America, Inc. (Food Lion) 1,641 H.E. Butt Grocery Co. (HEB) 291 Meijer Inc. 195 Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Co. (Pathmark) 373 Note(s): Source(s): All commodity volume in this example represents the "annualized range of the estimated retail sales volume of

  1. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.7 Retail Markets and Companies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 Energy Benchmarks for Newly Constructed Retail Buildings, by Selected City and End-Use (thousand Btu per square foot) IECC Climate Zone Miami 1A Houston 2A Phoenix 2B Atlanta 3A Los Angeles 3B Las Vegas 3B San Francisco 3C Baltimore 4A Albuquerque 4B Seattle 4C Chicago 5A Boulder 5B Minneapolis 6A Helena 6B Duluth 7 Fairbanks 8 Note(s): Source(s): 108.9 0.1 9.4 Commercial building energy benchmarks are based off of the current stock of commercial buildings and reflect 2004 ASHRAE 90.1 Climate

  2. To Own or Lease Solar: Understanding Commercial Retailers' Decisions to Use Alternative Financing Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, D.; Margolis, R.

    2014-12-01

    This report examines the tradeoffs among financing methods for businesses installing onsite photovoltaics (PV). We present case studies of PV financing strategies used by two large commercial retailers that have deployed substantial U.S. PV capacity: IKEA, which owns its PV, and Staples, which purchases power generated from onsite PV systems through power purchase agreements (PPAs). We also analyze the financial considerations that influence any company's choice of PV financing strategy. Our goal in this report is to clarify the financial and institutional costs and benefits of financing strategies and to inform other companies that are considering launching or expanding similar PV programs.

  3. Business Case for Installing E85 at Retail Stations, Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    January 2008 Fact Sheet In a business environment where there are up to four gas stations on every major intersection, it's hard for retailers to differentiate themselves from their competitors. One way station owners can distinguish themselves and make a profit is to add alternative fuels, such as E85 (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline), to their product mix. When pricing and availability of the fuel are positive, adding E85 can be a profitable move that can position a station as "green."

  4. Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  5. Table 3. Top Five Retailers of Electricity, with End Use Sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Five Retailers of Electricity, with End Use Sectors, 2014" "Alaska" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of Provider","All Sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Golden Valley Elec Assn Inc","Cooperative",1219363,276627,129773,812963,0 2,"Chugach Electric Assn Inc","Cooperative",1134527,513748,563581,57198,0 3,"Anchorage Municipal

  6. S. 3047: A Bill to amend the antitrust laws in order to preserve and promote wholesale and retail competition in the retail gasoline market. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, September 13, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bill would amend the antitrust laws in order to preserve and promote wholesale and retail competition in the retail gasoline market. The bill defines limits on the purchases required of a retailer from the producer or refiner and defines the exceptions under which any large integrated refiner can operate any motor fuel service station in the US. The Federal Trade Commission is charged with the enforcement.

  7. Energy Implications of Retrofitting Retail Sector Rooftop Units with Stepped-Speed and Variable-Speed Functionality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studer, D.; Romero, R.; Herrmann, L.; Benne, K.

    2012-04-01

    Commercial retailers understand that retrofitting constant-speed RTU fan motors with stepped- or variable-speed alternatives could save significant energy in most U.S. climate zones. However, they lack supporting data, both real-world and simulation based, on the cost effectiveness and climate zone-specific energy savings associated with this measure. Thus, building managers and engineers have been unable to present a compelling business case for fan motor upgrades to upper management. This study uses whole-building energy simulation to estimate the energy impact of this type of measure so retailers can determine its economic feasibility.

  8. The New Hampshire retail competition pilot program and the role of green marketing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, E.A.; Fang, J.M.

    1997-11-01

    Most states in the US are involved in electric industry restructuring, from considering the pros and cons in regulatory dockets to implementing legislative mandates for full restructuring and retail access for all consumers. Several states and utilities have initiated pilot programs in which multiple suppliers or service providers may compete for business and some utility customers can choose among competing suppliers. The State of New Hampshire has been experimenting with a pilot program, mandated by the State Legislature in 1995 and implemented by the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (NHPUC), before it implements full retail access. Green marketing, an attempt to characterize the supplier or service provider as environmentally friendly without referring to the energy resource used to generate electricity, was used by several suppliers or service providers to attract customers. This appeal to environmental consumerism was moderately successful, but it raised a number of consumer protection and public policy issues. This issue brief examines the marketing methods used in New Hampshire and explores what green marketing might mean for the development of renewable energy generation. It also addresses the issues raised and their implications.

  9. Constructing a logical, regular axis topology from an irregular topology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faraj, Daniel A.

    2014-07-22

    Constructing a logical regular topology from an irregular topology including, for each axial dimension and recursively, for each compute node in a subcommunicator until returning to a first node: adding to a logical line of the axial dimension a neighbor specified in a nearest neighbor list; calling the added compute node; determining, by the called node, whether any neighbor in the node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line; if a neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, adding, by the called compute node to the logical line, any neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list for the axial dimension not already added to the logical line; and, if no neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, returning to the calling compute node.

  10. Constructing a logical, regular axis topology from an irregular topology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faraj, Daniel A.

    2014-07-01

    Constructing a logical regular topology from an irregular topology including, for each axial dimension and recursively, for each compute node in a subcommunicator until returning to a first node: adding to a logical line of the axial dimension a neighbor specified in a nearest neighbor list; calling the added compute node; determining, by the called node, whether any neighbor in the node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line; if a neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, adding, by the called compute node to the logical line, any neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list for the axial dimension not already added to the logical line; and, if no neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, returning to the calling compute node.

  11. Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting Standard agenda for investment-grade audit midpoint review meeting. File Download the Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting Agenda. More Documents & Publications Agenda: Preliminary Assessment Kickoff Meeting Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda FEMP ESPC Project Development Resource Guide

  12. Predicting and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade Predicting and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade Predicted road grade may be used to estimate the power ...

  13. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-14

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one characteristic, but not others. Consumers (and specifiers) may have a hard time distinguishing better-performing lamps from one another; at this time, physical experimentation is likely the best evaluation tool.

  14. EM Commerical Grade Dedication Class Slides | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Program Management » Quality Assurance » EM Commerical Grade Dedication Class Slides EM Commerical Grade Dedication Class Slides PowerPoint presentation used in the EM sponsored commercial grade dedication (CGD) class. This class is designed to provide an understanding of the process for CGD. PDF icon EM Commerical Grade Dedication Class Slides More Documents & Publications NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Critical Characteristics Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and

  15. Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method Title: Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method An active electrode material for electrochemical ...

  16. Commercial Grade Dedication Record (ANL-746 Revised) | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Record (ANL-746 Revised) Commercial Grade Dedication Record (ANL-746 Revised) A sample of a process to recorddocument CGD activities. Forms are included. Commercial Grade...

  17. Requirements Flowdown and Graded Approach to QA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document provides the method for applying a graded approach to procurement activities across Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM).  The document is to be used by EM...

  18. Model Investment Grade Audit and Project Proposal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Information and documents for conducting an investment grade audit to evaluate potential measures and presenting a project proposal for a set of bundled measures that deliver savings to pay for the project over the finance term.

  19. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This survey was conducted to obtain input from EM contractors on processes used to perform Commercial Grade Item (CGI) dedication.  The intended use of this information is to form the basis for...

  20. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.7 Retail Markets and Companies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Retail Buildings (1) Shell Percent Glass 0.4 Window (U-Factor 0.38-0.69 SHGC 0.40-0.44 Wall R-Value (2) 7.6-15.2 c.i. Roof R-Value Attic 30-60 Insulation Above Deck 15-25 c.i. Lighting Average Power Density (W/ft.^2) 1.3 System and Plant Heating Plant Gas Furnace(>225 kBtuh) 80% Combustion Efficiency Cooling Plant Air conditioner (>135-240 kBtuh) 10.8 EER/11.2 IPLV - 11.0 EER/11.5 IPLV Service Hot Water Gas Storage Water Heater (>75kBtuh) 90%

  1. Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  2. Grades 5-12 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education » For Students & Educators » Grades 5-12 Grades 5-12 These resources are designed to help teachers introduce students to the new and exciting world of hydrogen and fuel cells. While these technologies are complex, the principles behind them can be understood by middle school and high school science students. In fact, hydrogen and fuel cell concepts can be used to complement science lessons already taught in the classroom. Classroom Materials - Lesson plans, laboratory

  3. Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Mills, Andrew

    2015-01-13

    The substantial increase in deployment of customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has been driven by a combination of steeply declining costs, financing innovations, and supportive policies. Among those supportive policies is net metering, which in most states effectively allows customers to receive compensation for distributed PV generation at the full retail electricity price. The current design of retail electricity rates and the presence of net metering have elicited concerns that the possible under-recovery of fixed utility costs from PV system owners may lead to a feedback loop of increasing retail prices that accelerate PV adoption and further rate increases. However, a separate and opposing feedback loop could offset this effect: increased PV deployment may lead to a shift in the timing of peak-period electricity prices that could reduce the bill savings received under net metering where time-varying retail electricity rates are used, thereby dampening further PV adoption. In this paper, we examine the impacts of these two competing feedback dynamics on U.S. distributed PV deployment through 2050 for both residential and commercial customers, across states. Our results indicate that, at the aggregate national level, the two feedback effects nearly offset one another and therefore produce a modest net effect, although their magnitude and direction vary by customer segment and by state. We also model aggregate PV deployment trends under various rate designs and net-metering rules, accounting for feedback dynamics. Our results demonstrate that future adoption of distributed PV is highly sensitive to retail rate structures. Whereas flat, time-invariant rates with net metering lead to higher aggregate national deployment levels than the current mix of rate structures (+5% in 2050), rate structures with higher monthly fixed customer charges or PV compensation at levels lower than the full retail rate can dramatically erode aggregate customer adoption of PV (from -14% to -61%, depending on the design). Moving towards time-varying rates, on the other hand, may accelerate near- and medium-term deployment (through 2030), but is found to slow adoption in the longer term (-22% in 2050).

  4. Investment-Grade Audit: Review Checklist | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Audit: Review Checklist Investment-Grade Audit: Review Checklist Document serves as a checklist to use when reviewing an investment-grade audit. File Download the checklist. More Documents & Publications Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop FEMP Comprehensive ESPC Workshop Presentations

  5. American-Made SRF Cavity Makes the Grade | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.jlab.orgnewsreleasesamerican-made-srf-cavity-makes-grade Submitted: Thursday, September 17, 2009 - 12...

  6. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnema, Eric; Leach, Matt; Pless, Shanti

    2013-06-05

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. Should utility incumbents be able to extend their brand name to competitive retail markets? An economic perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abel, J.R.; Clements, M.E.

    1998-06-01

    As retail competition begins, at least for the short run, there should be policy restrictions on an incumbent utility`s ability to extend its brand to an affiliated marketer. However, a utility-affiliated marketer should be permitted to compete in a newly deregulated market using a generic or self-developed brand name. If extending a brand name from an incumbent utility to an affiliated marketer does in fact create real barriers to entry in the retail market, competition will be crippled in this market and consumers will suffer. More important, deregulation will appear to have failed in the electric power market--a consequence with effects reaching past the electricity industry to other industries considering deregulation as a viable policy choice. However, if real barriers to entry are not erected by this type of brand name extension, the industry may suffer from lower quality products, less service, and reduced innovation if policymakers prohibit brand name extension.

  9. Regular black holes: Electrically charged solutions, Reissner-Nordstroem outside a de Sitter core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-06-15

    To have the correct picture of a black hole as a whole, it is of crucial importance to understand its interior. The singularities that lurk inside the horizon of the usual Kerr-Newman family of black hole solutions signal an endpoint to the physical laws and, as such, should be substituted in one way or another. A proposal that has been around for sometime is to replace the singular region of the spacetime by a region containing some form of matter or false vacuum configuration that can also cohabit with the black hole interior. Black holes without singularities are called regular black holes. In the present work, regular black hole solutions are found within general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. We show that there are objects which correspond to regular charged black holes, whose interior region is de Sitter, whose exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem, and the boundary between both regions is made of an electrically charged spherically symmetric coat. There are several types of solutions: regular nonextremal black holes with a null matter boundary, regular nonextremal black holes with a timelike matter boundary, regular extremal black holes with a timelike matter boundary, and regular overcharged stars with a timelike matter boundary. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular solutions are analyzed.

  10. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. On a regularization of a scalar conservation law with discontinuous coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Chun

    2014-03-15

    This paper is devoted to a scalar conservation law with a linear flux function involving discontinuous coefficients. It is clear that the delta standing wave should be introduced into the Riemann solution in some nonclassical situation. In order to study the formation of delta standing wave, we consider a regularization of the discontinuous coefficient with the Helmholtz mollifier and then obtain a regularized system which depends on a regularization parameter ? > 0. The regularization mechanism is a nonlinear bending of characteristic curves that prevents their finite-time intersection. It is proved rigorously that the solutions of regularized system converge to the delta standing wave solution in the ? ? 0 limit. Compared with the classical method of vanishing viscosity, here it is clear to see how the delta standing wave forms naturally along the characteristics.

  12. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.7 Retail Markets and Companies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 2010 Top Retail Companies, by Sales # Stores % Change over Chain ($billion) 2009 Revenues 2010 2009 Stores Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. 419.0 3.4% 8,970 6.0% The Kroger Co. 82.2 7.1% 3,605 -0.4% Costco 76.3 9.1% 572 1.1% The Home Depot 68.0 2.8% 2,248 0.2% Walgreen Co. 67.4 6.4% 8,046 7.3% Target Corp. 67.4 3.1% 1,750 0.6% CVS Caremark 57.3 3.6% 7,182 2.2% Best Buy 50.3 1.2% 4,172 3.7% Lowes Cos. 48.8 3.4% 1,749 2.3% Sears Holdings 43.3 -1.6% 4,038 2.2% Source(s): 2010 Revenues % Change over Chain

  13. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.7 Retail Markets and Companies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Energy Benchmarks for Existing Retail Buildings, by Selected City and End-Use (thousand Btu per square foot) IECC Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Miami 1A 0.5 0.7 23.0 25.2 14.3 16.1 Houston 2A 11.6 12.4 16.2 18.9 14.6 16.9 Phoenix 2B 8.3 10.2 17.2 21.3 14.2 17.5 Atlanta 3A 24.9 26.2 9.2 11.2 15.1 17.4 Los Angeles 3B 6.9 7.7 3.3 3.9 13.4 14.1 Las Vegas 3B 15.4 17.9 11.6 14.8 12.7 16.9 San Francisco 3C 22.4 22.5 0.7 1.0 10.6 12.1 Baltimore 4A 43.0 46.9 6.2 7.9 13.3 16.2 Albuquerque 4B 30.2 33.8 5.3

  14. 2014 Total Electric Industry- Average Retail Price (cents/kWh)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Retail Price (cents/kWh) (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total New England 17.82 14.70 11.84 10.38 15.45 Connecticut 19.75 15.55 12.92 13.08 17.05 Maine 15.27 12.70 8.95 0.00 12.65 Massachusetts 17.39 14.68 12.74 8.76 15.35 New Hampshire 17.53 14.34 11.93 0.00 15.22 Rhode Island 17.17 14.56 12.86 14.89 15.41 Vermont 17.47 14.56 10.23 0.00 14.57 Middle Atlantic 16.39 13.65 7.61 12.28 13.41 New Jersey

  15. Regularization of soft-X-ray imaging in the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wingen, Andreas; Shafer, Morgan W; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Hill, Judith C; Hillis, Donald Lee

    2015-01-01

    An image inversion scheme for the soft X-ray imaging system (SXRIS) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak is developed to obtain the local soft X-ray emission at a poloidal cross-section from the spatially line-integrated image taken by the SXRIS camera. The scheme uses the Tikhonov regularization method since the inversion problem is generally ill-posed. The regularization technique uses the generalized singular value decomposition to determine a solution that depends on a free regularization parameter. The latter has to be chosen carefully, and the so called {\\it L-curve} method to find the optimum regularization parameter is outlined. A representative test image is used to study the properties of the inversion scheme with respect to inversion accuracy, amount/strength of regularization, image noise and image resolution. The optimum inversion parameters are identified, while the L-curve method successfully computes the optimum regularization parameter. Noise is found to be the most limiting issue, but sufficient regularization is still possible at noise to signal ratios up to 10%-15%. Finally, the inversion scheme is applied to measured SXRIS data and the line-integrated SXRIS image is successfully inverted.

  16. Regularization of soft-X-ray imaging in the DIII-D tokamak

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Unterberg, Ezekial A; Hill, Judith C; Hillis, Donald Lee

    2015-01-01

    An image inversion scheme for the soft X-ray imaging system (SXRIS) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak is developed to obtain the local soft X-ray emission at a poloidal cross-section from the spatially line-integrated image taken by the SXRIS camera. The scheme uses the Tikhonov regularization method since the inversion problem is generally ill-posed. The regularization technique uses the generalized singular value decomposition to determine a solution that depends on a free regularization parameter. The latter has to be chosen carefully, and the so called {\\it L-curve} method to find the optimum regularization parameter is outlined. A representative test image ismore » used to study the properties of the inversion scheme with respect to inversion accuracy, amount/strength of regularization, image noise and image resolution. The optimum inversion parameters are identified, while the L-curve method successfully computes the optimum regularization parameter. Noise is found to be the most limiting issue, but sufficient regularization is still possible at noise to signal ratios up to 10%-15%. Finally, the inversion scheme is applied to measured SXRIS data and the line-integrated SXRIS image is successfully inverted.« less

  17. EA-1962: Analysis for Below Grade Suspect Transuranic (TRU) Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    62: Analysis for Below Grade Suspect Transuranic (TRU) Waste at Technical Area (TA)-54 EA-1962: Analysis for Below Grade Suspect Transuranic (TRU) Waste at Technical Area (TA)-54...

  18. Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Below is information about the student ...

  19. DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels November 10, 2014 - 2:50pm Addthis DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office is developing military-grade biofuels DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office is developing military-grade biofuels Happy Veteran's Day from EERE! Our Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is helping the U.S. military increase the nation's #energy security, reduce

  20. 2015 Market Research Report on Global Medical Grade Dioctyl Industry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2015 Market Research Report on Global Medical Grade Dioctyl Industry Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate...

  1. Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Preprint

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles Preprint M. Melaina National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. Bremson University of California Davis K. Solo Lexidyne, LLC Presented at the 31st USAEE/IAEE North American Conference Austin, Texas November 4-7, 2012 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5600-56898

  2. Microsoft Word - Highlights.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    July 2007 1 July 2007 Short-Term Energy Outlook July 10, 2007 Release Highlights * As of early July, the average price of retail regular motor gasoline in EIA's weekly gasoline price survey has declined by more than 25 cents per gallon from the record nominal price of $3.22 per gallon on May 21. The resolution of many refinery problems that occurred earlier in the season and higher levels of product imports helped bring prices down. * Average monthly retail regular-grade motor gasoline prices

  3. Inverse transport problem solvers based on regularized and compressive sensing techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Y.; Cao, L.; Wu, H.; Zhang, H.

    2012-07-01

    According to the direct exposure measurements from flash radiographic image, regularized-based method and compressive sensing (CS)-based method for inverse transport equation are presented. The linear absorption coefficients and interface locations of objects are reconstructed directly at the same time. With a large number of measurements, least-square method is utilized to complete the reconstruction. Owing to the ill-posedness of the inverse problems, regularized algorithm is employed. Tikhonov method is applied with an appropriate posterior regularization parameter to get a meaningful solution. However, it's always very costly to obtain enough measurements. With limited measurements, CS sparse reconstruction technique Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) is applied to obtain the sparse coefficients by solving an optimization problem. This paper constructs and takes the forward projection matrix rather than Gauss matrix as measurement matrix. In the CS-based algorithm, Fourier expansion and wavelet expansion are adopted to convert an underdetermined system to a well-posed system. Simulations and numerical results of regularized method with appropriate regularization parameter and that of CS-based agree well with the reference value, furthermore, both methods avoid amplifying the noise. (authors)

  4. Detecting regular sound changes in linguistics as events of concerted evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hruschka, Daniel J.; Branford, Simon; Smith, Eric D.; Wilkins, Jon; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy

    2014-12-18

    Background: Concerted evolution is normally used to describe parallel changes at different sites in a genome, but it is also observed in languages where a specific phoneme changes to the same other phoneme in many words in the lexicona phenomenon known as regular sound change. We develop a general statistical model that can detect concerted changes in aligned sequence data and apply it to study regular sound changes in the Turkic language family. Results: Linguistic evolution, unlike the genetic substitutional process, is dominated by events of concerted evolutionary change. Our model identified more than 70 historical events of regular sound change that occurred throughout the evolution of the Turkic language family, while simultaneously inferring a dated phylogenetic tree. Including regular sound changes yielded an approximately 4-fold improvement in the characterization of linguistic change over a simpler model of sporadic change, improved phylogenetic inference, and returned more reliable and plausible dates for events on the phylogenies. The historical timings of the concerted changes closely follow a Poisson process model, and the sound transition networks derived from our model mirror linguistic expectations. Conclusions: We demonstrate that a model with no prior knowledge of complex concerted or regular changes can nevertheless infer the historical timings and genealogical placements of events of concerted change from the signals left in contemporary data. Our model can be applied wherever discrete elementssuch as genes, words, cultural trends, technologies, or morphological traitscan change in parallel within an organism or other evolving group.

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  6. Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M.; Bremson, J.; Solo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

  7. Regular, Postdocs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    convenience, download the New Employee App from iTunes (IOS devices) or Google Play (Android devices). You can access new hire information along with many other features such as...

  8. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein is a graded core/shell semiconductor nanorod having at least a first segment of a core of a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor, a graded shell overlying the core, wherein the graded shell comprises at least two monolayers, wherein the at least two monolayers each independently comprise a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor.

  9. Federal Energy Managment Program Investment Grade Audit Tool | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Managment Program Investment Grade Audit Tool Federal Energy Managment Program Investment Grade Audit Tool Zip file contains the Federal Energy Management Program's Investment Grade Audit (IGA) Tool that is used by energy service companies during the ESPC ENABLE process. Package icon enable_igatool.zip More Documents & Publications Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE Program ESPC ENABLE NOTICE OF INTENT TO AWARD GUIDE AND TEMPLATE Energy Savings Performance

  10. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual 1995 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All...

  11. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual 2000 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All...

  12. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    at end of table. 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 31. Motor...

  13. Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Blades Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology ...

  14. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  15. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  16. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  17. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  18. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  19. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  20. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

  1. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  2. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

  3. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - 64.7 64.7 - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

  4. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  5. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  6. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  7. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  8. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  9. Spherican Indentation of Compositionally Graded Materials: Theory and Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suresh, S.; Giannakopoulos, A.E.; Alcala, J.

    1997-01-01

    Computational and experimental results on the evolution of stresses and deformation fields due to indentation from a rigid spherical indenter on a graded substrate are presented.

  10. EERE Success Story-Making the Grade: Washington School District...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EERE Success Story-Making the Grade: Washington School District Invest in Energy ... to improve the lives of the American people by driving leadership in energy innovation. ...

  11. Method of making a functionally graded material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Menchhofer, Paul A.; Walls, Claudia A.; Moorhead, Arthur J.

    2002-01-01

    A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article alternatively includes the steps of: preparing a slurry including a least two different phases suspended in a gelcasting solution, the phases characterized by having different settling characteristics; casting the slurry into a mold having a selected shape; allowing the slurry to stand for a sufficient period of time to permit desired gravitational fractionation in order to achieve a vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; gelling the slurry to form a solid gel while preserving the vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying along the vertical direction because of the compositional gradient in the molded slurry.

  12. Method of making a functionally graded material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Menchhofer, Paul A. (Clinton, TN); Walls, Claudia A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article includes the steps of: preparing at least two slurries, each of the slurries including a different gelcastable powder suspended in a gelcasting solution, the slurries characterized by having comparable shrinkage upon drying and sintering thereof; casting the slurries into a mold having a selected shape, wherein relative proportions of the slurries is varied in at least one direction within the selected shape; gelling the slurries to form a solid gel while preserving the variation in relative proportions of the slurries; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying because of the variation in relative proportions of the starting slurries. A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article alternatively includes the steps of: preparing a slurry including a least two different phases suspended in a gelcasting solution, the phases characterized by having different settling characteristics; casting the slurry into a mold having a selected shape; allowing the slurry to stand for a sufficient period of time to permit desired gravitational fractionation in order to achieve a vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; gelling the slurry to form a solid gel while preserving the vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying along the vertical direction because of the compositional gradient in the molded slurry.

  13. Detecting regular sound changes in linguistics as events of concerted evolution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hruschka, Daniel  J.; Branford, Simon; Smith, Eric  D.; Wilkins, Jon; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy

    2014-12-18

    Background: Concerted evolution is normally used to describe parallel changes at different sites in a genome, but it is also observed in languages where a specific phoneme changes to the same other phoneme in many words in the lexicon—a phenomenon known as regular sound change. We develop a general statistical model that can detect concerted changes in aligned sequence data and apply it to study regular sound changes in the Turkic language family. Results: Linguistic evolution, unlike the genetic substitutional process, is dominated by events of concerted evolutionary change. Our model identified more than 70 historical events of regular soundmore » change that occurred throughout the evolution of the Turkic language family, while simultaneously inferring a dated phylogenetic tree. Including regular sound changes yielded an approximately 4-fold improvement in the characterization of linguistic change over a simpler model of sporadic change, improved phylogenetic inference, and returned more reliable and plausible dates for events on the phylogenies. The historical timings of the concerted changes closely follow a Poisson process model, and the sound transition networks derived from our model mirror linguistic expectations. Conclusions: We demonstrate that a model with no prior knowledge of complex concerted or regular changes can nevertheless infer the historical timings and genealogical placements of events of concerted change from the signals left in contemporary data. Our model can be applied wherever discrete elements—such as genes, words, cultural trends, technologies, or morphological traits—can change in parallel within an organism or other evolving group.« less

  14. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Box Retail -- 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, E. T.; Macumber, D. L.; Long, N. L.; Griffith, B. T.; Benne, K. S.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2008-09-01

    This report provides recommendations that architects, designers, contractors, developers, owners, and lessees of medium box retail buildings can use to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The recommendations are given by climate zone and address building envelope, fenestration, lighting systems, HVAC systems, building automation and controls, outside air treatment, service water heating, plug loads, and photovoltaic systems. The report presents several paths to 50% savings, which correspond to different levels of integrated design. These are recommendations only, and are not part of a code or standard. The recommendations are not exhaustive, but we do try to emphasize the benefits of integrated building design, that is, a design approach that analyzes a building as a whole system, rather than as a disconnected collection of individually engineered subsystems.

  15. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  16. Minimum Fisher regularization of image reconstruction for infrared imaging bolometer on HL-2A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Li, W.; Lu, J.; Dong, Y. B.; Xia, Z. W.; Yi, P.; Yang, Q. W.

    2013-09-15

    An infrared imaging bolometer diagnostic has been developed recently for the HL-2A tokamak to measure the temporal and spatial distribution of plasma radiation. The three-dimensional tomography, reduced to a two-dimensional problem by the assumption of plasma radiation toroidal symmetry, has been performed. A three-dimensional geometry matrix is calculated with the one-dimensional pencil beam approximation. The solid angles viewed by the detector elements are taken into account in defining the chord brightness. And the local plasma emission is obtained by inverting the measured brightness with the minimum Fisher regularization method. A typical HL-2A plasma radiation model was chosen to optimize a regularization parameter on the criterion of generalized cross validation. Finally, this method was applied to HL-2A experiments, demonstrating the plasma radiated power density distribution in limiter and divertor discharges.

  17. Small black holes on branes: Is the horizon regular or singular?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karasik, D.; Sahabandu, C.; Suranyi, P.; Wijewardhana, L.C.R.

    2004-09-15

    We investigate the following question: Consider a small mass, with {epsilon} (the ratio of the Schwarzschild radius and the bulk curvature length) much smaller than 1, that is confined to the TeV brane in the Randall-Sundrum I scenario. Does it form a black hole with a regular horizon, or a naked singularity? The metric is expanded in {epsilon} and the asymptotic form of the metric is given by the weak field approximation (linear in the mass). In first order of {epsilon} we show that the iteration of the weak field solution, which includes only integer powers of the mass, leads to a solution that has a singular horizon. We find a solution with a regular horizon but its asymptotic expansion in the mass also contains half integer powers.

  18. Determination of transit time distribution and Rabi frequency by applying regularized inverse on Ramsey spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Young-Ho; Lee, Soo Heyong; Park, Sang Eon; Lee, Ho Seong; Kwon, Taeg Yong [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-23

    The authors report on a method to determine the Rabi frequency and transit time distribution of atoms that are essential for proper operation of atomic beam frequency standards. Their method, which employs alternative regularized inverse on two Ramsey spectra measured at different microwave powers, can be used for the frequency standards with short Ramsey cavity as well as long ones. The authors demonstrate that uncertainty in Rabi frequency obtained from their method is 0.02%.

  19. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, retail prices for all three grades of gasoline are collected by telephone from a sample of approximately 800 retail gasoline ...

  20. Advanced Energy Design Guides Slash Energy Use in Schools and Retail Buildings by 50% (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Results Achievement NREL's Commercial Buildings Group executed advanced energy modeling simulations and optimized the design of schools and retail buildings to develop recommendations that result in 50% energy savings over code. NREL developed the simulation tools and led the committee that produced the guides. Key Result The Advanced Energy Design Guides, based on the work of NREL's researchers, provide owners, contractors, engineers, and architects user-friendly, how-to guidance by

  1. This Week In Petroleum Gasoline Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Regular gasoline retail prices (dollars per gallon) U.S. Average Conventional Reformulated U.S. retail regular gasoline prices graph Retail average regular gasoline prices graph Retail conventional regular gasoline prices graph Retail reformulated regular gasoline prices graph Retail average regular gasoline prices (dollars per gallon) more price data › Year ago Most recent 05/11/15 05/09/16 05/02/16 04/25/16 04/18/16 04/11/16 04/04/16 03/28/16 U.S. 2.691 2.220 2.240 2.162 2.137 2.069 2.083

  2. Analysis Reveals Impact of Road Grade on Vehicle Energy Use ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with and without road grade for five vehicle models-con- ventional, hybrid, and all-electric midsized cars and conventional and hybrid SUVs. Aggregate results of the study...

  3. Graded Security Protection (GSP) Policy - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CURRENT DOE O 470.3B, Graded Security Protection (GSP) Policy by Gary White Functional areas: Security This Order is classified as (Secret RD NOFORN) and will not be...

  4. Predicting and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Predicted road grade may be used to estimate the power required to propel the vehicle through the upcoming terrain so that the engine controller can deliver the necessary power.

  5. High-Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Mosiman, Garrett E.

    2015-09-01

    ​A more accurate assessment of slab-on-grade foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated).

  6. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  7. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  8. Commercial-Grade, Scalable Support and Training Services Platform |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Commercial-Grade, Scalable Support and Training Services Platform Commercial-Grade, Scalable Support and Training Services Platform Lead Performer: Big Ladder Software - Denver, CO DOE Funding: $149,554 Cost Share: N/A Project Term: June 2014 - March 2015 Funding Opportunity: Small Business Innovation Research FY 2014 Phase 1 Release 2 Awards Project Objective The Department of Energy has funded the development of two industry-leading simulation engines, EnergyPlus and

  9. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nanostructures and systems thereof (Patent) | SciTech Connect Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and systems thereof Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and systems thereof In one embodiment, an aerogel includes a layer of shaped particles having a particle packing density gradient in a thickness direction of the layer, wherein the shaped particles are

  10. Washington School District Makes the Grade in Energy Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Washington School District Makes the Grade in Energy Efficiency Washington School District Makes the Grade in Energy Efficiency September 2, 2015 - 10:01am Addthis As part of the Better Buildings Challenge, Camas School District in Washington not only surpassed its energy efficiency goals, but did so five years early. | Photo courtesy of Camas School District. As part of the Better Buildings Challenge, Camas School District in Washington not only surpassed its energy

  11. American-Made SRF Cavity Makes the Grade | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    American-Made SRF Cavity Makes the Grade American-Made SRF Cavity Makes the Grade NEWPORT NEWS, Va., Sept. 17, 2009 - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility marked a step forward in the field of advanced particle accelerator technology with the successful test of the first U.S.-built superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) niobium cavity to meet the exacting specifications of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC). The cavity was developed

  12. Analytically calculating shading in regular arrays of sun-pointing collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meller, Yosef

    2010-11-15

    A method is presented for deriving an algorithm for analytically calculating shading of sun-pointing solar collectors by other identical collectors in the field. The method is particularly suited to regularly-spaced collectors, with convex aperture shapes. Using this method, an algorithm suitable for circular-aperture collectors is derived. The algorithm is validated against results obtained using an existing algorithm, and an example for usage of the algorithm as a tool for validating assumptions of an existing algorithm is presented. (author)

  13. Regularization of Feedwater Flow Rate Evaluation for Venturi Meter Fouling Problem in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gribok, Andrei V.; Attieh, Ibrahim K.; Hines, J. Wesley; Uhrig, Robert E.

    2001-04-15

    Inferential sensing is a method that can be used to evaluate parameters of a physical system based on a set of measurements related to these parameters. The most common method of inferential sensing uses mathematical models to infer a parameter value from correlated sensor values. However, since inferential sensing is an inverse problem, it can produce inconsistent results due to minor perturbations in the data. This research shows that regularization can be used in inferential sensing to produce consistent results. Data from Florida Power Corporation's Crystal River nuclear power plant (NPP) are used to give an important example of monitoring NPP feedwater flow rate.

  14. Random matrix theory for mixed regular-chaotic dynamics in the super-extensive regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Hady, A. Abd; Abul-Magd, A. Y.

    2011-10-27

    We apply Tsallis's q-indexed nonextensive entropy to formulate a random matrix theory (RMT), which may be suitable for systems with mixed regular-chaotic dynamics. We consider the super-extensive regime of q<1. We obtain analytical expressions for the level-spacing distributions, which are strictly valid for 2 X2 random-matrix ensembles, as usually done in the standard RMT. We compare the results with spacing distributions, numerically calculated for random matrix ensembles describing a harmonic oscillator perturbed by Gaussian orthogonal and unitary ensembles.

  15. Composites of Upgraded Metallurgical Grade (UMG) Si with Photovoltaic (PV) Grade Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovel, Harold; Prettyman, Kevin; Krause, Rainer; Dipankar, Roy

    2015-03-27

    At the beginning of this project 125 wafers of UMG material blended with non-UMG were obtained in the various blends; 50/50,70/30,80/20. 90/10 and 100% UMG. Solar grade , non-UMG material was used for comparison. Many techniques for starting substrate evaluation were used including lifetime, resitivity, SEM, IPCMS. Some degree of gettering was implemented by lengthening the time of phosphorous diffusion. The UMG/solar blends resulted in 14.5% -15% efficiencies, and even 100% UMG showed 14.5% values, not less than standard cells manufactured at the time and an encouraging result for the prospects of using UMG material due to the lower $/watt. A later decline in the cost of Si and an emphasis on reaching higher efficiencies in general led to a vanishing interest in the use of UMG.

  16. U.S. Dept of Energy’s EECBG-SEP Technical Assistance Program Webcast ESPC Investment Grade Audit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn what the investment grade audit is, what to expect from an investment grade audit, how to ensure IGA success.

  17. A hybrid inventory management system respondingto regular demand and surge demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammad S. Roni; Mingzhou Jin; Sandra D. Eksioglu

    2014-06-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid policy for a stochastic inventory system facing regular demand and surge demand. The combination of two different demand patterns can be observed in many areas, such as healthcare inventory and humanitarian supply chain management. The surge demand has a lower arrival rate but higher demand volume per arrival. The solution approach proposed in this paper incorporates the level crossing method and mixed integer programming technique to optimize the hybrid inventory policy with both regular orders and emergency orders. The level crossing method is applied to obtain the equilibrium distributions of inventory levels under a given policy. The model is further transformed into a mixed integer program to identify an optimal hybrid policy. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the impact of parameters on the optimal inventory policy and minimum cost. Numerical results clearly show the benefit of using the proposed hybrid inventory model. The model and solution approach could help healthcare providers or humanitarian logistics providers in managing their emergency supplies in responding to surge demands.

  18. Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Grades: K-4 Subject: Energy Basics , Wind Energy , Energy Efficiency and Conservation Summary: Check out these energy activities for grades K-2. Curriculum: Environmental Science, General Science Plan Time: Varies by activity Standards: Complete list of all standards

  19. Bistability, regular self-pulsing, and chaos in lasers with external feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, R.; Glas, P.

    1985-01-01

    Steady states and dynamic behavior of the light field in a lasing medium contained in the cavity of a Fabry--Perot (FP) resonator are investigated theoretically. The FP resonator is optically coupled to an external resonator (ER), which reflects light back into the laser within a small frequency interval. It is assumed that the lasing threshold cannot be exceeded without feedback from the ER. The losses of the compound-cavity system depend on the light frequency's giving rise to dispersive bistable effects. The static hysteresis cycle as well as transients between its branches has been calculated. Moreover, various types of regular and chaotic self-pulsing that are due to the oscillation of several modes of the compound-cavity sysem have been found, depending on the ratio of longitudinal relaxation time T/sub 1/ to the photon round-trip time T. Finally, phase modulation and frequency chirping have been determined.

  20. Regularities of flame propagation in a tube under weightless conditions: stability investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samsonov, V.P.; Abrukov, S.A.; Kidin, N.I.

    1985-05-01

    In research devoted to the theoretical investigation of laminar flames during propagation in channels, one of the mandatory assumptions is the assumption about no gravity forces but until now the verification of the results of such work has been impossible because of the lack of experimental data on flame propagation under weightless conditions. This paper reports on experiments conducted to verify existing deductions and to do so the flame structure and certain regularities of its propagation in a half-open square tube under weightless conditions were investigated using a Schlieren method. Further, the evolution of the displacement of single perturbations on the flame surface to the wall was investigated by the method of a stroboscopic survey.

  1. Influence of the adatom diffusion on selective growth of GaN nanowire regular arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gotschke, T.; Schumann, T.; Limbach, F.; Calarco, R.; Stoica, T.

    2011-03-07

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on patterned Si/AlN/Si(111) substrates was used to obtain regular arrays of uniform-size GaN nanowires (NWs). The silicon top layer has been patterned with e-beam lithography, resulting in uniform arrays of holes with different diameters (d{sub h}) and periods (P). While the NW length is almost insensitive to the array parameters, the diameter increases significantly with d{sub h} and P till it saturates at P values higher than 800 nm. A diffusion induced model was used to explain the experimental results with an effective diffusion length of the adatoms on the Si, estimated to be about 400 nm.

  2. Energy Audit Lesson Plan 8th grade.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teacher(s): Chittenden Unit Title: Energy Subject: general science Lesson Title: Energy Audit Grade Level(s): 8 th grade Lesson Length: 3-5 days Date(s): * Learning Goal(s) [What should students know, understand, or be able to do as a result of this lab or activity.] o Students can compare current and potential energy consumption through data collection and analysis. o Students can recommend levels of energy saving actions to staff members. * Energy Connection [How is this lesson connected to

  3. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa; Wynn, Karen; Checkai, Dean; Perry, James Thomas

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  4. Nuclear reactor containment structure with continuous ring tunnel at grade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seidensticker, Ralph W.; Knawa, Robert L.; Cerutti, Bernard C.; Snyder, Charles R.; Husen, William C.; Coyer, Robert G.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor containment structure which includes a reinforced concrete shell, a hemispherical top dome, a steel liner, and a reinforced-concrete base slab supporting the concrete shell is constructed with a substantial proportion thereof below grade in an excavation made in solid rock with the concrete poured in contact with the rock and also includes a continuous, hollow, reinforced-concrete ring tunnel surrounding the concrete shell with its top at grade level, with one wall integral with the reinforced concrete shell, and with at least the base of the ring tunnel poured in contact with the rock.

  5. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71.8 W 70.5 78.9 W 76.0 83.6 W 69.2 75.2 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  6. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W 68.4 70.8 W W 78.6 W 85.7 81.8 W 69.3 73.8 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  7. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    61.5 70.8 92.7 90.7 81.5 72.8 - 78.0 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

  8. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    62.6 71.7 92.3 89.9 82.6 72.7 - 78.2 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

  9. Remarks on the regularity criteria of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics system in terms of two velocity field components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2014-03-15

    We study the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics system and obtain its regularity criteria in terms of only two velocity vector field components eliminating the condition on the third component completely. The proof consists of a new decomposition of the four nonlinear terms of the system and estimating a component of the magnetic vector field in terms of the same component of the velocity vector field. This result may be seen as a component reduction result of many previous works [C. He and Z. Xin, “On the regularity of weak solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic equations,” J. Differ. Equ. 213(2), 234–254 (2005); Y. Zhou, “Remarks on regularities for the 3D MHD equations,” Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. 12(5), 881–886 (2005)].

  10. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook -- April 2001) 1 Summer 2001 Motor Gasoline Outlook Summary April 2001 For the upcoming summer season (April to September), motor gasoline markets are projected to once again exhibit a very tight supply/demand balance. * Retail gasoline prices (regular grade) are expected to average $1.49 per gallon, slightly lower than last summer's average of $1.53 per gallon, but still above the previous (current-dollar) record summer average of

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2000--STEO Preface

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    April 2000 Summer 2000 Motor Gasoline Outlook Summary For the upcoming summer season (April to September), motor gasoline markets are projected to exhibit an extraordinarily tight supply/demand balance. * Retail gasoline prices (regular grade) are expected to average $1.46 per gallon, 25 percent higher than last summer's average of $1.17 per gallon. That projection also exceeds the previous (current-dollar) record summer average of $1.35 recorded in 1981. Nominal prices are expected to reach a

  12. jcpenney retail renovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Zhang, Jian; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Wilburn, Matthew S.

    2011-06-30

    JC Penney is a partner with the DOE's Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program, working with PNNL to explore energy design measures (EDMs) that may be applied to their building portfolio. A site in Colonial Heights, VA was chosen for a retrofit project; computer modeling predicts 45% improved energy performance compared to baseline operations. This case study reviews EDMs that were selected and their performance as of June 2011.

  13. Retail Power Marketer

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 0 6 All other costs 0 7 Approval Expires: 05312017 SCHEDULE 6. PART B. DEMAND RESPONSE PROGRAMS Schedule 6. Part B. Energy and Demand Savings -- Demand Response ANNUAL ...

  14. On the grade consistent theories of micromorphic elastic solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iesan, D.

    2011-02-10

    For the investigation of specific nonlocal phenomena the second-order displacement gradient has been added to the independent constitutive variables used in the classical theories of elastic solids. In this paper we outline the hystorical development of the subject and present a nonlinear grade consistent theory of micromorphic elastic solids in which the independent constitutive variables are the deformation gradient, the second-order displacement gradient, microdeformation tensor, and microdeformation gradient. Then, we present the linearized theory and establish a uniqueness result with no definiteness assumption on the elastic coefficients. The theory is used to obtain the basic eqations of a grade consistent theory of microstretch elastic bodies. The field equations for an isotropic and homogeneous elastic body are presented. A counterpart of the Cauchy-Kowalevski-Somigliana solution of the classical elastodynamics is established.

  15. Domain evolution and polarization of continuously graded ferroelectric films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roytburd, A.; Roytburd, V.

    2008-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of graded ferroelectric films demonstrates that in the equilibrium state the films are subdivided into a single-domain band and a polydomain band which consists of wedge-shape domains. Polarization under an external electrostatic field proceeds through an inter-band boundary movement due to growth or shrinkage of the wedge domains. It is shown how the domain structure and evolution are determined by the principal characteristics of the film: the distribution of the spontaneous polarization and dielectric constant. Graded films exhibit a sharp increase of polarization with the field for weak fields, with a drop of the dielectric constant when the field is increasing. A general approach to finding the dependence of the displacement and the wedge-domain shape on the field as well as analytical solutions for the p{sup 4} Landau-Devonshire and parabolic potentials are presented.

  16. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  17. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2013-03-26

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  18. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Mattson, E.D.; Sisson, J.B.

    1998-06-02

    A tensiometer to in-situ determine below-grade soil moisture, potential of earthen soil includes, (a) an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and, comprising; (b) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; (c) a first fluid conduit extending outwardly of the first fluid chamber; (d) a first controllable isolation valve provided within the first fluid conduit, the first controllable isolation valve defining a second fluid chamber in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber through the first fluid conduit and the isolation valve, the first controllable isolation valve being received within the below-grade portion; and (e) a pressure transducer in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure transducer being received within the below-grade portion. An alternate embodiment includes an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and including: (1) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; and (2) a pressure sensing apparatus in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure sensing apparatus being entirely received within the below-grade portion. A method is also disclosed using the above and other apparatus. 6 figs.

  19. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Mattson, Earl D.; Sisson, James B.

    1998-01-01

    A tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture, potential of earthen soil includes, a) an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and, comprising; b) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; c) a first fluid conduit extending outwardly of the first fluid chamber; d) a first controllable isolation valve provided within the first fluid conduit, the first controllable isolation valve defining a second fluid chamber in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber through the first fluid conduit and the isolation valve, the first controllable isolation valve being received within the below-grade portion; and e) a pressure transducer in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure transducer being received within the below-grade portion. An alternate embodiment includes an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and including: i) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; and ii) a pressure sensing apparatus in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure sensing apparatus being entirely received within the below-grade portion. A method is also disclosed using the above and other apparatus.

  20. High Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Mosiman, Garrett E.

    2015-09-01

    ?A more accurate assessment of SOG foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated). The optimum insulation strategy was applied to single and multi-family residential buildings in climate zone 4 - 7. The highest site energy savings of 5% was realized for a single family home in Duluth, MN, and the lowest savings of 1.4 % for a 4-unit townhouse in Richmond, VA. SOG foundation insulation retrofit simple paybacks ranged from 18 to 47 years. There are other benefits of SOG foundation insulation resulting from the increase in the slab surface temperatures. These include increased occupant thermal comfort, and a decrease in slab surface condensation particularly around the slab perimeter.

  1. Antireflective graded index silica coating, method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yoldas, Bulent E.; Partlow, Deborah P.

    1985-01-01

    Antireflective silica coating for vitreous material is substantially non-reflecting over a wide band of radiations. This is achieved by providing the coating with a graded degree of porosity which grades the index of refraction between that of air and the vitreous material of the substrate. To prepare the coating, there is first prepared a silicon-alkoxide-based coating solution of particular polymer structure produced by a controlled proportion of water to alkoxide and a controlled concentration of alkoxide to solution, along with a small amount of catalyst. The primary solvent is alcohol and the solution is polymerized and hydrolized under controlled conditions prior to use. The prepared solution is applied as a film to the vitreous substrate and rapidly dried. It is thereafter heated under controlled conditions to volatilize the hydroxyl radicals and organics therefrom and then to produce a suitable pore morphology in the residual porous silica layer. The silica layer is then etched in order to enlarge the pores in a graded fashion, with the largest of the pores remaining being sufficiently small that radiations to be passed through the substrate are not significantly scattered. For use with quartz substrates, extremely durable coatings which display only 0.1% reflectivity have been prepared.

  2. Role of Nuclear Grade Graphite in Oxidation in Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willaim Windes; G. Strydom; J. Kane; R. Smith

    2014-11-01

    The passively safe High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design is one of the primary concepts considered for Generation IV and Small Modular Reactor (SMR) programs. The helium cooled, nuclear grade graphite moderated core achieves extremely high operating temperatures allowing either industrial process heat or electricity generation at high efficiencies. In addition to their neutron moderating properties, nuclear grade graphite core components provide excellent high temperature stability, thermal conductivity, and chemical compatibility with the high temperature nuclear fuel form. Graphite has been continuously used in nuclear reactors since the 1940’s and has performed remarkably well over a wide range of core environments and operating conditions. Graphite moderated, gas-cooled reactor designs have been safely used for research and power production purposes in multiple countries since the inception of nuclear energy development. However, graphite is a carbonaceous material, and this has generated a persistent concern that the graphite components could actually burn during either normal or accident conditions [ , ]. The common assumption is that graphite, since it is ostensibly similar to charcoal and coal, will burn in a similar manner. While charcoal and coal may have the appearance of graphite, the internal microstructure and impurities within these carbonaceous materials are very different. Volatile species and trapped moisture provide a source of oxygen within coal and charcoal allowing them to burn. The fabrication process used to produce nuclear grade graphite eliminates these oxidation enhancing impurities, creating a dense, highly ordered form of carbon possessing high thermal diffusivity and strongly (covalently) bonded atoms.

  3. Healthy Zero Energy Buildings (HZEB) Program - Cross-Sectional Study of Contaminant Levels, Source, Strengths, and Ventilation Rates in Retail Stores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Sidheswaran, Meera; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William

    2014-02-01

    This field study measured ventilation rates and indoor air quality parameters in 21 visits to retail stores in California. The data was collected to guide the development of new, science-based commercial building ventilation rate standards that balance the dual objectives of increasing energy efficiency and maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Data collection occurred between September 2011 and March 2013. Three types of stores participated in this study: grocery stores, furniture/hardware stores, and apparel stores. Ventilation rates and indoor air contaminant concentrations were measured on a weekday, typically between 9 am and 6 pm. Ventilation rates measured using a tracer gas decay method exceeded the minimum requirement of California’s Title 24 Standard in all but one store. Even though there was adequate ventilation according to Title 24, concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein exceeded the most stringent chronic health guidelines. Other indoor air contaminants measured included carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), and particulate matter (PM). Concentrations of CO{sub 2} were kept low by adequate ventilation, and were assumed low also because the sampling occurred on a weekday when retail stores were less busy. CO concentrations were also low. The indoor-outdoor ratios of O{sub 3} showed that the first-order loss rate may vary by store trade types and also by ventilation mode (mechanical versus natural). Analysis of fine and ultrafine PM measurements showed that a substantial portion of the particle mass in grocery stores with cooking-related emissions was in particles less than 0.3 μm. Stores without cooking as an indoor source had PM size distributions that were more similar indoors and outdoors. The whole-building emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM were estimated from the measured ventilation rates and indoor and outdoor contaminant concentrations. Mass balance models were then used to determine the ventilation rates, filtration strategies, or source reductions needed to maintain indoor contaminant concentrations below reference levels. Several scenarios of potential concern were considered: (i) formaldehyde levels in furniture/hardware stores, (ii) contaminants associated with cooking (e.g., PM, acrolein, and acetaldehyde) in grocery stores, and (iii) outdoor contaminants (e.g., PM and O{sub 3}) impacting stores that use natural ventilation. Estimated formaldehyde emission rates suggest that retail stores would need to ventilate at levels far exceeding the current Title 24 requirement to lower indoor concentrations below California’s stringent formaldehyde reference level. Given the high costs of providing ventilation but only modest chronic health benefit is expected, effective source control is an attractive alternative, as demonstrated by some retail stores in this study. Predictions showed that grocery stores need MERV 13 air filters, instead of MERV 8 filters that are more commonly used, to maintain indoor PM at levels that meet the chronic health standards for PM. Exposure to acrolein is a potential health concern in grocery stores, and should be addressed by increasing the use of kitchen range hoods or improving their contaminant removal efficiency. In stores that rely on natural ventilation, indoor PM can be a health concern if the stores are located in areas with high outdoor PM. This concern may be addressed by switching to mechanical ventilation when the outdoor air quality is poor, while continuing natural ventilation when outdoor air quality is good.

  4. Irradiation and Bevacizumab in High-Grade Glioma Retreatment Settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Ganswindt, Ute; Schwarz, Silke Birgit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Department of Neurosurgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Geisler, Julia; Fougere, Christian la [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Ertl, Lorenz; Linn, Jennifer [Department of Neuroradiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Siefert, Axel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Belka, Claus, E-mail: claus.belka@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Reirradiation is a treatment option for recurrent high-grade glioma with proven but limited effectiveness. Therapies directed against vascular endothelial growth factor have been shown to exert certain efficacy in combination with chemotherapy and have been safely tested in combination with radiotherapy in a small cohort of patients. To study the feasibility of reirradiation combined with bevacizumab treatment, the toxicity and treatment outcomes of this approach were analyzed retrospectively. Patients and Methods: After previous treatment with standard radiotherapy (with or without temozolomide) patients with recurrent malignant glioma received bevacizumab (10 mg/kg intravenous) on Day 1 and Day 15 during radiotherapy. Maintenance therapy was selected based on individual considerations, and mainly bevacizumab-containing regimens were chosen. Patients received 36 Gy in 18 fractions. Results: The data of the medical charts of the 30 patients were analyzed retrospectively. All were irradiated in a single institution and received either bevacizumab (n = 20), no additional substance (n = 7), or temozolomide (n = 3). Reirradiation was tolerated well, regardless of the added drug. In 1 patient treated with bevacizumab, a wound dehiscence occurred. Overall survival was significantly better in patients receiving bevacizumab (p = 0.03, log-rank test). In a multivariate proportional hazards Cox model, bevacizumab, Karnovsky performance status, and World Health Organization grade at relapse turned out to be the most important predictors for overall survival. Conclusion: Reirradiation with bevacizumab is a feasible and effective treatment for patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas. A randomized trial is warranted to finally answer the question whether bevacizumab adds substantial benefit to a radiotherapeutic retreatment setting.

  5. Phillips-Tikhonov regularization with a priori information for neutron emission tomographic reconstruction on Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bielecki, J.; Scholz, M.; Drozdowicz, K.; Giacomelli, L.; Kiptily, V.; Kempenaars, M.; Conroy, S.; Craciunescu, T.; Collaboration: EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB

    2015-09-15

    A method of tomographic reconstruction of the neutron emissivity in the poloidal cross section of the Joint European Torus (JET, Culham, UK) tokamak was developed. Due to very limited data set (two projection angles, 19 lines of sight only) provided by the neutron emission profile monitor (KN3 neutron camera), the reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem. The aim of this work consists in making a contribution to the development of reliable plasma tomography reconstruction methods that could be routinely used at JET tokamak. The proposed method is based on Phillips-Tikhonov regularization and incorporates a priori knowledge of the shape of normalized neutron emissivity profile. For the purpose of the optimal selection of the regularization parameters, the shape of normalized neutron emissivity profile is approximated by the shape of normalized electron density profile measured by LIDAR or high resolution Thomson scattering JET diagnostics. In contrast with some previously developed methods of ill-posed plasma tomography reconstruction problem, the developed algorithms do not include any post-processing of the obtained solution and the physical constrains on the solution are imposed during the regularization process. The accuracy of the method is at first evaluated by several tests with synthetic data based on various plasma neutron emissivity models (phantoms). Then, the method is applied to the neutron emissivity reconstruction for JET D plasma discharge #85100. It is demonstrated that this method shows good performance and reliability and it can be routinely used for plasma neutron emissivity reconstruction on JET.

  6. Functionally graded alumina-based thin film systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, John J.; Zhong, Dalong

    2006-08-29

    The present invention provides coating systems that minimize thermal and residual stresses to create a fatigue- and soldering-resistant coating for aluminum die casting dies. The coating systems include at least three layers. The outer layer is an alumina- or boro-carbide-based outer layer that has superior non-wettability characteristics with molten aluminum coupled with oxidation and wear resistance. A functionally-graded intermediate layer or "interlayer" enhances the erosive wear, toughness, and corrosion resistance of the die. A thin adhesion layer of reactive metal is used between the die substrate and the interlayer to increase adhesion of the coating system to the die surface.

  7. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuznetsov, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel. 4 figs.

  8. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuznetsov, Stephen B.

    1986-01-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel.

  9. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade is published by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC) a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. Each entry includes the address, telephone number, and description of the organization and the energy-related materials available. Most of the entries also include Internet (Web) and electronic mail (E-Mail) addresses. Each entry is followed by a number, which is referenced in the subject index in the back of this book.

  10. Comparison of Selected EIA-782 Data With Other Data Sources

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01

    This article compares annual average prices reported from the EIA-782 survey series for residential No. 2 distillate, on-highway diesel fuel, retail regular motor gasoline, refiner No. 2 fuel oil for resale, refiner No. 2 diesel fuel for resale, refiner regular motor gasoline for resale, and refiner kerosene-type jet fuel for resale with annual average prices reported by other sources. In terms of volume, it compares EIA-782C Prime Supplier annual volumes for motor gasoline (all grades), distillate fuel oil, kerosene-type jet fuel and residual fuel oil with annual volumes from other sources.

  11. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  12. Dedication file preparation for commercial-grade electric components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, J.R.; Farwell, C.R. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Dedication is the process of making a commercial-grade item into a basic component that can be installed in safety systems. This process ensures that the commercially manufactured items are of the same or equivalent form, fit, function, and materials as the originally provided safety item. This process must ensure that the original utility's equipment qualification program is maintained per licensing commitments to 10CFR50.49 and general design criterion No. 4. Today, utilities recognize the need for establishing a dedication program to provide the flexibility in obtaining replacement items directly from the original manufacturers. This need has arisen because (a) most system houses, large manufacturers, and component manufacturers will sell their products only through distributors as straight commercial-grade items or only service former clients, and (b) lack of competition for specific safety-related items has resulted in excessive hardware cost and very long delivery schedules, which could affect plant availability. The vehicle for utilities to obtain safety-related items is to establish and manage a comprehensive dedication program for their own use or provide the direction for a nuclear supplier to follow. This paper provides both utilities and nuclear suppliers insight into the complexities of a dedication program. This insight is provided from our experience as a utilities agent and as a third-party nuclear supplier.

  13. Effects of graded distribution of scattering centers on ballistic transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitran, T. L.; Nemnes, G. A.; Ion, L.; Dragoman, Daniela

    2014-09-28

    The transmission coefficient of a two dimensional scattering region connected to ideal leads was calculated for the case of electrons interacting with an inhomogeneous distribution of repulsive or attractive scattering centers. The scattering centers with Gaussian profiles were positioned at regular intervals perpendicular to the transport direction, but were spaced according to a power law along this direction. The transmission function was obtained using a scattering formalism based on the R-matrix method. The simulations revealed that although, overall, the transmission coefficient decreases and becomes almost monotonously dependent on energy as the inhomogeneity of both attractive and repulsive scattering centers increases, the redistribution of transmission between open channels depends on the type of scattering centers.

  14. Fun With The Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy With The Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Fun With The Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Teacher's guide to help elementary students goain confidence and understanding of renewable and non-renewable energy resources by investigating, questioning, and experimenting with scientific ideas. PDF icon lesson299.pdf More Documents & Publications Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Fun With The

  15. Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda Document provides a sample agenda and instructions a federal agency should use for a kickoff meeting with an energy services company about an energy savings performance contract project. File Download the Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda. More Documents & Publications Agenda: Preliminary Assessment Kickoff Meeting Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting FEMP ESPC

  16. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, Han S. [Department of Electrophysics, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J. [Convergence Plasma Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  17. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers | Jefferson Lab amp; 8th Grade Teachers Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade Teachers NEWPORT NEWS, Va., UPDATED August 4, 2010 - The U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab is currently accepting applications for its science enrichment program for fifth-, sixth- and eighth-grade teachers of science. The program, designed to increase teachers' knowledge of the physical sciences and strengthen their teaching skills, runs from September 2010

  18. Grade Assignments for Models Used for Calibration of Gross-Count Gamma-Ray

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Logging Systems (December 1983) | Department of Energy Grade Assignments for Models Used for Calibration of Gross-Count Gamma-Ray Logging Systems (December 1983) Grade Assignments for Models Used for Calibration of Gross-Count Gamma-Ray Logging Systems (December 1983) Grade Assignments for Models Used for Calibration of Gross-Count Gamma-Ray Logging Systems (December 1983) PDF icon Grade Assignments for Models Used for Calibration of Gross-Count Gamma-Ray Logging Systems (December 1983) More

  19. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  20. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    table. 56 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  1. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    table. 56 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  2. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  3. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  4. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

  5. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    table. 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  6. December 12, 2013 Webinar - The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    December 12, 2013 Webinar - The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford Vadose Zone Modeling Alaa H. Aly (CHPRCINTERA) & Dibakar Goswami ( Washington State Department of Ecology) ...

  7. Microsoft PowerPoint - GradedApproach_P&RA_CoP_December2013 ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hanford Site Graded Approach to Vadose Zone Approach to Vadose Zone Modeling: Current Status and Future Applications pp Presented to: PA Community of Practice 12 December 2013 12 ...

  8. NQA-1 Requirements for Commercial Grade Item Acceptance: ICONE20-54738

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Valkenburg, Taunia S.; Holmes, Richard A.; Tepley, Daniel J.; Sandquist, Gary

    2012-07-19

    Objectives are: (1) Present the DOE Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement (CMRR) Project Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Dedication Process; and (2) Present CMRR Project CGI Lessons-Learned.

  9. Discovery of a 〈210〉-fiber texture in medical-grade metastable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Discovery of a 210-fiber texture in medical-grade metastable beta titanium wire This content will become publicly available on May 4, 2017 Title: Discovery of a ...

  10. Combined iterative reconstruction and image-domain decomposition for dual energy CT using total-variation regularization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xue; Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy CT (DECT) is being increasingly used for its capability of material decomposition and energy-selective imaging. A generic problem of DECT, however, is that the decomposition process is unstable in the sense that the relative magnitude of decomposed signals is reduced due to signal cancellation while the image noise is accumulating from the two CT images of independent scans. Direct image decomposition, therefore, leads to severe degradation of signal-to-noise ratio on the resultant images. Existing noise suppression techniques are typically implemented in DECT with the procedures of reconstruction and decomposition performed independently, which do not explore the statistical properties of decomposed images during the reconstruction for noise reduction. In this work, the authors propose an iterative approach that combines the reconstruction and the signal decomposition procedures to minimize the DECT image noise without noticeable loss of resolution. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated as an optimization problem, which balances the data fidelity and total variation of decomposed images in one framework, and the decomposition step is carried out iteratively together with reconstruction. The noise in the CT images from the proposed algorithm becomes well correlated even though the noise of the raw projections is independent on the two CT scans. Due to this feature, the proposed algorithm avoids noise accumulation during the decomposition process. The authors evaluate the method performance on noise suppression and spatial resolution using phantom studies and compare the algorithm with conventional denoising approaches as well as combined iterative reconstruction methods with different forms of regularization. Results: On the Catphan600 phantom, the proposed method outperforms the existing denoising methods on preserving spatial resolution at the same level of noise suppression, i.e., a reduction of noise standard deviation by one order of magnitude. This improvement is mainly attributed to the high noise correlation in the CT images reconstructed by the proposed algorithm. Iterative reconstruction using different regularization, including quadratic orq-generalized Gaussian Markov random field regularization, achieves similar noise suppression from high noise correlation. However, the proposed TV regularization obtains a better edge preserving performance. Studies of electron density measurement also show that our method reduces the average estimation error from 9.5% to 7.1%. On the anthropomorphic head phantom, the proposed method suppresses the noise standard deviation of the decomposed images by a factor of ?14 without blurring the fine structures in the sinus area. Conclusions: The authors propose a practical method for DECT imaging reconstruction, which combines the image reconstruction and material decomposition into one optimization framework. Compared to the existing approaches, our method achieves a superior performance on DECT imaging with respect to decomposition accuracy, noise reduction, and spatial resolution.

  11. Computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications in multiscale bilateral filtering regularized reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samala, Ravi K. Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A.; Sahiner, Berkman

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection (CADe) system for clustered microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volume enhanced with multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization. Methods: With Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent, two-view DBT of 154 breasts, of which 116 had biopsy-proven microcalcification (MC) clusters and 38 were free of MCs, was imaged with a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system. The DBT volumes were reconstructed with MSBF-regularized simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) that was designed to enhance MCs and reduce background noise while preserving the quality of other tissue structures. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of MCs was further improved with enhancement-modulated calcification response (EMCR) preprocessing, which combined multiscale Hessian response to enhance MCs by shape and bandpass filtering to remove the low-frequency structured background. MC candidates were then located in the EMCR volume using iterative thresholding and segmented by adaptive region growing. Two sets of potential MC objects, cluster centroid objects and MC seed objects, were generated and the CNR of each object was calculated. The number of candidates in each set was controlled based on the breast volume. Dynamic clustering around the centroid objects grouped the MC candidates to form clusters. Adaptive criteria were designed to reduce false positive (FP) clusters based on the size, CNR values and the number of MCs in the cluster, cluster shape, and cluster based maximum intensity projection. Free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and jackknife alternative FROC (JAFROC) analyses were used to assess the performance and compare with that of a previous study. Results: Unpaired two-tailedt-test showed a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in the ratio of CNRs for MCs with and without MSBF regularization compared to similar ratios for FPs. For view-based detection, a sensitivity of 85% was achieved at an FP rate of 2.16 per DBT volume. For case-based detection, a sensitivity of 85% was achieved at an FP rate of 0.85 per DBT volume. JAFROC analysis showed a significant improvement in the performance of the current CADe system compared to that of our previous system (p = 0.003). Conclusions: MBSF regularized SART reconstruction enhances MCs. The enhancement in the signals, in combination with properly designed adaptive threshold criteria, effective MC feature analysis, and false positive reduction techniques, leads to a significant improvement in the detection of clustered MCs in DBT.

  12. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.

  13. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    surpluses weve become accustomed to may be fading away. Retail Gasoline Prices Stay Put The retail price for regular motor gasoline was static this week, staying at 1.404...

  14. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    gasoline data elements are not affected by the switch to ethanol. U.S. Retail Gasoline Price Increases Ahead of the Holiday The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose...

  15. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    for oil markets. Retail Gasoline Prices Gain Almost 5 Cents The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline increased 4.7 cents last week to jump to 279.6 cents per gallon...

  16. Compositionally graded SiCu thin film anode by magnetron sputtering for lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polat, B. D.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Keles, O; Erdemir, A; Amine, Khalil

    2015-10-22

    Compositionally graded and non-graded composite SiCu thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on Cu disks for investigation of their potentials in lithium ion battery applications. The compositionally graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu delivered a 1400 mAh g-1 capacity with 80% Coulombic efficiency in the first cycle and still retained its capacity at around 600 mAh g-1 (with 99.9% Coulombic efficiency) even after 100 cycles. On the other hand, the non-graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu exhibited 1100 mAh g-1 as the first discharge capacity with 78% Coulombic efficiency but the cycle life of this film degraded very quickly, delivering only 250 mAh g-1 capacity after 100th cycles. Not only the Cu content but also the graded film thickness were believed to be the main contributors to the much superior performance of the compositionally graded SiCu films. We also believe that the Cu-rich region of the graded film helped reduce internal stress build-up and thus prevented film delamination during cycling. In particular, the decrease of Cu content from interface region to the top of the coating reduced the possibility of stress build-up across the film during cycling, thus leading to a high electrochemical performance.

  17. Precipitation in 18 wt% Ni maraging steel of grade 350

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, R.; Mazumder, S.; Batra, I.S.; Dey, G.K.; Banerjee, S.

    2000-03-14

    The evolution of precipitates in maraging steel of grade 350 was studied using the complementary techniques of small angle X-ray scattering (SACS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These investigations revealed that ageing the steel at 703 K involved a rhombohedral distortion of the supersaturated b.c.c. martensite accompanied by the appearance of diffuse {omega}-like structures. This was followed by the appearance of well-defined {omega} particles containing chemical order. At the ageing temperature of 783 K, Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) precipitates were the first to appear with a growth exponent of 1/3. The values of the Pored exponent obtained from the SAXS profiles indicated that the {omega} particles, formed below 723 K, had diffuse interfaces up to an ageing time of 48 h. On the other hand, Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) precipitates, formed above 723 K, developed sharp interfaces in just about an hour. Also, the steel exhibited scaling in phase separation both at 703 and 783 K, but only during the early stages. Through this study it was established that at temperatures of ageing less than 723 K, evolution of {omega} particles takes place through the collapse of the unstable b.c.c. lattice and, at temperatures above 723 K, precipitation of A{sub 3}B type of phases through the mechanism of clustering and ordering of atomic species. Sharp interfaces develop rather quickly when the mechanism of precipitation involves development and amplification of a concentration wave along as in the nucleation of Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) at 783 K than when an interplay of both the displacement and concentration waves is required as in the evolution of {omega} at 703 K. These results indicate towards the possibility of existence of two separate time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curves, one for the evolution of {omega}-phase and another for nucleation and growth of Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo).

  18. U.S. and Russia Reaffirm Commitment to Disposing of Weapon-Grade Plutonium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Reaffirm Commitment to Disposing of Weapon-Grade Plutonium U.S. and Russia Reaffirm Commitment to Disposing of Weapon-Grade Plutonium July 13, 2006 - 3:05pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman and Sergey Kiriyenko, the director of Russia's Federal Atomic Energy Agency, have signed a joint statement reaffirming their commitment to dispose of 34 metric tons of excess weapon-grade plutonium by irradiation in nuclear reactors. "This

  19. Quantum Chaos generates Regularities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otsuka, Takaharu [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan); RIKEN (Japan); Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo (Japan); Shimizu, Noritaka [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan); RIKEN (Japan)

    2005-07-08

    The mechanism of the dominance (preponderance) of the 0+ ground state for random interactions is proposed to be the chaotic realization of the highest rotational symmetry. This is a consequence of a general principle on the chaos and symmetry that the highest symmetry is given to the ground state if sufficient mixing occurs in a chaotic way by a random interaction. Under this symmetry-realization mechanism, the ground-state parity and isospin can be predicted so that the positive parity is favored over the negative parity and the isospin T = 0 state is favored over higher isospin. It is further suggested how one can enhance the realization of highest symmetries within random interactions. Thus, chaos and symmetry are shown to be linked deeply.

  20. December 12, 2013 Webinar- The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford Vadose Zone Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    P&RA CoP Webinar - Dec. 12, 2013 - Alaa Aly (INTERA) & Dib Goswami (Washington State Ecology), “The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford Vadose Zone Modeling”

  1. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 26.6 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  2. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 27.4 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  3. Grades 9-12: Join the BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge!

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is hosting the BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge to engage 9th–12th grade students in learning about bioenergy and educating their peers. In this...

  4. Notice of Intent to Revise DOE Order 470.3B, Graded Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    adversary numbers and capabilities to reflect the intent of the policy and the inherent risk management considerations. 15 NOV 23 - DOE O 470.3B Graded Security Protection (GSP)...

  5. Analysis Reveals Impact of Road Grade on Vehicle Energy Use (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    Findings of study indicate that, on average, road grade could be responsible for 1%-3% of fuel use in light-duty automobiles, with many individual trips impacted by as much as 40%.

  6. INITIAL COMPARISON OF BASELINE PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR THE VHTR CANDIDATE GRAPHITE GRADES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Mark C

    2014-09-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design, a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled configuration that is capable of producing thermal energy for power generation as well as process heat for industrial applications that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is endeavoring to minimize the conservative estimates of as-manufactured mechanical and physical properties in nuclear-grade graphites by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a thorough comparison between these values in different graphite grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons both in specific properties and in the associated variability between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between each of the grades of graphite that are considered candidate grades from four major international graphite producers. These particular grades (NBG-18, NBG-17, PCEA, IG-110, and 2114) are the major focus of the evaluations presently underway on irradiated graphite properties through the series of Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiments. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL from which billets are formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration. NBG-17 graphite from SGL is essentially NBG-18 with the grain size reduced by a factor of two. PCEA, petroleum coke graphite from GrafTech with a similar grain size to NBG-17, is formed via an extrusion process and was initially considered the favored grade for the prismatic layout. IG-110 and 2114, from Toyo Tanso and Mersen (formerly Carbone Lorraine), respectively, are fine-grain grades produced via an isomolding process. An analysis of the comparison between each of these grades will include not only the differences in fundamental and statistically-significant individual strength levels, but also the differences in variability in properties within each of the grades that will ultimately provide the basis for the prediction of in-service performance. The comparative performance of the different types of nuclear-grade graphites will continue to evolve as thousands more specimens are fully characterized from the numerous grades of graphite being evaluated.

  7. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers; Registration Deadline is Sept. 13 | Jefferson Lab 3 Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade Teachers; Registration Deadline is Sept. 13 NEWPORT NEWS, Va., Aug. 28, 2013 -- The U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab is currently accepting applications for its science enrichment program for fifth-, sixth- and eighth-grade teachers of science. The after-school program is designed to increase teachers' knowledge of the physical sciences and to

  8. EERE Success Story-Making the Grade: Washington School District Invest in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency | Department of Energy the Grade: Washington School District Invest in Energy Efficiency EERE Success Story-Making the Grade: Washington School District Invest in Energy Efficiency September 10, 2015 - 11:55am Addthis As part of the Better Buildings Challenge, Camas School District in Washington not only surpassed its energy efficiency goals, but did so five years early. | Photo courtesy of Camas School District. As part of the Better Buildings Challenge, Camas School

  9. Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

    1980-05-27

    A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

  10. Competing for a grade and our nuclear security | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Competing for a grade and ... Competing for a grade and our nuclear security Posted: February 25, 2016 - 2:05pm UT students and Y-12 nuclear security subject matter experts conduct a battle board challenge in Oak Ridge. It's like a semester-long chess game with the final moves played live at Y-12 National Security Complex. Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC nuclear security training experts and University of Tennessee graduate students strategize over a 3-dimensional battle board

  11. NON-RADIAL OSCILLATIONS IN M-GIANT SEMI-REGULAR VARIABLES: STELLAR MODELS AND KEPLER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stello, Dennis; Compton, Douglas L.; Bedding, Timothy R.; Kiss, Laszlo L.; Bellamy, Beau; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jrgen; Kjeldsen, Hans; Garca, Rafael A.

    2014-06-10

    The success of asteroseismology relies heavily on our ability to identify the frequency patterns of stellar oscillation modes. For stars like the Sun this is relatively easy because the mode frequencies follow a regular pattern described by a well-founded asymptotic relation. When a solar-like star evolves off the main sequence and onto the red giant branch its structure changes dramatically, resulting in changes in the frequency pattern of the modes. We follow the evolution of the adiabatic frequency pattern from the main sequence to near the tip of the red giant branch for a series of models. We find a significant departure from the asymptotic relation for the non-radial modes near the red giant branch tip, resulting in a triplet frequency pattern. To support our investigation we analyze almost four years of Kepler data of the most luminous stars in the field (late K and early M type) and find that their frequency spectra indeed show a triplet pattern dominated by dipole modes even for the most luminous stars in our sample. Our identification explains previous results from ground-based observations reporting fine structure in the Petersen diagram and sub-ridges in the period-luminosity diagram. Finally, we find ''new ridges'' of non-radial modes with frequencies below the fundamental mode in our model calculations, and we speculate they are related to f modes.

  12. SU-E-I-93: Improved Imaging Quality for Multislice Helical CT Via Sparsity Regularized Iterative Image Reconstruction Method Based On Tensor Framelet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, H; Guo, M; Lee, K; Li, R; Xing, L; Gao, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Inspired by compressive sensing, sparsity regularized iterative reconstruction method has been extensively studied. However, its utility pertinent to multislice helical 4D CT for radiotherapy with respect to imaging quality, dose, and time has not been thoroughly addressed. As the beginning of such an investigation, this work carries out the initial comparison of reconstructed imaging quality between sparsity regularized iterative method and analytic method through static phantom studies using a state-of-art 128-channel multi-slice Siemens helical CT scanner. Methods: In our iterative method, tensor framelet (TF) is chosen as the regularization method for its superior performance from total variation regularization in terms of reduced piecewise-constant artifacts and improved imaging quality that has been demonstrated in our prior work. On the other hand, X-ray transforms and its adjoints are computed on-the-fly through GPU implementation using our previous developed fast parallel algorithms with O(1) complexity per computing thread. For comparison, both FDK (approximate analytic method) and Katsevich algorithm (exact analytic method) are used for multislice helical CT image reconstruction. Results: The phantom experimental data with different imaging doses were acquired using a state-of-art 128-channel multi-slice Siemens helical CT scanner. The reconstructed image quality was compared between TF-based iterative method, FDK and Katsevich algorithm with the quantitative analysis for characterizing signal-to-noise ratio, image contrast, and spatial resolution of high-contrast and low-contrast objects. Conclusion: The experimental results suggest that our tensor framelet regularized iterative reconstruction algorithm improves the helical CT imaging quality from FDK and Katsevich algorithm for static experimental phantom studies that have been performed.

  13. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard M. Laine

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it starts one step upstream from all other Sipv production efforts. Our process starts by producing high purity SiO2/C feedstocks from which Sipv can be produced in a single, chlorine free, final EAF step. Specifically, our unique technology, and the resultant SiO2/C product can serve as high purity feedstocks to existing metallurgical silicon (Simet) producers, allowing them to generate Sipv with existing US manufacturing infrastructure, reducing the overall capital and commissioning schedule. Our low energy, low CAPEX and OPEX process purifies the silica and carbon present in rice hull ash (RHA) at low temperatures (< 200C) to produce high purity (5-6 Ns) feedstock for production of Sipv using furnaces similar to those used to produce Simet. During the course of this project we partnered with Wadham Energy LP (Wadham), who burns 220k ton of rice hulls (RH)/yr generating 200 GWh of electricity/yr and >30k ton/yr RHA. The power generation step produces much more energy (42 kWh/kg of final silicon produced) than required to purify the RHA (5 kWh/kg of Sipv, compared to 65 kWh/kg noted above. Biogenic silica offers three very important foundations for producing high purity silicon. First, wastes from silica accumulating plants, such as rice, corn, many grasses, algae and grains, contain very reactive, amorphous silica from which impurities are easily removed. Second, plants take up only a limited set of, and minimal quantities of the heavy metals present in nature, meaning fewer minerals must be removed. Third, biomass combustion generates a product with intrinsic residual carbon, mixed at nanometer length scales with the SiO2. RHA is 80-90 wt% high surface area (20 m2/g), amorphous SiO2 with some simple mineral content mixed intimately with 5-15 wt% carbon. The mineral content is easily removed by low cost, acid washes using Mayaterials IP, leading to purified rice hull ash (RHAclean) at up to 6N purity. This highly reactive silica is partially extracted from RHAclean at 200 C in an environmentally benign process to adjust SiO2:C ratios to those needed in EA

  14. Retail Sales Allocation Tool (RSAT)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  15. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5, 2013. West Coast Leads Recent Gasoline Price Declines As the Labor Day weekend approaches, the U.S. national average retail price for regular gasoline has drifted...

  16. The Impact of Ethanol Production on U.S. and Regional Gasoline Prices and on the Profitability of the U.S. Oil Refinery Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Xiaodong; Hayes, Dermot J.

    2008-04-01

    This report details pooled regional time-series data and panel data estimation used to quantify the impact of monthly ethanol production on monthly retail regular gasoline prices.

  17. Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015 Although retail gasoline prices have risen in recent weeks U.S. consumers are still expected to save about $675 per household in motor fuel costs this year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says the average pump price for regular grade gasoline in 2015 will be $2.43 per gallon. That's about 93 cents lower than last year's average. The savings for consumers will be even bigger during the

  18. Microsoft Word - Highlights.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    August 2010 1 August 2010 Short-Term Energy Outlook August 10, 2010 Release Highlights  EIA projects that the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) spot price, which ended July at more than $78 per barrel, will average $81 per barrel in the fourth quarter of 2010 and $84 per barrel in 2011, slightly above the forecasts in last month's Outlook.  EIA expects that regular-grade motor gasoline retail prices, which averaged $2.35 per gallon last year, will average $2.77 per gallon over the second half

  19. Microsoft Word - Highlights.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    July 2010 1 July 2010 Short-Term Energy Outlook July 7, 2010 Release Highlights  EIA projects that the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) spot price, which ended June near $76 per barrel, will average $79 per barrel over the second half of 2010 and $83 per barrel in 2011. This forecast is unchanged from last month's Outlook.  EIA expects that regular-grade motor gasoline retail prices will average $2.80 per gallon during this summerʹs driving season (the period between April 1 and September

  20. Microsoft Word - Highlights.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    May 2007 1 May 2007 Short-Term Energy Outlook May 8, 2007 Release Highlights * Continuing problems for refineries in the United States and abroad, combined with strong global gasoline demand, have raised our projected average summer gasoline price by 14 cents per gallon from our last Outlook. Retail regular grade motor gasoline prices are now projected to average $2.95 per gallon this summer compared with the $2.84 per gallon average of last summer. During the summer season, the average monthly

  1. Summer science-writing internship | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summer gasoline price forecast slightly higher, but drivers still pay less than last year Rising crude oil prices are likely to be passed on to consumers at the pump, but U.S. drivers are still expected to pay the lowest summer gasoline prices since 2004, and for all of 2016 the average household will spend $900 less on gasoline than it did two years ago." In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the retail price for regular grade gasoline will average

  2. Neutronics and safety characteristics of a 100% MOX fueled PWR using weapons grade plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, D.; Rathbun, R.; Lee, Si Young; Rosenthal, P.

    1993-12-31

    Preliminary neutronics and safety studies, pertaining to the feasibility of using 100% weapons grade mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in an advanced PWR Westinghouse design are presented in this paper. The preliminary results include information on boron concentration, power distribution, reactivity coefficients and xenon and control rode worth for the initial and the equilibrium cycle. Important safety issues related to rod ejection and steam line break accidents and shutdown margin requirements are also discussed. No significant change from the commercial design is needed to denature weapons-grade plutonium under the current safety and licensing criteria.

  3. Utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    breeding of the {sup 233}U isotope in the VVER reactors using thorium and heavy water (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium with breeding of the {sup 233}U isotope in the VVER reactors using thorium and heavy water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium with breeding of the {sup 233}U isotope in the VVER reactors using thorium and heavy water A

  4. Cohesive Modeling of Dynamic Crack Growth in Homogeneous and Functionally Graded Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Zhengyu; Paulino, Glaucio H.; Celes, Waldemar

    2008-02-15

    This paper presents a Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) approach for investigating dynamic crack propagation in homogeneous and Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs). The failure criterion is incorporated in the CZM using both a finite cohesive strength and work to fracture in the material description. A novel CZM for FGMs is explored and incorporated into a finite element framework. The material gradation is approximated at the element level using a graded element formulation. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the CZM approach, in which the influence of the material gradation on the crack growth pattern is studied.

  5. High-speed tapping-mode atomic force microscopy using a Q-controlled regular cantilever acting as the actuator: Proof-of-principle experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balantekin, M.; Sat?r, S.; Torello, D.; De?ertekin, F. L.

    2014-12-15

    We present the proof-of-principle experiments of a high-speed actuation method to be used in tapping-mode atomic force microscopes (AFM). In this method, we do not employ a piezotube actuator to move the tip or the sample as in conventional AFM systems, but, we utilize a Q-controlled eigenmode of a cantilever to perform the fast actuation. We show that the actuation speed can be increased even with a regular cantilever.

  6. U.S. Motor Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Formulation Grade: Gasoline, Average Regular Gasoline Midgrade Gasoline Premium Gasoline Conventional, Average Conventional Regular Conventional Midgrade Conventional Premium ...

  7. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    82.4 77.1 68.9 62.6 71.6 92.3 89.9 82.6 72.7 - 78.2 See footnotes at end of table. 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 56 Energy Information...

  8. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71.6 92.3 78.2 101.8 83.6 87.5 74.7 See footnotes at end of table. A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District, and State, 1984-Present 452 Energy Information...

  9. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    61.5 67.3 89.8 89.5 82.2 69.4 71.1 74.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  10. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    82.5 75.1 68.6 62.0 70.7 92.7 90.7 81.5 72.8 - 78.0 See footnotes at end of table. 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 56 Energy Information...

  11. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    35.2 213.6 9.5 9.8 12.9 16.6 NA 29.5 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  12. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    62.2 68.5 90.1 89.6 82.4 70.9 NA 75.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  13. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    33.9 215.8 9.7 10.0 12.1 16.3 0.0 28.4 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  14. Just in Time Webinars: Session 1 – Managing Your Investment-Grade Audit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar discusses how to manage an investment-grade audit (IGA) by establishing roles and responsibilities of interdependent team members to achieve a high quality IGA, and using the synergy of contracting and technical team interaction to scope your project requirements and guide proposal development.

  15. Commercial Grade Dedication of Software, TFC-ENG-DESIGN-C-65

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This procedure establishes the process, methods and instruction for dedication of commercial grade computer programs (software) that affect performance of a Structure System and Component (SSC) safety function or provide controls necessary for adequate protection from nuclear facility or radiological hazards.

  16. Ductile fracture toughness of modified A 302 Grade B Plate materials, data analysis. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D.E.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Swain, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop ductile fracture toughness data in the form of J-R curves for modified A302 grade B plate materials typical of those used in reactor pressure vessels. A previous experimental study on one heat of A302 grade B plate showed decreasing J-R curves with increased specimen thickness. This characteristic has not been observed in tests made on recent production materials of A533 grade B and A508 class 2 pressure vessel steels. It was unknown if the departure from norm for the material was a generic characteristic for all heats of A302 grade B steels or unique to that particular plate. Seven heats of modified A302 grade B steel and one heat of vintage A533 grade B steel were tested for chemical content, tensile properties, Charpy transition temperature curves, drop-weight nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature, and J-R curves. Tensile tests were made in the three principal orientations and at four temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 550F. Charpy V-notch transition temperature curves were obtained in longitudinal, transverse, and short transverse orientations. J-R curves were made using four specimen sizes (1/2T, 1T, 2T, and 4T). The fracture mechanics-based evaluation method covered three test orientations and three test temperatures (80, 400, and 550F). However, the coverage of these variables was contingent upon the amount of material provided. Drop-weight NDT temperature was determined for the T-L orientation only. None of the heats of modified A302 grade B showed size effects of any consequence on the J-R curve behavior. Crack orientation effects were present, but none were severe enough to be reported as atypical. A test temperature increase from 180 to 550F produced the usual loss in J-R curve fracture toughness. Generic J-R curves and curve fits were generated to represent each heat of material. This volume deals with the evaluation of data and the discussion of technical findings. 8 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  18. Status of Initial Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Graphite Grades for NGNP Appkications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strizak, Joe P; Burchell, Timothy D; Windes, Will

    2011-12-01

    Current candidate graphite grades for the core structures of NGNP include grades NBG-17, NBG-18, PCEA and IG-430. Both NBG-17 and NBG-18 are manufactured using pitch coke, and are vibrationally molded. These medium grain products are produced by SGL Carbon SAS (France). Tayo Tanso (Japan) produces IG-430 which is a petroleum coke, isostatically molded, nuclear grade graphite. And PCEA is a medium grain, extruded graphite produced by UCAR Carbon Co. (USA) from petroleum coke. An experimental program has been initiated to develop physical and mechanical properties data for these current candidate graphites. The results will be judged against the requirements for nuclear grade graphites set forth in ASTM standard D 7219-05 "Standard Specification for Isotropic and Near-isotropic Nuclear Graphites". Physical properties data including thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion, and mechanical properties data including tensile, compressive and flexural strengths will be obtained using the established test methods covered in D-7219 and ASTM C 781-02 "Standard Practice for Testing Graphite and Boronated Graphite Components for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactors". Various factors known to effect the properties of graphites will be investigated. These include specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation (ag and wg) within a billet, and billet-to-billet variations. The current status of the materials characterization program is reported herein. To date billets of the four graphite grades have been procured, and detailed cut up plans for obtaining the various specimens have been prepared. Particular attention has been given to the traceability of each specimen to its spatial location and orientation within a billet.

  19. Influence of frequency, grade, moisture and temperature on Green River oil shale dielectric properties and electromagnetic heating processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakala, J. Alexandra [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Stanchina, William [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Soong, Yee [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Development of in situ electromagnetic (EM) retorting technologies and design of specific EM well logging tools requires an understanding of various process parameters (applied frequency, mineral phases present, water content, organic content and temperature) on oil shale dielectric properties. In this literature review on oil shale dielectric properties, we found that at low temperatures (<200 C) and constant oil shale grade, both the relative dielectric constant (?') and imaginary permittivity (?'') decrease with increased frequency and remain constant at higher frequencies. At low temperature and constant frequency, ?' decreases or remains constant with oil shale grade, while ?'' increases or shows no trend with oil shale grade. At higher temperatures (>200 C) and constant frequency, epsilon' generally increases with temperature regardless of grade while ?'' fluctuates. At these temperatures, maximum values for both ?' and ?'' differ based upon oil shale grade. Formation fluids, mineral-bound water, and oil shale varve geometry also affect measured dielectric properties. This review presents and synthesizes prior work on the influence of applied frequency, oil shale grade, water, and temperature on the dielectric properties of oil shales that can aid in the future development of frequency- and temperature-specific in situ retorting technologies and oil shale grade assay tools.

  20. EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Development of Road Grade Profiles Representative of US Controlled Access Highways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Burton, Evan; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-05-12

    This report includes a detailed comparison of the TomTom national road grade database relative to a local road grade dataset generated by Southwest Research Institute and a national elevation dataset publically available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This analysis concluded that the TomTom national road grade database was a suitable source of road grade data for purposes of this study.

  1. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and systems thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Joe H; Olson, Tammy Y; Kuntz, Joshua D; Rose, Klint A

    2015-03-03

    In one embodiment, an aerogel includes a layer of shaped particles having a particle packing density gradient in a thickness direction of the layer, wherein the shaped particles are characterized by being formed in an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using an impurity. In another embodiment, a method for forming a functionally graded porous nanostructure includes adding particles of an impurity and a solution to an EPD chamber, applying a voltage difference across the two electrodes of the EPD chamber to create an electric field in the EPD chamber, and depositing the material onto surfaces of the particles of the impurity to form shaped particles of the material. Other functionally graded materials and methods are described according to more embodiments.

  2. Sidewall tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2001-01-01

    A sidewall tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, a) a body adapted for insertion into an opening in earthen soil below grade, the body having lateral sidewalls; b) a laterally oriented porous material provided relative to the body lateral sidewalls, the laterally oriented porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body; c) a pressure a sensor in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; and d) sidewall engaging means for engaging a portion of a sidewall of an earth opening to laterally urge the porous material into hydraulic communication with earthen soil of another portion of the opening sidewall. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed.

  3. A Review Corrosion of TI Grade 7 and Other TI Alloys in Nuclear Waste Repository Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Hua; K. Mon; P. Pasupathi; G. Gordon

    2004-05-11

    Titanium alloy degradation modes are reviewed in relation to their performance in repository environments. General corrosion, localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen induced cracking, microbially influenced corrosion, and radiation-assisted corrosion of Ti alloys are considered. With respect to the Ti Grade 7 drip shields selected for emplacement in the repository at Yucca Mountain, general corrosion, hydrogen induced cracking, and radiation-assisted corrosion will not lead to failure within the 10,000 year regulatory period; stress corrosion cracking (in the absence of disruptive events) is of no consequence to barrier performance; and localized corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion are not expected to occur. To facilitate the discussion, Ti Grades 2, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, and 24 are included in this review.

  4. Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in molten salt reactor miniFUJI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Waris, A.

    2014-09-30

    Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in 25MWth and 50MWth of miniFUJI MSR (molten salt reactor) has been carried out. In this study, a very high enriched uranium that we called weapon grade uranium has been employed in UF{sub 4} composition. The {sup 235}U enrichment is 90 - 95 %. The results show that the 25MWth miniFUJI MSR can get its criticality condition for 1.56 %, 1.76%, and 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at least 93%, 90%, and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the 50 MWth miniFUJI reactor can be critical for 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at smallest amount 95%. The neutron spectra are almost similar for each power output.

  5. Forming high-efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2015-07-07

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  6. Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2014-09-09

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  7. Mechanical Properties of a Graded Alumina-Zirconia Composite Prepared by Centrifugal Slip Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hara, Yasuyuki; Onda, Tetsuhiko; Hayakawa, Motozo

    2008-02-15

    Compositionally graded composite of alumina-20 vol%zirconia was fabricated by using centrifugal casting incorporated with relatively thin slip. An EPMA analysis exhibited a nearly linear variation of the alumina/zirconia ratio along the centrifugal direction; zirconia tended to accumulate in the bottom section, while alumina in the top section. Such a graded structure exhibited a considerably higher flexural strength when the alumina rich surface was subjected to a tensile stress than compositionally uniform composite of the same average composition. Fracture toughness measurement across the specimen thickness by indentation method revealed that the crack lengths along the vertical and horizontal directions were different. The anisotropy of the fracture toughness was accounted for by the variation of the residual stress across the specimen thicknesss.

  8. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) SUB-GRADE EE/CA EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES A NEW MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2007-06-08

    An engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) was performed at the Hanford Site's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The purpose of the EVCA was to identify the sub-grade items to be evaluated; determine the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) hazardous substances through process history and available data; evaluate these hazards; and as necessary, identify the available alternatives to reduce the risk associated with the contaminants. The sub-grade EWCA considered four alternatives for an interim removal action: (1) No Action; (2) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M); (3) Stabilize and Leave in Place (Stabilization); and (4) Remove, Treat and Dispose (RTD). Each alternative was evaluated against the CERCLA criteria for effectiveness, implementability, and cost.

  9. NREL: Workforce Development and Education Programs - Students Grade 4-12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Students Grade 4-12 NREL's Workforce Development and Education Programs seek to promote science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) using renewable energy as the vehicle to capture student interest. Engaging students in science and engineering activities opens the door for both study and career opportunities in these disciplines. Students from traditionally under represented ethnic and gender groups are encouraged to participate from all academic levels. Elementary Several

  10. Method for making graded I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductors and solar cell obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devaney, Walter E.

    1987-08-04

    Improved cell photovoltaic conversion efficiencies are obtained by the simultaneous elemental reactive evaporation process of Mickelsen and Chen for making semiconductors by closer control of the evaporation rates and substrate temperature during formation of the near contact, bulk, and near junction regions of a graded I-III-VI.sub.2, thin film, semiconductor, such as CuInSe.sub.2 /(Zn,Cd)S or another I-III-VI.sub.2 /II-VI heterojunction.

  11. BioenergizeME Office Hours Webinar: Integrating Bioenergy into the 9th-12th Grade Classroom

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    December 10, 2015 BioenergizeME Office Hours Integrating Bioenergy into the 9 th__ 12 th Grade Classroom Alexis Martin Knauss Fellow Bioenergy Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy Shannon Zaret Contractor, The Hannon Group Bioenergy Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Agenda 1. Overview Of Energy Literacy 2. Overview of Next Generation Science Standards 3. Bioenergy Basics 5. Incorporation of Bioenergy into the Classroom 4. 2016 BioenergizeME

  12. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers | Jefferson Lab Teachers Get Their Science On - One hundred sixty-two elementary and middle-school teachers interested in learning new and innovative methods for teaching the physical sciences attended the Annual Region II Teacher Night held April 20 at Jefferson Lab. Fifty-four teachers who participated in enrichment programs at JLab for teachers of science presented the activities and demonstrations. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

  13. Method and apparatus for determination of mechanical properties of functionally-graded materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giannakopoulos, Antonios E.; Suresh, Subra

    1999-01-01

    Techniques for the determination of mechanical properties of homogenous or functionally-graded materials from indentation testing are presented. The technique is applicable to indentation on the nano-scale through the macro-scale including the geological scale. The technique involves creating a predictive load/depth relationship for a sample, providing an experimental load/depth relationship, comparing the experimental data to the predictive data, and determining a physical characteristic from the comparison.

  14. On Graded Electrode Porosity as a Design Tool for Improving the Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Density of Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 15, 2015, Research Highlights On Graded Electrode Porosity as a Design Tool for Improving the Energy Density of Batteries (Top) Optimization performance for specific energy (Wh/kg) based on two designs: constant and varying-porosity. (Bottom) The effect of various Bruggeman exponent on cell performances by two designs: constant-porosity and varying-porosity Scientific Achievement A clear and unambiguous quantification of the

  15. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Sisson, J.B.

    1997-07-08

    A portable tensiometer to in-situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, (a) a body having opposing first and second ends and being adapted for complete insertion into earthen soil below grade; (b) a porous material provided at the first body end, the porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body at the first body end, the fluid chamber being fluidically sealed within the body but for the porous material; (c) a degassed liquid received within the fluid chamber; (d) a pressure transducer mounted in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; (e) the body, pressure transducer and degassed liquid having a combined mass; (f) a flexible suspension line connected to the body adjacent the second body end, the flexible line being of sufficient strength to gravitationally freely self suspend the combined mass; and (g) the combined mass being sufficient to effectively impart hydraulic communication between below-grade earthen soil contacted by the porous material under the weight of the combined mass. Tensiometers configured to engage the sidewalls of an earthen opening are also disclosed. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed. 12 figs.

  16. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    1997-01-01

    A portable tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, a) a body having opposing first and second ends and being adapted for complete insertion into earthen soil below grade; b) a porous material provided at the first body end, the porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body at the first body end, the fluid chamber being fluidically sealed within the body but for the porous material; c) a degassed liquid received within the fluid chamber; d) a pressure transducer mounted in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; e) the body, pressure transducer and degassed liquid having a combined mass; f) a flexible suspension line connected to the body adjacent the second body end, the flexible line being of sufficient strength to gravitationally freely self suspend the combined mass; and c) the combined mass being sufficient to effectively impart hydraulic communication between below-grade earthen soil contacted by the porous material under the weight of the combined mass. Tensiometers configured to engage the sidewalls of an earthen opening are also disclosed. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed.

  17. Simulation of NOx emission in circulating fluidized beds burning low-grade fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afsin Gungor

    2009-05-15

    Nitrogen oxides are a major environmental pollutant resulting from combustion. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant NOx emission resulting from low-grade fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. The simulation model accounts for the axial and radial distribution of NOx emission in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size CFBs that use different types of low-grade fuels given in the literature. The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable levels of NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade fuels. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall NOx emission. As a result of this investigation, both experimental data and model predictions show that NOx emission increases with the bed temperature but decreases with excess air if other parameters are kept unchanged. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Graded zooming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coffland, Douglas R. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-04-25

    A system for increasing the resolution in the far field resolution of video or still frame images, while maintaining full coverage in the near field. The system includes a camera connected to a computer. The computer applies a specific zooming scale factor to each of line of pixels and continuously increases the scale factor of the line of pixels from the bottom to the top to capture the scene in the near field, yet maintain resolution in the scene in the far field.

  19. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Mll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  20. Compositionally graded relaxed AlGaN buffers on semipolar GaN for mid-ultraviolet emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Erin C.; Wu Feng; Haeger, Daniel A.; Nakamura, Shuji; Denbaars, Steven P.; Cohen, Daniel A.; Speck, James S.; Romanov, Alexey E.

    2012-10-01

    In this Letter, we report on the growth and properties of relaxed, compositionally graded Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N buffer layers on freestanding semipolar (2021) GaN substrates. Continuous and step compositional grades with Al concentrations up to x = 0.61 have been achieved, with emission wavelengths in the mid-ultraviolet region as low as 265 nm. Coherency stresses were relaxed progressively throughout the grades by misfit dislocation generation via primary (basal) slip and secondary (non-basal) slip systems. Threading dislocation densities in the final layers of the grades were less than 10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2} as confirmed by plan-view transmission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence studies.

  1. Determining importance and grading of items and activities for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeKlever, R.; Verna, B.

    1993-12-31

    Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN), in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project, has been responsible for the Title 2 designs of the initial structures, systems, and components for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and the creation of the design output documents for the Surface-Based Testing (SBT) programs. The ESF and SBT programs are major scientific contributors to the overall site characterization program which will determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain to contain a proposed High Level Nuclear Waste (HLNW) repository. Accurate, traceable and objective characterization and testing documentation that is germane to the protection of public health and safety, and the environment, and that satisfies all the requirements of 10 CFR Part 60(1), must be established, evaluated and accepted. To assure that these requirements are satisfied, specific design functions and products, including items and activities depicted within respective design output documents, are subjected to the requirements of an NRC and DOE-approved Quality Assurance (QA) program. An evaluation (classification) is applied to these items and activities to determine their importance to radiological safety (ITS) and waste isolation (ITWI). Subsequently, QA program controls are selected (grading) for the items and activities. RSN has developed a DOE-approved classification process that is based on probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques and that uses accident/impact scenarios. Results from respective performance assessment and test interference evaluations are also integrated into the classification analyses for various items. The methodology and results of the RSN classification and grading processes, presented herein, relative to ESF and SBT design products, demonstrates a solid, defensible methodological basis for classification and grading.

  2. A REAL-TIME COAL CONTENT/ORE GRADE (C2OC) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rand Swanson

    2005-04-01

    This is the final report of a three year DOE funded project titled ''A real-time coal content/ore grade (C{sub 2}OG) sensor''. The sensor, which is based on hyperspectral imaging technology, was designed to give a machine vision assay of ore or coal. Sensors were designed and built at Resonon, Inc., and then deployed at the Stillwater Mining Company core room in southcentral Montana for analyzing platinum/palladium ore and at the Montana Tech Spectroscopy Lab for analyzing coal and other materials. The Stillwater sensor imaged 91' of core and analyzed this data for surface sulfides which are considered to be pathfinder minerals for platinum/palladium at this mine. Our results indicate that the sensor could deliver a relative ore grade provided tool markings and iron oxidation were kept to a minimum. Coal, talc, and titanium sponge samples were also imaged and analyzed for content and grade with promising results. This research has led directly to a DOE SBIR Phase II award for Resonon to develop a down-hole imaging spectrometer based on the same imaging technology used in the Stillwater core room C{sub 2}OG sensor. The Stillwater Mining Company has estimated that this type of imaging system could lead to a 10% reduction in waste rock from their mine and provide a $650,000 benefit per year. The proposed system may also lead to an additional 10% of ore tonnage, which would provide a total economic benefit of more than $3.1 million per year. If this benefit could be realized on other metal ores for which the proposed technology is suitable, the possible economic benefits to U.S. mines is over $70 million per year. In addition to these currently lost economic benefits, there are also major energy losses from mining waste rock and environmental impacts from mining, processing, and disposing of waste rock.

  3. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers | Jefferson Lab Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade Teachers Teachers Night To Improve Science Education - A highlight of the JSAT program is the annual Teacher Night, when current and former JSAT participants share with other teachers, some of the new techniques and activities they've learned or developed to enhance science education for their students. The 2013 Teacher Night will be held on April 17. NEWPORT NEWS, Va., July 9, 2012 - The

  4. Fracture modes in tubular LSFCO ceramic membranes under graded reducing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagendra, N.; Biswas, S.; Nithyanantham, T.; Bandopadhyay, S.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? Microstructural evolution in LSFCO membranes under graded environment is reported. ? The role of chemically induced stresses and oxygen deficiency is evaluated. ? The stress distribution is modeled by a point defect model. - Abstract: Chromium (III) oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3})-doped LaSrFeO{sub 3} perovskite, La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3??} (LSFCO), is being considered as a potential material for applications in solid oxide fuel cells, gas separation membranes, and electrochemical reactors because of its high electro-catalytic activity. Similar to other perovskites, the performance and mechanical strength of LSFCO materials are significantly affected by environment and temperature. Here, we report a fracture gradient phenomenon in tubular C-ring-shaped LSFCO ceramic membranes under graded reducing conditions. The graded reducing condition was produced by flushing N{sub 2} on the outer side of the C-ring membranes at 1000 C while keeping the inner side untreated. The rings were then diametrically compressed to fracture, and the resultant fracture morphology was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A fracture gradient with three distinct regions across the thickness of the membranes was identified on the split surfaces. In the outer region of the C-ring specimen exposed to N{sub 2}, a mixed inter/transgranular fracture with a predominant intergranular pattern was observed. In the middle section of the fracture surface, a characteristic transgranular fracture of the perovskite grains was found. At the inner region of the ring, a mixed inter/transgranular fracture with a predominant transgranular pattern occurred. The mechanism of gradient fractures was attributed both to chemically induced stresses caused by oxygen diffusion and to the formation of a separate phase of oxygen-deficient perovskite in the parent perovskite. The stresses generated were modeled by a point defect model. This work provides significant information on microstructure evolutions of tubular LSFCO membranes under graded reducing atmospheres.

  5. Simultaneous PVDF/VISAR measurement technique for isentropic loading with graded density impactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhart, W.D.

    1998-07-01

    A simultaneous PVDF/VISAR measurement technique was used for isentropic-loading experiments with a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) specimen. The experiments used a graded density impactor accelerated onto a tantalum driver backed with PMMA and then lithium fluoride windows for each experiment. Simultaneous measurements made at each window interface provided precise transit time and particle velocity measurements which can be used to determine the stress-vs-strain loading path using Lagrangian analysis techniques. The experimental technique provides access to 40 GPa stress levels in PMMA under isentropic-loading conditions. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Simultaneous PVDF/VISAR measurement technique for isentropic loading with graded density impactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, M.U.; Chhabildas, L.C.; Reinhart, W.D.

    1997-10-01

    A simultaneous PVDF/VISAR measurement technique was used for isentropic-loading experiments with a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) specimen. The experiments used a graded density impactor accelerated onto a tantalum driver backed with PMMA and then lithium fluoride windows for each experiment. Simultaneous measurements made at each window interface provided precise transit time and particle velocity measurements which can be used to determine the stress-vs-strain loading path using Lagrangian analysis techniques. The experimental technique provides access to 40 GPa stress levels in PMMA under isentropic-loading conditions.

  7. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers; Registration Deadline is Sept. 12 | Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade Teachers; Registration Deadline is Sept. 12 For many teachers who enroll in Jefferson Lab Science Activities for Teachers, or JSAT, a highlight of the year is participating in Teacher Night. The event gives the teachers an opportunity to share some of the skills, knowledge and tools that they've acquired through the program. Jefferson Lab's Teacher Night for the 2014-15

  8. Presentation Title, Arial Regular 29pt Sub title, Arial Regular...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anvil Cloud properties IntroductionProgram goals TWP-ICE Forcing data Models Updrafts Doppler radar velocity retrievals Polarimetric radar Microphysics retrievals The Centre...

  9. Engineering report on drilling in the Sand Wash Basin intermediate grade project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    The Sand Wash Basin Intermediate Grade Drilling Project was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. This project consisted of 19 drill holes ranging in depth from 275 to 1220 feet (83.9 to 372.1 m). A total of 11,569 feet (3528.5 m) was rotary drilled and 130 feet (39.7 m) were cored for a total of 11,699 feet (3568.2 m) for the project. The project objective was to provide comprehensive subsurface geologic data relevant to Intermediate Grade uranium mineralization of the Browns Park Formation in the Sugar Loaf Peak Site A, and the Little Juniper Mountain Site B areas. All boreholes are located on the USGS Juniper Hot Springs and the Lay 7.5-Minute Series (Topographic) Quadrangles. The project began May 2, 1980; drilling was completed June 3, 1980. Site restoration and clean up was initiated immediately upon the completion of the last borehole and was completed June 8, 1980.

  10. The Application of materials attractiveness in a graded approach to nuclear materials security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebbinghaus, B.; Bathke, C.; Dalton, D.; Murphy, J.

    2013-07-01

    The threat from terrorist groups has recently received greater attention. In this paper, material quantity and material attractiveness are addressed through the lens of a minimum security strategy needed to prevent the construction of a nuclear explosive device (NED) by an adversary. Nuclear materials are placed into specific security categories (3 or 4 categories) , which define a number of security requirements to protect the material. Materials attractiveness can be divided into four attractiveness levels, High, Medium, Low, and Very Low that correspond to the utility of the material to the adversary and to a minimum security strategy that is necessary to adequately protect the nuclear material. We propose a graded approach to materials attractiveness that recognizes for instance substantial differences in attractiveness between pure reactor-grade Pu oxide (High attractiveness) and fresh MOX fuel (Low attractiveness). In either case, an adversary's acquisition of a Category I quantity of plutonium would be a major incident, but the acquisition of Pu oxide by the adversary would be substantially worse than the acquisition of fresh MOX fuel because of the substantial differences in the time and complexity required of the adversary to process the material and fashion it into a NED.

  11. Formation of graded vanadium oxide (VO compound) under strong gravitational field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khandaker, Jahirul Islam; Tokuda, Makoto; Ogata, Yudai; Januszko, Kamila; Mashimo, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Tadao; Yoshiasa, Akira

    2015-05-14

    Sedimentation of atoms induced under strong gravitational field gives a tool for controlling elemental compositions in condensed matter. We performed a strong-gravity experiment (0.397??10{sup 6?}G at 400?C for 24 h) on a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} polycrystal using the high-temperature ultracentrifuge to examine the composition change and further the structure change. The graded composition structure of V and O was formed along gravity direction, where V increases and O decreases with gravity. It was found by the x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering method that VO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases appeared and the amounts increased, while one of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase decreased gradually along gravity direction. The X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra analysis identified the chemical valency decrease (+5 to +3). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy addressed the shifting in center of major absorption peak to longer wavelength (red shift) with the increase in gravitational field. The tail absorption peak (band gap 2.09?eV) at strong gravity region in the graded structure showed transparent conductive oxide.

  12. Structural and Morphological Difference Between Ti/TiN/TiCN Coatings Grown in Multilayer and Graded Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Restrepo, E.; Baena, A.; Agudelo, C.; Castillo, H.; Devia, A.; Marino, A.

    2006-12-04

    Thin films can be grown in super-lattice, multilayers and graded form, having each one advantages and disadvantages. The difference between multilayer and graded coatings is the interface. In multilayers the interface is abrupt and in graded coatings it is diffuse. The interface influences many chemical and physical properties of the materials, and its choice depends on the application. Graded coatings have the advantage of having gradual properties such as thermal expansion coefficient and lattice parameter, avoiding adherence problems due to good match between their component materials. In this work the comparison between some properties of coatings grown as multilayer and graded is performed. The materials are produced using the sputtering DC technique because of its facility to control the deposition parameters and generate a slow growth. The target is a disc of titanium and the samples are made of stainless steel 304. The working gases are argon, nitrogen and methane, which are mixed according to the material to be produced, i.e. Ti layer is grown with argon, the TiN film is produced with a mixture of argon and nitrogen, and the TiCN material is obtained mixing argon, nitrogen and methane. These materials are characterized with AFM in order to determine grain size and with XPS studying the chemical composition and performing depth profiles.

  13. Numerical Simulation of the Performance Characteristics, Instability, and Effects of Band Gap Grading in Cadmium Telluride Based Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael David Petersen

    2001-05-01

    Using computer simulations, the performance of several CdTe based photovoltaic structures has been studied. The advantages and disadvantages of band gap grading, through the use of (Zn,Cd)Te, have also been investigated in these structures. Grading at the front interface between a CdS window layer and a CdTe absorber layer, can arise due to interdiffusion between the materials during growth or due to the intentional variation of the material composition. This grading has been shown to improve certain performance metrics, such as the open-circuit voltage, while degrading others, such as the fill factor, depending on the amount and distance of the grading. The presence of a Schottky barrier as the back contact has also been shown to degrade the photovoltaic performance of the device, resulting in a characteristic IV curve. However, with the appropriate band gap grading at the back interface, it has been shown that the performance can be enhanced through more efficient carrier collection. These results were then correlated with experimental observations of the performance degradation in devices subjected to light and heat stress.

  14. Numerical Simulation of the Performance Characteristics, Instability, and Effects of Band Gap Grading in Cadmium Telluride Based Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael David Petersen

    2001-06-27

    Using computer simulations, the performance of several CdTe based photovoltaic structures has been studied. The advantages and disadvantages of band gap grading, through the use of (Zn, Cd)Te, have also been investigated in these structures. Grading at the front interface between a CdS window layer and a CdTe absorber layer, can arise due to interdiffusion between the materials during growth or due to the intentional variation of the material composition. This grading has been shown to improve certain performance metrics, such as the open-circuit voltage, while degrading others, such as the fill factor, depending on the amount and distance of the grading. The presence of a Schottky barrier as the back contact has also been shown to degrade the photovoltaic performance of the device, resulting in a characteristic IV curve. However, with the appropriate band gap grading at the back interface, it has been shown that the performance can be enhanced through more efficient carrier collection. These results were then correlated with experimental observations of the performance degradation in devices subjected to light and heat stress.

  15. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of laminar flow through a circular tube fitted with regularly spaced helical screw-tape inserts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivashanmugam, P.; Suresh, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2007-02-15

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with full-length helical screw element of different twist ratio, and helical screw inserts with spacer length 100, 200, 300 and 400mm have been studied with uniform heat flux under laminar flow condition. The experimental data obtained are verified with those obtained from plain tube published data. The effect of spacer length on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor, and the effect of twist ratio on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor have been presented separately. The decrease in Nusselt number for the helical twist with spacer length is within 10% for each subsequent 100mm increase in spacer length. The decrease in friction factor is nearly two times lower than the full length helical twist at low Reynolds number, and four times lower than the full length helical twist at high Reynolds number for all twist ratio. The regularly spaced helical screw inserts can safely be used for heat transfer augmentation without much increase in pressure drop than full length helical screw inserts. (author)

  16. Scalar relativistic computations of nuclear magnetic shielding and g-shifts with the zeroth-order regular approximation and range-separated hybrid density functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aquino, Fredy W.; Govind, Niranjan; Autschbach, Jochen

    2011-10-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of NMR chemical shifts and molecular g-tensors with Gaussian-type orbitals are implemented via second-order energy derivatives within the scalar relativistic zeroth order regular approximation (ZORA) framework. Nonhybrid functionals, standard (global) hybrids, and range-separated (Coulomb-attenuated, long-range corrected) hybrid functionals are tested. Origin invariance of the results is ensured by use of gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) basis functions. The new implementation in the NWChem quantum chemistry package is verified by calculations of nuclear shielding constants for the heavy atoms in HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I, At) and H2X (X = O, S, Se, Te, Po), and Te chemical shifts in a number of tellurium compounds. The basis set and functional dependence of g-shifts is investigated for 14 radicals with light and heavy atoms. The problem of accurately predicting F NMR shielding in UF6-nCln, n = 1 to 6, is revisited. The results are sensitive to approximations in the density functionals, indicating a delicate balance of DFT self-interaction vs. correlation. For the uranium halides, the results with the range-separated functionals are mixed.

  17. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-08-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasized and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.

  18. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-08-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasizedmore » and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.« less

  19. Comparative impact analysis of laser radiation on steel grades 1045 and 5140

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobankova, Olga V. E-mail: zilyu@yandex.ru; Zykov, Ilya Y. E-mail: zilyu@yandex.ru; Melnikov, Alexander G.

    2014-11-14

    There are results of experiments with deep engraving steel grades 1045 and 5140. The deep engraving was made by laser system equipped with a pulsed ytterbium fiber laser. The objectives of the work is to evaluate the change in the structure and properties of the material in the laser exposure area. Microsections of materials have been investigated and microhardness was measured for this purpose. The optimal parameters of laser material removal were considered. It is shown that various changes occur in the metal structure, which depends on the composition of the steel. In particular, when processing with identical laser parameters, tempered steel 1045 remelts and its hardness changes, while steel 5140 does not change its structure.

  20. Behavior of trace and companion elements of ULC-IF steel grades during RH-treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jungreithmeier, A.; Viertauer, A.; Presslinger, H.

    1996-12-31

    A large number of metallurgical reactions are caused by lowering the partial pressure during vacuum treatment. One of these reactions is the volatilization of elements with high vapor pressure. The concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment mostly changes because of cooling scrap, deoxidation agents and ferro-alloy additions, slag/metal reactions, vaporization and also because of reactions with the RH-vessel lining. These changes in the concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment are exemplified for ULC-IF (ultra low carbon--interstitial free) steel grades. The elements which are considered are chromium, nickel, molybdenum, copper, vanadium, tin, zinc, lead, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen. Calculations of the theoretical equilibrium solubility using thermodynamic data--in dependence of pressure and temperature--correspond well with the values obtained during steel production operations. 67 refs.

  1. Si/SiGe electron resonant tunneling diodes with graded spacer wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, D. J.; See, P.; Bates, R.; Griffin, N.; Coonan, B. P.; Redmond, G.; Crean, G. M.; Zozoulenko, I. V.; Berggren, K.-F.; Hollander, B.

    2001-06-25

    Resonant tunneling diodes have been fabricated using graded Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x} (x=0.3{r_arrow}0.0) spacer wells and strained Si{sub 0.4}Ge{sub 0.6} barriers on a relaxed Si{sub 0.7}Ge{sub 0.3} n-type substrate which demonstrates negative differential resistance at up to 100 K. This design is aimed at reducing the voltage at which the peak current density is achieved. Peak current densities of 0.08A/cm{sup 2} with peak-to-valley current ratios of 1.67 have been achieved for a low peak voltage of 40 mV at 77 K. This represents an improvement of over an order of magnitude compared to previous work. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Diagnostics and required R and D for control of DEMO grade plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Hyeon K.

    2014-08-21

    Even if the diagnostics of ITER performs as expected, installation and operation of the diagnostic systems in Demo device will be much harsher than those of the present ITER device. In order to operate the Demo grade plasmas, which may have a higher beta limit, safely with very limited number of simple diagnostic system, it requires a well defined predictable plasma modelling in conjunction with the reliable control system for burn control and potential harmful instabilities. Development of such modelling in ITER is too risky and the logical choice would be utilization of the present day steady state capable devices such as KSTAR and EAST. In order to fulfill this mission, sophisticated diagnostic systems such as 2D/3D imaging systems can validate the physics in the theoretical modeling and challenge the predictable capability.

  3. Carrier multiplication detected through transient photocurrent in device-grade films of lead selenide quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Jianbo; Fidler, Andrew F.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2015-09-08

    In carrier multiplication, the absorption of a single photon results in two or more electronhole pairs. Quantum dots are promising materials for implementing carrier multiplication principles in real-life technologies. So far, however, most of research in this area has focused on optical studies of solution samples with yet to be proven relevance to practical devices. We report ultra-fast electro-optical studies of device-grade films of electronically coupled quantum dots that allow us to observe multiplication directly in the photocurrent. Our studies help rationalize previous results from both optical spectroscopy and steady-state photocurrent measurements and also provide new insights into effects of electric field and ligand treatments on multiexciton yields. Importantly, we demonstrate that using appropriate chemical treatments of the films, extra charges produced by carrier multiplication can be extracted from the quantum dots before they are lost to Auger recombination and hence can contribute to photocurrent of practical devices.

  4. Cooperative Studies in the Utilization and Storage of Excess Weapons-Grade Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolyatko, V. V.

    1998-01-29

    This technical report is a tangible and verifiable deliverable associated with the Nuclear Group subproject Cooperative Studies in the Utilization and Storage of Excess Weapons-grade Plutonium. This report is an assessment ofthe work performed by the Russian party from 1 October 1995 through 30 September 1996 regarding milestones defined in the contract between the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES). In these interactions, TEES serves as agent of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium (ANRCP) in the capacity oflead institution for the Nuclear Group of the ANRCP. The official Statement ofWork dated 8 April 1996 enumerates specific milestones and deliverables. In its present form, this report is an edited version ofthe translation submitted to TEES by MEPhI on 7 October 1996. The principal investigators for this subproject are Dr. Paul Nelson of TEES and Dr. Victor Bolyatko of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute.

  5. Mechanical Characteristics of Submerged Arc Weldment in API Gas Pipeline Steel of Grade X65

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashemi, S. H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2011-01-17

    The mechanical properties of submerged arc weldment (SAW) in gas transportation pipeline steel of grade API X65 (65 ksi yield strength) were investigated. This steel is produced by thermo mechanical control rolled (TMC), and is largely used in Iran gas piping systems and networks. The results from laboratory study on three different regions; i.e. base metal (BM), fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were used to compare weldment mechanical characteristics with those specified by API 5L (revision 2004) standard code. Different laboratory experiments were conducted on test specimens taken from 48 inch outside diameter and 14.3 mm wall thickness gas pipeline. The test results showed a gradient of microstructure and Vickers hardness data from the centerline of FZ towards the unaffected MB. Similarly, lower Charpy absorbed energy (compared to BM) was observed in the FZ impact specimens. Despite this, the API specifications were fulfilled in three tested zones, ensuring pipeline structural integrity under working conditions.

  6. Effect of Weight and Roadway Grade on the Fuel Economy of Class-8 Frieght Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzese, Oscar; Davidson, Diane

    2011-11-01

    In 2006-08, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class-8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information are useful to support Class-8 modeling of combination truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within combination truck research and analyses. The present study used the real-world information collected in that project to analyze the effects that vehicle speed and vehicle weight have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The analysis focused on two type of terrains, flat (roadway grades ranging from -1% to 1%) and mild uphill terrains (roadway grades ranging from 1% to 3%), which together covered more than 70% of the miles logged in the 2006-08 project (note: almost 2/3 of the distance traveled on mild uphill terrains was on terrains with 1% to 2% grades). In the flat-terrain case, the results of the study showed that for light and medium loads, fuel efficiency decreases considerably as speed increases. For medium-heavy and heavy loads (total vehicle weight larger than 65,000 lb), fuel efficiency tends to increase as the vehicle speed increases from 55 mph up to about 58-60 mph. For speeds higher than 60 mph, fuel efficiency decreases at an almost constant rate with increasing speed. At any given speed, fuel efficiency decreases and vehicle weight increases, although the relationship between fuel efficiency and vehicle weight is not linear, especially for vehicle weights above 65,000 lb. The analysis of the information collected while the vehicles were traveling on mild upslope terrains showed that the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks decreases abruptly with vehicle weight ranging from light loads up to medium-heavy loads. After that, increases in the vehicle weight only decrease fuel efficiency slightly. Fuel efficiency also decreases significantly with speed, but only for light and medium loads. For medium-heavy and heavy, FE is almost constant for speeds ranging from 57 to about 66 mph. For speeds higher than 66 mph, the FE decreases with speed, but at a lower rate than for light and medium loads. Statistical analyses that compared the fuel efficiencies obtained when the vehicles were traveling at 59 mph vs. those achieved when they were traveling at 65 mph or 70 mph indicated that the former were, on average, higher than the latter. This result was statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level (note: the Type II error i.e., the probability of failing to reject the null hypothesis when the alternative hypothesis is true was 18% and 6%, respectively).

  7. Theoretical and experimental investigations of asymmetric light transport in graded index photonic crystal waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giden, I. H. Yilmaz, D.; Turduev, M.; Kurt, H.; olak, E.; Ozbay, E.

    2014-01-20

    To provide asymmetric propagation of light, we propose a graded index photonic crystal (GRIN PC) based waveguide configuration that is formed by introducing line and point defects as well as intentional perturbations inside the structure. The designed system utilizes isotropic materials and is purely reciprocal, linear, and time-independent, since neither magneto-optical materials are used nor time-reversal symmetry is broken. The numerical results show that the proposed scheme based on the spatial-inversion symmetry breaking has different forward (with a peak value of 49.8%) and backward transmissions (4.11% at most) as well as relatively small round-trip transmission (at most 7.11%) in a large operational bandwidth of 52.6?nm. The signal contrast ratio of the designed configuration is above 0.80 in the telecom wavelengths of 1523.51576.1?nm. An experimental measurement is also conducted in the microwave regime: A strong asymmetric propagation characteristic is observed within the frequency interval of 12.8 GHz13.3?GHz. The numerical and experimental results confirm the asymmetric transmission behavior of the proposed GRIN PC waveguide.

  8. Discovery of a 210 -fiber texture in medical-grade metastable beta titanium wire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Song; Schaffer, Jeremy E.; Ren, Yang; Daymond, Mark R.

    2015-04-01

    The texture and phase evolution of metastable beta-III Ti alloy wires, produced in a medical-grade wire-processing facility, are examined via synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The texture development in the beta-phase was interpreted by a simple viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) modeling approach. Both the stress-induced martensite and stress-induced omega phase transformations are observed during the early stage of cold deformation. The < 1 1 0 >(beta) texture is gradually replaced by the < 2 1 0 >(beta) texture at cold work levels above 50% total area reduction or equivalently 0.70 axial true strain. Formation of the < 2 1 0 >(beta)-fiber from the combined activity of {1 1 2} and {3 3 2} twinning plus conventional slip is observed and may not directly depend upon the stress-induced phase per se. According to the VPSC model, similar texture should occur in other metastable beta-Ti alloys subjected to similar wire processing. These data should help inform process-structure-function towards better wire design in titanium-based medical devices. (C) 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  9. Optimization of Micro Metal Injection Molding By Using Grey Relational Grade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, M. H. I. [Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Precision Process Research Group, Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muhamad, N.; Sulong, A. B.; Nor, N. H. M.; Harun, M. R.; Murtadhahadi [Precision Process Research Group, Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Jamaludin, K. R. [UTM Razak School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, UTM International Campus, 54100 Jalan Semarak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-01-17

    Micro metal injection molding ({mu}MIM) which is a variant of MIM process is a promising method towards near net-shape of metallic micro components of complex geometry. In this paper, {mu}MIM is applied to produce 316L stainless steel micro components. Due to highly stringent characteristic of {mu}MIM properties, the study has been emphasized on optimization of process parameter where Taguchi method associated with Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) will be implemented as it represents novel approach towards investigation of multiple performance characteristics. Basic idea of GRA is to find a grey relational grade (GRG) which can be used for the optimization conversion from multi objectives case which are density and strength to a single objective case. After considering the form 'the larger the better', results show that the injection time(D) is the most significant followed by injection pressure(A), holding time(E), mold temperature(C) and injection temperature(B). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is also employed to strengthen the significant of each parameter involved in this study.

  10. Five minutes past midnight: The clear and present danger of nuclear weapons grade fissile materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, G.B.

    1996-02-01

    Growing stockpiles of nuclear weapons grade fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium) are a `clear and present danger` to international security. Much of this material is uncontrolled and unsecured in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Access to these materials is the primary technical barrier to a nuclear weapons capability since the technology know-how for a bomb making is available in the world scientific community. Strategies to convince proliferators to give up their nuclear ambitions are problematic since those ambitions are a party of largest regional security. There is no national material control and accounting in Russia. No one knows exactly how much fissile materials they have, and if any is missing. A bankrupt atomic energy industry, unpaid employees and little or no security has created a climate in which more and more fissile materials will likely be sold in black markets or diverted to clandestine nuclear weapons programs or transnational terrorist groups. Control over these materials will ultimately rely on the continuous and simultaneous exercise of several measures. While there is little one can do now to stop a determined proliferator, over time international consensus and a strengthened non-proliferation regime will convince proliferators that the costs outweigh the gains.

  11. Carrier multiplication detected through transient photocurrent in device-grade films of lead selenide quantum dots

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Jianbo; Fidler, Andrew F.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2015-09-08

    In carrier multiplication, the absorption of a single photon results in two or more electron–hole pairs. Quantum dots are promising materials for implementing carrier multiplication principles in real-life technologies. So far, however, most of research in this area has focused on optical studies of solution samples with yet to be proven relevance to practical devices. We report ultra-fast electro-optical studies of device-grade films of electronically coupled quantum dots that allow us to observe multiplication directly in the photocurrent. Our studies help rationalize previous results from both optical spectroscopy and steady-state photocurrent measurements and also provide new insights into effects ofmore » electric field and ligand treatments on multiexciton yields. Importantly, we demonstrate that using appropriate chemical treatments of the films, extra charges produced by carrier multiplication can be extracted from the quantum dots before they are lost to Auger recombination and hence can contribute to photocurrent of practical devices.« less

  12. Impact of Primary Gleason Grade on Risk Stratification for Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, Bridget F.; Tsivian, Matvey; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Sun, Leon; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Moul, Judd; Lee, W. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the primary Gleason grade (GG) in Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancers for risk of non-organ-confined disease with the goal of optimizing radiotherapy treatment option counseling. Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty-three patients with pathologic GS7 were identified in the Duke Prostate Center research database. Clinical factors including age, race, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, and pathologic stage were obtained. Data were stratified by prostate-specific antigen and clinical stage at diagnosis into adapted D'Amico risk groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed evaluating for association of primary GG with pathologic outcome. Results: Nine hundred seventy-nine patients had primary GG3 and 354 had GG4. On univariate analyses, GG4 was associated with an increased risk of non-organ-confined disease. On multivariate analysis, GG4 was independently associated with seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) but not extracapsular extension. Patients with otherwise low-risk disease and primary GG3 had a very low risk of SVI (4%). Conclusions: Primary GG4 in GS7 cancers is associated with increased risk of SVI compared with primary GG3. Otherwise low-risk patients with GS 3+4 have a very low risk of SVI and may be candidates for prostate-only radiotherapy modalities.

  13. A dynamic model for the optimization of oscillatory low grade heat engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markides, Christos N.; Smith, Thomas C. B.

    2015-01-22

    The efficiency of a thermodynamic system is a key quantity on which its usefulness and wider application relies. This is especially true for a device that operates with marginal energy sources and close to ambient temperatures. Various definitions of efficiency are available, each of which reveals a certain performance characteristic of a device. Of these, some consider only the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the working fluid, whereas others contain additional information, including relevant internal components of the device that are not part of the thermodynamic cycle. Yet others attempt to factor out the conditions of the surroundings with which the device is interfacing thermally during operation. In this paper we present a simple approach for the modeling of complex oscillatory thermal-fluid systems capable of converting low grade heat into useful work. We apply the approach to the NIFTE, a novel low temperature difference heat utilization technology currently under development. We use the results from the model to calculate various efficiencies and comment on the usefulness of the different definitions in revealing performance characteristics. We show that the approach can be applied to make design optimization decisions, and suggest features for optimal efficiency of the NIFTE.

  14. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Grade 91 steel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shrestha, Triratna; Alsagabi, Sultan; Charit, Indrajit; Potirniche, Gabriel; Glazoff, Michael

    2015-01-21

    The modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (Grade 91) is a material of choice in fossil-fuel-fired power plants with increased efficiency, service life, and reduction in emission of greenhouse gases. It is also considered a prospective material for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant for application in reactor pressure vessels at temperatures up to 650°C. In this paper, heat treatment of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was studied by normalizing and tempering the steel at various temperatures and times, with the ultimate goal of improving its creep resistance and optimizing material hardness. The microstructural evolution of the heat treated steels was correlated with themore » differential scanning calorimetric results. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with microhardness profiles and calorimetric plots were used to understand the evolution of microstructure including precipitate structures in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and relate it to the mechanical behavior of the steel. Thermo-CalcTM calculations were used to support experimental work and provide guidance in terms of the precipitate stability and microstructural evolution. Furthermore, the carbon isopleth and temperature dependencies of the volume fraction of different precipitates were constructed. The predicted and experimentally observed results were found to be in good agreement.« less

  15. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Grade 91 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Triratna; Alsagabi, Sultan; Charit, Indrajit; Potirniche, Gabriel; Glazoff, Michael

    2015-01-21

    The modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (Grade 91) is a material of choice in fossil-fuel-fired power plants with increased efficiency, service life, and reduction in emission of greenhouse gases. It is also considered a prospective material for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant for application in reactor pressure vessels at temperatures up to 650°C. In this paper, heat treatment of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was studied by normalizing and tempering the steel at various temperatures and times, with the ultimate goal of improving its creep resistance and optimizing material hardness. The microstructural evolution of the heat treated steels was correlated with the differential scanning calorimetric results. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with microhardness profiles and calorimetric plots were used to understand the evolution of microstructure including precipitate structures in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and relate it to the mechanical behavior of the steel. Thermo-CalcTM calculations were used to support experimental work and provide guidance in terms of the precipitate stability and microstructural evolution. Furthermore, the carbon isopleth and temperature dependencies of the volume fraction of different precipitates were constructed. The predicted and experimentally observed results were found to be in good agreement.

  16. Electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z.F.; Briant, C.L.; Kumar, K.S.

    1999-02-01

    The electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution at different temperatures were investigated. The initial corrosion potential and cathodic reaction rate increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. The initial corrosion potential changed when titanium was coupled with other metals. Naval brass and alloy 600 (UNS N06600) anodically polarized titanium, while zinc and aluminum caused titanium to become a cathode. HY80 steel (UNS K31820), type 316 stainless steel ([SS] UNS S31600), and Monel K500 (UNS N05500, a copper-nickel alloy), polarized titanium anodically or cathodically depending upon temperature and pH. Hydrides formed on the titanium surface at potentials < {approximately} {minus}600 mV{sub SCE} to {minus}700 mV{sub SCE}. Zinc at all temperatures and HY80 at high temperatures caused hydride formation in titanium when coupled galvanically with titanium. Mechanical tests showed an {approx} 10% decrease in ductility under prior and dynamic hydrogen charging conditions.

  17. April 2013 Short-Term Energy and Summer Fuels Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Summer Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights  During the April-through-September summer driving season this year, regular gasoline retail prices are forecast to average $3.63 per gallon. The projected monthly average regular retail gasoline price falls from $3.69 per gallon in May to $3.57 per gallon in September. EIA expects regular gasoline retail prices to average $3.56 per gallon in 2013 and $3.39 per gallon in 2014, compared with $3.63 per gallon in 2012. The July 2013 New York harbor

  18. April 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Summer Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights  During the April-through-September summer driving season this year, regular gasoline retail prices are forecast to average $3.63 per gallon. The projected monthly average regular retail gasoline price falls from $3.69 per gallon in May to $3.57 per gallon in September. EIA expects regular gasoline retail prices to average $3.56 per gallon in 2013 and $3.39 per gallon in 2014, compared with $3.63 per gallon in 2012. The July 2013 New York harbor

  19. Financial Management for Retail Energy Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... * Ralph Lauren Corporation * Recreational Equipment, Inc. * Rite Aid Corporation * Ross Stores Inc. * Safeway Inc. * Saks Incorporated * Sears Holdings Corporation * Sephora ...

  20. "2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Industrial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...r",29,259685,16873.9,6.4978339 "EDF Industrial Power Services (CA), LLC","CA","Power Marketer",4,398426,23575,5.9170335 "Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC","CA","Power ...

  1. 2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6.50 EDF Industrial Power Services (CA), LLC CA Power Marketer 4 398,426 23,575.0 5.92 Glacial Energy Holdings CA Power Marketer 174 30,435 3,138.3 10.31 Liberty Power Corp. ...

  2. 2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Industrial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketer 29 259,685 16,873.9 6.50 EDF Industrial Power Services (CA), LLC CA Power Marketer 4 398,426 23,575.0 5.92 Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC CA Power Marketer 51 ...

  3. "2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...ter",484,4328084,281231.8,6.497836 "EDF Industrial Power Services (CA), LLC","CA","Power Marketer",4,398426,23575,5.9170335 "Glacial Energy Holdings","CA","Power ...

  4. 2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Transportation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6,712.4 8.50 Direct Energy Business Marketing, LLC DC Power Marketer 1 148,128 9,306.9 ... 15,133.8 8.71 Direct Energy Business Marketing, LLC MD Power Marketer 2 113,058 6,601.5 ...

  5. "2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Transportation"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Direct Energy Business Marketing, LLC","DC","Power Marketer",1,148128,930... "Direct Energy Business Marketing, LLC","MD","Power Marketer",2,113058,660...

  6. "2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Residential"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...ipal",5758,49078,4553,9.2770692 "City of Hamilton - (OH)","OH","Municipal",26127,267514,28...operative",19241,368809,42042,11.399396 "Hamilton County Elec Coop Assn","TX","Cooperative...

  7. "2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...ipal",5990,105389,8856,8.403154 "City of Hamilton - (OH)","OH","Municipal",29042,578972,61...operative",24868,502493,56758,11.295282 "Hamilton County Elec Coop Assn","TX","Cooperative...

  8. 2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Industrial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 103 146,636 14,343.0 9.78 City of Galion OH Municipal 70 47,605 3,526.0 7.41 City of Hamilton - (OH) OH Municipal 54 174,978 16,203.0 9.26 City of Jackson - (OH) OH Municipal 9 ...

  9. "2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Industrial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "City of Galion","OH","Municipal",70,47605,3526,7.406785 "City of Hamilton - (OH)","OH","Municipal",54,174978,16203,9.2600213 "City of Jackson - ...

  10. "2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Commercial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...nicipal",162,8706,777,8.9248794 "City of Hamilton - (OH)","OH","Municipal",2861,136480,163...ooperative",5626,130607,14559,11.147182 "Hamilton County Elec Coop Assn","TX","Cooperative...

  11. 2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Municipal 162 8,706 777.0 8.92 City of Hamilton - (OH) OH Municipal 2,861 136,480 ... TX Cooperative 5,626 130,607 14,559.0 11.15 Hamilton County Elec Coop Assn TX Cooperative ...

  12. 2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 5,990 105,389 8,856.0 8.40 City of Hamilton - (OH) OH Municipal 29,042 578,972 ... TX Cooperative 24,868 502,493 56,758.0 11.30 Hamilton County Elec Coop Assn TX Cooperative ...

  13. 2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 5,758 49,078 4,553.0 9.28 City of Hamilton - (OH) OH Municipal 26,127 267,514 ... TX Cooperative 19,241 368,809 42,042.0 11.40 Hamilton County Elec Coop Assn TX Cooperative ...

  14. No. 2 Distillate Prices - Through Retail Outlets

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    67 - - - - - 1983-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 2.455 - - - - - 1983-2015 New England (PADD 1A) 2.531 - - - - - 1983-2015 Connecticut 2.481 - - - - - 1983-2015 Maine 2.540 - - - - - ...

  15. Motor Gasoline Sales Through Retail Outlets Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    19 - - - - - 1984-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 2.300 - - - - - 1984-2015 New England (PADD 1A) 2.377 - - - - - 1984-2015 Connecticut 2.422 - - - - - 1984-2015 Maine 2.360 - - - - - ...

  16. "2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Transportation"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "City of Pasadena - (CA)","CA","Municipal",1,9562,1346.2,14.078645 "City of Santa Clara - (CA)","CA","Municipal",1,20969,2049.9,9.7758596 "Los Angeles Department of ...

  17. 2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Transportation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5,378.0 5.26 City of Pasadena - (CA) CA Municipal 1 9,562 1,346.2 14.08 City of Santa Clara - (CA) CA Municipal 1 20,969 2,049.9 9.78 Los Angeles Department of Water & Power ...

  18. 2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 6.03 Glacial Energy Holdings IL Power Marketer 2,426 128,194 8,721.1 6.80 Green Mountain Energy Company IL Power Marketer 8 7,937 443.7 5.59 Homefield Energy IL Power Marketer ...

  19. 2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 227,638.8 5.07 Green Mountain Energy Company IL Power Marketer 24,959 190,336 16,176.4 8.50 Homefield Energy IL Power Marketer 677,675 5,726,072 347,820.0 6.07 IDT Energy, Inc. ...

  20. "2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Residential"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Solutions Corp.","IL","Power Marketer",477853,4492034,227638.8,5.0676108 "Green Mountain Energy Company","IL","Power Marketer",24959,190336,16176.4,8.4988652 "Homefield ...

  1. "2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Commercial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "Glacial Energy Holdings","IL","Power Marketer",2426,128194,8721.1,6.8030485 "Green Mountain Energy Company","IL","Power Marketer",8,7937,443.7,5.5902734 "Homefield ...

  2. Compression of picosecond pulses from a solid-state laser using self-phase modulation in graded-index fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damm, T.; Kaschke, M.; Noack, F.; Wilhelmi, B.

    1985-04-01

    We report the compression by a factor of 7 of 2-..mu..J pulses of 5-psec duration from a mode-locked Nd:phosphate glass laser. The pulses were chirped and their spectrum broadened while traveling through a graded-index core fiber. After amplification to 500 ..mu..J, they were finally compressed by traveling through a dispersive delay line, and 0.7-psec pulse widths were achieved.

  3. Microsoft PowerPoint - GradedApproach_P&RA_CoP_December2013 (Reformatted 2014-03-24)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hanford Site Graded Approach to Vadose Zone Approach to Vadose Zone Modeling: Current Status and Future Applications pp Presented to: PA Community of Practice 12 December 2013 12 December 2013 Presented by: Presented by: Alaa H. Aly - CHPRC/INTERA Dibakar Goswami - Washington State Dept of Ecology Presentation Outline * Current Applications: - 2011-50 document - Application to the River Corridor decision documents - Scoping of Performance Assessments Scoping of Performance Assessments 2

  4. Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K.

    2009-07-01

    The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

  5. Development of Functionally Graded Materials for Manufacturing Tools and Dies and Industrial Processing Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lherbier, Louis, W.; Novotnak, David, J.; Herling, Darrell, R.; Sears, James, W.

    2009-03-23

    Hot forming processes such as forging, die casting and glass forming require tooling that is subjected to high temperatures during the manufacturing of components. Current tooling is adversely affected by prolonged exposure at high temperatures. Initial studies were conducted to determine the root cause of tool failures in a number of applications. Results show that tool failures vary and depend on the operating environment under which they are used. Major root cause failures include (1) thermal softening, (2) fatigue and (3) tool erosion, all of which are affected by process boundary conditions such as lubrication, cooling, process speed, etc. While thermal management is a key to addressing tooling failures, it was clear that new tooling materials with superior high temperature strength could provide improved manufacturing efficiencies. These efficiencies are based on the use of functionally graded materials (FGM), a new subset of hybrid tools with customizable properties that can be fabricated using advanced powder metallurgy manufacturing technologies. Modeling studies of the various hot forming processes helped identify the effect of key variables such as stress, temperature and cooling rate and aid in the selection of tooling materials for specific applications. To address the problem of high temperature strength, several advanced powder metallurgy nickel and cobalt based alloys were selected for evaluation. These materials were manufactured into tooling using two relatively new consolidation processes. One process involved laser powder deposition (LPD) and the second involved a solid state dynamic powder consolidation (SSDPC) process. These processes made possible functionally graded materials (FGM) that resulted in shaped tooling that was monolithic, bi-metallic or substrate coated. Manufacturing of tooling with these processes was determined to be robust and consistent for a variety of materials. Prototype and production testing of FGM tooling showed the benefits of the nickel and cobalt based powder metallurgy alloys in a number of applications evaluated. Improvements in tool life ranged from three (3) to twenty (20) or more times than currently used tooling. Improvements were most dramatic where tool softening and deformation were the major cause of tool failures in hot/warm forging applications. Significant improvement was also noted in erosion of aluminum die casting tooling. Cost and energy savings can be realized as a result of increased tooling life, increased productivity and a reduction in scrap because of improved dimensional controls. Although LPD and SSDPC tooling usually have higher acquisition costs, net tooling costs per component produced drops dramatically with superior tool performance. Less energy is used to manufacture the tooling because fewer tools are required and less recycling of used tools are needed for the hot forming process. Energy is saved during the component manufacturing cycle because more parts can be produced in shorter periods of time. Energy is also saved by minimizing heating furnace idling time because of less downtime for tooling changes.

  6. Strain-Based Design Methodology of Large Diameter Grade X80 Linepipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lower, Mark D.

    2014-04-01

    Continuous growth in energy demand is driving oil and natural gas production to areas that are often located far from major markets where the terrain is prone to earthquakes, landslides, and other types of ground motion. Transmission pipelines that cross this type of terrain can experience large longitudinal strains and plastic circumferential elongation as the pipeline experiences alignment changes resulting from differential ground movement. Such displacements can potentially impact pipeline safety by adversely affecting structural capacity and leak tight integrity of the linepipe steel. Planning for new long-distance transmission pipelines usually involves consideration of higher strength linepipe steels because their use allows pipeline operators to reduce the overall cost of pipeline construction and increase pipeline throughput by increasing the operating pressure. The design trend for new pipelines in areas prone to ground movement has evolved over the last 10 years from a stress-based design approach to a strain-based design (SBD) approach to further realize the cost benefits from using higher strength linepipe steels. This report presents an overview of SBD for pipelines subjected to large longitudinal strain and high internal pressure with emphasis on the tensile strain capacity of high-strength microalloyed linepipe steel. The technical basis for this report involved engineering analysis and examination of the mechanical behavior of Grade X80 linepipe steel in both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. Testing was conducted to assess effects on material processing including as-rolled, expanded, and heat treatment processing intended to simulate coating application. Elastic-plastic and low-cycle fatigue analyses were also performed with varying internal pressures. Proposed SBD models discussed in this report are based on classical plasticity theory and account for material anisotropy, triaxial strain, and microstructural damage effects developed from test data. The results are intended to enhance SBD and analysis methods for producing safe and cost effective pipelines capable of accommodating large plastic strains in seismically active arctic areas.

  7. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  8. Method for forming an in-situ oil shale retort in differing grades of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1984-04-24

    An in-situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The formation comprises at least one region of relatively richer oil shale and another region of relatively leaner oil shale. According to one embodiment, formation is excavated from within a retort site for forming at least one void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a portion of unfragmented formation including the regions of richer and leaner oil shale adjacent such a void space. A first array of vertical blast holes are drilled in the regions of richer and leaner oil shale, and a second array of blast holes are drilled at least in the region of richer oil shale. Explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first and second arrays which extend into the richer oil shale, and separate explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first array which extend into the leaner oil shale. This provides an array with a smaller scaled depth of burial (sdob) and closer spacing distance between explosive charges in the richer oil shale than the sdob and spacing distance of the array of explosive charges in the leaner oil shale. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the regions of richer and leaner oil shale toward the horizontal void for forming a fragmented mass of particles. Upon detonation of the explosive, greater explosive energy is provided collectively by the explosive charges in the richer oil shale, compared with the explosive energy produced by the explosive charges in the leaner oil shale, resulting in comparable fragmentation in both grades of oil shale.

  9. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  10. Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel Burnup Characteristics in Advanced Test Reactor Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Chang

    2006-07-01

    Mixed oxide (MOX) test capsules prepared with weapons-derived plutonium have been irradiated to a burnup of 50 GWd/t. The MOX fuel was fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by a master-mix process and has been irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Previous withdrawals of the same fuel have occurred at 9, 21, 30, 40, and 50 GWd/t. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) manages this test series for the Department of Energys Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP). A UNIX BASH (Bourne Again SHell) script CMO has been written and validated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2 (CMO). The new Monte Carlo burnup analysis methodology in this paper consists of MCNP coupling through CMO with ORIGEN-2(MCWO). MCWO is a fully automated tool that links the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the radioactive decay and burnup code ORIGEN-2. The fuel burnup analyses presented in this study were performed using MCWO. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations for the ATR small I-irradiation test position. The purpose of this report is to validate both the Weapons-Grade Mixed Oxide (WG-MOX) test assembly model and the new fuel burnup analysis methodology by comparing the computed results against the neutron monitor measurements and the irradiated WG-MOX post irradiation examination (PIE) data.

  11. Comparison between the Strength Levels of Baseline Nuclear-Grade Graphite and Graphite Irradiated in AGC-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Mark Christopher

    2015-07-01

    This report details the initial comparison of mechanical strength properties between the cylindrical nuclear-grade graphite specimens irradiated in the second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC-2) experiment with the established baseline, or unirradiated, mechanical properties compiled in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. The overall comparative analysis will describe the development of an appropriate test protocol for irradiated specimens, the execution of the mechanical tests on the AGC-2 sample population, and will further discuss the data in terms of developing an accurate irradiated property distribution in the limited amount of irradiated data by leveraging the considerably larger property datasets being captured in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. Integrating information on the inherent variability in nuclear-grade graphite with more complete datasets is one of the goals of the VHTR Graphite Materials program. Between “sister” specimens, or specimens with the same geometry machined from the same sub-block of graphite from which the irradiated AGC specimens were extracted, and the Baseline datasets, a comprehensive body of data will exist that can provide both a direct and indirect indication of the full irradiated property distributions that can be expected of irradiated nuclear-grade graphite while in service in a VHTR system. While the most critical data will remain the actual irradiated property measurements, expansion of this data into accurate distributions based on the inherent variability in graphite properties will be a crucial step in qualifying graphite for nuclear use as a structural material in a VHTR environment.

  12. Exploring pulse shaping for Z using graded-density impactors on gas guns (final report for LDRD project 79879).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furnish, Michael David; Reinhart, William Dodd; Anderson, William W. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Hixson, Rob (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Kipp, Marlin E.

    2005-10-01

    While isentropic compression experiment (ICE) techniques have proved useful in deducing the high-pressure compressibility of a wide range of materials, they have encountered difficulties where large-volume phase transitions exist. The present study sought to apply graded-density impactor methods for producing isentropic loading to planar impact experiments to selected such problems. Cerium was chosen due to its 20% compression between 0.7 and 1.0 GPa. A model was constructed based on limited earlier dynamic data, and applied to the design of a suite of experiments. A capability for handling this material was installed. Two experiments were executed using shock/reload techniques with available samples, loading initially to near the gamma-alpha transition, then reloading. As well, two graded-density impactor experiments were conducted with alumina. A method for interpreting ICE data was developed and validated; this uses a wavelet construction for the ramp wave and includes corrections for the ''diffraction'' of wavelets by releases or reloads reflected from the sample/window interface. Alternate methods for constructing graded-density impactors are discussed.

  13. The Development and Production of a Functionally Graded Composite for Pb-Bi Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Ronald G

    2011-08-01

    A material that resists lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) attack and retains its strength at 700C would be an enabling technology for LBE-cooled reactors. No single alloy currently exists that can economically meet the required performance criteria of high strength and corrosion resistance. A Functionally Graded Composite (FGC) was developed with layers engineered to perform these functions. F91 was chosen as the structural layer of the composite for its strength and radiation resistance. Fe-12Cr-2Si, an alloy developed from previous work in the Fe-Cr-Si system, was chosen as the corrosion-resistant cladding layer because of its chemical similarity to F91 and its superior corrosion resistance in both oxidizing and reducing environments. Fe-12Cr-2Si experienced minimal corrosion due to its self-passivation in oxidizing and reducing environments. Extrapolated corrosion rates are below one micron per year at 700C. Corrosion of F91 was faster, but predictable and manageable. Diffusion studies showed that 17 microns of the cladding layer will be diffusionally diluted during the three year life of fuel cladding. 33 microns must be accounted for during the sixty year life of coolant piping. 5 cm coolant piping and 6.35 mm fuel cladding preforms were produced on a commercial scale by weld-overlaying Fe-12Cr-2Si onto F91 billets and co-extruding them. An ASME certified weld was performed followed by the prescribed quench-and-tempering heat treatment for F91. A minimal heat affected zone was observed, demonstrating field weldability. Finally, corrosion tests were performed on the fabricated FGC at 700C after completely breaching the cladding in a small area to induce galvanic corrosion at the interface. None was observed. This FGC has significant impacts on LBE reactor design. The increases in outlet temperature and coolant velocity allow a large increase in power density, leading to either a smaller core for the same power rating or more power output for the same size core. This FGC represents an enabling technology for LBE cooled fast reactors.

  14. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    cent The U.S. average retail price of regular gasoline decreased 0.2 cent this week to stay at 3.94 per gallon, 15 cents per gallon higher than last year at this time. The West...

  15. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.51 a gallon on Monday. That's down a penny from a week ago and down 13 cents from a month ago, based on the weekly price survey...

  16. U.S. gasoline prices continues to decrease (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    retail price for regular gasoline fell to 2.32 a gallon on Monday. That's down half a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information...

  17. Fact #766: February 11, 2013 Electricity Prices are More Stable than Gasoline Prices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All energy prices vary from month to month and year to year. However, when comparing the national average retail price for a gallon of regular gasoline and a kilowatt-hour (kWh) for residential...

  18. U.S. gasoline prices unchanged (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell for the 5 th week in a row to 3.52 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.4 cents from a week ago and...

  19. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 2.74 a gallon on Monday. That's up 5.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  20. U.S. gasoline prices increase slightly (short version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to 3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  1. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 2.49 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  2. U.S. gasoline prices increase slightly (short version)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to 3.36 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  3. U.S. gasoline prices see sharpest increase since February (short...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.64 a gallon on Monday. That's up 14.7 cents from a week ago marking the sharpest increase since...

  4. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's up 4 12 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the...

  5. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.61 a gallon on Labor Day Monday. That's up 5.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey...

  6. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 2.77 a gallon on Memorial Day Monday. That's up 3 cents from a week ago, based on...

  7. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 2.69 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2.7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  8. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 2.66 a gallon on Monday. That's up 9.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey...

  9. Gasoline prices up this week (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.78 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.7 cents from a week ago and up almost 43 cents from 4 weeks ago,...

  10. U.S. gasoline prices increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 2.03 a gallon on Monday. That's up 8- tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey...

  11. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.29 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the...

  12. U.S. gasoline continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.33 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  13. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 2.78 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6- tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on...

  14. U.S. gasoline continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.33 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1- tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on...

  15. U.S. Gasoline prices continue increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.69 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  16. U.S. gasoline prices increase from previous week (short version...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    from previous week (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 2.84 a gallon on Monday. That's up 5.5 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  17. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the average U.S. retail price for regular gasoline has reached 3 per gallon at least once (besides the record set in 2005, it also reached 3 per gallon or higher during four...

  18. U.S. gasoline price decreases for 17th week in a row (short version...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gasoline price decreases for 17th week in a row (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell for the 17th week in a row to 2.04 a gallon on Monday....

  19. U.S. gasoline prices continues to decrease; 2 states with sub...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2015 U.S. gasoline prices continues to decrease; 2 states with sub 2 prices (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 2.21 a gallon on Monday. ...

  20. Gasoline prices inch down (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices inch down (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular ... Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.96 a gallon, down 4.2 cents from a ...