Sample records for regional scale assessment

  1. Body Wave Tomography For Regional Scale Assessment Of Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    . () : GRC; p. () Related Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (8) Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009)...

  2. 8th International Conference on LCA in the Agri-Food Sector, Rennes, France, 2-4 October 2012 Life Cycle Assessment at the regional scale: innovative insights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in groundwater irrigated areas worldwide are manifold and the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is very relevant and decision making is carried out, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be applied at regional scale, which Life Cycle Assessment at the regional scale: innovative insights based on the Systems Approach used

  3. Assessment of the detection abilities of monitoring networks for passive tracers at local and regional scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallet, Vivien

    -field studies involve measurement sensors placed within 30 km of nuclear power plants, whether at fixed to power plant locations. They have been carried out at several spatial scales, from local to global: nearAssessment of the detection abilities of monitoring networks for passive tracers at local

  4. assessment scale psas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    region, the logarithmic region and the outer region. In the space of scales, turbulent energy Marusic, Ivan 8 SCALE: A tool for Simple Connectivity Assessment in Lossy Environments...

  5. Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions Tim Griffis1, Xuhui Lee2, John Baker3, Peter, but mitigation strategies have been limited by the large uncertainties in both direct and indirect emission

  6. Assessing regional scale predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Q.; Lee Y.; Gustafson Jr., W. I.; Fast, J. D.; Wang, H.; Easter, R. C.; Morrison, H.; Chapman, E. G.; Spak, S. N.; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.

    2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the ability of the recent chemistry version (v3.3) of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model to simulate boundary layer structure, aerosols, stratocumulus clouds, and energy fluxes over the Southeast Pacific Ocean. Measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) and satellite retrievals (i.e., products from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), and GOES-10) are used for this assessment. The Morrison double-moment microphysics scheme is newly coupled with interactive aerosols in the model. The 31-day (15 October-16 November 2008) WRF-Chem simulation with aerosol-cloud interactions (AERO hereafter) is also compared to a simulation (MET hereafter) with fixed cloud droplet number concentrations in the microphysics scheme and simplified cloud and aerosol treatments in the radiation scheme. The well-simulated aerosol quantities (aerosol number, mass composition and optical properties), and the inclusion of full aerosol-cloud couplings lead to significant improvements in many features of the simulated stratocumulus clouds: cloud optical properties and microphysical properties such as cloud top effective radius, cloud water path, and cloud optical thickness. In addition to accounting for the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects, these improvements feed back to the simulation of boundary-layer characteristics and energy budgets. Particularly, inclusion of interactive aerosols in AERO strengthens the temperature and humidity gradients within the capping inversion layer and lowers the marine boundary layer (MBL) depth by 130 m from that of the MET simulation. These differences are associated with weaker entrainment and stronger mean subsidence at the top of the MBL in AERO. Mean top-of-atmosphere outgoing shortwave fluxes, surface latent heat, and surface downwelling longwave fluxes are in better agreement with observations in AERO, compared to the MET simulation. Nevertheless, biases in some of the simulated meteorological quantities (e.g., MBL temperature and humidity) and aerosol quantities (e.g., underestimations of accumulation mode aerosol number) might affect simulated stratocumulus and energy fluxes over the Southeastern Pacific, and require further investigation. The well-simulated timing and outflow patterns of polluted and clean episodes demonstrate the model's ability to capture daily/synoptic scale variations of aerosol and cloud properties, and suggest that the model is suitable for studying atmospheric processes associated with pollution outflow over the ocean. The overall performance of the regional model in simulating mesoscale clouds and boundary layer properties is encouraging and suggests that reproducing gradients of aerosol and cloud droplet concentrations and coupling cloud-aerosol-radiation processes are important when simulating marine stratocumulus over the Southeast Pacific.

  7. Assessing regional scale predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Morrison, H.; Lee, Y.- N.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Spak, S. N.; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.

    2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In the recent chemistry version (v3.3) of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model, we have coupled the Morrison double-moment microphysics scheme with interactive aerosols so that full two-way aerosol-cloud interactions are included in simulations. We have used this new WRF-Chem functionality in a study focused on assessing predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus clouds, and their interactions over the Southeast Pacific using measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) and satellite retrievals. This study also serves as a detailed analysis of our WRF-Chem simulations contributed to the VOCALS model Assessment (VOCA) project. The WRF-Chem 31-day (October 15-November 16, 2008) simulation with aerosol-cloud interactions (AERO hereafter) is also compared to a simulation (MET hereafter) with fixed cloud droplet number concentrations assumed by the default in Morrison microphysics scheme with no interactive aerosols. The well-predicted aerosol properties such as number, mass composition, and optical depth lead to significant improvements in many features of the predicted stratocumulus clouds: cloud optical properties and microphysical properties such as cloud top effective radius, cloud water path, and cloud optical thickness, and cloud macrostructure such as cloud depth and cloud base height. These improvements in addition to the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects, in turn, feed back to the prediction of boundary-layer characteristics and energy budgets. Particularly, inclusion of interactive aerosols in AERO strengths temperature and humidity gradients within capping inversion layer and lowers the MBL depth by 150 m from that of the MET simulation. Mean top-of-the-atmosphere outgoing shortwave fluxes, surface latent heat, and surface downwelling longwave fluxes are in better agreement with observations in AERO, compared to the MET simulation. Nevertheless, biases in some of the simulated meteorological quantities (e.g., MBL temperature and humidity over the remote ocean) and aerosol quantities (e.g., overestimations of supermicron sea salt mass) might affect simulated stratocumulus and energy fluxes over the SEP, and require further investigations. Although not perfect, the overall performance of the regional model in simulating mesoscale aerosol-cloud interactions is encouraging and suggests that the inclusion of spatially varying aerosol characteristics is important when simulating marine stratocumulus over the southeastern Pacific.

  8. Use of dual plane PIV to assess scale-by-scale energy budgets in wall turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marusic, Ivan

    Use of dual plane PIV to assess scale-by-scale energy budgets in wall turbulence N Saikrishnan1-layer, the buffer region, the logarithmic region and the outer region. In the space of scales, turbulent energy is produced at the large scales and transferred to smaller scales, finally dissipating in the form of heat

  9. 6, 1092910958, 2006 Regional scale CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 10929­10958, 2006 Regional scale CO2 flux estimation using radon A. I. Hirsch Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions On using radon-222 and CO2 to calculate regional-scale CO2 fluxes A. I (Adam.Hirsch@noaa.gov) 10929 #12;ACPD 6, 10929­10958, 2006 Regional scale CO2 flux estimation using

  10. Regional Transit System: Return on Investment Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Regional Transit System: Return on Investment Assessment May 2014 #12;1 Today's agenda Itasca transit options Enables strategic, efficient investment in long-term infrastructure, e.g., energy grid are seeking cities with good transit Transit can be a cost-efficient way to add capacity in corridors

  11. CompilerDirected Dynamic Voltage Scaling Based on Program Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kremer, Ulrich

    Compiler­Directed Dynamic Voltage Scaling Based on Program Regions Chung­Hsing Hsu and Ulrich using dynamic voltage scaling. The compiler identifies pro­ gram regions where the CPU can be slowed down without resulting in a significant overall performance loss. For such regions the lowest CPU

  12. Regional Assessment of Tsunami Potential in the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ten Brink, Uri S.

    Regional Assessment of Tsunami Potential in the Gulf of Mexico Report to the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program #12;#12;Regional Assessment of Tsunami Potential in the Gulf of Mexico Report should be cited as: Regional Assessment of Tsunami Potential in the Gulf of Mexico: U.S. Geological

  13. Niger delta deepwater region petroleum potential assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D. [Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    On behalf of the Nigerian Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources some 23,000 km of high quality 192 channel, 96 fold seismic, and associated gravity and magnetic data were acquired by TGSI-Mabon Geophysical Co. and made available to the industry in 1991. These data were collected over all deepwater blocks in conjunction with the planned 1993 license round. Later, during 1993 and 1994 TGSI with Mabon Ltd. and Stratum Petroleum Services extended the program onto the shelf (7,000 km) and into the ultra deepwater areas (6,400 km), making possible modern studies of the entire offshore delta complex. In assessing the petroleum potential of an undrilled region, it is useful to refer to analogous basins or provinces already with histories of hydrocarbon exploration and discovery. With this in mind, and using limited data from the already drilled areas of Nigeria offshore, the adjacent West Africa salt basin and Brazil in particular, an attempt is made to discuss the hydrocarbon habitat of the undrilled Niger delta deepwater offshore sedimentary sequences.

  14. Assessment of Controlling Processes for Field-Scale Uranium Reactive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reactive transport model was employed to assess the key factors and processes that control the field-scale uranium reactive transport. Taking into consideration of relevant...

  15. A multi-scale metrics approach to forest fragmentation for Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Eunyoung, E-mail: eykim@kei.re.kr [Korea Environment Institute, 215 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Environment Institute, 215 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wonkyong, E-mail: wksong79@gmail.com [Suwon Research Institute, 145 Gwanggyo-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)] [Suwon Research Institute, 145 Gwanggyo-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongkun, E-mail: dklee7@snu.ac.kr [Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Forests are becoming severely fragmented as a result of land development. South Korea has responded to changing community concerns about environmental issues. The nation has developed and is extending a broad range of tools for use in environmental management. Although legally mandated environmental compliance requirements in South Korea have been implemented to predict and evaluate the impacts of land-development projects, these legal instruments are often insufficient to assess the subsequent impact of development on the surrounding forests. It is especially difficult to examine impacts on multiple (e.g., regional and local) scales in detail. Forest configuration and size, including forest fragmentation by land development, are considered on a regional scale. Moreover, forest structure and composition, including biodiversity, are considered on a local scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Recently, the government amended the Environmental Impact Assessment Act, including the SEA, EIA, and small-scale EIA, to require an integrated approach. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish an impact assessment system that minimizes the impacts of land development using an approach that is integrated across multiple scales. This study focused on forest fragmentation due to residential development and road construction sites in selected Congestion Restraint Zones (CRZs) in the Greater Seoul Area of South Korea. Based on a review of multiple-scale impacts, this paper integrates models that assess the impacts of land development on forest ecosystems. The applicability of the integrated model for assessing impacts on forest ecosystems through the SEIA process is considered. On a regional scale, it is possible to evaluate the location and size of a land-development project by considering aspects of forest fragmentation, such as the stability of the forest structure and the degree of fragmentation. On a local scale, land-development projects should consider the distances at which impacts occur in the vicinity of the forest ecosystem, and these considerations should include the impacts on forest vegetation and bird species. Impacts can be mitigated by considering the distances at which these influences occur. In particular, this paper presents an integrated environmental impact assessment system to be applied in the SEIA process. The integrated assessment system permits the assessment of the cumulative impacts of land development on multiple scales. -- Highlights: • The model is to assess the impact of forest fragmentation across multiple scales. • The paper suggests the type of forest fragmentation on a regional scale. • The type can be used to evaluate the location and size of a land development. • The paper shows the influence distance of land development on a local scale. • The distance can be used to mitigate the impact at an EIA process.

  16. Mid-Columbia Region Clean Energy Feasibility Assessment - Hanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Official Documents > Mid-Columbia Region Clean Energy Assessment Official Documents DOE - RL ContractsProcurements DOE-ORP ContractsProcurements AR-PIR CERCLA Five-Year Review...

  17. Regional-Scale Climate Change: Observations and Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This collaborative proposal addressed key issues in understanding the Earthâ??s climate system, as highlighted by the U.S. Climate Science Program. The research focused on documenting past climatic changes and on assessing future climatic changes based on suites of global and regional climate models. Geographically, our emphasis was on the mountainous regions of the world, with a particular focus on the Neotropics of Central America and the Hawaiian Islands. Mountain regions are zones where large variations in ecosystems occur due to the strong climate zonation forced by the topography. These areas are particularly susceptible to changes in critical ecological thresholds, and we conducted studies of changes in phonological indicators based on various climatic thresholds.

  18. National-Scale Wind Resource Assessment for Power Generation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes the current standards for conducting a national-scale wind resource assessment for power generation, along with the risk/benefit considerations to be considered when beginning a wind resource assessment. The presentation describes changes in turbine technology and viable wind deployment due to more modern turbine technology and taller towers and shows how the Philippines national wind resource assessment evolved over time to reflect changes that arise from updated technologies and taller towers.

  19. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  20. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to promote that understanding. The literature review begins with a discussion in Section 2.0 of the Federal regulatory processes and mission areas pertaining to hydropower siting and licensing at the basin scale. This discussion of regulatory processes and mission areas sets the context for the next topic in Section 3.0, past and ongoing basin-scale hydropower planning and assessment activities. The final sections of the literature review provide some conclusions about past and ongoing basin-scale activities and their relevance to the current basin-scale opportunity assessment (Section 4.0), and a bibliography of existing planning and assessment documents (Section 5.0).

  1. Northeast regional assessment study for solar electric options in the period 1980-2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities are identified and assessed. Technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation are defined. The following topics are covered: a description of the Northeast Region and its solar resources, central station applications, a dispersed user analysis, user viewpoints and institutional factors, and market potential for dispersed solar electric systems. (MHR)

  2. Molecular Scale Assessment of Methylarsenic Sorption on Aluminum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Molecular Scale Assessment of Methylarsenic Sorption on Aluminum Oxide M A S A Y U K I S H I M I Z than AsV or AsIII , their reduction can produce very toxic MMAIII or DMAIII . Aluminum oxides

  3. Lung Extraction, Lobe Segmentation and Hierarchical Region Assessment for Quantitative Analysis on High

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lung Extraction, Lobe Segmentation and Hierarchical Region Assessment for Quantitative Analysis Care Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA Abstract. Regional assessment of lung disease specific to different lung regions on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) datasets. We present

  4. Macroecological Evidence for Competitive Regional-Scale Interactions between the Two Major Clades of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    by the one clade constrains diversification in the other in the build-up of regional faunas, while negativeMacroecological Evidence for Competitive Regional- Scale Interactions between the Two Major Clades at the continental scale, albeit not at finer scales. Our results are consistent with a negative effect of feliforms

  5. Alaska Facility- and Community-Scale Project Development Regional...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alaska. Photo by Sherry Stout, NREL. Alaska Energy Workshop Tour Creates Rich Opportunities for Knowledge Sharing Community-Scale Project Development and Finance Workshop: Oklahoma...

  6. Body Wave Tomography For Regional Scale Assessment Of Geothermal Indicators

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouthby 2022 |BleckleyMotionBoca Del Mar, Florida:In The Western

  7. Scaling studies and conceptual experiment designs for NGNP CFD assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to document scaling studies and conceptual designs for flow and heat transfer experiments intended to assess CFD codes and their turbulence models proposed for application to prismatic NGNP concepts. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses have been applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant turbulent forced convection with slight transverse property variation. In a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) simulation, the flow quickly becomes laminar with some possible buoyancy influences. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple hot jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentumdominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two types of heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary. The second type will treat heated jets entering a model plenum. Unheated MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique which will not even handle constant properties properly. The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of CFD solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing and turbulence models for typical NGNP plenum geometries in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. As indicated by the scaling studies, in normal full power operation of a typical NGNP conceptual design, buoyancy influences should be negligible in the lower plenum. The MIR experiment will simulate flow features of the paths of jets as they mix in flowing through the array of posts in a lower plenum en route to the single exit duct. Conceptual designs for such experiments are described.

  8. Regional scale cropland carbon budgets: evaluating a geospatial agricultural modeling system using inventory data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Sahajpal, Ritvik; West, Tristram O.; Thomson, Allison M.; Xu, Min; Zhao, Kaiguang; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate quantification and clear understanding of regional scale cropland carbon (C) cycling is critical for designing effective policies and management practices that can contribute toward stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, extrapolating site-scale observations to regional scales represents a major challenge confronting the agricultural modeling community. This study introduces a novel geospatial agricultural modeling system (GAMS) exploring the integration of the mechanistic Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, spatially-resolved data, surveyed management data, and supercomputing functions for cropland C budgets estimates. This modeling system creates spatially-explicit modeling units at a spatial resolution consistent with remotely-sensed crop identification and assigns cropping systems to each of them by geo-referencing surveyed crop management information at the county or state level. A parallel computing algorithm was also developed to facilitate the computationally intensive model runs and output post-processing and visualization. We evaluated GAMS against National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) reported crop yields and inventory estimated county-scale cropland C budgets averaged over 2000–2008. We observed good overall agreement, with spatial correlation of 0.89, 0.90, 0.41, and 0.87, for crop yields, Net Primary Production (NPP), Soil Organic C (SOC) change, and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), respectively. However, we also detected notable differences in the magnitude of NPP and NEE, as well as in the spatial pattern of SOC change. By performing crop-specific annual comparisons, we discuss possible explanations for the discrepancies between GAMS and the inventory method, such as data requirements, representation of agroecosystem processes, completeness and accuracy of crop management data, and accuracy of crop area representation. Based on these analyses, we further discuss strategies to improve GAMS by updating input data and by designing more efficient parallel computing capability to quantitatively assess errors associated with the simulation of C budget components. The modularized design of the GAMS makes it flexible to be updated and adapted for different agricultural models so long as they require similar input data, and to be linked with socio-economic models to understand the effectiveness and implications of diverse C management practices and policies.

  9. ACOUSTIC REMOTE SENSING OF THE NORTH PACIFIC ON GYRE AND REGIONAL SCALES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dushaw, Brian

    ACOUSTIC REMOTE SENSING OF THE NORTH PACIFIC ON GYRE AND REGIONAL SCALES B. DUSHAW Applied Physics has evolved into a multipurpose remote sensing measurement technique that has been employed in a wide for observing regions of active convection, for measuring changes in integrated heat content, for observing

  10. Empirical Force-Field Assessment: The Interplay Between Backbone Torsions and Noncovalent Term Scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorin, Eric J.

    Empirical Force-Field Assessment: The Interplay Between Backbone Torsions and Noncovalent Term report, which critically assessed the performance of several contemporary force fields in reproducing of modifying backbone torsions and the scaling of noncovalent interactions. Although these elements determine

  11. Brief scales to assess physical activity and sedentary equipment in the home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    assess test- retest reliability of equipment counts for eachhigher test-retest reliability for all equipment scales thanreliability of report- ing portable electronic equipment and

  12. Aquifer sensitivity assessment modeling at a large scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, R.C.; Abert, C.C. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 480 square-mile region within Will County, northeastern Illinois was used as a test region for an evaluation of the sensitivity of aquifers to contamination. An aquifer sensitivity model was developed using a Geographic Information System (GIS) with ARC/INFO software to overlay and combine several data layers. Many of the input data layers were developed using 2-dimensional surface modeling (Interactive Surface Modeling (ISM)) and 3-dimensional volume modeling (Geologic Modeling Program (GMP)) computer software. Most of the input data layers (drift thickness, thickness of sand and gravel, depth to first aquifer) were derived from interpolation of descriptive logs for water wells and engineering borings from their study area. A total of 2,984 logs were used to produce these maps. The components used for the authors' model are (1) depth to sand and gravel or bedrock, (2) thickness of the uppermost sand and gravel aquifer, (3) drift thickness, and (4) absence or presence of uppermost bedrock aquifer. The model is an improvement over many aquifer sensitivity models because it combines specific information on depth to the uppermost sand and gravel aquifer with information on the thickness of the uppermost sand and gravel aquifer. The manipulation of the source maps according to rules-based assumptions results in a colored aquifer sensitivity map for the Will County study area. This colored map differentiates 42 aquifer sensitivity map areas by using line patterns within colors. The county-scale model results in an aquifer sensitivity map that can be a useful tool for making land-use planning decisions regarding aquifer protection and management of groundwater resources.

  13. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  14. A regional-scale particle-tracking method for nonstationary fractured media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohman, Johan; Niemi, Auli; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A regional scale transport model is introduced that is applicable to non-stationary and statistically inhomogeneous fractured media, provided that hydraulic flow, but not necessarily solute transport, can be approximated by equivalent continuum properties at some block scale. Upscaled flow and transport block properties are transferred from multiple fracture network realizations to a regional model with grid elements of equal size to that found valid for continuum approximation of flow. In the large-scale model, flow is solved in a stochastic continuum framework, whereas the transport calculations employ a random walk procedure. Block-wise transit times are sampled from distributions linked to each block-conductivity based on its underlying fracture network. To account for channeled transport larger than the block scale, several alternatives in sampling algorithm are introduced and compared. The most reasonable alternative incorporates a spatial persistence length in sampling the particle transit times; this tracer transport persistence length is related to interblock channeling, and is quantified by the number N of blocks. The approach is demonstrated for a set of field data, and the obtained regional-scale particle breakthroughs are analyzed. These are fitted to the one-dimensional advective-dispersive equation to determine an effective macroscale dispersion coefficient. An interesting finding is that this macroscale dispersion coefficient is found to be a linear function of the transport persistence, N, with a slope equal to a representative mean block-scale dispersion coefficient and a constant that incorporates background dispersion arising from the regional heterogeneous conductivity field.

  15. Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Up-scaling from physically based numerical simulations at hillslope scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Melkamu; Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Fiori, Aldo; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall-runoff response, especially in steep forested regions. However; its contribution is poorly represented in current generation of land surface hydrological models (LSMs) and catchment-scale rainfall-runoff models. The lack of physical basis of common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global models. This paper is aimed at deriving physically based parameterizations of the storage-discharge relationship relating to subsurface flow. These parameterizations are derived through a two-step up-scaling procedure: firstly, through simulations with a physically based (Darcian) subsurface flow model for idealized three dimensional rectangular hillslopes, accounting for within-hillslope random heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties, and secondly, through subsequent up-scaling to the catchment scale by accounting for between-hillslope and within-catchment heterogeneity of topographic features (e.g., slope). These theoretical simulation results produced parameterizations of the storage-discharge relationship in terms of soil hydraulic properties, topographic slope and their heterogeneities, which were consistent with results of previous studies. Yet, regionalization of the resulting storage-discharge relations across 50 actual catchments in eastern United States, and a comparison of the regionalized results with equivalent empirical results obtained on the basis of analysis of observed streamflow recession curves, revealed a systematic inconsistency. It was found that the difference between the theoretical and empirically derived results could be explained, to first order, by climate in the form of climatic aridity index. This suggests a possible codependence of climate, soils, vegetation and topographic properties, and suggests that subsurface flow parameterization needed for ungauged locations must account for both the physics of flow in heterogeneous landscapes, and the co-dependence of soil and topographic properties with climate, including possibly the mediating role of vegetation.

  16. An integrated assessment of global and regional water demands for electricity generation to 2095

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, Evan; Kyle, G. Page; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric power plants currently account for approximately one-half of the global industrial water withdrawal. While continued expansion of the electric sector seems likely into the future, the consequent water demands are quite uncertain, and will depend on highly variable water intensities by electricity technologies, at present and in the future. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change, we first establish lower-bound, median, and upper-bound estimates for present-day electric sector water withdrawals and consumption by individual electric generation technologies in each of 14 geopolitical regions, and compare them with available estimates of regional industrial or electric sector water use. We then explore the evolution of global and regional electric sector water use over the next century, focusing on uncertainties related to withdrawal and consumption intensities for a variety of electric generation technologies, rates of change of power plant cooling system types, and rates of adoption of a suite of water-saving technologies. Results reveal that the water withdrawal intensity of electricity generation is likely to decrease in the near term with capital stock turnover, as wet towers replace once-through flow cooling systems and advanced electricity generation technologies replace conventional ones. An increase in consumptive use accompanies the decrease in water withdrawal rates; however, a suite of water conservation technologies currently under development could compensate for this increase in consumption. Finally, at a regional scale, water use characteristics vary significantly based on characteristics of the existing capital stock and the selection of electricity generation technologies into the future.

  17. Regional-scale effects of eutrophication on ecosystem structure and services of seagrass beds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Ransom A.

    Regional-scale effects of eutrophication on ecosystem structure and services of seagrass beds with increasing eutrophication. As eutrophication increased, phytoplankton biomass increased on average 1.8 times to increasing tissue nitrogen content above ground with eutrophication. Despite province- and species

  18. Controls on the regional-scale salinization of the Ogallala aquifer, Southern High Plains, Texas, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banner, Jay L.

    of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0053, USA b Department of Geological Sciences, The University of TexasControls on the regional-scale salinization of the Ogallala aquifer, Southern High Plains, Texas, USA Sunil Mehtaa, *, Alan E. Fryara , Jay L. Bannerb a Department of Geological Sciences, University

  19. MODELLING GROUNDWATER FLOW ON THE REGIONAL SCALE IN THE UPPER DANUBE CATCHMENT (GERMANY)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    MODELLING GROUNDWATER FLOW ON THE REGIONAL SCALE IN THE UPPER DANUBE CATCHMENT (GERMANY) Roland.barthel@iws.uni-stuttgart.de Abstract. A groundwater flow model for the Upper Danube catchment (A=77,000km2 at gauge Passau, Germany coupled models. Modelling of groundwater flow, using coupled deterministic and hydrological approaches

  20. Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation variability?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribes, Aurélien

    Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation record over recent decades. Citation: Douville, H. (2006), Detection-attribution of global warming at recent climate scenarios, Douville et al. [2005] showed that the precipitation response to global warming

  1. Regional Structural Skeletal Discordance Assessed by Measures of Complexity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrzejak, Artur

    of complexity. Material and Methods: Out of a sample size of 30, 29 human specimens (a case with bone affecting). The skeletal regions distal radius, middle of the femoral neck and head, midaxial L3, proximal tibia (17 mm hole, femoral neck, calcaneus, distal radius, midshaft humerus, femoral head. The symbol annotation

  2. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 2. Regions 7 through 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: Unglaciated Central Region; Glaciated Appalachians, Unglaciated Appalachians; Coastal Plain; Hawaii; and Alaska. (LCL)

  3. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal energy storage. Volume 1. Regions 1 through 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: the Western Mountains; Alluvial Basins; Columbia LAVA Plateau; Colorado Plateau; High Plains; and Glaciated Central Region. (LCL)

  4. Integrated modelling and assessment of regional groundwater resources in Germany and Benin, West Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    1 Integrated modelling and assessment of regional groundwater resources in Germany and Benin, West.J.S. SONNEVELD [1] Institute of Hydraulic Engineering, Universitaet Stuttgart, Germany (Roland Conservation University of Bonn, Germany [3] Institute of Landscape Planning and Ecology, University

  5. Assessing Regional Climate and Local Landcover Impacts on Vegetation with Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Pei-Ling; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.

    2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Landcover change alters not only the surface landscape but also regional carbon and water cycling. The objective of this study was to assess the potential impacts of landcover change across the Kansas River Basin (KRB) by ...

  6. Preliminary assessment of regional dispersivity of the Hanford basalts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaVenue, Arthur Marsh

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . ACKNONLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the members of my graduate research committee, Dr. Patrick Domenico, Dr. Earl Hoskins, and Dr. James Russell for their corvaents and discussions during this study. I am thankful to Rockwell International-Hanford Operations... level nuclear waste repository, it is essential that the dispersivities be determined in order to aid in modelling studies that will be needed to characterize the site. GENERAL PHYSICAL NATURE OF HANFORD SITE Regional Setting The United States...

  7. Economic assessment of small-scale electricity generation from wind 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Kristen Dawn

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis was done to determine if small-scale wind energy could be economically feasible on a cotton farm with 1,200 irrigated acres, a house, and a barn. Lubbock and Midland were locations chosen for this model farm and the twenty-year analysis. A...

  8. Basin scale assessment of gas hydrate dissociation in response to climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, M.; Moridis, G.; Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Cameron-Smith, P.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paleooceanographic evidence has been used to postulate that methane from oceanic hydrates may have had a significant role in regulating climate. However, the behavior of contemporary oceanic methane hydrate deposits subjected to rapid temperature changes, like those now occurring in the arctic and those predicted under future climate change scenarios, has only recently been investigated. Field investigations have discovered substantial methane gas plumes exiting the seafloor along the Arctic Ocean margin, and the plumes appear at depths corresponding to the upper limit of a receding gas hydrate stability zone. It has been suggested that these plumes may be the first visible signs of the dissociation of shallow hydrate deposits due to ongoing climate change in the arctic. We simulate the release of methane from oceanic deposits, including the effects of fully-coupled heat transfer, fluid flow, hydrate dissociation, and other thermodynamic processes, for systems representative of segments of the Arctic Ocean margins. The modeling encompasses a range of shallow hydrate deposits from the landward limit of the hydrate stability zone down to water depths beyond the expected range of century-scale temperature changes. We impose temperature changes corresponding to predicted rates of climate change-related ocean warming and examine the possibility of hydrate dissociation and the release of methane. The assessment is performed at local-, regional-, and basin-scales. The simulation results are consistent with the hypothesis that dissociating shallow hydrates alone can result in significant methane fluxes at the seafloor. However, the methane release is likely to be confined to a narrow region of high dissociation susceptibility, defined by depth and temperature, and that any release will be continuous and controlled, rather than explosive. This modeling also establishes the first realistic bounds for methane release along the arctic continental shelf for potential hydrate dissociation scenarios, and ongoing work may help confirm whether climate change is already impacting the stability of the vast oceanic hydrate reservoir.

  9. The magnetic structure of surges in small-scale emerging flux regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacTaggart, David; Haynes, Andrew; Simitev, Radostin; Zuccarello, Francesca

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims: To investigate the relationship between surges and magnetic reconnection during the emergence of small-scale active regions. In particular, to examine how the large-scale geometry of the magnetic field, shaped by different phases of reconnection, guides the flowing of surges. Methods: We present three flux emergence models. The first model, and the simplest, consists of a region emerging into a horizontal ambient field that is initially parallel to the top of the emerging region. The second model is the same as the first but with an extra smaller emerging region which perturbs the main region. This is added to create a more complex magnetic topology and to test how this complicates the development of surges compared to the first model. The last model has a non-uniform ambient magnetic field to model the effects of emergence near a sunspot field and impose asymmetry on the system through the ambient magnetic field. At each stage, we trace the magnetic topology to identify the locations of reconnection. T...

  10. LFTI: A New Performance Metric for Assessing Interconnect Designs for Extreme-Scale HPC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pakin, Scott

    , New Mexico Email: {mlang,pakin}@lanl.gov Abstract--Traditionally, interconnect performance is eitherLFTI: A New Performance Metric for Assessing Interconnect Designs for Extreme-Scale HPC Systems Xin a good performance overview for extreme-scale interconnects. The topological pa- rameters

  11. Regional flood hazard assessment of the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.O.; Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional flood-hazard assessments performed for the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants are reviewed, compared, and contrasted to determine the relationship of probable maximum flood methodology with respect to US Department of Energy design and evaluation guidelines. The Paducah assessment was carried out using probable maximum flood methodology, while the Portsmouth assessment utilized probabilistic techniques. Results indicated that regional flooding along nearby rivers would not inundate either plant, and that the guidelines were satisfied. A comparison of results indicated that the probable maximum flood recurrence interval associated with the Paducah assessment exceeded the 10,000 years depending on the choice of the probabilistic model used to perform the assessment. It was concluded, based on an analysis of two data points, that smaller watersheds driven by single event storms could be assessed using probabilistic techniques, while probable maximum flood methodology could be applied to larger drainage basins flooded by storm sequences. 32 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Non-Destructive Whole Lung Assessment via Multi-scale Micro CT Imaging Combined with Stereology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ge

    Non-Destructive Whole Lung Assessment via Multi-scale Micro CT Imaging Combined with Stereology Tech, Virginia, USA Running head Non-Destructive Whole Lung Assessment via µCT Contact Information Eric-hoffman@uiowa.edu Phone: 319-353-6213 Fax: 319-356-1503 #12;Abstract Estimating volume fractions of the lung parenchyma

  13. Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part I: Perfect Model Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Zhiyong

    Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part I the potential of using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for mesoscale and regional-scale data assimilation are assimilated. 1. Introduction The ensemble-based data assimilation method [en- semble Kalman filter (En

  14. Assessment of transboundary environmental effects in the Pearl River Delta Region: Is there a role for strategic environmental assessment?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsden, Simon, E-mail: simon.marsden@flinders.edu.au

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    China's EIA Law does not require transboundary proposals to be assessed, despite recognition of this globally, for example in the Espoo Convention and Kiev Protocol, and in the European EIA and SEA Directives. In a transboundary context assessment within a state is unusual, as regulating these effects is primarily about the relationship between states. However where a state has more than one legal system such as in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) Region of southern China, transboundary effects should also be addressed. Yet despite the geographical connections between Guangdong Province in mainland China (where the EIA Law applies) and the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions (which have their own provisions, neither of which requires transboundary assessments), EIA and SEA are carried out separately. Coordinated or joint approaches to transboundary assessment are generally absent, with the legal autonomy of Hong Kong and Macau a major constraint. As a result institutional responses at the policy level have developed. The article considers global experiences with regulating transboundary EIA and SEA, and analyses potential application to land use, transport and air and water planning in the PRD Region. If applied, benefits may include prevention or mitigation of cumulative effects, broader public participation, and improvements to environmental governance. The PRD Region experience may encourage China to conduct and coordinate EIA and SEA processes with neighbouring states, which has been non-existent or extremely limited to date.

  15. Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

  16. Measuring the Efficacy of Leaders to Assess Information and Make Decisions in a Crisis: The C-LEAD Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittinsky, Todd L.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on literature and expert interviews, we developed the Crisis Leader Efficacy in Assessing and Deciding scale (C-LEAD) to capture the efficacy of leaders to assess information and make decisions in a public health and ...

  17. Grassland/atmosphere response to changing climate: Coupling regional and local scales. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughenour, M.B.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Pielke, R.A.; Eastman, J.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the study were: to evaluate the response of grassland ecosystems to atmospheric change at regional and site scales, and to develop multiscaled modeling systems to relate ecological and atmospheric models with different spatial and temporal resolutions. A menu-driven shell was developed to facilitate use of models at different temporal scales and to facilitate exchange information between models at different temporal scales. A detailed ecosystem model predicted that C{sub 3} temperate grasslands wig respond more strongly to elevated CO{sub 2} than temperate C{sub 4} grasslands in the short-term while a large positive N-PP response was predicted for a C{sub 4} Kenyan grassland. Long-term climate change scenarios produced either decreases or increases in Colorado plant productivity (NPP) depending on rainfall, but uniform increases in N-PP were predicted in Kenya. Elevated CO{sub 2} is likely to have little effect on ecosystem carbon storage in Colorado while it will increase carbon storage in Kenya. A synoptic climate classification processor (SCP) was developed to evaluate results of GCM climate sensitivity experiments. Roughly 80% agreement was achieved with manual classifications. Comparison of lx and 2xCO{sub 2} GCM Simulations revealed relatively small differences.

  18. A Multi-Model Assessment of Regional Climate Disparities Caused by Solar Geoengineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    1 A Multi-Model Assessment of Regional Climate Disparities Caused by Solar Geoengineering Normal University, Beijing, China. 9 School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University levels. G1 involves a reduction in solar irradiance to counteract the radiative forcing5 in abrupt4xCO2

  19. 8. SYNTHESIS OF RISK ASSESSMENTS: TAXONOMIC, REGIONAL, AND THREAT-BASED PATTERNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    457 8. SYNTHESIS OF RISK ASSESSMENTS: TAXONOMIC, REGIONAL, AND THREAT-BASED PATTERNS Estimated specific or generic information indicating relatively high susceptibility to certain threats (e susceptibility to threats and/or known occurrence in diverse or marginal habitats. Many, if not most, species

  20. Health Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Health Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality M. Valari(1), L;-Pollutants concentrations [c] ·Average outdoors pollution ·Indoors air quality ·Other sources of intoxication (food, water etc.) -Population exposure: [c] x dt -Health data & air pollution health effects Health

  1. Do et al. 1 Full Scale Tests for the Assessment of Wear of Pavement Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Do et al. 1 Full Scale Tests for the Assessment of Wear of Pavement Surfaces Minh-Tan Do subjected to heavy traffic. Reports can be found in (1)(2). Evolution of pavements during its whole service shown in the figure 2. By this way, during tests on one track, pavement construction can be carried out

  2. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts on Regional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PNM PSCO PSE PUC SDG&E SCE WECC average megawatts Britishwith appropriate NERC and WECC committees and subcommitteesconsistent across NERC, WECC and state/regional assessments

  3. Source Scaling of Single-Fired and Delay-Fired Explosions Constrained by In-Mine and Regional Seismograms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stump, Brian W.

    Source Scaling of Single-Fired and Delay-Fired Explosions Constrained by In-Mine and Regional (simultaneously detonated) explosions observed in the mine and at regional distances. These single-fired (360 km) using a seismic array near Pinedale, Wyoming (PDAR). The single-fired explosions ranged

  4. An Integrated Assessment of Location-Dependent Scaling for Microalgae Biofuel Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Andre M.; Abodeely, Jared; Skaggs, Richard; Moeglein, William AM; Newby, Deborah T.; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful development of a large-scale microalgae-based biofuels industry requires comprehensive analysis and understanding of the feedstock supply chain—from facility siting/design through processing/upgrading of the feedstock to a fuel product. The evolution from pilot-scale production facilities to energy-scale operations presents many multi-disciplinary challenges, including a sustainable supply of water and nutrients, operational and infrastructure logistics, and economic competitiveness with petroleum-based fuels. These challenges are addressed in part by applying the Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF)—an integrated multi-scale modeling, analysis, and data management suite—to address key issues in developing and operating an open-pond facility by analyzing how variability and uncertainty in space and time affect algal feedstock production rates, and determining the site-specific “optimum” facility scale to minimize capital and operational expenses. This approach explicitly and systematically assesses the interdependence of biofuel production potential, associated resource requirements, and production system design trade-offs. The IAF was applied to a set of sites previously identified as having the potential to cumulatively produce 5 billion-gallons/year in the southeastern U.S. and results indicate costs can be reduced by selecting the most effective processing technology pathway and scaling downstream processing capabilities to fit site-specific growing conditions, available resources, and algal strains.

  5. Downscaling Global Land Cover Projections from an Integrated Assessment Model for Use in Regional Analyses: Results and Evaluation for the US from 2005 to 2095

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Huang, Maoyi; Wolf, Julie; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Projections of land cover change generated from Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) and other economic-based models can be applied for analyses of environmental impacts at subregional and landscape scales. For those IAM and economic models that project land use at the sub-continental or regional scale, these projections must be downscaled and spatially distributed prior to use in climate or ecosystem models. Downscaling efforts to date have been conducted at the national extent with relatively high spatial resolution (30m) and at the global extent with relatively coarse spatial resolution (0.5 degree).

  6. Structural Assessment of D-Regions Affected by Alkali-Silica Reaction/Delayed Ettringite Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Shih-Hsiang 1979-

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT OF D-REGIONS AFFECTED BY ALKALI- SILICA REACTION/DELAYED ETTRINGITE FORMATION A Dissertation by SHIH-HSIANG LIU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Joseph M. Bracci Committee Members, John B. Mander Stefan Hurlebaus Harry A. Hogan Head of Department, John M. Niedzwecki December 2012 Major Subject: Civil...

  7. Modeling and Risk Assessment of CO{sub 2} Sequestration at the Geologic-basin Scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juanes, Ruben

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives. The overall objective of this proposal was to develop tools for better understanding, modeling and risk assessment of CO{sub 2} permanence in geologic formations at the geologic basin scale. The main motivation was that carbon capture and storage (CCS) will play an important role as a climate change mitigation technology only if it is deployed at scale of gigatonne per year injections over a period of decades. Continuous injection of this magnitude must be understood at the scale of a geologic basin. Specifically, the technical objectives of this project were: (1) to develop mathematical models of capacity and injectivity at the basin scale; (2) to apply quantitative risk assessment methodologies that will inform on CO{sub 2} permanence; (3) to apply the models to geologic basins across the continental United States. These technical objectives go hand-in-hand with the overarching goals of: (1) advancing the science for deployment of CCS at scale; and (2) contributing to training the next generation of scientists and engineers that will implement and deploy CCS in the United States and elsewhere. Methods. The differentiating factor of this proposal was to perform fundamental research on migration and fate of CO{sub 2} and displaced brine at the geologic basin scale. We developed analytical sharp-interface models of the evolution of CO{sub 2} plumes over the duration of injection (decades) and after injection (centuries). We applied the analytical solutions of CO{sub 2} plume migration and pressure evolution to specific geologic basins, to estimate the maximum footprint of the plume, and the maximum injection rate that can be sustained during a certain injection period without fracturing the caprock. These results have led to more accurate capacity estimates, based on fluid flow dynamics, rather than ad hoc assumptions of an overall “efficiency factor.” We also applied risk assessment methodologies to evaluate the uncertainty in our predictions of storage capacity and leakage rates. This was possible because the analytical mathematical models provide ultrafast forward simulation and they contain few parameters. Impact. The project has been enormously successful both in terms of its scientific output (journal publications) as well as impact in the government and industry. The mathematical models and uncertainty quantification methodologies developed here o?er a physically-based approach for estimating capacity and leakage risk at the basin scale. Our approach may also facilitate deployment of CCS by providing the basis for a simpler and more coherent regulatory structure than an “individual-point-of-injection” permitting approach. It may also lead to better science-based policy for post-closure design and transfer of responsibility to the State.

  8. A limited assessment and characterization of the solar radiation energy resources in the Caribbean region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulstrom, R.L.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of our work was to produce a preliminary assessment and characterization of the Caribbean region (Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, and Panama) solar radiation energy resources. Such information will be used to estimate the performance of, and identify the most promising applications of, solar heat technologies in the Caribbean region. We expect the solar radiation resources in the Caribbean region to be very location specific. Sunny areas will have an annual direct-beam resource of about 3,000 kWhm/sup /minus 2// and a global solar radiation resource of about 2,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2//. Cloud-covered areas will have annual solar radiation resources of about 1,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2/ for both the direct-beam and the global solar radiation. Monthly levels of solar radiaion will vary markedly, ranging from an average of 9 to 3 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the direct-beam and from an average of 7 to 4 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the global solar radiation. The Caribbean region is comparable to the Great Plains region of the US, in terms of annual solar radiation resources; however, thorough ''prospecting'' is required to avoid areas having very low amounts of solar radiation.

  9. Forest dynamics at regional scales: predictive models constrained with inventory data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lines, Emily

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    by scaling from key tree-level processes, but models typically have no climate dependency. In this thesis I demonstrate how large-scale national inventories combined with improvements in computational methods mean that models that incorporate the climate...

  10. Experimental plan for the assessment of air toxic emissions from a pilot-scale combustion unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargis, R.A.; Pennline, H.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The operation of a 500-pound-per-hour pilot-scale combustion unit will be characterized in terms of the formation, distribution, and fate of toxic substances. The coal fired during the air toxics testing will be the same coal batch that had been fired in a full-scale utility boiler during a recent assessment of air toxic emissions. A description of the pilot unit and expected operating conditions during the air toxics testing is provided, along with a summary of the test plan. This test plan is designed to obtain the necessary data on the concentration of trace elements associated with the vapor phase, particulate phase, and particulate size fraction enabling a comparison of these results form the pilot unit and the full-scale utility. Calculation of material balances around the pilot combustion unit, the baghouse, and the overall system as well as baghouse removal efficiencies will be performed. Based on the results of this air toxics characterization effort, an assessment will be made of the value of the pilot unit as a facility for the evaluation of sampling and analytical improvements, development of continuous emissions monitors, and future control systems evaluations.

  11. Assessment of Controlling Processes for Field-Scale Uranium Reactive Transport under Highly Transient Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan; Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Zachara, John M.

    2014-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive model-based analysis of a uranium tracer test conducted at the U.S Department of Energy Hanford 300 Area (300A) IFRC site. A three-dimensional multi-component reactive transport model was employed to assess the key factors and processes that control the field-scale uranium reactive transport. Taking into consideration of relevant physical and chemical processes, the selected conceptual/numerical model replicates the spatial and temporal variations of the observed U(VI) concentrations reasonably well in spite of the highly complex field conditions. A sensitivity analysis was performed to interrogate the relative importance of various processes and factors for reactive transport of U(VI) at the field-scale. The results indicate that multi-rate U(VI) sorption/desorption, U(VI) surface complexation reactions, and initial U(VI) concentrations were the most important processes and factors controlling U(VI) migration. On the other hand, cation exchange reactions, the choice of the surface complexation model, and dual-domain mass transfer processes, which were previously identified to be important in laboratory experiments, played less important roles under the field-scale experimental condition at the 300A site. However, the model simulations also revealed that the groundwater chemistry was relatively stable during the uranium tracer experiment and therefore presumably not dynamic enough to appropriately assess the effects of ion exchange reaction and the choice of surface complexation models on U(VI) sorption and desorption. Furthermore, it also showed that the field experimental duration (16 days) was not sufficiently long to precisely assess the role of a majority of the sorption sites that were accessed by slow kinetic processes within the dual domain model. The sensitivity analysis revealed the crucial role of the intraborehole flow that occurred within the long-screened monitoring wells and thus significantly affected both field-scale measurements and simulated U(VI) concentrations as a combined effect of aquifer heterogeneity and highly dynamic flow conditions. Overall, this study, which provides one of the few detailed and highly data-constrained uranium transport simulations, highlights the difference in controlling processes between laboratory and field scale that prevent a simple direct upscaling of laboratory-scale models.

  12. Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part II: Imperfect Model Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Zhiyong

    Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part II In Part I of this two-part work, the feasibility of using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for mesoscale that using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the context of a perfect model (i.e., both the truth

  13. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  14. Assessing the health equity impacts of regional land-use plan making: An equity focussed health impact assessment of alternative patterns of development of the Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Regional Plan, Australia (Short report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunning, Colleen, E-mail: Colleen_Gunning@health.qld.gov.a [Health Promotion Service (Mackay), Tropical Population Health Services (Australia); Harris, Patrick [CHETRE-UNSW Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales (Australia); Mallett, John [Regional Planner, Department of Communities (Australia)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Health service and partners completed an equity focussed health impact assessment to influence the consideration of health and equity within regional land-use planning in Queensland, Australia. This project demonstrated how an equity oriented assessment matrix can assist in testing regional planning scenarios. It is hoped that this HIA will contribute to the emerging interest in ensuring that potential differential health impacts continue to be considered as part of land-use planning processes.

  15. An Integrated Assessment Framework for Uncertainty Studies in Global and Regional Climate Change: The IGSM-CAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monier, Erwan

    2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an integrated assessment framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model (IGSM), ...

  16. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Capacity and Associated Aspects of the Most Promising Geologic Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region: Local-Scale Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Scott, Phyllis; Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Esser, Richard; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of individual local-­?scale CCS site characterization studies conducted in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. These site-­? specific characterization analyses were performed as part of the “Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region” (RMCCS) project. The primary objective of these local-­?scale analyses is to provide a basis for regional-­?scale characterization efforts within each state. Specifically, limits on time and funding will typically inhibit CCS projects from conducting high-­? resolution characterization of a state-­?sized region, but smaller (< 10,000 km{sup 2}) site analyses are usually possible, and such can provide insight regarding limiting factors for the regional-­?scale geology. For the RMCCS project, the outcomes of these local-­?scale studies provide a starting point for future local-­?scale site characterization efforts in the Rocky Mountain region.

  17. Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980-2010 period

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granier, Claire; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Bond, Tami C.; D'Angiola, Ariela; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Frost, G. J.; Heil, Angelika; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Kinne, Stefan; Klimont, Z.; Kloster, Jean; Lamarque, J.-F.; Liousse, Catherine; Masui, Toshihiko; Meleux, Frederik; Mieville, Aude; Ohara, Toshimasa; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Riahi, Keywan; Schultz, Martin; Smith, Steven J.; Thomson, Allison M.; van Aardenne, John; van der Werf, Guido R.; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Several different inventories of global and regional anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are assessed for the 1980-2010 period. The species considered in this study are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and black carbon. The inventories considered include the ACCMIP historical emissions developed in support of the simulations for the IPCC AR5 assessment. Emissions for 2005 and 2010 from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) are also included. Large discrepancies between the global and regional emissions are identified, which shows that there is still no consensus on the best estimates for surface emissions of atmospheric compounds. At the global scale, anthropogenic emissions of CO, NOx and SO2 show the best agreement in most years. The agreement is low for BC emissions, particularly in the period prior to 2000. The best consensus is for NOx emissions for all periods and all regions, except for China where emissions in 1980 and 1990 need to be better defined. Emissions of CO need a better quantification in the USA for all periods; in Central Europe, the evolution of emissions during the past two decades needs to be better determined. The agreement between the different SO2 emissions datasets is rather good for the USA, but better quantification is needed elsewhere, particularly for Central Europe and China. The comparisons performed in this study show that the use of RCP8.5 for the extension of the ACCMIP inventory beyond 2000 is reasonable, until more global or regional estimates become available. Concerning biomass burning emissions, most inventories agree within 50-80%, depending on the year and season. The large differences are due to differences in the estimates of burned areas from the different available products, as well as in the amount of biomass burnt.

  18. Lessons from a Large-Scale Assessment: Results from Conceptual Inventories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thacker, Beth; Pattillo, Dave; West, Keith

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the conceptual inventory results of a large-scale assessment project at a large university. We studied an attempt at introducing materials and instructional methods informed by physics education research (PER-informed materials) into a department where most instruction has been traditional and a significant number of faculty are hesitant, ambivalent or even resistant about the introduction of such reforms. The changes were made in the laboratories and recitation sections of the introductory classes, both calculus-based and algebra-based, introducing PER-informed materials and training the teaching assistants in student-centered instructional methods. In addition to the results found in the large lecture classes, we present the results of a small PER-informed, inquiry-based, laboratory-based class that has been taught as a special section of the algebra-based course for about 10 years. The assessment reported in this paper was done using available PER-developed assessment instruments. The results of ...

  19. Regional Assessment and Resource Centre (RARC) and Mobile Assessment Team (MAT), Queen's University, Mackintosh-Corry Hall, Room B100, 68 University Ave., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Randy

    Regional Assessment and Resource Centre (RARC) and Mobile Assessment Team (MAT), Queen's University will receive an e-mail confirming the fee. #12;Regional Assessment and Resource Centre (RARC) and Mobile Fee Information Sheet and Financial Contract Fee Information: · Psychoeducational assessments

  20. Assessment of Natural Stream Sites for Hydroelectric Dams in the Pacific Northwest Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas G. Hall; Kristin L. Verdin; Randy D. Lee

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This pilot study presents a methodology for modeling project characteristics using a development model of a stream obstructing dam. The model is applied to all individual stream reaches in hydrologic region 17, which encompasses nearly all of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Project site characteristics produced by the modeling technique include: capacity potential, principal dam dimensions, number of required auxiliary dams, total extent of the constructed impoundment boundary, and the surface area of the resulting reservoir. Aggregated capacity potential values for the region are presented in capacity categories including total, that at existing dams, within federal and environmentally sensitive exclusion zones, and the balance which is consider available for greenfield development within the limits of the study. Distributions of site characteristics for small hydropower sites are presented and discussed. These sites are screened to identify candidate small hydropower sites and distributions of the site characteristics of this site population are presented and discussed. Recommendations are made for upgrading the methodology and extensions to make the results more accessible and available on a larger scale.

  1. Overview of the Quality and Completeness of Resource Assessment Data for the APEC Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D. S.; Pilasky, S.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of information and data on the renewable energy resources (solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, and hydro) for renewable energy technologies is a critical element in the successful implementation of these technologies. This paper presents a comprehensive summary of published information on these resources for each of 1 8 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies. In the introductory sections, a discussion of the quality and completeness of this information is presented, along with recommendations on steps that need to be taken to facilitate the further development and deployment of renewable energy technologies throughout the APEC region. These sections are then followed by economy-specific reviews, and a complete bibliography and summary description for each citation. The major results of this survey are that a basis for understanding renewable energy resources is currently available for essentially all the economies, although there is a significant need to apply improved and updated resource assessment techniques in most. For example, most wind resource assessments rely on data collected at national weather stations, which often results in underestimates of the true potential wind resource within an economy. As a second example, solar resource assessments in most economies rely on an analysis of very simple sunshine record data, which results in large uncertainties in accurately quantifying the resource. National surveys of biomass, geothermal, and hydro resources are often lacking; in most cases, resources for these technologies were discussed for site-specific studies only. Thus, the major recommendations in this paper are to: ( 1 ) upgrade current or install new wind and solar measurement systems at key 'benchmark' locations to provide accurate, representative information on these resources; (2) apply advanced wind and solar resource assessment tools that rely on data quality assessment procedures, the use of satellite data, and models, and that can reliably interpolate the data collected at the benchmark sites; (3) conduct national surveys of biomass, geothermal, and hydro resources uniformly and consistently; and ( 4) establish a centralized data center that provides ready access to the most up-to-date and validated renewable resource data in all APEC economies.

  2. Regional partnerships to sequester CO{sub 2} at near-commercial scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A summary of the keynote speech by Acting Deputy Secretary of Energy, Jeffrey Kupfer, is given, as well as details about new agreements on CO{sub 2} injection. These include the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership agreement to locate CO{sub 2} injection with a 50 mw clean energy systems plant in Kumberlina, California, and the Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction Partnership and Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration PARTNERSHIP plans to inject CO{sub 2} derived from post combustion capture at power plants. 3 photos.

  3. Midlatitude nighttime D region ionosphere variability on hourly to monthly time scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummer, Steven A.

    for lightninginduced electron precipitation), or geomagnetic activities. These measurements suggest that nighttime D through measuring the electrical currents to an electrode at a fixed potential [Smith, 1969]. Although. We probed the ionospheric D region by measuring the highpower broadband very low frequency (VLF

  4. Regional variability in feeding habits of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris): a preliminary assessment using ¹?N and ¹³C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich, Kimberly Jeanne

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REGIONAL VARIABILITY IN FEEDING HABITS OF THE FLORIDA MANATEE (Trichechus inanatus lattrostns): A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT USING N AND ' C A Thesis by KIMBERLY JEANNE REICH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... ASSESSMENT USING ' N AND "C A Thesis by KIMBERLY JEANNE REICH Submitted to Texas AdtM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Graham A. J. Wort y Committee) Luis...

  5. A watershed-based method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Liem T., E-mail: ltran1@utk.edu [Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); O& #x27; Neill, Robert V. [OTIE and Associates, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Elizabeth R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents a method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region. The method is based on the concept of 'self-/peer-appraisal' of a watershed in term of vulnerability. The self-/peer-appraisal process is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. The analysis provided insights on the environmental conditions, in general, and the relative vulnerability pattern, in particular, of the Mid-Atlantic region. The suggested method offers a simple but effective and objective way to perform a regional environmental vulnerability assessment. Consequently the method can be used in various steps in environmental assessment and planning. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a method for regional environmental vulnerability assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is based on the self-/peer-appraisal concept in term of vulnerability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analysis is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method provides insights on the regional relative vulnerability pattern.

  6. Natural Tracers and Multi-Scale Assessment of Caprock Sealing Behavior: A Case Study of the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Heath; Brian McPherson; Thomas Dewers

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The assessment of caprocks for geologic CO{sub 2} storage is a multi-scale endeavor. Investigation of a regional caprock - the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin, USA - at the pore-network scale indicates high capillary sealing capacity and low permeabilities. Core and wellscale data, however, indicate a potential seal bypass system as evidenced by multiple mineralized fractures and methane gas saturations within the caprock. Our interpretation of {sup 4}He concentrations, measured at the top and bottom of the caprock, suggests low fluid fluxes through the caprock: (1) Of the total {sup 4}He produced in situ (i.e., at the locations of sampling) by uranium and thorium decay since deposition of the Kirtland Formation, a large portion still resides in the pore fluids. (2) Simple advection-only and advection-diffusion models, using the measured {sup 4}He concentrations, indicate low permeability ({approx}10-20 m{sup 2} or lower) for the thickness of the Kirtland Formation. These findings, however, do not guarantee the lack of a large-scale bypass system. The measured data, located near the boundary conditions of the models (i.e., the overlying and underlying aquifers), limit our testing of conceptual models and the sensitivity of model parameterization. Thus, we suggest approaches for future studies to better assess the presence or lack of a seal bypass system at this particular site and for other sites in general.

  7. Strategic environmental assessment of energy planning tools. A study of Italian regions and provinces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Montis, Andrea, E-mail: andreadm@uniss.it

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SEA has been applied in different ways in EU energy and environmental planning instruments, because different member states have interpreted European Directive 2001/42/CE in a variety of ways. Italy, for example, has only recently completed the integration of the directive into its legislation, through a number of decrees which were approved between 2006 and 2010. As a result SEA practice in Italy is very fragmented, particularly with respect to energy planning, and needs to be steered towards homogeneous quality objectives. The aim of this paper is to study the quality of the SEA reports on the energy and environmental planning tools used by Italian regions and provinces. We study nine cases and use the methodology suggested by Fisher (2010) in his review of the quality of SEA. To be more precise, we integrate the views of external evaluators with those of a selection of the personnel directly involved in preparing the plans. Our results show that there are some differences in the quality scores given by the outsiders and insiders, although the two groups identified similar strengths and weaknesses in implementing SEA. - Highlights: • This is a comparative study on SEA report quality within Italian energy planning tools. • In Italy, the level of SEA implementation on energy planning is still poor. • External academic experts and internal officers assessed SEA reports' quality. • Outsiders and insiders unveil a similar judgement. • Most critical remarks concern consultation, monitoring measures, and follow-up.

  8. Regional groundwater flow and tritium transport modeling and risk assessment of the underground test area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The groundwater flow system of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region was evaluated to estimate the highest potential current and near-term risk to the public and the environment from groundwater contamination downgradient of the underground nuclear testing areas. The highest, or greatest, potential risk is estimated by assuming that several unusually rapid transport pathways as well as public and environmental exposures all occur simultaneously. These conservative assumptions may cause risks to be significantly overestimated. However, such a deliberate, conservative approach ensures that public health and environmental risks are not underestimated and allows prioritization of future work to minimize potential risks. Historical underground nuclear testing activities, particularly detonations near or below the water table, have contaminated groundwater near testing locations with radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Tritium was selected as the contaminant of primary concern for this phase of the project because it is abundant, highly mobile, and represents the most significant contributor to the potential radiation dose to humans for the short term. It was also assumed that the predicted risk to human health and the environment from tritium exposure would reasonably represent the risk from other, less mobile radionuclides within the same time frame. Other contaminants will be investigated at a later date. Existing and newly collected hydrogeologic data were compiled for a large area of southern Nevada and California, encompassing the Nevada Test Site regional groundwater flow system. These data were used to develop numerical groundwater flow and tritium transport models for use in the prediction of tritium concentrations at hypothetical human and ecological receptor locations for a 200-year time frame. A numerical, steady-state regional groundwater flow model was developed to serve as the basis for the prediction of the movement of tritium from the underground testing areas on a regional scale. The groundwater flow model was used in conjunction with a particle-tracking code to define the pathlines followed by groundwater particles originating from 415 points associated with 253 nuclear test locations. Three of the most rapid pathlines were selected for transport simulations. These pathlines are associated with three nuclear test locations, each representing one of the three largest testing areas. These testing locations are: BOURBON on Yucca Flat, HOUSTON on Central Pahute Mesa, and TYBO on Western Pahute Mesa. One-dimensional stochastic tritium transport simulations were performed for the three pathlines using the Monte Carlo method with Latin hypercube sampling. For the BOURBON and TYBO pathlines, sources of tritium from other tests located along the same pathline were included in the simulations. Sensitivity analyses were also performed on the transport model to evaluate the uncertainties associated with the geologic model, the rates of groundwater flow, the tritium source, and the transport parameters. Tritium concentration predictions were found to be mostly sensitive to the regional geology in controlling the horizontal and vertical position of transport pathways. The simulated concentrations are also sensitive to matrix diffusion, an important mechanism governing the migration of tritium in fractured carbonate and volcanic rocks. Source term concentration uncertainty is most important near the test locations and decreases in importance as the travel distance increases. The uncertainty on groundwater flow rates is as important as that on matrix diffusion at downgradient locations. The risk assessment was performed to provide conservative and bounding estimates of the potential risks to human health and the environment from tritium in groundwater. Risk models were designed by coupling scenario-specific tritium intake with tritium dose models and cancer and genetic risk estimates using the Monte Carlo method. Estimated radiation doses received by individuals from chronic exposure to tritium, and the corre

  9. Large scale risk-assessment of wind-farms on population viability of a globally endangered long-lived raptor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrete, Martina

    through increments in mortality rates. For this purpose, we evaluate potential conse- quences of wind-term impacts of wind-farms rather than focusing on short-term mortality, as is often promoted by powerLarge scale risk-assessment of wind-farms on population viability of a globally endangered long

  10. An Assessment of the Parameterization of Subgrid-Scale Cloud Effects on Radiative Transfer. Part II: Horizontal Inhomogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    in downwelling radiative fluxes at the surface induced by changes in cloud cover and water vapor distributions. 1An Assessment of the Parameterization of Subgrid-Scale Cloud Effects on Radiative Transfer. Part II form 5 January 2005) ABSTRACT The role of horizontal inhomogeneity in radiative transfer through cloud

  11. IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Laboratory(a) ABSTRACT The U.S. electric power infrastructure is a strategic national asset.S. electric infrastructure is designed to meet the highest expected demand for power and, as a resultIMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS

  12. Formation of lobate debris aprons on Mars: Assessment of regional ice sheet collapse and debris-cover armoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchant, David R.

    not have attained temperatures near or above the ice melting point and retained their current shape, a findFormation of lobate debris aprons on Mars: Assessment of regional ice sheet collapse and debris Keywords: Mars, climate Mars, surface Mars, polar geology Mars, polar caps a b s t r a c t Lobate debris

  13. Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinehart, B.N.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Receiver-Operating-Characteristic Analysis Reveals Superiority of Scale-Dependent Wavelet and Spectral Measures for Assessing Cardiac Dysfunction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thurner, S; Lowen, S B; Teich, M C; Thurner, Stefan; Feurstein, Markus C.; Lowen, Steven B.; Teich, Malvin C.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the suitability of various heart rate variability (HRV) measures for correctly classifying electrocardiogram records of varying lengths as normal or revealing the presence of heart failure. Scale-dependent HRV measures were found to be substantially superior to scale-independent measures (scaling exponents) for discriminating the two classes of data over a broad range of record lengths. The wavelet-coefficient standard deviation at a scale near 32 heartbeat intervals, and its spectral counterpart near 1/32 cycles per interval, provide reliable results using record lengths just minutes long. A jittered integrate-and-fire model built around a fractal Gaussian-noise kernel provides a realistic, though not perfect, simulation of heartbeat sequences.

  15. Improvement actions in waste management systems at the provincial scale based on a life cycle assessment evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigamonti, L., E-mail: lucia.rigamonti@polimi.it; Falbo, A.; Grosso, M.

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • LCA was used for evaluating the performance of four provincial waste management systems. • Milano, Bergamo, Pavia and Mantova (Italy) are the provinces selected for the analysis. • Most of the data used to model the systems are primary. • Significant differences were found among the provinces located in the same Region. • LCA was used as a decision-supporting tool by Regione Lombardia. - Abstract: This paper reports some of the findings of the ‘GERLA’ project: GEstione Rifiuti in Lombardia – Analisi del ciclo di vita (Waste management in Lombardia – Life cycle assessment). The project was devoted to support Lombardia Region in the drafting of the new waste management plan by applying a life cycle thinking perspective. The present paper mainly focuses on four Provinces in the Region, which were selected based on their peculiarities. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as the methodology to assess the current performance of the integrated waste management systems, to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of them and to design their perspective evolution as of year 2020. Results show that despite a usual business approach that is beneficial to all the provinces, the introduction of technological and management improvements to the system provides in general additional energy and environmental benefits for all four provinces. The same improvements can be easily extended to the whole Region, leading to increased environmental benefits from the waste management sector, in line with the targets set by the European Union for 2020.

  16. Probability distributions for regional climate change from uncertain global mean warming and uncertain scaling relationship Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(3), 10971114, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Probability distributions for regional climate change from uncertain global mean warming of probability distributions for regional climate change from uncertain global mean warming and an uncertain/precipitation per degree global mean warming. Each scaling variable is assumed to be normally distributed

  17. Investigating the Nexus of Climate, Energy, Water, and Land at Decision-Relevant Scales: The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraucunas, Ian P.; Clarke, Leon E.; Dirks, James A.; Hathaway, John E.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Huang, Maoyi; Jin, Chunlian; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Hongyi; Moss, Richard H.; Peterson, Marty J.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.; Thomson, Allison M.; Voisin, Nathalie; West, Tristram O.

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA) is an innovative modeling system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to simulate interactions among natural and human systems at scales relevant to regional decision making. PRIMA brings together state-of-the-art models of regional climate, hydrology, agriculture, socioeconomics, and energy systems using a flexible coupling approach. The platform can be customized to inform a variety of complex questions and decisions, such as the integrated evaluation of mitigation and adaptation options across a range of sectors. Research into stakeholder decision support needs underpins the platform's application to regional issues, including uncertainty characterization. Ongoing numerical experiments are yielding new insights into the interactions among human and natural systems on regional scales with an initial focus on the energy-land-water nexus in the upper U.S. Midwest. This paper focuses on PRIMA’s functional capabilities and describes some lessons learned to date about integrated regional modeling.

  18. SIMULATION MODEL ANALYSIS OF THE MOST PROMISING GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION FORMATION CANDIDATES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION, USA, WITH FOCUS ON UNCERTAINTY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Will, Robert; Eisinger, Chris; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to report results of reservoir model simulation analyses for forecasting subsurface CO2 storage capacity estimation for the most promising formations in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. A particular emphasis of this project was to assess uncertainty of the simulation-based forecasts. Results illustrate how local-scale data, including well information, number of wells, and location of wells, affect storage capacity estimates and what degree of well density (number of wells over a fixed area) may be required to estimate capacity within a specified degree of confidence. A major outcome of this work was development of a new workflow of simulation analysis, accommodating the addition of “random pseudo wells” to represent virtual characterization wells.

  19. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase methanol (LPMEOH) Process A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program seeks to offer the energy marketplace more efficient and environmentally benign coal utilization technology options by demonstrating them in industrial settings. This document is a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of one of the projects selected in Round III of the CCT Program, the commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process, initially described in a Report to Congress by DOE in 1992. Methanol is an important, large-volume chemical with many uses. The desire to demonstrate a new process for the production of methanol from coal, prompted Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to submit a proposal to DOE. In October 1992, DOE awarded a cooperative agreement to Air Products to conduct this project. In March 1995, this cooperative agreement was transferred to Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership), a partnership between Air Products and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman). DOE provided 43 percent of the total project funding of $213.7 million. Operation of the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit, which is sited at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee, commenced in April 1997. Although operation of the CCT project was completed in December 2002, Eastman continues to operate the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit for the production of methanol. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from Volume 2 of the project's Final Report (Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Co., L.P. 2003), as well as other references cited.

  20. A New WRF-Chem Treatment for Studying Regional Scale Impacts of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in Parameterized Cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Easter, Richard C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new treatment of cloud-aerosol interactions within parameterized shallow and deep convection has been implemented in WRF-Chem that can be used to better understand the aerosol lifecycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model to represent cloud-aerosol interactions include treatment of the cloud dropletnumber mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. Thesechanges have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain-Fritsch cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Preliminary testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) as well as a high-resolution simulation that does not include parameterized convection. The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on the regional scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column integrated BC can be as large as -50% when cloud-aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +35% for sulfate in non-precipitating conditions due to the sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem version 3.2.1 are found to account for changes in the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud-drop residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to WRF-Chem version 3.5, and it is anticipated that they will be included in a future public release of WRF-Chem.

  1. Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musial, W.; Ram, B.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper assesses the potential for U.S. offshore wind to meet the energy needs of many coastal and Great Lakes states.

  2. assessing field-scale migration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    de 6 Assessment of magic angle spinning spectroscopy for studying migration in solid milk chocolate MIT - DSpace Summary: In the confectionery industry, there is...

  3. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6496E Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight- redirecting window film in a full in Leukos, the journal of the IESNA. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight- redirecting window film Laboratory, Mailstop 90-3111, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Abstract Daylight redirecting systems

  4. An Assessment of Air Service Accessibility in U.S. Metropolitan Regions, 2007-2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wittman, M.D.

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional accessibility to air transportation is often of interest to airport executives, politicians, and the general public due to the positive economic impacts of frequent commercial airline service. However, measuring ...

  5. Preliminary direct heat geothermal resource assessment of the Tennessee Valley region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staub, W.P.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary appraisal of the direct heat geothermal energy resources of the Tennessee Valley region has been completed. This region includes Kentucky, Tennessee and parts of adjacent states. Intermediate and deep aquifers were selected for study. Basement and Top-of-Knox structure and temperature maps were compiled from oil and gas well data on file at various state geological survey offices. Results of this study indicate that the New Madrid seismic zone is the only area within the region that possesses potential for direct heat utilization. In other areas geothermal energy is either too deep for economical extraction or it will not be able to compete with other local energy resources. The only anomalously high temperature well outside the New Madrid seismic zone was located in the Rome Trough and near the central part of the eastern Kentucky coal basin. Geothermal energy in that region would face strong competition from coal, oil and natural gas.

  6. Large-Scale Pyrolysis Oil Production: A Technology Assessment and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringer, M.; Putsche, V.; Scahill, J.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad perspective of pyrolysis technology as it relates to converting biomass substrates to a liquid bio-oil product and a detailed technical and economic assessment of a fast pyrolysis plant.

  7. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome.

  8. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 3. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains two appendices to the main report. The first lists the aquifers in the 12 geographic regions of the USA and characterizes each as containing sands and gravels or limestones or volcanic rock. The second appendix tabulates the hydrologic characteristics of each aquifer. (LCL)

  9. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  10. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  11. Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part III: Comparison with 3DVAR in a Real-Data Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part III 8 May 2007) ABSTRACT The feasibility of using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for mesoscale application of an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF; Evensen 1994) in the atmospheric sci- ences field (Houtekamer

  12. Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-scale Data Assimilation. Part IV: Comparison with 3DVar in a Month-long Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-scale Data Assimilation. Part IV@tamu.edu #12;2 Abstract In previous works in this series study, an ensemble Kalman filter (En System. #12;4 1. Introduction The Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) (Evensen 1994), which estimates

  13. An Examination of Version 5 Rainfall Estimates from the TRMM Microwave Imager, Precipitation Radar, and Rain Gauges on Global, Regional, and Storm Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    An Examination of Version 5 Rainfall Estimates from the TRMM Microwave Imager, Precipitation Radar, and Rain Gauges on Global, Regional, and Storm Scales STEPHEN W. NESBITT1 AND EDWARD J. ZIPSER Department Current affiliation: Radar Meteorology Group, Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University

  14. ESIF Plugs Utility-Scale Hardware into Simulated Grids to Assess Integration Effects (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), integrated, megawatt-scale power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) capability allows researchers and manufacturers to test new energy technologies at full power in real-time simulations - safely evaluating component and system performance and reliability before going to market.

  15. Modeling Techniques to Assess Long-term Reliability of Environmental Flows in Basin Scale Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scale Planning Thesis directed by Edith Zagona One aspect of integrated water resources management of the rivers but management can help sustain the river ecosystem through modifications to reservoir operations be incorporated into the model to capture reservoir operations. Finally, after addressing the integration of new

  16. A Study to Assess Needed Improvements and Barriers in Planning and Delivering Agricultural Extension Activities in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khoshnaw, Yousif Khalid

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to assess planning and delivering agricultural extension activities in the Kurdistan region of Iraq for future program implementation. The study was a descriptive research and used a modified Delphi technique...

  17. Climate Change Projections of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mearns, L. O.; Sain, Steve; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; McGinnis, Seth; Biner, S.; Caya, Daniel; Arritt, R.; Gutowski, William; Takle, Eugene S.; Snyder, Mark A.; Jones, Richard; Nunes, A M B.; Tucker, S.; Herzmann, D.; McDaniel, Larry; Sloan, Lisa

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate major results of the NARCCAP multiple regional climate model (RCM) experiments driven by multiple global climate models (GCMs) regarding climate change for seasonal temperature and precipitation over North America. We focus on two major questions: How do the RCM simulated climate changes differ from those of the parent GCMs and thus affect our perception of climate change over North America, and how important are the relative contributions of RCMs and GCMs to the uncertainty (variance explained) for different seasons and variables? The RCMs tend to produce stronger climate changes for precipitation: larger increases in the northern part of the domain in winter and greater decreases across a swath of the central part in summer, compared to the four GCMs driving the regional models as well as to the full set of CMIP3 GCM results. We pose some possible process-level mechanisms for the difference in intensity of change, particularly for summer. Detailed process-level studies will be necessary to establish mechanisms and credibility of these results. The GCMs explain more variance for winter temperature and the RCMs for summer temperature. The same is true for precipitation patterns. Thus, we recommend that future RCM-GCM experiments over this region include a balanced number of GCMs and RCMs.

  18. Regional power systems planning: a state of the art assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report was to define regional power systems planning problems, the tools available and their shortcomings, and to document all of the above in a concise readable form. The approach consisted of a survey and literature search. The survey determined the tools being used by utilities, the tools they had rejected, and the tools they planned to try out. The literature search was conducted for the purpose of documenting the tools available, and performing a comparative analysis of these tools. The project included a mix of utility, university, and consulting organizations. Several organizations were consulted in the selection of the participants. A non-profit organization, The University of Oklahoma, was selected to manage the project. The results were reviewed in a series of four one day meetings by known authorities in each field. This report consists of the results of this project. Perhaps its major finding is that several aspects of the regional planning problem are not well defined, the roles of the various participants in regional planning is not clear, and certainly research is needed for the development of new methodology.

  19. [10-386] Assessing and Improving the Scale Dependence of Ecosystem Processes in Earth System Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Goodale Cornell U. *Overall Project Lead *Lead Institution Intellectual Merit: Earth system models include policies. Our research assesses and improves Earth system model simulations of the carbon cycle, ecosystem of the Community Climate System Model/Community Earth System Model, which includes statistical meteorological

  20. Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.; Mann, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

  1. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  2. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Garill A.; Hockert, John; Gitau, Ernest TN; Zentner, Michael D.

    2013-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  3. Assessment of Multi-Scale T/H Codes and Models for DNB CP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational Management »EnergyHubs |B - Assessment of

  4. Integrated assessment of a new Waste-to-Energy facility in Central Greece in the context of regional perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkoulidis, G. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papageorgiou, A., E-mail: giou6@yahoo.g [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Karagiannidis, A. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kalogirou, S. [Waste to Energy Research and Technology Council (Greece)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main aim of this study is the integrated assessment of a proposed Waste-to-Energy facility that could contribute in the Municipal Solid Waste Management system of the Region of Central Greece. In the context of this paper alternative transfer schemes for supplying the candidate facility were assessed considering local conditions and economical criteria. A mixed-integer linear programming model was applied for the determination of optimum locations of Transfer Stations for an efficient supplying chain between the waste producers and the Waste-to-Energy facility. Moreover different Regional Waste Management Scenarios were assessed against multiple criteria, via the Multi Criteria Decision Making method ELECTRE III. The chosen criteria were total cost, Biodegradable Municipal Waste diversion from landfill, energy recovery and Greenhouse Gas emissions and the analysis demonstrated that a Waste Management Scenario based on a Waste-to-Energy plant with an adjacent landfill for disposal of the residues would be the best performing option for the Region, depending however on the priorities of the decision makers. In addition the study demonstrated that efficient planning is necessary and the case of three sanitary landfills operating in parallel with the WtE plant in the study area should be avoided. Moreover alternative cases of energy recovery of the candidate Waste-to-Energy facility were evaluated against the requirements of the new European Commission Directive on waste in order for the facility to be recognized as recovery operation. The latter issue is of high significance and the decision makers in European Union countries should take it into account from now on, in order to plan and implement facilities that recover energy efficiently. Finally a sensitivity check was performed in order to evaluate the effects of increased recycling rate, on the calorific value of treated Municipal Solid Waste and the gate fee of the candidate plant and found that increased recycling efforts would not diminish the potential for incineration with energy recovery from waste and neither would have adverse impacts on the gate fee of the Waste-to-Energy plant. In general, the study highlighted the need for efficient planning in solid waste management, by taking into account multiple criteria and parameters and utilizing relevant tools and methodologies into this context.

  5. Comparison between the Large-Scale Environments of Moderate and Intense Precipitating Systems in the Mediterranean Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre

    The Mediterranean region is a densely populated area under climatic and environmental stresses, particularly concerning the availability of water resources, and is one of the most responsive regions to climate change stations have shown that the central-western Mediterranean faced a change in the rainfall distribution

  6. The application of strategic environmental assessment in a non-mandatory context: Regional transport planning in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGimpsey, Paul, E-mail: paul.mcgimpsey@urs.com [URS, St. George's House, 5 St. George's Road, London SW19 4DR (United Kingdom)] [URS, St. George's House, 5 St. George's Road, London SW19 4DR (United Kingdom); Morgan, Richard K., E-mail: rkm@geography.otago.ac.nz [Department of Geography, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    There is no legal mandate for strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in New Zealand. However, a requirement to consider environmental and sustainability issues is a key feature of many statutes, including that relating to regional transport planning. Given this, the research sought to determine whether SEA could be used to improve the incorporation of environmental and sustainability aspects into the regional transport planning process in New Zealand. Existing practice was evaluated, examining what factors currently limiting the consideration of environmental and sustainability issues and to what extent elements of SEA are currently being used. The research culminated in the development of a conceptual model where SEA elements could be incorporated into the existing framework to promote improved consideration of environmental and sustainability issues. The results provide some reassurance about the value of SEA even where its application is not legally mandated. However, it also highlighted some ongoing issues around the integration of SEA in existing frameworks and around the scope of SEA as a decision-aiding tool. -- Highlights: • The research examined whether SEA can provide benefits even where it is not mandated. • The research examined the extent to which SEA elements are currently being used. • A conceptual model was developed to incorporate necessary SEA elements into an existing framework.

  7. Hard Data on Soft Errors: A Large-Scale Assessment of Real-World Error Rates in GPGPU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haque, Imran S

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphics processing units (GPUs) are gaining widespread use in computational chemistry and other scientific simulation contexts because of their huge performance advantages relative to conventional CPUs. However, the reliability of GPUs in error-intolerant applications is largely unproven. In particular, a lack of error checking and correcting (ECC) capability in the memory subsystems of graphics cards has been cited as a hindrance to the acceptance of GPUs as high-performance coprocessors, but the impact of this design has not been previously quantified. In this article we present MemtestG80, our software for assessing memory error rates on NVIDIA G80 and GT200-architecture-based graphics cards. Furthermore, we present the results of a large-scale assessment of GPU error rate, conducted by running MemtestG80 on over 20,000 hosts on the Folding@home distributed computing network. Our control experiments on consumer-grade and dedicated-GPGPU hardware in a controlled environment found no errors. However, our su...

  8. ADVANCED INTEGRATION OF MULTI-SCALE MECHANICS AND WELDING PROCESS SIMULATION IN WELD INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkowski, Gery M.; Rudland, David L.; Shim, Do-Jun; Brust, Frederick W.; Babu, Sundarsanam

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential to save trillions of BTU’s in energy usage and billions of dollars in cost on an annual basis based on use of higher strength steel in major oil and gas transmission pipeline construction is a compelling opportunity recognized by both the US Department of Energy (DOE). The use of high-strength steels (X100) is expected to result in energy savings across the spectrum, from manufacturing the pipe to transportation and fabrication, including welding of line pipe. Elementary examples of energy savings include more the 25 trillion BTUs saved annually based on lower energy costs to produce the thinner-walled high-strength steel pipe, with the potential for the US part of the Alaskan pipeline alone saving more than 7 trillion BTU in production and much more in transportation and assembling. Annual production, maintenance and installation of just US domestic transmission pipeline is likely to save 5 to 10 times this amount based on current planned and anticipated expansions of oil and gas lines in North America. Among the most important conclusions from these studies were: • While computational weld models to predict residual stress and distortions are well-established and accurate, related microstructure models need improvement. • Fracture Initiation Transition Temperature (FITT) Master Curve properly predicts surface-cracked pipe brittle-to-ductile initiation temperature. It has value in developing Codes and Standards to better correlate full-scale behavior from either CTOD or Charpy test results with the proper temperature shifts from the FITT master curve method. • For stress-based flaw evaluation criteria, the new circumferentially cracked pipe limit-load solution in the 2007 API 1104 Appendix A approach is overly conservative by a factor of 4/?, which has additional implications. . • For strain-based design of girth weld defects, the hoop stress effect is the most significant parameter impacting CTOD-driving force and can increase the crack-driving force by a factor of 2 depending on strain-hardening, pressure level as a % of SMYS, and flaw size. • From years of experience in circumferential fracture analyses and experimentation, there has not been sufficient integration of work performed for other industries into analogous problems facing the oil and gas pipeline markets. Some very basic concepts and problems solved previously in these fields could have circumvented inconsistencies seen in the stress-based and strain-based analysis efforts. For example, in nuclear utility piping work, more detailed elastic-plastic fracture analyses were always validated in their ability to predict loads and displacements (stresses and strains). The eventual implementation of these methodologies will result in acceleration of the industry adoption of higher-strength line-pipe steels.

  9. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts on Regional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Load Forecasts to Support WGA and Resource Assessmentin Load Forecasts to Support WGA and Resource AssessmentMingst, 2006, “Resource Assessment in the West: Review of

  10. Assessing Regional Border Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Causey, Chris; Hahn, Jason; Heichelbach, Terry; Malecha, Lindsay; Meiners, Stephen; Race, Brandon

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    some correlation between a county's murder rate and other quality of life measures. We also correlated each of the three issues with each other, to measure the extent to which they may be related. While it was difficult to make strong conclusions... 2008, 2). In our analysis of weapons smuggling, we examined murder rate, based on the assumption that most murders (68%) involve the use of a firearm and that many such weapons are obtained illegally (FBI 2007). To measure quality of life, we analyzed...

  11. Fine Structure in the Energy Region of the Isoscalar Giant Quadrupole Resonance: Characteristic Scales from a Wavelet Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponomarev, Vladimir

    of the Witwatersrand, PO Wits, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa 3 Physics Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa 4 iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West 7129, South Africa 5 DepartmentFine Structure in the Energy Region of the Isoscalar Giant Quadrupole Resonance: Characteristic

  12. A Comparison of Multi-Scale 3D X-ray Tomographic Inspection Techniques for Assessing Carbon Fibre Composite Impact Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    tolerance have been concerns in the development of carbon fibre composite materials, particularly Composite Impact Damage D.J. Bull1* , L. Helfen2 , I. Sinclair1 , S.M. Spearing1 , T. Baumbach2 1 Materials-scale damage assessment of carbon fibre composites subjected to impact damage, allowing various internal damage

  13. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts onRegional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the aftermath of the consumer price shocks and short-term power shortages of the 2000-01 electricity crisis, policymakers and regulators in Western states are placing increased emphasis on integrated resource planning (IRP), resource adequacy and assessment and a diversified portfolio of resources to meet the needs of electricity consumers. In some states, this has led to a resurgence in state and utility commitments to energy efficiency. Increasing interest in acquiring energy efficiency as a power-system resource is also driven by the desire to dampen high growth rates in electricity demand in some Western states, rapid increases in natural gas prices, concerns about the environmental impacts of electricity generation (e.g. water consumption by power plants, air quality), and the potential of energy efficiency to provide utility bill savings for households and businesses (WGA CDEAC 2006). Recognizing the cost-competitiveness and environmental benefits of energy efficiency, the Western Governor's Association (WGA) has set a high priority for energy efficiency, establishing a goal of reducing projected electricity demand by 20% across the West by 2020 in a policy resolution on Clean and Diversified Energy for the West (WGA 2004). Nationally, the need for improved tracking of demand-side resources in load forecasting is formalized in the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC)'s recently adopted reliability standards, which utilities and regional reliability organizations will need to comply with (NERC 2005a and 2005b). In this study, we examine the treatment of energy efficiency in recent resource plans issued by fourteen investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in the Western United States and Canada. The goals of this study are to: (1) summarize energy-efficiency resources as represented in a large sample of recent resource plans prepared by Western utilities and identify key issues; (2) evaluate the extent to which the information provided in current resource plans can be used to support region-wide resource assessment and tracking of state/utility progress in meeting the WGA's energy-efficiency goals (WGA 2004); and (3) offer recommendations on information and documentation of energy-efficiency resources that should be included in future resource plans to facilitate comparative review and regional coordination. The scope of this report covers projected electric end-use efficiency investments reported in all Western utility resource plans that were publicly available as of February 2006. While a few utilities included additional demand-side resources, such as demand response, in their plans, we do not report that information. However, many of the issues and recommendations in reference to energy efficiency in this report are relevant to other demand-side resources as well. This report is organized as follows. Section 2 outlines the data sources and approach used in this study and conceptualizes methods and metrics for tracking energy-efficiency resources over time. Section 3 presents results from the review of the utility resource plans. Important issues encountered in reviewing the resource plans are discussed in section 4. Finally, section 5 concludes with recommendations for improving the tracking and reporting of energy efficiency in forthcoming resource plans.

  14. The Hierarchical Rater Model for Rated Test Items and its Application to Large-Scale Educational Assessment Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -ended (or "constructed response") test items have become a standard part of the educational assessment

  15. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Corrie E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Harto, Christopher B. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Schroeder, Jenna N. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Martino, Louis E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Horner, Robert M. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2 describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus,

  16. The Hierarchical Rater Model for Rated Test Items and its Application to LargeScale Educational Assessment Data 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ended (or ``constructed response'') test items have become a standard part of the educational assessment

  17. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 4. The Northeast region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickering, K.E.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled in this chapter into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline are provided for in the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state. Assessments for individual states are presented. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters.

  18. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  19. A NEW SCALING RELATION FOR H II REGIONS IN SPIRAL GALAXIES: UNVEILING THE TRUE NATURE OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Diaz, A. I. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, S. F.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Vilchez, J. M.; Mast, D. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Camino Bajo de Huetor s/n, Aptdo. 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Bland-Hawthorn, J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Husemann, B., E-mail: frosales@cantab.net [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the existence of a local mass, metallicity, star formation relation using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy of H II regions in the local universe. One of the projections of this distribution-the local mass-metallicity relation-extends over a wide range in this parameter space: three orders of magnitude in mass and a factor of eight in metallicity. We explain the new relation as the combined effect of the differential distributions of mass and metallicity in the disks of galaxies, and a selective star formation efficiency. We use this local relation to reproduce-with a noticeable agreement-the mass-metallicity relation seen in galaxies, and conclude that the latter is a scale-up integrated effect of a local relation, supporting the inside-out growth and downsizing scenarios of galaxy evolution.

  20. Assessing the Potential of Using Hydrate Technology to Capture, Store and Transport Gas for the Caribbean Region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajnauth, Jerome Joel

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    natural gas as a hydrate while focusing on small scale transportation of natural gas to the Caribbean Islands. This work proposes a workflow for capturing, storing and transporting gas in the hydrate form, particularly for Caribbean situations where...

  1. Bridging river basin scales and processes to assess human-climate impacts and the terrestrial hydrologic system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagener, Thorsten

    scales impacts of storm water from urban/suburban development on water quantity and quality have been and implementation of integrated instrumentation, a new generation of models, and a management framework that clearly of our water resources at the river basin scale. This paper concludes with a discussion of how a network

  2. Scaling up of Carbon Exchange Dynamics from AmeriFlux Sites to a Super-Region in the Eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans Peter Schmid; Craig Wayson

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate carbon exchange dynamics across a region of North America between the Great Plains and the East Coast. This region contains about 40 active carbon cycle research (AmeriFlux) sites in a variety of climatic and landuse settings, from upland forest to urban development. The core research involved a scaling strategy that uses measured fluxes of CO{sub 2}, energy, water, and other biophysical and biometric parameters to train and calibrate surface-vegetation-atmosphere models, in conjunction with satellite (MODIS) derived drivers. To achieve matching of measured and modeled fluxes, the ecosystem parameters of the models will be adjusted to the dynamically variable flux-tower footprints following Schmid (1997). High-resolution vegetation index variations around the flux sites have been derived from Landsat data for this purpose. The calibrated models are being used in conjunction with MODIS data, atmospheric re-analysis data, and digital land-cover databases to derive ecosystem exchange fluxes over the study domain.

  3. Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority regional waste management center at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a landfill and technology center for regionally-generated municipal solid waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The facility would serve the municipal solid waste disposal needs for SRS and at least nine of the surrounding counties who currently comprise the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority (TRSWA). Additional counties could become included in the proposed action at some future date. Current Federal and state requirements do not afford individual counties and municipalities within the region encompassing SRS the ability to efficiently or economically operate modern waste management facilities. In addition, consolidation of regional municipal solid waste at one location would have the benefit of reducing the duplicity of environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of county-level facilities. The option to seek a combined disposal and technology development facility based on a regionally-cooperative effort was selected as a viable alternative to the existing individual SRS or county disposal activities. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Part 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS).

  4. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 9. The Southwest Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, R.L.; Norman, G.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in Nevada and California. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted is presented. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state are given. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed.

  5. Impacts Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on Electric Utilities and Regional US Power Grids: Part 1: Technical Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Schneider, Kevin P.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This initial paper estimates the regional percentages of the energy requirements for the U.S. light duty vehicle stock that could be supported by the existing grid, based on 12 NERC regions. This paper also discusses the impact of overall emissions of criteria gases and greenhouse gases as a result of shifting emission from millions of tailpipes to a relatively few power plants. The paper concludes with an outlook of the technology requirements necessary to manage the additional and potentially sizable new load to maintain grid reliability.

  6. Assessment of a Food for Work Program and the Drought Survival Needs of Ethiopian Communities in the Northern Tigray Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett, Ryan

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Piya Abeygunawardena Theresa Pesl Murphrey Head of Department, Jack Elliot December 2011 Major Subject: Agricultural Leadership, Education, and Communications iii ABSTRACT Assessment of a Food for Work Program and the Drought Survival..., friendship, and wonderful country. Dr. Theresa Murphrey, thank you for your positive energy and insight. Dr. Kim Dooley, you are a teacher in the best sense of the word. Thank you for showing me the art and science of qualitative research. To my chair, Dr...

  7. Molecular Assessment of Inoculated and Indigenous Bacteria in Biofilms from a Pilot-Scale Perchlorate-Reducing Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Scale Perchlorate-Reducing Bioreactor H. Zhang1 , B.E. Logan1 , J.M. Regan1 , L.A. Achenbach2 and M.A. Bruns3 (1-bed bioreactor containing plastic support medium was used to treat perchlorate-contaminated groundwater at a site was not detected in bioreactor effluent. Perchlorate remained undetected by ion chromatography (detection limit 4

  8. Regional groundwater modeling of the saturated zone in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Iterative Performance Assessment, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahola, M.; Sagar, B. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of groundwater modeling of the saturated zone in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain are presented. Both a regional (200 {times} 200 km) and subregional (50 {times} 50 km) model were used in the analyses. Simulations were conducted to determine the impact of various disruptive that might take place over the life span of a proposed Yucca Mountain geologic conditions repository on the groundwater flow field, as well as changes in the water-table elevations. These conditions included increases in precipitation and groundwater recharge within the regional model, changes in permeability of existing hydrogeologic barriers, a:nd the vertical intrusion of volcanic dikes at various orientations through the saturated zone. Based on the regional analysis, the rise in the water-table under Yucca Mountain due to various postulated conditions ranged from only a few meters to 275 meters. Results of the subregional model analysis, which was used to simulate intrusive dikes approximately 4 kilometers in length in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, showed water-table rises ranging from a few meters to as much as 103 meters. Dikes oriented approximately north-south beneath Yucca Mountain produced the highest water-table rises. The conclusions drawn from this analysis are likely to change as more site-specific data become available and as the assumptions in the model are improved.

  9. Influence of climate model biases and daily-scale temperature and precipitation events on hydrological impacts assessment: A case study of the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL; Bowling, Laura C. [Purdue University; Cherkauer, Keith [Purdue University; Pal, Jeremy [Loyola University; Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report concludes that climate change is now unequivocal, and associated increases in evaporation and atmospheric water content could intensify the hydrological cycle. However, the biases and coarse spatial resolution of global climate models limit their usefulness in hydrological impact assessment. In order to reduce these limitations, we use a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM3) to drive a hydrological model (variable infiltration capacity) for the full contiguous United States. The simulations cover 1961-1990 in the historic period and 2071-2100 in the future (A2) period. A quantile-based bias correction technique is applied to the times series of RegCM3-simulated precipitation and temperature. Our results show that biases in the RegCM3 fields not only affect the magnitude of hydrometeorological variables in the baseline hydrological simulation, but they also affect the response of hydrological variables to projected future anthropogenic increases in greenhouse forcing. Further, we find that changes in the intensity and occurrence of severe wet and hot events are critical in determining the sign of hydrologic change. These results have important implications for the assessment of potential future hydrologic changes, as well as for developing approaches for quantitative impacts assessment.

  10. Assessment of Uncertainties in the Response of the African Monsoon Precipitation to Land Use change simulated by a regional model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xue, Yongkang; Boone, Aaron; de Sales, Fernando; Neupane, Naresh; Huang, Maoyi; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Land use and land cover over Africa have changed substantially over the last sixty years and this change has been proposed to affect monsoon circulation and precipitation. This study examines the uncertainties on the effect of these changes on the African Monsoon system and Sahel precipitation using an ensemble of regional model simulations with different combinations of land surface and cumulus parameterization schemes. Although the magnitude of the response covers a broad range of values, most of the simulations show a decline in Sahel precipitation due to the expansion of pasture and croplands at the expense of trees and shrubs and an increase in surface air temperature.

  11. Comparison between lab- and full-scale applications of in situ aeration of an old landfill and assessment of long-term emission development after completion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrad, Marlies; Gamperling, Oliver [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water–Atmosphere–Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Huber-Humer, Marion, E-mail: marion.huber-humer@boku.ac.at [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water–Atmosphere–Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Current data on in situ aeration effects from the first Austrian full-scale case study. ? Data on lasting waste stabilisation after aeration completion. ? Information on the transferability of results from lab- to full-scale aeration. - Abstract: Sustainable landfilling has become a fundamental objective in many modern waste management concepts. In this context, the in situ aeration of landfills has been recognised for its potential to convert conventional anaerobic landfills into biological stabilised state, whereby both current and potential (long-term) emissions of the landfilled waste are mitigated. In recent years, different in situ aeration concepts have been successfully applied in Europe, North America and Asia, all pursuing different objectives and strategies. In Austria, the first full-scale application of in situ landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection and simultaneous off-gas collection and treatment was implemented on an old, small municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill (2.6 ha) in autumn 2007. Complementary laboratory investigations were conducted with waste samples taken from the landfill site in order to provide more information on the transferability of the results from lab- to full-scale aeration measures. In addition, long-term emission development of the stabilised waste after aeration completion was assessed in an ongoing laboratory experiment. Although the initial waste material was described as mostly stable in terms of the biological parameters gas generation potential over 21 days (GP{sub 21}) and respiration activity over 4 days (RA{sub 4}), the lab-scale experiments indicated that aeration, which led to a significant improvement of leachate quality, was accompanied by further measurable changes in the solid waste material under optimised conditions. Even 75 weeks after aeration completion the leachate, as well as gaseous emissions from the stabilised waste material, remained low and stayed below the authorised Austrian discharge limits. However, the application of in situ aeration at the investigated landfill is a factor 10 behind the lab-based predictions after 3 years of operation, mainly due to technical limitations in the full-scale operation (e.g. high air flow resistivity due to high water content of waste and temporarily high water levels within the landfill; limited efficiency of the aeration wells). In addition, material preparation (e.g. sieving, sorting and homogenisation) prior to the emplacement in Landfill Simulation Reactors (LSRs) must be considered when transferring results from lab- to full-scale application.

  12. Preliminary geohydrologic conceptual model of the Los Medanos region near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for the purpose of performance assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinster, K.F. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a geohydrologic conceptual model of the northern Delaware Basin to be used in modeling three-dimensional, regional ground-water flow for assessing the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the Los Medanos region near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Geochemical and hydrological evidence indicates that flow is transient in the Rustler Formation and the Capitan aquifer in response to changing geologic, hydrologic, and climatic conditions. Before the Pleistocene, ground-water flow in the Rustler Formation was generally eastward, but uneven tilting of the Delaware Basin lowered the regional base level and formed fractures in the evaporitic sequence of rocks approximately parallel to the basin axis. Dissolution along the fractures, coupled with erosion, formed Nash Draw. Also, the drop in base level resulted in an increase in the carrying power of the Pecos River, which began incising the Capitan/aquifer near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Erosion and downcutting released hydraulic pressure that caused a reversal in Rustler ground-water flow direction near the WIPP. Flow in the Rustler west of the WIPP is toward Nash Draw and eventually toward Malaga Bend; flow south of the WIPP is toward Malaga Bend. 126 refs., 70 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region oil and gas operations. Quarterly technical progress report, 23 June 1992--30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1992-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A Sampling and Analysis Plan was prepared and submitted to a Scientific Review Committee for comment. Substantial comments relative to study objectives, sampling design, and sampling periods coupled with the passage of Hurricane Andrew precluded the scheduled initiation of sampling at offshore and coastal sites (Tasks 3 -- Environmental Field Sampling and Analysis of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), Heavy Metals, and Organics and 4 -- Monitoring of the Recovery of Impacted Wetland and Open Bay Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana and Texas). A proposed revised schedule has been prepared for Tasks 3 and 4. Task 5 (Assessment of Economic Impacts of Offshore and Coastal Discharge Requirements on Present and Future Operations in the Gulf of Mexico Region), activities have involved identification and collection of the necessary data for the economic analysis. Task 6 (Synthesis of Gulf of Mexico Region Consumption and Use Patterns), activities have included near completion of the literature review and a reevaluation of the data collection efforts relative to the wholesaler, process plant, and restaurant components. Task 7 (Technology Transfer Plan), work has been delayed due to the Tasks 3 and 4 delay and cancellation of the annual US Minerals Management Service Gulf of Mexico Region Information Transfer Meeting.

  14. Public health assessment for Sayreville Landfill, Sayreville, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD980505754. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sayreville Landfill site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey, was used primarily for the disposal of municipal wastes from 1970 through 1977. Illegal dumping of possibly hazardous materials allegedly occurred during active landfill operations and after landfill closure. Organic and inorganic compounds were found in on-site subsurface soil, ground water, surface water, and sediments at levels above public health assessment comparison values. The community is concerned about the safety of eating fish from the South River. The potential exists for past, present, and future exposure of local residents and workers to contaminated subsurface soil, nearby surface water, and sediments. The New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) has concluded that the site is an indeterminate public health hazard since insufficient data exist for all environmental media to which humans may be exposed.

  15. A Large-Scale, High-Resolution Hydrological Model Parameter Data Set for Climate Change Impact Assessment for the Conterminous US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oubeidillah, Abdoul A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL] [ORNL; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL] [ORNL; Naz, Bibi S [ORNL] [ORNL; Tootle, Glenn [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To extend geographical coverage, refine spatial resolution, and improve modeling efficiency, a computation- and data-intensive effort was conducted to organize a comprehensive hydrologic dataset with post-calibrated model parameters for hydro-climate impact assessment. Several key inputs for hydrologic simulation including meteorologic forcings, soil, land class, vegetation, and elevation were collected from multiple best-available data sources and organized for 2107 hydrologic subbasins (8-digit hydrologic units, HUC8s) in the conterminous United States at refined 1/24 (~4 km) spatial resolution. Using high-performance computing for intensive model calibration, a high-resolution parameter dataset was prepared for the macro-scale Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The VIC simulation was driven by DAYMET daily meteorological forcing and was calibrated against USGS WaterWatch monthly runoff observations for each HUC8. The results showed that this new parameter dataset may help reasonably simulate runoff at most US HUC8 subbasins. Based on this exhaustive calibration effort, it is now possible to accurately estimate the resources required for further model improvement across the entire conterminous United States. We anticipate that through this hydrologic parameter dataset, the repeated effort of fundamental data processing can be lessened, so that research efforts can emphasize the more challenging task of assessing climate change impacts. The pre-organized model parameter dataset will be provided to interested parties to support further hydro-climate impact assessment.

  16. Beyond Renewable Portfolio Standards: An Assessment of Regional Supply and Demand Conditions Affecting the Future of Renewable Energy in the West; Report and Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; McLaren, J.; Gelman, R.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the outlook for utility-scale renewable energy development in the West once states have met their renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements. In the West, the last state RPS culminates in 2025, so the analysis uses 2025 as a transition point on the timeline of RE development. Most western states appear to be on track to meet their final requirements, relying primarily on renewable resources located relatively close to the customers being served. What happens next depends on several factors including trends in the supply and price of natural gas, greenhouse gas and other environmental regulations, consumer preferences, technological breakthroughs, and future public policies and regulations. Changes in any one of these factors could make future renewable energy options more or less attractive.

  17. Health assessment for Malta Rocket Test Site, Saratoga County, Malta, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD980535124. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Malta Rocket Fuel Test Station is listed by the USEPA on the National Priorities List. The General Electric Company tested operations at the site as a contractor to the U.S. Government. Beginning in December 1974, and continuing until December 1979, Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. conducted operations at a building on the site. During the course of its operations, Exxon handled several hazardous chemicals including methylethyl ketone, acetone, tetrachloroethene, and toluene. Various site inspections, investigations and engineering studies have been conducted at the site. Ground water collected from monitoring wells on-site is contaminated with chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethene. In April 1985, sampling of ground water supplies serving the site demonstrated significant drinking-water contamination with concentrations of carbon tetrachloride up to 220 micro g/L, chloroform up to 25 micro g/L, PCBs up to 1.3 micro g/L, trichlorethene up to 120 micro g/L, and boron up to 140 micro g/L. The site has been the subject of several investigations, however, none have been comprehensive. The site should be the subject of a complete remedial investigation/feasibility study before a full health assessment can be prepared.

  18. Energy Storage for Variable Renewable Energy Resource Integration - A Regional Assessment for the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Guo, Xinxin; Nguyen, Tony B.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2011-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses the following key questions in the discussion on the integration of renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest power grid: a) what will be the future balancing requirement to accommodate a simulated expansion of wind energy resources from 3.3 GW in 2008 to 14.4 GW in 2019 in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP), and b) what are the most cost effective technological solutions for meeting the balancing requirements in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP). A life-cycle analysis was performed to assess the least-cost technology option for meeting the new balancing requirement. The technologies considered in this study include conventional turbines (CT), sodium sulfur (NaS) batteries, lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, pumped hydro energy storage (PH), and demand response (DR). Hybrid concepts that combine 2 or more of the technologies above are also evaluated. This analysis was performed with collaboration by the Bonneville Power Administration and funded by the Energy Storage Systems Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Symmetry of piezoelectric (1–x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O?-xPbTiO? (x=0.31) single crystal at different length scales in the morphotropic phase boundary region

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Kyou-Hyun; Payne, David A.; Zuo, Jian-Min

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use probes of three different length scales to examine symmetry of (1–x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O?-xPbTiO? (PMN-xPT) single crystals in the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region at composition x = 0.31 (PMN-31% PT). On the macroscopic scale, x-ray diffraction (XRD) shows a mixture of strong and weak diffraction peaks of different widths. The closest match to XRD peak data is made with monoclinic Pm (MC) symmetry. On the local scale of a few nanometers, convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) studies, with a 1.6-nm electron probe, reveal no obvious symmetry. These CBED experimental patterns can be approximately matched with simulations based on monoclinic symmetry, which suggests locally distorted monoclinic structure. A monoclinic Cm (MA or MB)-like symmetry could also be obtained from certain regions of the crystal by using a larger electron probe size of several tens of nanometers in diameter. Thus the monoclinic symmetry of single crystal PMN-31%PT is developed only in parts of the crystal by averaging over locally distorted structure on the scale of few tens of nanometers. The macroscopic symmetry observed by XRD is a result of averaging from the local structure in PMN-31%PT single crystal. The lack of local symmetry at a few nanometers scale suggests that the polarization switching results from a change in local displacements, which are not restricted to specific symmetry planes or directions.

  20. Possibilities and limitations of life cycle assessment (LCA) in the development of waste utilization systems - Applied examples for a region in Northern Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittmaier, M. [Institute for Recycling and Environmental Protection at Bremen University of Applied Sciences GmbH, Neustadtswall 30, 28199 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: wittmaier@hs-bremen.de; Langer, S.; Sawilla, B. [Institute for Recycling and Environmental Protection at Bremen University of Applied Sciences GmbH, Neustadtswall 30, 28199 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Against the background of increasing concerns about climate change, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an integral part of processes in both the waste management and the energy industries. This is reflected in the development of new waste treatment concepts, in which domestic and commercial waste is treated with the aim of utilizing its energy content, while at the same time recycling as much of its material content as possible. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a method of assessing the environmental relevance of a waste management system, the basis of which is a material flow analysis of the system in question. GHG emissions from different options for thermal treatment and energy recovery from waste as applied to a region in Northern Germany have been analyzed by the LCA approach and an indicative LCA, which only considers those emissions resulting from operating stages of the system. Operating stages have the main share of emissions compared to pre-processing stages. Results show that through specific separation of waste material flows and highly efficient energy recovery, thermal treatment and energy generation from waste can be optimized resulting in reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases. There are also other areas of waste utilization, currently given little attention, such as the solar drying of sewage sludge, which can considerably contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, M.; Heimiller, D.; Haymes, S.; Musial, W.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the offshore wind resource potential for the contiguous United States and Hawaii as of May 2009. The development of this assessment has evolved over multiple stages as new regional meso-scale assessments became available, new validation data was obtained, and better modeling capabilities were implemented. It is expected that further updates to the current assessment will be made in future reports.

  2. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the redirected light spreading it within a small range of outgoing angles. This solution was found to reduce glare to imperceptible levels while retaining for the most part the illuminance levels achieved solely by the daylighting film.

  3. Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Cross River region of Nigeria. BMC Evolutionary Biologythe Cross River region of Nigeria Krishna R Veeramah 1,2* ,The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse

  4. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study.

  5. Regional Climate Modeling: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuqing; Leung, Lai R.; McGregor, John L.; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Ding, Yihui; Kimura, Fujio

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional climate modeling with regional climate models (RCMs) has matured over the past decade and allows for meaningful utilization in a broad spectrum of applications. In this paper, latest progresses in regional climate modeling studies are reviewed, including RCM development, applications of RCMs to dynamical downscaling for climate change assessment, seasonal climate predictions and climate process studies, and the study of regional climate predictability. Challenges and potential directions of future research in this important area are discussed, with the focus on those to which less attention has been given previously, such as the importance of ensemble simulations, further development and improvement of regional climate modeling approach, modeling extreme climate events and sub-daily variation of clouds and precipitation, model evaluation and diagnostics, applications of RCMs to climate process studies and seasonal predictions, and development of regional earth system models. It is believed that with both the demonstrated credibility of RCMs’ capability in reproducing not only monthly to seasonal mean climate and interannual variability but also the extreme climate events when driven by good quality reanalysis and the continuous improvements in the skill of global general circulation models (GCMs) in simulating large-scale atmospheric circulation, regional climate modeling will remain an important dynamical downscaling tool for providing the needed information for assessing climate change impacts and seasonal climate predictions, and a powerful tool for improving our understanding of regional climate processes. An internationally coordinated effort can be developed with different focuses by different groups to advance regional climate modeling studies. It is also recognized that since the final quality of the results from nested RCMs depends in part on the realism of the large-scale forcing provided by GCMs, the reduction of errors and improvement in physics parameterizations in both GCMs and RCMs remain a priority for climate modeling community.

  6. Technical Design Report for large-scale neutrino detectors prototyping and phased performance assessment in view of a long-baseline oscillation experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Bonis, I

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 2012, an Expression of Interest for a long-baseline experiment (LBNO, CERN-SPSC-EOI-007) has been submitted to the CERN SPSC and is presently under review. LBNO considers three types of neutrino detector technologies: a double-phase liquid argon (LAr) TPC and a magnetised iron detector as far detectors. For the near detector, a high-pressure gas TPC embedded in a calorimeter and a magnet is the baseline design. A mandatory milestone in view of any future long baseline experiment is a concrete prototyping effort towards the envisioned large-scale detectors, and an accompanying campaign of measurements aimed at assessing the systematic errors that will be affecting their intended physics programme. Following an encouraging feedback from 108th SPSC on the technology choices, we have defined as priority the construction and operation of a $6\\times 6\\times 6$m$^3$ (active volume) double-phase liquid argon (DLAr) demonstrator, and a parallel development of the technologies necessary for large magnetised MI...

  7. Recovery Act: 'Carbonsheds' as a Framework for Optimizing United States Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Pipeline Transport on a Regional to National Scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratson, Lincoln

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonsheds are regions in which the estimated cost of transporting CO{sub 2} from any (plant) location in the region to the storage site it encompasses is cheaper than piping the CO{sub 2} to a storage site outside the region. We use carbonsheds to analyze the cost of transport and storage of CO{sub 2} in deploying CCS on land and offshore of the continental U.S. We find that onshore the average cost of transport and storage within carbonsheds is roughly $10/t when sources cooperate to reduce transport costs, with the costs increasing as storage options are depleted over time. Offshore transport and storage costs by comparison are found to be roughly twice as expensive but t may still be attractive because of easier access to property rights for sub-seafloor storage as well as a simpler regulatory system, and possibly lower MMV requirements, at least in the deep-ocean where pressures and temperatures would keep the CO{sub 2} negatively buoyant. Agent-based modeling of CCS deployment within carbonsheds under various policy scenarios suggests that the most cost-effective strategy at this point in time is to focus detailed geology characterization of storage potential on only the largest onshore reservoirs where the potential for mitigating emissions is greatest and the cost of storage appears that it will be among the cheapest.

  8. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also...

  9. LBNO-DEMO: Large-scale neutrino detector demonstrators for phased performance assessment in view of a long-baseline oscillation experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Agostino; B. Andrieu; R. Asfandiyarov; D. Autiero; O. Bésida; F. Bay; R. Bayes; A. M. Blebea-Apostu; A. Blondel; M. Bogomilov; S. Bolognesi; S. Bordoni; A. Bravar; M. Buizza-Avanzini; F. Cadoux; D. Caiulo; M. Calin; M. Campanelli; C. Cantini; L. Chaussard; D. Chesneanu; N. Colino; P. Crivelli; I. De Bonis; Y. Déclais; J. Dawson; C. De La Taille; P. Del Amo Sanchez; A. Delbart; S. Di Luise; D. Duchesneau; F. Dulucq; J. Dumarchez; I. Efthymiopoulos; S. Emery; T. Enqvist; L. Epprecht; T. Esanu; D. Franco; D. Franco; M. Friend; V. Galymov; A. Gendotti; C. Giganti; I. Gil-Botella; M. C Gomoiu; P. Gorodetzky; A. Haesler; T. Hasegawa; S. Horikawa; M. Ieva; A. Jipa; Y. Karadzhov; I. Karpikov; A. Khotjantsev; A. Korzenev; D. Kryn; Y. Kudenko; P. Kuusiniemi; I. Lazanu; J. -M. Levy; K. Loo; T. Lux; J. Maalampi; R. M. Margineanu; J. Marteau; C. Martin; G. Martin-Chassard; E. Mazzucato; A. Mefodiev; O. Mineev; B. Mitrica; S. Murphy; T. Nakadaira; M. Nessi; K. Nikolics; L. Nita; E. Noah; P. Novella; G. A. Nuijten; T. Ovsiannikova; C. Palomares; T. Patzak; E. Pennacchio; L. Periale; H. Pessard; B. Popov; M. Ravonel; M. Rayner; C. Regenfus; C. Ristea; O. Ristea; A. Robert; A. Rubbia; K. Sakashita; F. Sanchez; R. Santorelli; E. Scantamburlo; F. Sergiampietri; D. Sgalaberna; M. Slupecki; F. J. P. Soler; D. L. Stanca; A. Tonazzo; W. H. Trzaska; R. Tsenov; G. Vankova-Kirilova; F. Vannucci; G. Vasseur; A. Verdugo; T. Viant; S. Wu; N. Yershov; L. Zambelli; M. Zito

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 2012, an Expression of Interest for a long-baseline experiment (LBNO) has been submitted to the CERN SPSC. LBNO considers three types of neutrino detector technologies: a double-phase liquid argon (LAr) TPC and a magnetised iron detector as far detectors. For the near detector, a high-pressure gas TPC embedded in a calorimeter and a magnet is the baseline design. A mandatory milestone is a concrete prototyping effort towards the envisioned large-scale detectors, and an accompanying campaign of measurements aimed at assessing the detector associated systematic errors. The proposed $6\\times 6\\times 6$m$^3$ DLAr is an industrial prototype of the design discussed in the EoI and scalable to 20 kton or 50~kton. It is to be constructed and operated in a controlled laboratory and surface environment with test beam access, such as the CERN North Area (NA). Its successful operation and full characterisation will be a fundamental milestone, likely opening the path to an underground deployment of larger detectors. The response of the DLAr demonstrator will be measured and understood with an unprecedented precision in a charged particle test beam (0.5-20 GeV/c). The exposure will certify the assumptions and calibrate the response of the detector, and allow to develop and to benchmark sophisticated reconstruction algorithms, such as those of 3-dimensional tracking, particle ID and energy flow in liquid argon. All these steps are fundamental for validating the correctness of the physics performance described in the LBNO EoI.

  10. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 10. Alaska region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, J.L.; Wentink, T. Jr.; Becker, R. Jr.; Comiskey, A.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each subregion of Alaska. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a state scale is given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each subregion are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the Alaska wind energy resource. An outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each subregion is included. Assessments for individual subregions are presented as separate chapters. The subregion wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the Alaska wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the subregion chapters.

  11. An integrated assessment modeling framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change: the MIT IGSM-CAM (version 1.0)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monier, Erwan

    This paper describes a computationally efficient framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model ...

  12. Integrated Vulnerability and Impacts Assessment for Natural and Engineered Water-Energy Systems in the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountain Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolfsberg, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountains (SWSRM), energy production, energy resource extraction, and other high volume uses depend on water supply from systems that are highly vulnerable to extreme, coupled hydro-ecosystem-climate events including prolonged drought, flooding, degrading snow cover, forest die off, and wildfire. These vulnerabilities, which increase under climate change, present a challenge for energy and resource planners in the region with the highest population growth rate in the nation. Currently, analytical tools are designed to address individual aspects of these regional energy and water vulnerabilities. Further, these tools are not linked, severely limiting the effectiveness of each individual tool. Linking established tools, which have varying degrees of spatial and temporal resolution as well as modeling objectives, and developing next-generation capabilities where needed would provide a unique and replicable platform for regional analyses of climate-water-ecosystem-energy interactions, while leveraging prior investments and current expertise (both within DOE and across other Federal agencies).

  13. Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technolgical, and socioeconomic futures in a regional intergrated-assessment model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Zhou, Yuyu; Rice, Jennie S.; Patel, Pralit L.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Kyle, G. Page; Kim, Son H.; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving the energy efficiency of the building stock, commercial equipment and household appliances can have a major impact on energy use, carbon emissions, and building services. Subnational regions such as U.S. states wish to increase their energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions or adapt to climate change. Evaluating subnational policies to reduce energy use and emissions is difficult because of the uncertainties in socioeconomic factors, technology performance and cost, and energy and climate policies. Climate change may undercut such policies. Assessing these uncertainties can be a significant modeling and computation burden. As part of this uncertainty assessment, this paper demonstrates how a decision-focused sensitivity analysis strategy using fractional factorial methods can be applied to reveal the important drivers for detailed uncertainty analysis.

  14. Preliminary assessment report for Grubbs/Kyle Training Center, Smyrna/Rutherford County Regional Airport, Installation 47340, Smyrna, Tennessee. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, C.; Stefano, J.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Tennessee Army National Guard (TNARNG) property near Smyrna, Tennessee. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Grubbs/Kyle Training Center property, the requirement of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  15. Geological play analysis of the Pacific Federal Offshore Region - A status report on the National Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunkel, C.A. (Minerals Management Service, Camarillo, CA (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geological and geophysical data from the federal offshore areas seaward of California, Oregon, and Washington (Pacific Outer Continental Shelf or OCS) are being used to identify petroleum plays for the Department of the Interior's National Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources project. Analysis of these data by a team of Minerals Management Service geo-scientists have led to the definition, delineation, and qualitative characterization of plays in six Pacific OCS assessment provinces: Pacific Northwest, Central California, Santa-Barbara-Ventura Basin, Los Angeles Basin, inner borderland, and other borderland. Plays are defined on the bases of reservoir rock stratigraphy, trap style, and hydrocarbon type. Each play is classified as established, frontier, or conceptual according to its discovery status and data availability. Preliminary analysis of the plays are complete and have been compiled in map and text formats by province. Plays are being further analyzed to characterize their quantitative attributatives such as numbers and sizes of undiscovered fields and geologic risk. Statistical evaluation to develop volumetric estimates of undiscovered oil and gas resources will be completed in late 1994. A discovery process modeling technique will be used to evaluate established plays in the Santa Maria and Santa Barbara-Ventura basins. Subjective modeling, based on estimated field-size distributions, will be applied to frontier and conceptual plays. Formal reports of the assessment results will be presented in 1995.

  16. FY08 LDRD Final Report Regional Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bader, D C; Chin, H; Caldwell, P M

    2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated, multi-model capability for regional climate change simulation is needed to perform original analyses to understand and prepare for the impacts of climate change on the time and space scales that are critical to California's future environmental quality and economic prosperity. Our intent was to develop a very high resolution regional simulation capability to address consequences of climate change in California to complement the global modeling capability that is supported by DOE at LLNL and other institutions to inform national and international energy policies. The California state government, through the California Energy Commission (CEC), institutionalized the State's climate change assessment process through its biennial climate change reports. The bases for these reports, however, are global climate change simulations for future scenarios designed to inform international policy negotiations, and are primarily focused on the global to continental scale impacts of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. These simulations do not meet the needs of California public and private officials who will make major decisions in the next decade that require an understanding of climate change in California for the next thirty to fifty years and its effects on energy use, water utilization, air quality, agriculture and natural ecosystems. With the additional development of regional dynamical climate modeling capability, LLNL will be able to design and execute global simulations specifically for scenarios important to the state, then use those results to drive regional simulations of the impacts of the simulated climate change for regions as small as individual cities or watersheds. Through this project, we systematically studied the strengths and weaknesses of downscaling global model results with a regional mesoscale model to guide others, particularly university researchers, who are using the technique based on models with less complete parameterizations or coarser spatial resolution. Further, LLNL has now built a capability in state-of-the-science mesoscale climate modeling that complements that which it has in global climate simulation, providing potential sponsors with an end-to-end simulation and analysis program.

  17. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 3. Great Lakes Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paton, D.L.; Bass, A.; Smith, D.G.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Great Lakes Region atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data, one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Great Lakes region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin. At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than in the regional discussion and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations over several time scales in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and of hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  18. Public health assessment for tri-county landfill waste management of Illinois, South Elgin, Kane County, Illinois, Region 5. Cerclis No. ILD048306183. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tri-County and Elgin Landfills pose a public health hazard because the concentrations of lead in downgradient private wells are high enough to be a long-term health concern. Completed exposure pathways include the exposure to contaminated water from on- and off-site private wells (inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact; past, present, future). Contaminants of concern in on-site groundwater include bis(2-chloroethyl)ether, vinyl chloride, antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, fluoride, lead, manganese, nickel, nitrate + nitrite, and thallium. Chemicals of concern in on-site surface soil and sediments include PCBs, arsenic, cadmium, and nickel. Contaminants of concern in on-site subsurface soil include PCBs, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and nickel. This public health assessment recommends health professionals education and community health education be conducted for the community impacted by the landfills.

  19. Design and Feasibility Assessment of a Retrospective Epidemiological Study of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in the Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Bilonick; Daniel Connell; Evelyn Talbott; Jeanne Zborowski; Myoung Kim

    2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Eighty-nine (89) percent of the electricity supplied in the 35-county Pittsburgh region (comprising parts of the states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland) is generated by coal-fired power plants making this an ideal region in which to study the effects of the fine airborne particulates designated as PM{sub 2.5} emitted by the combustion of coal. This report demonstrates that during the period from 1999-2006 (1) sufficient and extensive exposure data, in particular samples of speciated PM{sub 2.5} components from 1999 to 2003, and including gaseous co-pollutants and weather have been collected, (2) sufficient and extensive mortality, morbidity, and related health outcomes data are readily available, and (3) the relationship between health effects and fine particulates can most likely be satisfactorily characterized using a combination of sophisticated statistical methodologies including latent variable modeling (LVM) and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GLARMA) time series analysis. This report provides detailed information on the available exposure data and the available health outcomes data for the construction of a comprehensive database suitable for analysis, illustrates the application of various statistical methods to characterize the relationship between health effects and exposure, and provides a road map for conducting the proposed study. In addition, a detailed work plan for conducting the study is provided and includes a list of tasks and an estimated budget. A substantial portion of the total study cost is attributed to the cost of analyzing a large number of archived PM{sub 2.5} filters. Analysis of a representative sample of the filters supports the reliability of this invaluable but as-yet untapped resource. These filters hold the key to having sufficient data on the components of PM{sub 2.5} but have a limited shelf life. If the archived filters are not analyzed promptly the important and costly information they contain will be lost.

  20. Assessing the CAM5 Physics Suite in the WRF-Chem Model: Implementation, Resolution Sensitivity, and a First Evaluation for a Regional Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Gustafson, William I.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A suite of physical parameterizations (deep and shallow convection, turbulent boundary layer, aerosols, cloud microphysics, and cloud fraction) from the global climate model Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) has been implemented in the regional model Weather Research and Forecasting with chemistry (WRF-Chem). A downscaling modeling framework with consistent physics has also been established in which both global and regional simulations use the same emissions and surface fluxes. The WRF-Chem model with the CAM5 physics suite is run at multiple horizontal resolutions over a domain encompassing the northern Pacific Ocean, northeast Asia, and northwest North America for April 2008 when the ARCTAS, ARCPAC, and ISDAC field campaigns took place. These simulations are evaluated against field campaign measurements, satellite retrievals, and ground-based observations, and are compared with simulations that use a set of common WRF-Chem Parameterizations. This manuscript describes the implementation of the CAM5 physics suite in WRF-Chem provides an overview of the modeling framework and an initial evaluation of the simulated meteorology, clouds, and aerosols, and quantifies the resolution dependence of the cloud and aerosol parameterizations. We demonstrate that some of the CAM5 biases, such as high estimates of cloud susceptibility to aerosols and the underestimation of aerosol concentrations in the Arctic, can be reduced simply by increasing horizontal resolution. We also show that the CAM5 physics suite performs similarly to a set of parameterizations commonly used in WRF-Chem, but produces higher ice and liquid water condensate amounts and near-surface black carbon concentration. Further evaluations that use other mesoscale model parameterizations and perform other case studies are needed to infer whether one parameterization consistently produces results more consistent with observations.

  1. PAIN SCALES (ATTACHMENT A)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    TOTAL SCORE: ADD INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENT SCORES TO DETERMINE THE TOTAL PAIN SCORE. TOTAL THE 5 CATEGORIES FOR TOTAL PAIN SCORE. MAXIMUM SCORE = 10/10. Reference: Merkel SJ, et al. The FLACC: A Behavioral Pain Scale or groan. Low level speech with a negative or disapproving quality. Repeated troubled calling out. Loud

  2. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHP (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first 18-months of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (fifth and sixth project quarters) of the project (October 1, 2004-March 31, 2005) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, no changes occurred during the fifth or sixth quarters of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, refinements have been made to the general mapping and screening of sources and sinks. Integration and geographical information systems (GIS) mapping is ongoing. Characterization during this period was focused on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB continues to expand upon its assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has used results of a survey and focus group meeting to refine approaches that are being taken to educate and involve the public. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB has evaluated findings from work performed during the first 18-months. The focus of the project team has shifted from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team is developing an integrated approach to implementing the most promising opportunities and in setting up measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) programs for the most promising opportunities. Milestones completed during the fifth and sixth project quarters included: (1) Q1-FY05--Assess safety, regulatory and permitting issues; and (2) Q2-FY05--Finalize inventory of major sources/sinks and refine GIS algorithms.

  3. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Fimmen, Ryan [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States)] [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States); Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona [Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)] [Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, MeHg levels decreased on the time scale of days to weeks. • Capping materials should sequester MeHg produced and not contribute to the production of MeHg.

  4. Wind energy resources atlas. Volume 1. Northwest region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concering regional wind energy resource assessment; regional features; and state features for Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.

  5. REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mays, Larry W.

    CHAPTER 3 REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND CAPACITY EXPANSION MODELS Messele Z. Ejeta California Department of Water Resources Sacramento, California Larry W. Mays Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona 3.1 INTRODUCTION Water supply planning on a regional scale

  6. Wind energy resource atlas: Volume 6. The Southeast region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabransky, J.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southeast atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Southeast region (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  7. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  8. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  9. Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale facility implementation -- excavation -- storage technology -- safety analysis and review statement. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, H.R.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Koperna, G.J. Jr.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to assess the state-of-the-art of excavation technology as related to environmental remediation applications. A further purpose is to determine which of the excavation technologies reviewed could be used by the US Corp of Engineers in remediating contaminated soil to be excavated in the near future for construction of a new Lock and Dam at Winfield, WV. The study is designed to identify excavation methodologies and equipment which can be used at any environmental remediation site but more specifically at the Winfield site on the Kanawha River in Putnam County, West Virginia. A technical approach was determined whereby a functional analysis was prepared to determine the functions to be conducted during the excavation phase of the remediation operations. A number of excavation technologies were identified from the literature. A set of screening criteria was developed that would examine the utility and ranking of the technologies with respect to the operations that needed to be conducted at the Winfield site. These criteria were performance, reliability, implementability, environmental safety, public health, and legal and regulatory compliance. The Loose Bulk excavation technology was ranked as the best technology applicable to the Winfield site. The literature was also examined to determine the success of various methods of controlling fugitive dust. Depending upon any changes in the results of chemical analyses, or prior remediation of the VOCs from the vadose zone, consideration should be given to testing a new ``Pneumatic Excavator`` which removes the VOCs liberated during the excavation process as they outgas from the soil. This equipment however would not be needed on locations with low levels of VOC emissions.

  10. Ann Williamson, Deputy Director, Office of Environmental Assessment Mike Cox, Manager, Risk Assessment Unit, Office of Environmental Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ann Williamson, Deputy Director, Office of Environmental Assessment Mike Cox, Manager, Risk Assessment Unit, Office of Environmental Assessment U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ­ Region 10 Greg, WA Ann Williamson and Mike Cox, EPA Region 10 Office of Environmental Assessment, will be presenting

  11. WRF Test on IBM BG/L:Toward High Performance Application to Regional Climate Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, H S

    2008-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of climate change will mostly be felt on local to regional scales (Solomon et al., 2007). To develop better forecast skill in regional climate change, an integrated multi-scale modeling capability (i.e., a pair of global and regional climate models) becomes crucially important in understanding and preparing for the impacts of climate change on the temporal and spatial scales that are critical to California's and nation's future environmental quality and economical prosperity. Accurate knowledge of detailed local impact on the water management system from climate change requires a resolution of 1km or so. To this end, a high performance computing platform at the petascale appears to be an essential tool in providing such local scale information to formulate high quality adaptation strategies for local and regional climate change. As a key component of this modeling system at LLNL, the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is implemented and tested on the IBM BG/L machine. The objective of this study is to examine the scaling feature of WRF on BG/L for the optimal performance, and to assess the numerical accuracy of WRF solution on BG/L.

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Region 6 Radiological Assistance Program response plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakubowski, F.M.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Upon request, the DOE, through the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP), makes available and will provide radiological advice, monitoring, and assessment activities during radiological incidents where the release of radioactive materials is suspected or has occurred. Assistance will end when the need for such assistance is over, or if there are other resources available to adequately address the incident. The implementation of the RAP is usually accomplished through the recommendation of the DOE Regional Coordinating Office`s (RCO) on duty Regional Response Coordinator (RRC) with the approval of the Regional Coordinating Office Director (RCOD). The DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is the designated RCO for DOE Region 6 RAP. The purpose of this document is: to describe the mechanism for responding to any organization or private citizen requesting assistance to radiological incidents; to coordinate radiological assistance among participating federal agencies, states, and tribes in DOE Region 6; and to describe the RAP Scaled Response concept of operations.

  13. Rutgers Regional Report # Regional Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    , population, income, and building permits over a 32-year period from 1969 to 2001 for the 31-county Tri counties of the Tri-State (Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York) Region have been divided for analytical the nation and the Tri-State Region. What has not been fully documented, however, is the apparent shift

  14. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first year of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (third and fourth quarter) of the project (April 1--September 30, 2004) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, Texas and Virginia were added during the second quarter of the project and no geographical changes occurred during the third or fourth quarter of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, general mapping and screening of sources and sinks has been completed, with integration and Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping ongoing. The first step focused on the macro level characterization of the region. Subsequent characterization will focus on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB has completed a preliminary assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has conducted a survey and focus group meeting to gain insight into approaches that will be taken to educate and involve the public. Task 5.0 and 6.0 will be implemented beginning October 1, 2004. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB will evaluate findings from work performed during the first year and shift the focus of the project team from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team will develop an integrated approach to implementing and setting up measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) programs for the most promising opportunities. During this semiannual period special attention was provided to Texas and Virginia, which were added to the SECARB region, to ensure a smooth integration of activities with the other 9 states. Milestones completed and submitted during the third and fourth quarter included: Q3-FY04--Complete initial development of plans for GIS; and Q4-FYO4--Complete preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues.

  15. Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment of the Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . ...............................................................13 Table 5 Efficiencies of Gas and Electric Space Heaters and Water Heaters......................................33 Table 10 Efficiencies of electric space heaters and water heaters......................................................34 Table 11 Efficiencies of gas space heaters and water heaters

  16. Published as: Ha T. Nguyen and Joshua M. Pearce, "Incorporating Shading Losses in Solar Photovoltaic Potential Assessment at the Municipal Scale" Solar Energy 86(5), pp. 12451260 (2012). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2012.01.017

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic Potential Assessment at the Municipal Scale" Solar Energy 86(5), pp. 1245­1260 (2012). DOI: http; Photovoltaic; Renewable energy; Solar energy; Solar irradiation modeling ; Shading Abbreviations (Apv : slope 1 hal-00685775,version1-5Apr2012 Author manuscript, published in "Solar Energy 86, 5 (2012) 1245

  17. air pollution assessed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Health Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality Geosciences Websites Summary: Health Risk Assessment:...

  18. air pollution assessment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Health Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality Geosciences Websites Summary: Health Risk Assessment:...

  19. Basin Scale Opportunity Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    67basinscalepnnlgeerlofs.ppt More Documents & Publications 2014 Water Power Program Peer Review Compiled Presentations: Hydropower Technologies Permitting and Planning...

  20. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed its Phase I program in December 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership Phase I project was to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Many other goals were accomplished on the way to this objective, including (1) analysis of CO{sub 2} storage options in the region, including characterization of storage capacities and transportation options, (2) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} sources, (3) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies employed in the region, (4) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region, (5) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, and (6) assessing and initiating public knowledge and acceptance of possible sequestration approaches. Results of the Southwest Partnership's Phase I evaluation suggested that the most convenient and practical ''first opportunities'' for sequestration would lie along existing CO{sub 2} pipelines in the region. Action plans for six Phase II validation tests in the region were developed, with a portfolio that includes four geologic pilot tests distributed among Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. The Partnership will also conduct a regional terrestrial sequestration pilot program focusing on improved terrestrial MMV methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region. The sixth and final validation test consists of a local-scale terrestrial pilot involving restoration of riparian lands for sequestration purposes. The validation test will use desalinated waters produced from one of the geologic pilot tests. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state government agencies and universities, five major electric utility companies, seven oil, gas and coal companies, three federal agencies, the Navajo Nation, several NGOs, and the Western Governors Association. This group is continuing its work in the Phase II Validation Program, slated to conclude in 2009.

  1. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  2. Regional Public Coordination Transportation Plan Texoma Region #22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texoma Council of Governments

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in conjunction with TxDOT to increase public awareness of the project. As an integral part of this project, each of the 24 regions studying public transportation in their area was charged with assessing Barriers, Constraints and Best Practices in public... Sherman TAPS TAPS TAPS operates in seven (7) counties, with three (3) of the counties in the Texoma Region. TAPS services include demand response, commuter bus services and special services. Square Miles Population ?00 Rider Trips ?05 Clay 1...

  3. GLOBAL TRANSPORT OF POLLUTION: Linking Science and Policy at Multiple Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selin, Noelle Eckley

    Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Center for Global Change Science Massachusetts regulation Also, exposure happens on local scales ·SCALE: International scientific assessments focused

  4. EA-1785: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Final Environmental Assessment EA-1785: Final Environmental Assessment Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Phase III Anthropogenic Test Project DOE prepared this EA...

  5. Nuclear scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  6. aires city region: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    urban-to-regional scale air Odman, M. Talat 43 Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area MIT - DSpace Summary: Formaldehyde (HCHO)...

  7. ITERATIVE METHODS FOR FINDING A TRUST-REGION STEP? 1 ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    computed by applying the conjugate-gradient method to a positive-definite ... Large-scale unconstrained optimization, trust-region methods, conjugate-

  8. affects regional precipitation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    accompanying precipitation changes ... Solomon, Susan 10 Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation variability?...

  9. Regional distribution of diagenetic carbonate cement in Palaeocene deepwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    Regional distribution of diagenetic carbonate cement in Palaeocene deepwater sandstones: North Sea. This study attempts to make a large-scale regional examination of the distribution of carbonate cements

  10. Simulation and Risk Assessment Archived Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mellon University 412008 Simulation and Risk Assessment for Phase III Pilots Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships 1012008 Injection and Reservoir Hazard Management:...

  11. Scaled solar tracks and isochrones in a large region of the Z-Y plane I. From the ZAMS to the TP-AGB end for 0.15 - 2.5 Mo stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Bertelli; L. Girardi; P. Marigo; E. Nasi

    2008-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracks and isochrones have been computed in the range of initial masses 0.15 - 20 Mo for a grid of 39 chemical compositions with the metal content Z between 0.0001 and 0.070, and helium content Y between 0.23 and 0.46. The Padova stellar evolution code has been implemented with updated physics. New synthetic TP-AGB models allow the extension of stellar models and isochrones until the end of the thermal pulses along the AGB. Software tools for the bidimensional interpolation (in Y and Z) of the tracks have been tuned. This first paper presents tracks for low mass stars (from 0.15 to 2.5 Mo) with scaled-solar abundances and the corresponding isochrones from very old ages down to about 1 Gyr. Tracks and isochrones are made available in tabular form for the adopted grid of chemical compositions in the plane Z-Y. An interactive web interface will allow users to obtain isochrones of whatever chemical composition and also simulated stellar populations with different Y(Z) helium-to-metal enrichment laws.

  12. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 8. The southern Rocky Mountain region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, S.R.; Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southern Rocky Mountain atlas assimilates five collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the four states that compose the Southern Rocky Mountain region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  13. Jet Energy Scale March 31, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jet Energy Scale March 31, 2009 #12;Jet energy vs parton energy Eta-dependent corrections: even scale: conversion from calo measurement to underlying jet Underlying event and out-of-cone corrections region, near-100% efficiency ·Excellent momentum measurement #12;Jet clustering · Jets are formed

  14. Scale evolution of double parton correlations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomas Kasemets

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the effect of scale evolution on a number of different correlations in double parton scattering (DPS). The strength of the correlations generally decreases with the scale but at a rate which greatly varies between different types. Through studies of the evolution, an understanding of which correlations can be of experimental relevance in different processes and kinematical regions is obtained.

  15. Regional Summary Pacific Region Management Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , for the Eastern Pacific Ocean, and the Western and Central Pacific Fishery Commission, for the Western PacificRegional Summary Pacific Region Management Context The Pacific Region includes California, Oregon, and Washington. Federal fisheries in this region are managed by the Pacific Fishery Management Council (PFMC

  16. Colorado Regional Faults

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  17. Texas State Planning Region 3 Report of Regional Transportation Coordination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nortex Regional Planning Commission

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the 24 regions studying public transportation in their area was charged with assessing Barriers, Constraints and Best Practices in public transportation. This Coordination Committee addressed this issue with enthusiasm, generating significant topics...DOT requirement that all vehicles be ADA compliant, Medicaid restrictions and Insurance as significant barriers to public transportation. Best practices included sharing of information regarding this project through publication in rural newspapers, inter...

  18. HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM IN PENNSYLVANIA HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM date ­ November 23, 2004 · Contract end date ­ March 31, 2006 #12;Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program in Pennsylvania Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program in Pennsylvania · Objectives ­ Capture

  19. Pacific northwest region vegetation and inventory monitoring system. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max, T.A.; Schreuder, H.T.; Hazard, J.W.; Oswald, D.D.; Teply, J.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A grid sampling strategy was adopted for broad-scale inventory and monitoring of forest and range vegetation on National Forest System lands in the Pacific Northwest Region, USDA Forest Service. This paper documents the technical details of the adopted design and discusses alternative sampling designs that were considered. The design is flexible and can be used with many types of maps. The theory of point and change estimation is described, as well as estimates of variation that assess the statistical precision of estimates.

  20. Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate-Change Impacts on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States. Part II. Regional Agricultural Production in 2030 and 2095.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Brown, Robert A.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This study used scenarios of the HadCM2 GCM and the EPIC agroecosystem model to evaluate climate change impacts on crop yields and ecosystem processes. Baseline climate data were obtained from records for 1961-1990. The scenario runs for 2025-2034 and 2090-2099 were extracted from a HadCM2 run. EPIC was run on 204 representative farms under current climate and two 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095, each at CO2 concentrations of 365 and 560 ppm. Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and California are projected to experience significant temperature increases by 2030. Slight cooling is expected by 2030 in Alabama, Florida, Maine, Montana, Idaho, and Utah. Larger areas are projected to experience increased warming by 2095. Uniform precipitation increases are expected by 2030 in the NE. These increases are predicted to expand to the eastern half of the country by 2095. EPIC simulated yield increases for the Great Lakes, Corn Belt and Northeast regions. Simulated yields of irrigated corn yields were predicted to increase in almost all regions. Soybean yields could decrease in the Northern and Southern Plains, the Corn Belt, Delta, Appalachian, and Southeast regions and increase in the Lakes and Northeast regions. Simulated wheat yields exhibited upward yield trends under scenarios of climate change. National corn production in 2030 and 2095 could be affected by changes in three major producing regions. In 2030, corn production could increase in the Corn Belt and Lakes regions but decrease in the Northern Plains leading to an overall decrease in national production. National wheat production is expected to increase during both future periods. A proxy indicator was developed to provide a sense of where in the country, and when water would be available to satisfy change in irrigation demand for corn and alfalfa production as these are influenced by the HadCM2 scenarios and CO2-fertilization.

  1. Extragalactic jets on subpc and large scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Tavecchio

    2007-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Jets can be probed in their innermost regions (d~0.1 pc) through the study of the relativistically-boosted emission of blazars. On the other extreme of spatial scales, the study of structure and dynamics of extragalactic relativistic jets received renewed impulse after the discovery, made by Chandra, of bright X-ray emission from regions at distances larger than hundreds of kpc from the central engine. At both scales it is thus possible to infer some of the basic parameters of the flow (speed, density, magnetic field intensity, power). After a brief review of the available observational evidence, I discuss how the comparison between the physical quantities independently derived at the two scales can be used to shed light on the global dynamics of the jet, from the innermost regions to the hundreds of kpc scale.

  2. Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal for Bioenergy: A Spatially Comprehensive National Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Muth, Jr.; K. M. Bryden; R. G. Nelson

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainably removable agricultural residues across the conterminous United States. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10 – 100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time.

  3. Assessing and Communicating the Loss of Biodiversity and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Matthias

    and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In combination they allow to better assess the ecological impact of land, Web Mapping, Regional Planning Tools and Life Cycle Assessment for Better Decision Support Organizers Tools & Web Mapping Remote Sensing Life Cycle Assessment (morning) Life Cycle Assessment (morning

  4. ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL FOR ROAD AND PARKING CHARGES TO REDUCE DEMAND FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vancouver region. Examining Committee: Senior Supervisor: Mark Jaccard Associate Professor School problems on the local, regional and global scale. The external nature of many automobile use costs

  5. Integrated Assessment of Global Water Scarcity over the 21st Century under Multiple Climate Change Mitigation Policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and a global population of 14 billion by 2095, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demand for water exceeds the amount of water availability in two GCAM regions, the Middle East and India. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 20% and 27% of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in areas (grid cells) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change.

  6. Northwest Regional Technology Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northwest Regional Technology Center for Homeland Security The Northwest Regional Technology Center and deployment of technologies that are effective homeland security solutions for the region, and accelerate technology transfer to the national user community. Foster a collaborative spirit across agencies

  7. Atmospheric profiles of CO? as integrators of regional scale exchange 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smallman, Thomas Luke

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    not simulate uncultivated land associated with agriculture, which in Scotland represents 36 % of agricultural holdings. Therefore, uncultivated land components may provide an explanation for the increase in model-data error. Interannual variation in weather...

  8. Aerosol-cloud Interactions from Urban, Regional, to Global Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuan

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    the physical mechanism for the precipitation and lightning enhancement in the Guangzhou megacity area, showing more efficient mixed phase processes and intensified convection under the polluted aerosol condition. Sensitivity modeling experiments...

  9. Alaska Facility- and Community-Scale Project Development Regional Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s Reply Comments AT&T,FACT S HEET FACTAgenda:Methane RecoveryWorkshops

  10. Ghana-Assessing Policy Options for Increasing the Use of Renewable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region Western Africa References Ghana-Assessing Policy Options for Increasing the Use of Renewable Energy for Sustainable Development1 Assessing Policy Options for Increasing...

  11. Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales Ruth Doherty, Massimo Vieno, Ian Mac) EMEP2009 (less complex) Observations Modelling regional air pollution #12;Nested regions: 50 to 5 to 1 km2 O3 concentration (ppb) NO2 concentration (µg m-3) #12;Modelling Urban air pollution Regional

  12. Windows technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baron, J.J.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment estimates that energy loss through windows is approximately 15 percent of all the energy used for space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings in New York State. The rule of thumb for the nation as a whole is about 25 percent. The difference may reflect a traditional assumption of single-pane windows while this assessment analyzed installed window types in the region. Based on the often-quoted assumption, in the United States some 3.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy, costing some $20 billion, is annually consumed as a result of energy lost through windows. According to this assessment, in New York State, the energy lost due to heat loss through windows is approximately 80 trillion Btu at an annual cost of approximately $1 billion.

  13. Assessment Documents

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - March 2015

    The Office of Nuclear Safety and Environmental...

  14. A first large-scale flood inundation forecasting model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumann, Guy J-P; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Voisin, Nathalie; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Pappenberger, Florian; Phanthuwongpakdee, Kay; Hall, Amanda C.; Bates, Paul D.

    2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    At present continental to global scale flood forecasting focusses on predicting at a point discharge, with little attention to the detail and accuracy of local scale inundation predictions. Yet, inundation is actually the variable of interest and all flood impacts are inherently local in nature. This paper proposes a first large scale flood inundation ensemble forecasting model that uses best available data and modeling approaches in data scarce areas and at continental scales. The model was built for the Lower Zambezi River in southeast Africa to demonstrate current flood inundation forecasting capabilities in large data-scarce regions. The inundation model domain has a surface area of approximately 170k km2. ECMWF meteorological data were used to force the VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) macro-scale hydrological model which simulated and routed daily flows to the input boundary locations of the 2-D hydrodynamic model. Efficient hydrodynamic modeling over large areas still requires model grid resolutions that are typically larger than the width of many river channels that play a key a role in flood wave propagation. We therefore employed a novel sub-grid channel scheme to describe the river network in detail whilst at the same time representing the floodplain at an appropriate and efficient scale. The modeling system was first calibrated using water levels on the main channel from the ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) laser altimeter and then applied to predict the February 2007 Mozambique floods. Model evaluation showed that simulated flood edge cells were within a distance of about 1 km (one model resolution) compared to an observed flood edge of the event. Our study highlights that physically plausible parameter values and satisfactory performance can be achieved at spatial scales ranging from tens to several hundreds of thousands of km2 and at model grid resolutions up to several km2. However, initial model test runs in forecast mode revealed that it is crucial to account for basin-wide hydrological response time when assessing lead time performances notwithstanding structural limitations in the hydrological model and possibly large inaccuracies in precipitation data.

  15. Wind Energy Resource Assessment of the Caribbean and Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Elliott; CI Aspliden; GL Gower; CG Holladay, MN Schwartz

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind energy resource assessment of the Caribbean and Central America has identified many areas with good to outstanding wind resource potential for wind turbine applications. Annual average wind resource maps and summary tables have been developed for 35 island/country areas throughout the Caribbean and Central America region. The wind resource maps highlight the locations of major resource areas and provide estimates of the wind energy resource potential for typical well-exposed sites in these areas. The average energy in the wind flowing in the layer near the ground is expressed as a wind power class: the greater the average wind energy, the higher the wind power class. The summary tables that are included with each of the 35 island/country wind energy maps provide information on the frequency distribution of the wind speeds (expressed as estimates of the Weibull shape factor, k) and seasonal variations in the wind resource for the major wind resource areas identified on the maps. A new wind power class legend has been developed for relating the wind power classes to values of mean wind power density, mean wind speed, and Weibull k. Guidelines are presented on how to adjust these values to various heights above ground for different roughness and terrain characteristics. Information evaluated in preparing the assessment included existing meteorological data from airports and other weather stations, and from ships and buoys in offshore and coastal areas. In addition, new data from recent measurement sites established for wind energy siting studies were obtained for a few areas of the Caribbean. Other types of information evaluated in the assessment were climatological data and maps on winds aloft, surface pressure, air flow, and topography. The various data were screened and evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. Much of the surface data from airports and other land-based weather stations were determined to be from sheltered sites and were thus not very useful in assessing the wind resource at locations that are well exposed to the winds. Ship data were determined to be the most useful for estimating the large-scale wind flow and assessing the spatial distribution of the wind resource throughout the region. Techniques were developed for analyzing and correcting ship wind data and extrapolating these data to coastal and inland areas by considering terrain influences on the large-scale wind flow. In areas where extrapolation of ship wind data was not entirely feasible, such as interior areas of Central America, other techniques were developed for estimating the wind flow and distribution of the wind resource. Through the application of the various innovative techniques developed for assessing the wind resource throughout the Caribbean and Central America region, many areas with potentially good to outstanding wind resource were identified that had not been previously recognized. In areas where existing site data were available from exposed locations, the measured wind resource was compared with the estimated wind resource that was derived using the assessment techniques. In most cases, there was good agreement between the measured wind resource and the estimated wind resource. This assessment project supported activities being pursued by the U.S. Committee for Renewable Energy Commerce and Trade (CORECT), the U.S. government's interagency program to assist in overseas marketing and promote renewable energy exports. An overall goal of the program is to improve U.S. competitiveness in the world renewable energy market. The Caribbean and Central America assessment, which is the first of several possible follow-on international wind energy resource assessments, provides valuable information needed by the U.S. wind energy industry to identify suitable wind resource areas and concentrate their efforts on these areas.

  16. Consequence Assessment

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume focuses on the process of performing timely initial assessments necessary to support critical first decisions and the continuous process of refining those initial assessments as more information and resources become available. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-4.

  17. Simulating Nationwide Pandemics: Applying the Multi-scale Epidemiologic Simulation and Analysis System to Human Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dombroski, M; Melius, C; Edmunds, T; Banks, L E; Bates, T; Wheeler, R

    2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This study uses the Multi-scale Epidemiologic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) system developed for foreign animal diseases to assess consequences of nationwide human infectious disease outbreaks. A literature review identified the state of the art in both small-scale regional models and large-scale nationwide models and characterized key aspects of a nationwide epidemiological model. The MESA system offers computational advantages over existing epidemiological models and enables a broader array of stochastic analyses of model runs to be conducted because of those computational advantages. However, it has only been demonstrated on foreign animal diseases. This paper applied the MESA modeling methodology to human epidemiology. The methodology divided 2000 US Census data at the census tract level into school-bound children, work-bound workers, elderly, and stay at home individuals. The model simulated mixing among these groups by incorporating schools, workplaces, households, and long-distance travel via airports. A baseline scenario with fixed input parameters was run for a nationwide influenza outbreak using relatively simple social distancing countermeasures. Analysis from the baseline scenario showed one of three possible results: (1) the outbreak burned itself out before it had a chance to spread regionally, (2) the outbreak spread regionally and lasted a relatively long time, although constrained geography enabled it to eventually be contained without affecting a disproportionately large number of people, or (3) the outbreak spread through air travel and lasted a long time with unconstrained geography, becoming a nationwide pandemic. These results are consistent with empirical influenza outbreak data. The results showed that simply scaling up a regional small-scale model is unlikely to account for all the complex variables and their interactions involved in a nationwide outbreak. There are several limitations of the methodology that should be explored in future work including validating the model against reliable historical disease data, improving contact rates, spread methods, and disease parameters through discussions with epidemiological experts, and incorporating realistic behavioral assumptions.

  18. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  19. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  20. Scaling the Web Scaling Web Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menascé, Daniel A.

    Scaling the Web Scaling Web Sites Through Caching A large jump in a Web site's traffic may indi, pushing the site's through- put to its maximum point. When a Web site becomes overloaded, cus- tomers grow-generated revenue and may even tarnish the reputation of organizations relying on Web sites to support mission

  1. Large-scale functional models of visual cortex for remote sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brumby, Steven P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kenyon, Garrett [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rasmussen, Craig E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swaminarayan, Sriram [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Landecker, Will [PORTLAND STATE UNIV.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neuroscience has revealed many properties of neurons and of the functional organization of visual cortex that are believed to be essential to human vision, but are missing in standard artificial neural networks. Equally important may be the sheer scale of visual cortex requiring {approx}1 petaflop of computation. In a year, the retina delivers {approx}1 petapixel to the brain, leading to massively large opportunities for learning at many levels of the cortical system. We describe work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop large-scale functional models of visual cortex on LANL's Roadrunner petaflop supercomputer. An initial run of a simple region VI code achieved 1.144 petaflops during trials at the IBM facility in Poughkeepsie, NY (June 2008). Here, we present criteria for assessing when a set of learned local representations is 'complete' along with general criteria for assessing computer vision models based on their projected scaling behavior. Finally, we extend one class of biologically-inspired learning models to problems of remote sensing imagery.

  2. Gutenberg-Richter Scaling - A New Paradigm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serino, C A; Klein, W

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new model for an earthquake fault system that is composed of non-interacting simple lattice models with different levels of damage denoted by $q$. The undamaged lattice models ($q=0$) have Gutenberg-Richter scaling with a cumulative exponent $\\beta=1/2$, whereas the damaged models do not have well defined scaling. However, if we consider the "fault system" consisting of all models, damaged and undamaged, we get excellent scaling with the exponent depending on the relative frequency with which faults with a particular amount of damage occur in the fault system. This paradigm combines the idea that Gutenberg-Richter scaling is associated with an underlying critical point with the notion that the structure of a fault system also affects the statistical distribution of earthquakes. In addition, it provides a framework in which the variation, from one tectonic region to another, of the scaling exponent, or $b$-value, can be understood.

  3. Scaling of pressurized fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guralnik, S.; Glicksman, L.R.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project has two primary objectives. The first is to verify a set of hydrodynamic scaling relationships for commercial pressurized fluidized bed combustors (PFBC). The second objective is to investigate solids mixing in pressurized bubbling fluidized beds. American Electric Power`s (AEP) Tidd combined-cycle demonstration plant will provide time-varying pressure drop data to serve as the basis for the scaling verification. The verification will involve demonstrating that a properly scaled cold model and the Tidd PFBC exhibit hydrodynamically similar behavior. An important issue in PFBC design is the spacing of fuel feed ports. The feed spacing is dictated by the fuel distribution and the mixing characteristics within the bed. After completing the scaling verification, the cold model will be used to study the characteristics of PFBCs. A thermal tracer technique will be utilized to study mixing both near the fuel feed region and in the far field. The results allow the coal feed and distributor to be designed for optimal heating.

  4. A Hierarchical Evaluation of Regional Climate Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ringler, Todd; Collins, William D.; Taylor, Mark; Ashfaq, Moetasim

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tools for predicting the evolution of the climate system. Through decades of development, GCMs have demonstrated useful skill in simulating climate at continental to global scales. However, large uncertainties remain in projecting climate change at regional scales, which limit our ability to inform decisions on climate change adaptation and mitigation. To bridge this gap, different modeling approaches including nested regional climate models (RCMs), global stretch-grid models, and global high-resolution atmospheric models have been used to provide regional climate simulations (Leung et al. 2003). In previous efforts to evaluate these approaches, isolating their relative merits was not possible because factors such as dynamical frameworks, physics parameterizations, and model resolutions were not systematically constrained. With advances in high performance computing, it is now feasible to run coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs at horizontal resolution comparable to what RCMs use today. Global models with local refinement using unstructured grids have become available for modeling regional climate (e.g., Rauscher et al. 2012; Ringler et al. 2013). While they offer opportunities to improve climate simulations, significant efforts are needed to test their veracity for regional-scale climate simulations.

  5. The Future of Global Water Stress: An Integrated Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlosser, C. Adam

    We assess the ability of global water systems, resolved at 282 large river basins or Assessment Sub Regions (ASRs), to the meet water requirements over the coming decades under integrated projections of socioeconomic growth ...

  6. Cultural differences on the children's memory scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cash, Deborah Dyer

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ) is an assessment instrument used to identify memory and learning deficits and strengths in children ages five through 16. This study investigated the impact of culture and parent educational level (PEL) on student performance on the Children’s Memory Scale using...

  7. Holographic Superconductors with Lifshitz Scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. J. Brynjolfsson; U. H. Danielsson; L. Thorlacius; T. Zingg

    2010-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Black holes in asymptotically Lifshitz spacetime provide a window onto finite temperature effects in strongly coupled Lifshitz models. We add a Maxwell gauge field and charged matter to a recently proposed gravity dual of 2+1 dimensional Lifshitz theory. This gives rise to charged black holes with scalar hair, which correspond to the superconducting phase of holographic superconductors with z > 1 Lifshitz scaling. Along the way we analyze the global geometry of static, asymptotically Lifshitz black holes at arbitrary critical exponent z > 1. In all known exact solutions there is a null curvature singularity in the black hole region, and, by a general argument, the same applies to generic Lifshitz black holes.

  8. High order hybrid discontinuous Galerkin regional ocean modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ueckermann, Mattheus Percy

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate modeling of physical and biogeochemical dynamics in coastal ocean regions is required for multiple scientific and societal applications, covering a wide range of time and space scales. However, in light of the ...

  9. RTSTEP regional transportation simulation tool for emergency planning - final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ley, H.; Sokolov, V.; Hope, M.; Auld, J.; Zhang, K.; Park, Y.; Kang, X. (Energy Systems)

    2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale evacuations from major cities during no-notice events - such as chemical or radiological attacks, hazardous material spills, or earthquakes - have an obvious impact on large regions rather than on just the directly affected area. The scope of impact includes the accommodation of emergency evacuation traffic throughout a very large area; the planning of resources to respond appropriately to the needs of the affected population; the placement of medical supplies and decontamination equipment; and the assessment and determination of primary escape routes, as well as routes for incoming emergency responders. Compared to events with advance notice, such as evacuations based on hurricanes approaching an affected area, the response to no-notice events relies exclusively on pre-planning and general regional emergency preparedness. Another unique issue is the lack of a full and immediate understanding of the underlying threats to the population, making it even more essential to gain extensive knowledge of the available resources, the chain of command, and established procedures. Given the size of the area affected, an advanced understanding of the regional transportation systems is essential to help with the planning for such events. The objectives of the work described here (carried out by Argonne National Laboratory) is the development of a multi-modal regional transportation model that allows for the analysis of different evacuation scenarios and emergency response strategies to build a wealth of knowledge that can be used to develop appropriate regional emergency response plans. The focus of this work is on the effects of no-notice evacuations on the regional transportation network, as well as the response of the transportation network to the sudden and unusual demand. The effects are dynamic in nature, with scenarios changing potentially from minute to minute. The response to a radiological or chemical hazard will be based on the time-delayed dispersion of such materials over a large area, with responders trying to mitigate the immediate danger to the population in a variety of ways that may change over time (e.g., in-place evacuation, staged evacuations, and declarations of growing evacuation zones over time). In addition, available resources will be marshaled in unusual ways, such as the repurposing of transit vehicles to support mass evacuations. Thus, any simulation strategy will need to be able to address highly dynamic effects and will need to be able to handle any mode of ground transportation. Depending on the urgency and timeline of the event, emergency responders may also direct evacuees to leave largely on foot, keeping roadways as clear as possible for emergency responders, logistics, mass transport, and law enforcement. This RTSTEP project developed a regional emergency evacuation modeling tool for the Chicago Metropolitan Area that emergency responders can use to pre-plan evacuation strategies and compare different response strategies on the basis of a rather realistic model of the underlying complex transportation system. This approach is a significant improvement over existing response strategies that are largely based on experience gained from small-scale events, anecdotal evidence, and extrapolation to the scale of the assumed emergency. The new tool will thus add to the toolbox available to emergency response planners to help them design appropriate generalized procedures and strategies that lead to an improved outcome when used during an actual event.

  10. Risk Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A set of issues that state and local governments should carefully consider, with the goal of helping them assess and anticipate solutions for some worst case or unfortunate case scenarios as they...

  11. Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surface and the lower part of the atmosphere; this phenomenon is called the greenhouse effect. U.S. Department of Energy DOEEA-1728D Draft Environmental Assessment 32 June...

  12. Platforms and real options in large-scale engineering systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalligeros, Konstantinos C., 1976-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis introduces a framework and two methodologies that enable engineering management teams to assess the value of real options in programs of large-scale, partially standardized systems implemented a few times over ...

  13. Huge Potential for Hydropower: Assessment Highlights New Possible...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Asset Assessment database indicates the region is home to numerous endangered fish and wildlife species, has nearly 1,500 boat ramps, almost 800 fish access locations, 96...

  14. Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This executive summary provides an overview of an NREL assessment to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region around Greensburg, Kansas.

  15. assessment summary tables: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Assessments Center (GLISA) and the National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment formed a Midwest regional team to provide technical input to the National Climate...

  16. assess consumption relative: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was conducted in Simada District, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia Walter, M.Todd 8 Assessing Public Attitudes to Health Related Findings Biology and Medicine Websites Summary:...

  17. Integrated Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the role of Integrated Assessment models (IAMs) in climate change research. IAMs are an interdisciplinary research platform, which constitutes a consistent scientific framework in which the large-scale interactions between human and natural Earth systems can be examined. In so doing, IAMs provide insights that would otherwise be unavailable from traditional single-discipline research. By providing a broader view of the issue, IAMs constitute an important tool for decision support. IAMs are also a home of human Earth system research and provide natural Earth system scientists information about the nature of human intervention in global biogeophysical and geochemical processes.

  18. SITN Regional Outreach Map

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Region States in Region Awardee(s) Location of Awardee(s) Contact(s) Northeast (Photovoltaics) CT * ME * MA * NH NY * RI * VT Hudson Valley Community College Troy, NY Richard...

  19. Robot calibration without scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ives, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methods. Scaling is a common way of improving the condition number for a matrix. Researchers in other fields have developed specific methods of scaling matrices to improve the condition number. However, robotics researchers have not specifically addressed...

  20. Ultracompact HII Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stan Kurtz; Jose Franco

    2001-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We review some recent observational results on the properties of ultracompact HII regions, in particular the presence of extended continuum emission surrounding ultracompact sources and the discovery of a new class of so-called ``Hypercompact'' HII regions. In addition, we discuss recent attempts to probe the density structure within UC HII regions using the technique of spectral index analysis.

  1. Assessment of rainwater harvesting in Northern Ghana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, David Allen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the current state of rainwater harvesting in the Northern Region of Ghana and makes recommendations regarding if and how rainwater harvesting could be used to address Pure Home Water's goal of reaching ...

  2. Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999)...

  3. Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

  4. FLOWS AT THE EDGE OF AN ACTIVE REGION: OBSERVATION AND INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boutry, C.; Buchlin, E.; Vial, J.-C. [Universite Paris Sud, Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR8617, 91405 Orsay (France); Regnier, S., E-mail: eric.buchlin@ias.u-psud.fr [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Upflows observed at the edges of active regions have been proposed as the source of the slow solar wind. In the particular case of Active Region (AR) 10942, where such an upflow has been already observed, we want to evaluate the part of this upflow that actually remains confined in the magnetic loops that connect AR 10942 to AR 10943. Both active regions were visible simultaneously on the solar disk and were observed by STEREO/SECCHI EUVI. Using Hinode/EIS spectra, we determine the Doppler shifts and densities in AR 10943 and AR 10942 in order to evaluate the mass flows. We also perform magnetic field extrapolations to assess the connectivity between AR 10942 and AR 10943. AR 10943 displays a persistent downflow in Fe XII. Magnetic extrapolations including both ARs show that this downflow can be connected to the upflow in AR 10942. We estimate that the mass flow received by AR 10943 areas connected to AR 10942 represents about 18% of the mass flow from AR 10942. We conclude that the upflows observed on the edge of active regions represent either large-scale loops with mass flowing along them (accounting for about one-fifth of the total mass flow in this example) or open magnetic field structures where the slow solar wind originates.

  5. Scaling behavior in a stochastic self-gravitating system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. V. Antonov

    2003-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of stochastic differential equations for the velocity and density of a classical self-gravitating matter is investigated by means of the field theoretic renormalization group. The existence of two types of large-scale scaling behavior, associated to physically admissible fixed points of the renormalization-group equations, is established. Their regions of stability are identified and the corresponding scaling dimensions are calculated in the one-loop approximation (first order of the epsilon expansion). The velocity and density fields have independent scaling dimensions. Our analysis supports the importance of the rotational (nonpotential) components of the velocity field in the formation of those scaling laws.

  6. Integrated Environmental Assessment Part III: Exposure Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKone, Thomas E.; Small, Mitchell J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    issues such as life cycle assessment (LCA) fosters the needlife-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) process within in LCA is

  7. Scaling considerations for modeling the in situ vitrification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langerman, M.A.; MacKinnon, R.J.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scaling relationships for modeling the in situ vitrification waste remediation process are documented based upon similarity considerations derived from fundamental principles. Requirements for maintaining temperature and electric potential field similarity between the model and the prototype are determined as well as requirements for maintaining similarity in off-gas generation rates. A scaling rationale for designing reduced-scale experiments is presented and the results are assessed numerically. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  8. A Study of Frontal-Scale Air-Sea Interaction in Midlatitude Western Boundary Current Regimes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Xiaohui

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Frontal-scale air-sea interactions during boreal winter season in midlatitude western boundary current (WBC) regimes, including the Kuroshio Extension Region (KER) and Gulf Stream Region (GSR), are investigated using both observational (reanalysis...

  9. STOCK ASSESSMENT OF THE BLUE CRAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STOCK ASSESSMENT OF THE BLUE CRAB IN CHESAPEAKE BAY 2011 #12;2011 Stock assessment for blue crab in Chesapeake Bay iii Executive Summary The blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) is an icon for the Chesapeake Bay region. The commercial fisheries for blue crab in the Bay remain one of the most valuable fishery sectors

  10. Chameleon gravity on cosmological scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Farajollahi; A. Salehi

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In conventional approach to the chameleon mechanism, by assuming a static and spherically symmetric solutions in which matter density and chameleon field are given by $\\rho=\\rho(r)$ and $\\phi=\\phi(r)$, it has been shown that mass of chameleon field is matter density-dependent. In regions of high matter density such as earth, chameleon field is massive, in solar system it is low and in cosmological scales it is very low. In this article we revisit the mechanism in cosmological scales by assuming a redshift dependence of the matter density and chameleon field, i.e. $\\rho=\\rho(z)$, $\\phi=\\phi(z)$. To support our analysis, we best fit the model parameters with the observational data. The result shows that in cosmological scales, the mass of chameleon field increases with the redshift, i.e. more massive in higher redshifts. We also find that in both cases of power-law and exponential potential function, the current universe acceleration can be explained by the low mass chameleon field. In comparison with the high redshift observational data, we also find that the model with power-law potential function is in better agreement with the observational data.

  11. Large-scale simulations of reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Katharina; /JILA, Boulder /Fermilab; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; /Fermilab; Hamilton, Andrew J.S.; /JILA, Boulder

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use cosmological simulations to explore the large-scale effects of reionization. Since reionization is a process that involves a large dynamic range--from galaxies to rare bright quasars--we need to be able to cover a significant volume of the universe in our simulation without losing the important small scale effects from galaxies. Here we have taken an approach that uses clumping factors derived from small scale simulations to approximate the radiative transfer on the sub-cell scales. Using this technique, we can cover a simulation size up to 1280h{sup -1} Mpc with 10h{sup -1} Mpc cells. This allows us to construct synthetic spectra of quasars similar to observed spectra of SDSS quasars at high redshifts and compare them to the observational data. These spectra can then be analyzed for HII region sizes, the presence of the Gunn-Peterson trough, and the Lyman-{alpha} forest.

  12. CDKN-CARICOM-A Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Regional...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CARICOM-A Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Regional Climate Change Resilience Framework Jump to: navigation, search Name CDKN-CARICOM-A Regional Implementation Plan for...

  13. Case Studies of Potential Facility-Scale and Utility-Scale Non-Hydro Renewable Energy Projects across Reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.; Burman, K.; Dahle, D.; Heimiller, D.; Jimenez, A.; Melius, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; VanGeet, O.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of an assessment and analysis of renewable energy opportunities conducted for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Tasks included assessing the suitability for wind and solar on both a utility and facility scale.

  14. CEMI Western Regional Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Please Join Assistant Secretary of Energy Dr. David Danielson for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative's Western Regional Summit. Register now for this free event.

  15. Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection Willett Kemptona,1 , Felipe M regional estimate, Kempton et al. (2) calculated that two-thirds of the offshore wind power off the U in the U.S. Atlantic region is already underway. Fig. 1 shows as black squares offshore wind developments

  16. Silica Scaling Removal Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sidestreams of cooling tower water by providing a substrate for the deposition and adsorption of silica. The removal of the silica prevents scaling deposition on heat transfer...

  17. Pore Scale Micromodels | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of EMSL's Subsurface Flow and Transport Laboratory (SFTL) with a focus on coupled (multiphase) flow, diffusion, and reactions processes at the microscopic scale (m to cm) that...

  18. Thermodynamics and scale relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Carroll

    2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown how the fractal paths of scale relativity (following Nottale) can be introduced into a thermodynamical context (following Asadov-Kechkin).

  19. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Faulds, James E.

    - The resulting along?fault and fault?to?fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault?to?fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson?Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin are shown on Figure 3. For faults within the Great Basin proper, we applied a normal faulting stress regime, where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax), which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin). Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin, we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46. These values are consistent with stress magnitude data at both Dixie Valley (Hickman et al., 2000) and Yucca Mountain (Stock et al., 1985). For faults within the Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone, we applied a strike?slip faulting stress, where shmax > sv > shmin. Upon visual inspection of limited stress magnitude data from the Walker Lane and Eastern California Shear zone, we chose values such that SHmin/SHmax = .46 and Shmin/Sv= .527 representative of the region. Results: The results of our slip and dilation tendency analysis are shown in Figures 4 (dilation tendency), 5 (slip tendency) and 6 (slip tendency + dilation tendency). Shmin varies from northwest to east?west trending throughout much of the Great Basin. As such, north? to northeast?striking faults have the highest tendency to slip and to dilate, depending on the local trend of shmin. These results provide a first order filter on faults and fault systems in the Great Basin, affording focusing of local?scale exploration efforts for blind or hidden geothermal resources.

  20. Basin-Scale Hydrologic Impacts of CO2 Storage: Regulatory and Capacity Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, J.T.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessment of Geological Carbon Sequestration Options in the2009. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships –from geologic carbon sequestration: area-of-review

  1. Regional Analysis Briefs

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2028-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional Analysis Briefs (RABs) provide an overview of specific regions that play an important role in world energy markets, either directly or indirectly. These briefs cover areas that are currently major producers (Caspian Sea), have geopolitical importance (South China Sea), or may have future potential as producers or transit areas (East Africa, Eastern Mediterranean).

  2. Simulated effects of climate change on the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D`Agnese, F.A.; O`Brien, G.M.; Faunt, C.C.; San Juan, C.A.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the Death Valley regional flow system as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. As part of the hydrologic investigation, regional, three-dimensional conceptual and numerical ground-water-flow models have been developed to assess the potential effects of past and future climates on the regional flow system. A simulation that is based on climatic conditions 21,000 years ago was evaluated by comparing the simulated results to observation of paleodischarge sites. Following acceptable simulation of a past climate, a possible future ground-water-flow system, with climatic conditions that represent a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide, was simulated. The steady-state simulations were based on the present-day, steady-state, regional ground-water-flow model. The finite-difference model consisted of 163 rows, 153 columns, and 3 layers and was simulated using MODFLOWP. Climate changes were implemented in the regional ground-water-flow model by changing the distribution of ground-water recharge. Global-scale, average-annual, simulated precipitation for both past- and future-climate conditions developed elsewhere were resampled to the model-grid resolution. A polynomial function that represents the Maxey-Eakin method for estimating recharge from precipitation was used to develop recharge distributions for simulation.

  3. World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    resources is also reflected in EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2011 (AEO2011) energy projections www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 #12;The information presented by Advanced Resources International (ARI) for the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA

  4. Technical and Economic Assessment of Regional Hydrogen Transition Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, Joan; Yang, Christopher; Nicholas, Michael

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Costs to Estimate Hydrogen Pipeline Costs,” Report No. UCD-travel distance and pipeline length for hydrogen deliveryLos Angeles. Hydrogen Infrastructure Layout – Pipelines and

  5. Technical and Economic Assessment of Regional Hydrogen Transition Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, Joan M; Yang, Christopher; Nicholas, Michael A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel- Based Hydrogen Infrastructure with Carbon Capture andStrategy of Building a Hydrogen Infrastructure in Beijing,"Natural Gas Based Hydrogen Infrastructure – Optimizing

  6. Assessing the drivers of regional trends in solar photovoltaic manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodrich, Alan C.

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry has grown rapidly as a source of energy and economic activity. Since 2008, the average manufacturer-sale price of PV modules has declined by over a factor of two, coinciding with a significant ...

  7. Assessing Impact of Biofuel Production on Regional Water Resource...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    12 webinar presentation on the environmental impacts attributable to wastewater from biofuels production. wuwebinar.pdf More Documents & Publications Breaking the Biological...

  8. assessing regional variation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alternative Plans Agricultural Experiment Station. The authors thank Steven Raabe at the San Antonio Water Authority; Agatha C. Wade, John Waugh, and Darren Thompson at the San...

  9. ECOWAS Â… GBEP REGIONAL BIOMASS RESOURCE ASSESSMENT WORKSHOP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of98-F, Western Systems Power PoolOctober 17,

  10. Asia-Pacific Regional Climate Change Adaptation Assessment | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: Energy ResourcesInformation Arizona'sinCalifornia:II Wind

  11. ECOWAS - GBEP REGIONAL BIOMASS RESOURCE ASSESSMENT WORKSHOP | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol. 73, No.Plant for5:Grid - June 6,ofJanuaryof

  12. Large-Scale Integration of Deferrable Demand and Renewable Energy Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    1 Large-Scale Integration of Deferrable Demand and Renewable Energy Sources Anthony Papavasiliou. In order to accurately assess the impacts of renewable energy integration and demand response integration model for assessing the impacts of the large-scale integration of renewable energy sources

  13. ANALYSIS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT HELICITY IN ACTIVE REGIONS ON THE BASIS OF VECTOR MAGNETOGRAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    can suggest that the build up of large­scale currents in an active region due to small­scale of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China Abstract. The problem of (dc) magnetic field energy build up in the solar seemingly can occur in any active region, the energy build up mechanism must be easy accessible for all

  14. Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.

    1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

  15. Preliminary melter performance assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Mahoney, L.A.; Cooper, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.; Shafer, P.J.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Melter Performance Assessment activity, a component of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) effort, was designed to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter. The melter performance assessment consisted of several activities, including a literature review of all work done with noble metals in glass, gradient furnace testing to study the behavior of noble metals during the melting process, research-scale and engineering-scale melter testing to evaluate effects of noble metals on melter operation, and computer modeling that used the experimental data to predict effects of noble metals on the full-scale melter. Feed used in these tests simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed. This report summarizes the results of the melter performance assessment and predicts the lifetime of the HWVP melter. It should be noted that this work was conducted before the recent Tri-Party Agreement changes, so the reference melter referred to here is the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter design.

  16. Assessment Documents

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you0 ARRA NewslettersPartnership of theArctic Energy Summit26 Assessment

  17. Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000ConsumptionInnovationEnvironment,682 Environmental Assessment

  18. Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000ConsumptionInnovationEnvironment,682 Environmental Assessment 728D

  19. Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000ConsumptionInnovationEnvironment,682 Environmental Assessment

  20. Performance Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding accessPeptoid Nanosheets Offer a Diversity ofPerformance assessment

  1. Ecological Risk Assessments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ecological Risk Assessments Ecological Risk Assessments Ecological risk assessment is the appraisal of potential adverse effects of exposure to contaminants on plants and animals....

  2. Assessment of Controlling Processes for Field-Scale Uranium Reactive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at the 300A site. However, the model simulations also revealed that the groundwater chemistry was relatively stable during the uranium tracer experiment and therefore...

  3. THINNING IN ATLANTIC OAKWOODS ASSESSING OPTIONS AT THE STAND SCALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ISBN 0 9536447 6 6 All rights reserved. The contents of this report may not be reproduced in any form quality, a further 19% of trees contained material suitable for flooring, craft use or cruck frames woodland need high humidity and varying degrees of shade. For rarer species, the balance between humidity

  4. Economic assessment of small-scale electricity generation from wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Kristen Dawn

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    10 kW wind turbine on a 30m tower was installed and five different scenarios were calculated for both locations. Wind speeds for both locations were collected and analyzed to find the closest fitting distribution to incorporate the appropriate risk...

  5. Field-Scale Assessment of Desiccation Implementation for Deep...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas to a target treatment zone and monitoring the spatial and temporal progress of the drying process. Aqueous waste discharges to disposal cribs approximately 50 years ago...

  6. assessment scale ras: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kundur two area test system which exhibits an interarea oscillatory mode. Key words: Remedial action Venkatasubramanian, Mani V. 47 Self, Society, and Environment in the 21st...

  7. Regional Districts (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Adjacent Water Control and Improvement Districts and Municipal Utility Districts can opt to form a Regional District to oversee water issues. Such districts may be created:(1) to purchase, own,...

  8. Extended emission associated with young HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. P. Ellingsen; S. S. Shabala; S. E. Kurtz

    2004-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to make observations of a sample of eight young ultra-compact HII regions, selected on the basis that they have associated class II methanol maser emission. We have made observations sensitive to both compact and extended structures and find both to be present in most sources. The scale of the extended emission in our sample is in general less than that observed towards samples based on IRAS properties, or large single-dish flux densities. Our observations are consistent with a scenario where extended and compact radio continuum emission coexists within HII regions for a significant period of time. We suggest that these observations are consistent with a model where HII evolution takes place within hierarchically structured molecular clouds. This model is the subject of a companion paper (Shabala et al. 2005) and addresses both the association between compact and extended emission and UCHII region lifetime problem.

  9. Southwest Region Experiment Station - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenthal, A

    2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), an independent, university-based research institute, has been the operator of the Southwest Region Photovoltaic Experiment Station (SWRES) for almost 30 years. The overarching mission of SWTDI is to position PV systems and solar technologies to become cost-effective, major sources of energy for the United States. Embedded in SWTDI's general mission has been the more-focused mission of the SWRES: to provide value added technical support to the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) to effectively and efficiently meet the R&D needs and targets specified in the SETP Multi-Year Technical Plan. : The DOE/SETP goals of growing U.S. PV manufacturing into giga-watt capacities and seeing tera-watt-hours of solar energy production in the U.S. require an infrastructure that is under development. The staff of the SWRES has supported DOE/SETP through a coherent, integrated program to address infrastructural needs inhibiting wide-scale PV deployment in three major technical categories: specialized engineering services, workforce development, and deployment facilitation. The SWRES contract underwent three major revisions during its five year period-of- performance, but all tasks and deliverables fell within the following task areas: Task 1: PV Systems Assistance Center 1. Develop a Comprehensive multi-year plan 2. Provide technical workforce development materials and workshops for PV stakeholder groups including university, professional installers, inspectors, state energy offices, Federal agencies 3. Serve on the NABCEP exam committee 4. Provide on-demand technical PV system design reviews for U.S. PV stakeholders 5. Provide PV system field testing and instrumentation, technical outreach (including extensive support for the DOE Market Transformation program) Task 2: Design-for-Manufacture PV Systems 1. Develop and install 18 kW parking carport (cost share) and PV-thermal carport (Albuquerque) deriving and publishing lessons learned Task 3: PV Codes and Standards 1. Serve as the national lead for development and preparation of all proposals (related to PV) to the National Electrical Code 2. Participate in the Standards Technical Panels for modules (UL1703) and inverters (UL1741) Task 4: Assess Inverter Long Term Reliability 1. Install and monitor identical inverters at SWRES and SERES 2. Operate and monitor all inverters for 5 years, characterizing all failures and performance trends Task 5: Test and Evaluation Support for Solar America Initiative 1. Provide test and evaluation services to the National Laboratories for stage gate and progress measurements of SAI TPP winners

  10. ASSESSMENT REPORT

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartmentDepartment of2 of 5) ALARA TrainingANDREW ( ARI|Regional

  11. Large scale properties in turbulent spherically symmetric accretion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnab K. Ray; J. K. Bhattacharjee

    2005-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of turbulence in a spherically symmetric accreting system has been studied on very large spatial scales of the system. This is also a highly subsonic flow region and here the accreting fluid has been treated as nearly incompressible. It has been shown here that the coupling of the mean flow and the turbulent fluctuations, gives rise to a scaling relation for an effective "turbulent viscosity". This in turn leads to a dynamic scaling for sound propagation in the accretion process. As a consequence of this scaling, the sonic horizon of the transonic inflow solution is shifted inwards, in comparison with the inviscid flow.

  12. Assessor Training Assessment Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NVLAP Assessor Training Assessment Techniques: Communication Skills and Conducting an Assessment listener ·Knowledgeable Assessor Training 2009: Assessment Techniques: Communication Skills & Conducting, truthful, sincere, discrete · Diplomatic · Decisive · Selfreliant Assessor Training 2009: Assessment

  13. Large scale disease prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Patrick R. (Patrick Raphael)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis is to present the foundation of an automated large-scale disease prediction system. Unlike previous work that has typically focused on a small self-contained dataset, we explore the possibility ...

  14. The Improbability scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritchie, David J.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Improbability Scale (IS) is proposed as a way of communicating to the general public the improbability (and by implication, the probability) of events predicted as the result of scientific research. Through the use of the Improbability Scale, the public will be able to evaluate more easily the relative risks of predicted events and draw proper conclusions when asked to support governmental and public policy decisions arising from that research.

  15. Flibe assessments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sze, D. K.; McCarthy, K.; Sawan, M.; Tillack, M.; Ying, A.; Zinkle, S.

    2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of the issues on using flibe for fusion applications has been made. It is concluded that sufficient tritium breeding can be achieved for a flibe blanket, especially if a few cm of Be is include in the blanket design. A key issue is the control of the transmutation products such as TF and F{sub 2}. A REDOX (Reducing-Oxidation) reaction has to be demonstrated which is compatible to the blanket design. Also, MHD may have strong impact on heat transfer if the flow is perpendicular to the magnetic field. The issues associated with the REDOX reaction and the MHD issues have to be resolved by both experimental program and numerical solutions.

  16. Assessment 101: The Assessment Cycle, Clear and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    Assessment 101: The Assessment Cycle, Clear and Simple October 1, 2014 Kellogg West Conference Center, Pomona, CA Resource Binder #12;2014-2015 WASC Senior College and University Commission is pleased expectations. Assessment 101: The Assessment Cycle, Clear and Simple October 1, 2014. Kellogg West, Pomona, CA

  17. Structural colors from Morpho peleides butterfly wing scales Yong Ding, Sheng Xu, and Zhong Lin Wanga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Structural colors from Morpho peleides butterfly wing scales Yong Ding, Sheng Xu, and Zhong Lin Morpho peleides butterfly wing is decorated by two types of scales, cover and ground scales. We have in the infrared and ultraviolet regions. The analogy in the spectra acquired from the original wing and that from

  18. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall shearing was shown to reduce the rheological properties of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Samples taken at the static feed tank showed that gelling impacted the rheological properties of the grout before it was fed into the pump and transfer line. A comparison of the rheological properties of samples taken at the feed tank and transfer line discharge indicated shearing of the grout was occurring in the transfer line. Bench scale testing of different mixing methods with three different salt solutions showed that method of mixing influences the rheological properties of the grouts. The paddle blade mixing method of the salt solution used for the BMSR testing provided comparable rheological properties of the grout prepared in the BMSR after 14 minutes of processing, B3. The paddle blade mixing method can be used to represent BMSR results and mixing time can be adjusted to represent larger scale mixing.

  19. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify promising locations for both demonstration and pilot-scale algal cultivation projects, including the production potential of using wastewater, and potential land use considerations.

  20. Free Magnetic Energy and Flare Productivity of Active Regions , Changyi Tan2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Free Magnetic Energy and Flare Productivity of Active Regions Ju Jing1 , Changyi Tan2,3 , Yuan Yuan with which we are able to estimate the free magnetic energy stored in the active regions. The magnitude scaling correlation between the free magnetic energy and the soft X-ray flare index of active regions

  1. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Slip and dilation tendency on the Great Basin fault surfaces (from the USGS Quaternary Fault Database) were calculated using 3DStress (software produced by Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by the measured ambient stress field. - Values range from a maximum of 1 (a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions) to zero (a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate). - Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the Great Basin. As dip is unknown for many faults in the USGS Quaternary Fault Database, we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum slip and dilation tendency. - The resulting along?fault and fault?to?fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault?to?fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson?Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin are shown on Figure 3. For faults within the Great Basin proper, we applied a normal faulting stress regime, where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax), which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin). Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin, we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46. These values are consistent with stress magnitude data at both Dixie Valley (Hickman et al., 2000) and Yucca Mountain (Stock et al., 1985). For faults within the Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone, we applied a strike?slip faulting stress, where shmax > sv > shmin. Upon visual inspection of limited stress magnitude data from the Walker Lane and Eastern California Shear zone, we chose values such that SHmin/SHmax = .46 and Shmin/Sv= .527 representative of the region. Results: The results of our slip and dilation tendency analysis are shown in Figures 4 (dilation tendency), 5 (slip tendency) and 6 (slip tendency + dilation tendency). Shmin varies from northwest to east?west trending throughout much of the Great Basin. As such, north? to northeast?striking faults have the highest tendency to slip and to dilate, depending on the local trend of shmin. These results provide a first order filter on faults and fault systems in the Great Basin, affording focusing of local?scale exploration efforts for blind or hidden geothermal resources.

  2. assessing myocardial viability: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    down or removing risky turbines andor farmsLarge scale risk-assessment of wind-farms on population viability of a globally endangered long Carrete, Martina 9 Induction of...

  3. assess myocardial viability: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    down or removing risky turbines andor farmsLarge scale risk-assessment of wind-farms on population viability of a globally endangered long Carrete, Martina 9 Induction of...

  4. Regional Report Issue Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regional Report Introduction The economy of the United States is more than three and one-half years accounting for both increasing shares of the economy and of recessionary employment losses. Manufacturing, driven by globalization and advancing information technology. Recoveries now produce jobs new

  5. Surface tension-driven shape-recovery of micro/nanometer-scale surface features in a Pt(57.5)Ni(5.3)Cu(14.7)P(22.5) metallic glass in the supercooled liquid region: A numerical modeling capability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henann, David Lee

    Recent experiments in the literature show that micro/nano-scale features imprinted in a Pt-based metallic glass, Pt57.5Ni5.3Cu14.7P22.5 [Pt subscript 57.5 Ni subscript 5.3 Cu subscript 14.7 P subscript 22.5], using ...

  6. LEADERSHIP HANDBOOK FOR REGIONAL COMMUNITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

    LEADERSHIP HANDBOOK FOR REGIONAL COMMUNITIES JOHNS HOPKINS ALUMNI ASSOCIATION & THE OFFICE OF ALUMNI RELATIONS #12;Leadership Handbook for Regional Chapters 2 CONTENTS Contents .......................................................................................................................9 Chapter Leadership

  7. Regional Competitions - EERE Commercialization Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Runner-up Teams The Six Regional Competitions The Massachusetts Institute of Technology logo. Northeast Region Lead: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, MA) This...

  8. 11.482J / 1.285J / ESD.193J Regional Socioeconomic Impact Analysis and Modeling, Fall 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polenske, Karen R.

    Reviews regional economic theories and models and provides students with experience in using alternative economic impact assessment models on microcomputers. Problem sets are oriented around infrastructure, housing, energy, ...

  9. 11.482J / 1.285J / ESD.193J Regional Socioeconomic Impact Analysis and Modeling, Fall 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polenske, Karen R.

    Reviews regional economic theories and models and provides students with experience in using alternative economic impact assessment models on microcomputers. Problem sets are oriented around infrastructure, housing, energy, ...

  10. Detection of blood deprived regions in SIAgraph images of pigmented skin lesions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claridge, Ela

    Detection of blood deprived regions in SIAgraph images of pigmented skin lesions Francesca Sattaa for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma has shown that the presence of blood deprivation regions within the lesion of the blood deprived regions. The results of the computer method compared to the clinical assessment show very

  11. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  12. Global Scale Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asphaug, Erik; Jutzi, Martin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global scale impacts modify the physical or thermal state of a substantial fraction of a target asteroid. Specific effects include accretion, family formation, reshaping, mixing and layering, shock and frictional heating, fragmentation, material compaction, dilatation, stripping of mantle and crust, and seismic degradation. Deciphering the complicated record of global scale impacts, in asteroids and meteorites, will lead us to understand the original planet-forming process and its resultant populations, and their evolution in time as collisions became faster and fewer. We provide a brief overview of these ideas, and an introduction to models.

  13. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes five states (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah) and contiguous areas from three adjacent states (west Texas, south Wyoming, and west Kansas). This energy-rich region exhibits some of the largest growth rates in the nation, and it contains two major CO{sub 2} pipeline networks that presently tap natural subsurface CO{sub 2} reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery at a rate of 30 million tons per year. The ten largest coal-fired power plants in the region produce 50% (140 million tons CO{sub 2}/y) of the total CO{sub 2} from power-plant fossil fuel combustion, with power plant emissions close to half the total CO{sub 2} emissions. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state government agencies and universities, the five major electric utility industries, seven oil, gas and coal companies, three federal agencies, the Navajo Nation, several NGOs including the Western Governors Association, and data sharing agreements with four other surrounding states. The Partnership is developing action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region, as well as the non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. The establishment of a website network to facilitate data storage and information sharing, decision-making, and future management of carbon sequestration in the region is a priority. The Southwest Partnership's approach includes (1) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, (2) assessing and initiating public acceptance of possible sequestration approaches, and (3) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. The Partnership will also identify potential gaps in monitoring and verification approaches needed to validate long-term storage efforts.

  14. Sign singularity and flares in solar active region NOAA 11158

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Kazachenko, Maria D; Krucker, Sam; Primavera, Leonardo; Servidio, Sergio; Vecchio, Antonio; Welsch, Brian T; Fisher, George H; Lepreti, Fabio; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Active Region NOAA 11158 has hosted a number of strong flares, including one X2.2 event. The complexity of current density and current helicity are studied through cancellation analysis of their sign-singular measure, which features power-law scaling. Spectral analysis is also performed, revealing the presence of two separate scaling ranges with different spectral index. The time evolution of parameters is discussed. Sudden changes of the cancellation exponents at the time of large flares, and the presence of correlation with EUV and X-ray flux, suggest that eruption of large flares can be linked to the small scale properties of the current structures.

  15. Lake Whitney Comprehensive Water Quality Assessment, Phase 1B- Physical and Biological Assessment (USDOE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, Robert D; Byars, Bruce W

    2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Baylor University Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research (CRASR) has conducted a phased, comprehensive evaluation of Lake Whitney to determine its suitability for use as a regional water supply reservoir. The area along the Interstate 35 corridor between Dallas / Fort Worth Metroplex and the Waco / Temple Centroplex represents one of the fastest growth areas in the State of Texas and reliable water supplies are critical to sustainable growth. Lake Whitney is situated midway between these two metropolitan areas. Currently, the City of Whitney as well as all of Bosque and Hill counties obtain their potable water from the Trinity Sands aquifer. Additionally, parts of the adjoining McLennan and Burleson counties utilize the Trinity sands aquifer system as a supplement to their surface water supplies. Population growth coupled with increasing demands on this aquifer system in both the Metroplex and Centroplex have resulted in a rapid depletion of groundwater in these rural areas. The Lake Whitney reservoir represents both a potentially local and regional solution for an area experiencing high levels of growth. Because of the large scope of this project as well as the local, regional and national implications, we have designed a multifaceted approach that will lead to the solution of numerous issues related to the feasibility of using Lake Whitney as a water resource to the region. Phase IA (USEPA, QAPP Study Elements 1-4) of this research focused on the physical limnology of the reservoir (bathymetry and fine scale salinity determination) and develops hydrodynamic watershed and reservoir models to evaluate how salinity would be expected to change with varying hydrologic and climatic factors. To this end, we implemented a basic water quality modeling program in collaboration with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality to add to the developing long-term database on Lake Whitney. Finally, we conducted an initial assessment of knowledge of watershed and water quality related issues by local residents and stakeholders of Lake Whitney and design an intervention educational program to address any deficiencies discovered. Phase IA was funded primarily from EPA Cooperative Agreement X7-9769 8901-0. Phase IC (USEPA, QAPP Study Element 5) of this research focused on the ambient toxicity of the reservoir with respect to periodic blooms of golden algae. Phase IC was funded primarily from Cooperative Agreement EM-96638001. Phase 1B (USDOE, Study Elements 6-11) complemented work being done via EPA funding on study elements 1-5 and added five new study elements: 6) Salinity Transport in the Brazos Watershed to Lake Whitney; 7) Bacterial Assessment; 8) Organic Contaminant Analysis on Lake Whitney; 9) Plankton Photosynthesis; 10) Lake Whitney Resident Knowledge Assessment; and 11) Engineering Scoping Perspective: Recommendations for Use.

  16. Mathematics Achievement Scale Score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianyu

    Croatia 490 New Zealand 486 Spain 482 Romania 482 Poland 481 Turkey 469 Azerbaijan 463 Chile 462 Thailand Romania 505 Spain 505 Poland 505 TIMSS Scale Centerpoint 500 New Zealand 497 Kazakhstan 495 Norway 494 Kazakhstan 487 Sweden 484 Ukraine 479 Norway 475 Armenia 467 Romania 458 United Arab Emirates 456 Turkey 452

  17. Regional Transportation Coordination Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden Crescent Regional Planning Commission

    Committee for this study. ? Develop a coordination public transportation plan ? Identify resources required to develop the plan ? Provide policy guidance to lead the planning and coordination effort Golden Crescent Regional Transit 1... of Texas. This resource will be relied upon for further development of the Intermodal Transportation Terminal. ? FTA Section 5309 (Bus) Discretionary Support ? To assist in meeting the GCRPC?s capital replacement needs. This resource...

  18. Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.; Burman, K.; Dahle, D.; Heimiller, D.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report summarizes the results of an assessment and analysis of renewable energy opportunities conducted for the U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Report contains results from utility scale analysis and site visits, as well as facility scale screening and site visits.

  19. US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O'Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes), changes in climate and related environmental conditions (e.g., sea level), and evolution of societal capability to respond to climate change. This wide range of scenarios is needed because the implications of climate change for the environment and society depend not only on changes in climate themselves, but also on human responses. This degree of breadth introduces and number of challenges for communication and research.

  20. Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale forcing properties. Part II: Scale-awareness and application to single-column model experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Sha [Univ. of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Vogelmann, Andrew M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Li, Zhijin [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Univ. of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Liu, Yangang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lin, Wuyin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, Minghua [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Toto, Tami [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Endo, Satoshi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Fine-resolution three-dimensional fields have been produced using the Community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains region. The GSI system is implemented in a multi-scale data assimilation framework using the Weather Research and Forecasting model at a cloud-resolving resolution of 2 km. From the fine-resolution three-dimensional fields, large-scale forcing is derived explicitly at grid-scale resolution; a subgrid-scale dynamic component is derived separately, representing subgrid-scale horizontal dynamic processes. Analyses show that the subgrid-scale dynamic component is often a major component over the large-scale forcing for grid scales larger than 200 km. The single-column model (SCM) of the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) is used to examine the impact of the grid-scale and subgrid-scale dynamic components on simulated precipitation and cloud fields associated with a mesoscale convective system. It is found that grid-scale size impacts simulated precipitation, resulting in an overestimation for grid scales of about 200 km but an underestimation for smaller grids. The subgrid-scale dynamic component has an appreciable impact on the simulations, suggesting that grid-scale and subgrid-scale dynamic components should be considered in the interpretation of SCM simulations.

  1. Strategic Plan Environmental Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strategic Plan Environmental Assessment 2009 Clinical Center National Institutes of Health U Institutes of Health Strategic Plan ­ Environmental Assessment 2009 Contents Executive Summary environmental assessment to determine Clinical Center strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats

  2. Finding Regions of Interest on Toroidal Meshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Kesheng; Sinha, Rishi R; Jones, Chad; Ethier, Stephane; Klasky, Scott; Ma, Kwan-Liu; Shoshani, Arie; Winslett, Marianne

    2011-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion promises to provide clean and safe energy, and a considerable amount of research effort is underway to turn this aspiration intoreality. This work focuses on a building block for analyzing data produced from the simulation of microturbulence in magnetic confinementfusion devices: the task of efficiently extracting regions of interest. Like many other simulations where a large amount of data are produced,the careful study of ``interesting'' parts of the data is critical to gain understanding. In this paper, we present an efficient approach forfinding these regions of interest. Our approach takes full advantage of the underlying mesh structure in magnetic coordinates to produce acompact representation of the mesh points inside the regions and an efficient connected component labeling algorithm for constructingregions from points. This approach scales linearly with the surface area of the regions of interest instead of the volume as shown with bothcomputational complexity analysis and experimental measurements. Furthermore, this new approach is 100s of times faster than a recentlypublished method based on Cartesian coordinates.

  3. Evolution of HII regions in hierarchically structured molecular clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanislav Shabala; Simon Ellingsen; Stan Kurtz; Larry Forbes

    2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present observations of the H91$\\alpha$ recombination line emission towards a sample of nine HII regions associated with 6.7-GHz methanol masers, and report arcsecond-scale emission around compact cores. We derive physical parameters for our sources, and find that although simple hydrostatic models of region evolution reproduce the observed region sizes, they significantly underestimate emission measures. We argue that these findings are consistent with young source ages in our sample, and can be explained by existence of density gradients in the ionised gas.

  4. Can Higgs Inflation be Saved with High-scale Supersymmetry ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Sibo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown whether Higgs inflation can be saved with high-scale supersymmetry critically depends on the magnitude of non-minimal coupling constant $\\xi$. For small $\\xi \\leq 500$, the threshold correction at scale $M_{P}/\\xi$ is constrained in high precision.Its magnitude is in the narrow range of $(-0.03, -0.02)$ and $(-0.05, -0.04)$ for the wino and higgsino/singlino dark matter, respectively. While in the large $\\xi$-region with $\\xi \\geq 10^{4}$, such high-scale supersymmetry is excluded by too large threshold correction as required by Higgs inflation.

  5. Can Higgs Inflation be Saved with High-scale Supersymmetry ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibo Zheng

    2015-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown whether Higgs inflation can be saved with high-scale supersymmetry critically depends on the magnitude of non-minimal coupling constant $\\xi$. For small $\\xi \\leq 500$, the threshold correction at scale $M_{P}/\\xi$ is constrained in high precision.Its magnitude is in the narrow range of $(-0.03, -0.02)$ and $(-0.05, -0.04)$ for the wino and higgsino/singlino dark matter, respectively. While in the large $\\xi$-region with $\\xi \\geq 10^{4}$, such high-scale supersymmetry is excluded by too large threshold correction as required by Higgs inflation.

  6. ORISE: Hazard Assessments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assesses both chemical and radiation exposures, and conducts both internal and external radiation dose assessments. Our capabililities include: Linkage of exposure data to site...

  7. Solar radiation resource assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

  8. Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Executive Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This executive summary provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region.

  9. Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle ACTIVE REGIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle ACTIVE REGIONS Large scale (up to 100 Mm) anomalies in the structure and radiation of the solar atmosphere. Photosphere : AR = cluster of strong magnetic flux tubes of facular points. Filamentary structure due to supergranulation. #12;Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle

  10. Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy Projects at Military Installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callahan, M.; Anderson, K.; Booth, S.; Katz, J.; Tetreault, T.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report highlights the increase in resources, project speed, and scale that is required to achieve the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) energy efficiency and renewable energy goals and summarizes the net zero energy installation assessment (NZEI) process and the lessons learned from NZEI assessments and large-scale renewable energy projects implementations at DoD installations.

  11. Regional Energy Baseline 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ESL-TR-11-09-02 REGIONAL ENERGY BASELINE (1960 ~ 2009) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 To tal En erg y U se pe r C ap ita (M MB tu) Year Total Energy... Use per Capita (1960-2009) US SEEC 12-States TX Hyojin Kim Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Ph.D. Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. September 2011 ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University...

  12. Regional Energy Baseline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.

    ESL-TR-11-09-02 REGIONAL ENERGY BASELINE (1960 ~ 2009) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 To tal En erg y U se pe r C ap ita (M MB tu) Year Total Energy... Use per Capita (1960-2009) US SEEC 12-States TX Hyojin Kim Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Ph.D. Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. September 2011 ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University...

  13. Regional companies eye growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently Approved JustificationBio-Inspired PowerRegional companies eye

  14. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL] [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL] [ORNL; Pullum, Laura L [ORNL] [ORNL; Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  15. Supergranulation Scale Connection Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. F. Stein; A. Nordlund; D. Georgobiani; D. Benson; W. Schaffenberger

    2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of realistic simulations of solar surface convection on the scale of supergranules (96 Mm wide by 20 Mm deep) are presented. The simulations cover only 10% of the geometric depth of the solar convection zone, but half its pressure scale heights. They include the hydrogen, first and most of the second helium ionization zones. The horizontal velocity spectrum is a power law and the horizontal size of the dominant convective cells increases with increasing depth. Convection is driven by buoyancy work which is largest close to the surface, but significant over the entire domain. Close to the surface buoyancy driving is balanced by the divergence of the kinetic energy flux, but deeper down it is balanced by dissipation. The damping length of the turbulent kinetic energy is 4 pressure scale heights. The mass mixing length is 1.8 scale heights. Two thirds of the area is upflowing fluid except very close to the surface. The internal (ionization) energy flux is the largest contributor to the convective flux for temperatures less than 40,000 K and the thermal energy flux is the largest contributor at higher temperatures. This data set is useful for validating local helioseismic inversion methods. Sixteen hours of data are available as four hour averages, with two hour cadence, at steinr.msu.edu/~bob/96averages, as idl save files. The variables stored are the density, temperature, sound speed, and three velocity components. In addition, the three velocity components at 200 km above mean continuum optical depth unity are available at 30 sec. cadence.

  16. Pore-scale simulation of microbial growth using a genome-scale metabolic model: Implications for Darcy-scale reactive transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Fang, Yilin; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Lovley, Derek R.

    2013-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advances in microbiology have enabled the quantitative simulation of microbial metabolism and growth based on genome-scale characterization of metabolic pathways and fluxes. We have incorporated a genome-scale metabolic model of the iron-reducing bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens into a pore-scale simulation of microbial growth based on coupling of iron reduction to oxidation of a soluble electron donor (acetate). In our model, fluid flow and solute transport is governed by a combination of the Navier-Stokes and advection-diffusion-reaction equations. Microbial growth occurs only on the surface of soil grains where solid-phase mineral iron oxides are available. Mass fluxes of chemical species associated with microbial growth are described by the genome-scale microbial model, implemented using a constraint-based metabolic model, and provide the Robin-type boundary condition for the advection-diffusion equation at soil grain surfaces. Conventional models of microbially-mediated subsurface reactions use a lumped reaction model that does not consider individual microbial reaction pathways, and describe reactions rates using empirically-derived rate formulations such as the Monod-type kinetics. We have used our pore-scale model to explore the relationship between genome-scale metabolic models and Monod-type formulations, and to assess the manifestation of pore-scale variability (microenvironments) in terms of apparent Darcy-scale microbial reaction rates. The genome-scale model predicted lower biomass yield, and different stoichiometry for iron consumption, in comparisonto prior Monod formulations based on energetics considerations. We were able to fit an equivalent Monod model, by modifying the reaction stoichiometry and biomass yield coefficient, that could effectively match results of the genome-scale simulation of microbial behaviors under excess nutrient conditions, but predictions of the fitted Monod model deviated from those of the genome-scale model under conditions in which one or more nutrients were limiting. The fitted Monod kinetic model was also applied at the Darcy scale; that is, to simulate average reaction processes at the scale of the entire pore-scale model domain. As we expected, even under excess nutrient conditions for which the Monod and genome-scale models predicted equal reaction rates at the pore scale, the Monod model over-predicted the rates of biomass growth and iron and acetate utilization when applied at the Darcy scale. This discrepancy is caused by an inherent assumption of perfect mixing over the Darcy-scale domain, which is clearly violated in the pore-scale models. These results help to explain the need to modify the flux constraint parameters in order to match observations in previous applications of the genome-scale model at larger scales. These results also motivate further investigation of quantitative multi-scale relationships between fundamental behavior at the pore scale (where genome-scale models are appropriately applied) and observed behavior at larger scales (where predictions of reactive transport phenomena are needed).

  17. Assessing Vulnerabilities, Risks, and Consequences of Damage to Critical Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suski, N; Wuest, C

    2011-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the publication of 'Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructure,' there has been a keen understanding of the complexity, interdependencies, and shared responsibility required to protect the nation's most critical assets that are essential to our way of life. The original 5 sectors defined in 1997 have grown to 18 Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources (CIKR), which are discussed in the 2009 National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) and its supporting sector-specific plans. The NIPP provides the structure for a national program dedicated to enhanced protection and resiliency of the nation's infrastructure. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides in-depth, multi-disciplinary assessments of threat, vulnerability, and consequence across all 18 sectors at scales ranging from specific facilities to infrastructures spanning multi-state regions, such as the Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) sector. Like many of the CIKR sectors, the ONG sector is comprised of production, processing, distribution, and storage of highly valuable and potentially dangerous commodities. Furthermore, there are significant interdependencies with other sectors, including transportation, communication, finance, and government. Understanding the potentially devastating consequences and collateral damage resulting from a terrorist attack or natural event is an important element of LLNL's infrastructure security programs. Our work began in the energy sector in the late 1990s and quickly expanded other critical infrastructure sectors. We have performed over 600 physical assessments with a particular emphasis on those sectors that utilize, store, or ship potentially hazardous materials and for whom cyber security is important. The success of our approach is based on building awareness of vulnerabilities and risks and working directly with industry partners to collectively advance infrastructure protection. This approach consists of three phases: The Pre-Assessment Phase brings together infrastructure owners and operators to identify critical assets and help the team create a structured information request. During this phase, we gain information about the critical assets from those who are most familiar with operations and interdependencies, making the time we spend on the ground conducting the assessment much more productive and enabling the team to make actionable recommendations. The Assessment Phase analyzes 10 areas: Threat environment, cyber architecture, cyber penetration, physical security, physical penetration, operations security, policies and procedures, interdependencies, consequence analysis, and risk characterization. Each of these individual tasks uses direct and indirect data collection, site inspections, and structured and facilitated workshops to gather data. Because of the importance of understanding the cyber threat, LLNL has built both fixed and mobile cyber penetration, wireless penetration and supporting tools that can be tailored to fit customer needs. The Post-Assessment Phase brings vulnerability and risk assessments to the customer in a format that facilitates implementation of mitigation options. Often the assessment findings and recommendations are briefed and discussed with several levels of management and, if appropriate, across jurisdictional boundaries. The end result is enhanced awareness and informed protective measures. Over the last 15 years, we have continued to refine our methodology and capture lessons learned and best practices. The resulting risk and decision framework thus takes into consideration real-world constraints, including regulatory, operational, and economic realities. In addition to 'on the ground' assessments focused on mitigating vulnerabilities, we have integrated our computational and atmospheric dispersion capability with easy-to-use geo-referenced visualization tools to support emergency planning and response operations. LLNL is home to the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) and the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC). NA

  18. Air quality resolution for health impact assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .M. Thompson, R.K. Saari and N.E. Selin *Reprinted from Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14: 969­978, doi: 10 for health impact assessment: influence of regional characteristics T. M. Thompson1,*, R. K. Saari1,2, and N

  19. Water quality issues and energy assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies and evaluates the significant water quality issues related to regional and national energy development. In addition, it recommends improvements in the Office assessment capability. Handbook-style formating, which includes a system of cross-references and prioritization, is designed to help the reader use the material.

  20. Workshop to Assess Innovative Solutions to Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Workshop to Assess Innovative Solutions to Transportation Needs in the Colonias Workshop Summary SWUTC/04/167151-1 Texas Transportation Institute Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas 77843-3135 Center for HUD's Colonias Program Southwest Region University Transportation Center #12

  1. Resource assessment/commercialization planning meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy and Division of Geothermal Resource Management, sponsored a Resource Assessment/Commercialization Planning meeting in Salt Lake City on January 21-24, 1980. The meeting included presentations by state planning and resource teams from all DOE regions. An estimated 130 people representing federal, state and local agencies, industry and private developers attended.

  2. Innovative . Flexible . RegionalInnovative . Flexible . Regional Health Care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihadeh, Alan

    Executive Master in Innovative . Flexible . RegionalInnovative . Flexible . Regional Health Care Learning Outcomes Health Systems, Policy and Reform - Communicating with Policy Makers - Evidence - Human Resources Management - Data and Decision Making Executive Master in Health Care Leadership (EMHCL

  3. Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale forcing properties. Part II: Scale-awareness and application to single-column model experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Sha; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Li, Zhijin; Liu, Yangang; Lin, Wuyin; Zhang, Minghua; Toto, Tami; Endo, Satoshi

    2015-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Fine-resolution three-dimensional fields have been produced using the Community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains region. The GSI system is implemented in a multi-scale data assimilation framework using the Weather Research and Forecasting model at a cloud-resolving resolution of 2 km. From the fine-resolution three-dimensional fields, large-scale forcing is derived explicitly at grid-scale resolution; a subgrid-scale dynamic component is derived separately, representing subgrid-scale horizontal dynamic processes. Analyses show that the subgrid-scale dynamic component is often a major component over the large-scale forcing for grid scalesmore »larger than 200 km. The single-column model (SCM) of the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) is used to examine the impact of the grid-scale and subgrid-scale dynamic components on simulated precipitation and cloud fields associated with a mesoscale convective system. It is found that grid-scale size impacts simulated precipitation, resulting in an overestimation for grid scales of about 200 km but an underestimation for smaller grids. The subgrid-scale dynamic component has an appreciable impact on the simulations, suggesting that grid-scale and subgrid-scale dynamic components should be considered in the interpretation of SCM simulations.« less

  4. Introduction Large scale structure of the Earth Small scale structure Dynamics and evolution Conclusions and outlook Structure, dynamics and evolution of the core-mantle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Introduction Large scale structure of the Earth Small scale structure Dynamics and evolution Conclusions and outlook Structure, dynamics and evolution of the core-mantle boundary region Stéphane Labrosse École normale supérieure de Lyon Institut universitaire de France 14 mai 2012 1 / 63 Structure, dynamics

  5. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this report, but are planned to be included in the hydrology section of future revisions of the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c).

  6. The Balanced Unicast and Multicast Capacity Regions of Large Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niesen, Urs

    We consider the question of determining the scaling of the n[superscript n] -dimensional balanced unicast and the n 2[superscript n]-dimensional balanced multicast capacity regions of a wireless network with n nodes placed ...

  7. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Fort Carson: Assessment and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.; Markel, T.; Simpson, M.; Leahey, J.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Lisell, L.; Burman, K.; Singer, M.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Army's Fort Carson installation was selected to serve as a prototype for net zero energy assessment and planning. NREL performed the comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of Fort Carson to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. This study is part of a larger cross-laboratory effort that also includes an assessment of renewable opportunities at seven other DoD Front Range installations, a microgrid design for Fort Carson critical loads and an assessment of regulatory and market-based barriers to a regional secure smart grid.

  8. How Do I Use Renewable Energy in My Region?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL can asses renewable energy resource information and integrate it with data using geographic information systems (GIS) and interface the data with key analytical models. Planners and energy developers use these integrated resource assessments to make decisions about the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, and risks of developing projects in specific locations and for regional planning.

  9. NRCS CSREES Watershed Assessments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .E.A.P. Conservation Effects Assessment Project #12;Measuring the Environmental Benefits of Conservation;Conservation Effects Assessment Project Please turn off the ringers on your cell phones, pagers, blackberries The Conservation EffectsThe Conservation Effects Assessment ProjectAssessment Project (CEAP)(CEAP) #12;Scope

  10. ASSESSMENT FOR THE SOUTHWEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Kin

    SERVICE CLIMATE CHANGE & CULTURAL RESOURCE PLANNING PROGRAM 17 EARTH SYSTEM MODELS 18 CLIMATE ASSESSMENTS

  11. Regional Climate Model Projections for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salathe, E.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Zhang, Yongxin

    2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Global climate models do not have sufficient spatial resolution to represent the atmospheric and land surface processes that determine the unique regional heterogeneity of the climate of the State of Washington. If future large-scale weather patterns interact differently with the local terrain and coastlines than current weather patterns, local changes in temperature and precipitation could be quite different from the coarse-scale changes projected by global models. Regional climate models explicitly simulate the interactions between the large-scale weather patterns simulated by a global model and the local terrain. We have performed two 100-year climate simulations using the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). One simulation is forced by the NCAR Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) and the second is forced by a simulation of the Max Plank Institute, Hamburg, global model (ECHAM5). The mesoscale simulations produce regional changes in snow cover, cloudiness, and circulation patterns associated with interactions between the large-scale climate change and the regional topography and land-water contrasts. These changes substantially alter the temperature and precipitation trends over the region relative to the global model result or statistical downscaling. To illustrate this effect, we analyze the changes from the current climate (1970-1999) to the mid 21st century (2030-2059). Changes in seasonal-mean temperature, precipitation, and snowpack are presented. Several climatological indices of extreme daily weather are also presented: precipitation intensity, fraction of precipitation occurring in extreme daily events, heat wave frequency, growing season length, and frequency of warm nights. Despite somewhat different changes in seasonal precipitation and temperature from the two regional simulations, consistent results for changes in snowpack and extreme precipitation are found in both simulations.

  12. SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    1 SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION FOR THE PORT OF NEW YORK Dredging Seminar Louisville, Kentucky - May 15-20, 1999 ABSTRACT Decontamination and beneficial use York and New Jersey. We describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program

  13. Southern Region Watershed Management Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coordinators and the organization, management and activities of the Southern Region Water Quality Planning1 Southern Region Watershed Management Project September 15, 2000 to September 14, 2005 Terminal responding to water quality and conservation issues with educational assistance, technology development

  14. Hydrologic data assimilation with a hillslope-scale-resolving model and L band radar observations: Synthetic experiments with the ensemble Kalman filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Alejandro N.

    [1] Soil moisture information is critical for applications like landslide susceptibility analysis and military trafficability assessment. Existing technologies cannot observe soil moisture at spatial scales of hillslopes ...

  15. The San Jose Scale.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conradi, Albert F.

    1906-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for controlling the scale. The most important spray mixtures in use are lime-sulphur salt, lime-sulphur, whale oil soap, kero? sene, crude petroleum, Kero-water, and kerosene or crude oil emulsions. All these preparations are mainly winter sprays, being applied... applied while cold, however, it clogs the apparatus and causes considerable inconven? ience in getting it on the tree. It is more expensive than the Lime- Sulphur wash. i I o . B I 3 I 2 In some States coal oil or kerosene has been experimented...

  16. The San Jose Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conradi, Albert F.

    1906-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of which caused a violent cooking. After the lime had been slaked the salt was added ^ and the entire mixture violently boiled for 45 minutes, when it became a dark amber color. It was applied while hot. This ap? plication was made to peach trees... for controlling the scale. The most important spray mixtures in use are lime-sulphur salt, lime-sulphur, whale oil soap, kero? sene, crude petroleum, Kero-water, and kerosene or crude oil emulsions. All these preparations are mainly winter sprays, being applied...

  17. Megawatt Electrolysis Scale Up

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMay 18-19, 2004MW Electrolysis Scale Up E

  18. ORNL/TM-2008/024 Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ORNL/TM-2008/024 Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential FEASIBILITY ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL FOR TVA'S JOHN SEVIER AND KINGSTON POWER.................................................................................... 1 2.1 EXISTING ANALYSIS OF SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL IN THE TVA REGION

  19. RESEARCH RESULTS FORUM FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY AND RESOURCE ASSESSMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Renewable Energy Center 58 Wind: Development Potential ­ Geyserville · Potential to collocate wind Renewable Energy Center Assessment of Co-located Renewable Generation Potential #12;California Renewable (Task 2, L.A. Basin) and regions (Task 5) with co-located resources · Assess resource potential

  20. Regional Summary Pacific Management Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Bocaccio, Pacific ocean perch, cowcod, and darkblotched and widow rockfish are currently in rebuildingRegional Summary Pacific Management Context The Pacific Region includes California, Oregon, and Washington. Federal fisheries in this region are managed by the Pacific Fishery Management Council (PFMC

  1. 6, 1332313366, 2006 Regional pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 13323­13366, 2006 Regional pollution potentials of major population centers M. G. Lawrence a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Regional pollution potentials. Lawrence (lawrence@mpch-mainz.mpg.de) 13323 #12;ACPD 6, 13323­13366, 2006 Regional pollution potentials

  2. Radiation and dissipation of internal waves generated by geostrophic motions impinging on small-scale topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikurashin, Maxim (Maxim Anatolevich)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations and inverse models suggest that small-scale turbulent mixing is enhanced in the Southern Ocean in regions above rough topography. The enhancement extends 1 km above the topography suggesting that mixing is ...

  3. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, Org. A021S, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Kuzin, Sergey [P. N. Lebedev Physical institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii prospekt, 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Walsh, Robert [University of Central Lancashire, Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); DeForest, Craig, E-mail: ptesta@cfa.harvard.edu [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  4. Distributed road assessment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  5. Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Derivation from regional analysis of streamflow recession curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Ali, Melkamu; Leng, Guoyong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Wang, Shaowen; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall–runoff response, especially in steep terrain. Its contribution to total runoff is, however, poorly represented in the current generation of land surface models. The lack of physical basis of these common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation of the stormflow (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global land surface models. This paper is aimed at deriving regionalized parameterizations of the storage–discharge relationship relating to subsurface stormflow from a top–down empirical data analysis of streamflow recession curves extracted from 50 eastern United States catchments. Detailed regression analyses were performed between parameters of the empirical storage–discharge relationships and the controlling climate, soil and topographic characteristics. The regression analyses performed on empirical recession curves at catchment scale indicated that the coefficient of the power-law form storage–discharge relationship is closely related to the catchment hydrologic characteristics, which is consistent with the hydraulic theory derived mainly at the hillslope scale. As for the exponent, besides the role of field scale soil hydraulic properties as suggested by hydraulic theory, it is found to be more strongly affected by climate (aridity) at the catchment scale. At a fundamental level these results point to the need for more detailed exploration of the co-dependence of soil, vegetation and topography with climate.

  6. Understanding Regional Economic Growth in IndiaUnderstanding Regional Economic Growth in India Understanding Regional Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding Regional Economic Growth in IndiaUnderstanding Regional Economic Growth in India Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India* Jeffrey D. Sachs Director The Earth Institute at Columbia_ramiah@yahoo.co.uk Asian Economic Papers 1:3 © 2002 The Earth Institute at Columbia University and the Massachusetts

  7. Research project on CO2 geological storage and groundwater resources: Large-scale hydrological evaluation and modeling of impact on groundwater systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jordan, Preston; Zhang, K.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    storage on shallow groundwater and pressure-controlled72 5.2. Modeling of Regional Groundwater2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources Large-Scale

  8. Re-conceptualising strategic environmental assessment: theoretical overview and case study from Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bina, Olivia Claudia

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    , Chile (Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente) Regional Environmental Commission, Chile (Comision Regional del Medio Ambiente) DepaJ1ment for International Development (UK) Direccion General de Aguas Declaracion de Impacto Ambiental Direccion de... Impact Assessment (in Chilean literature: Evaluacion de Impacto Ambiental) Environmental Sustainability Assurance European Union Global Environmental Facility Geographical Information Systems Impact Assessment (generic for all categories of 'impacts...

  9. Decadal cyclicity of regional mid-Holocene precipitation: Evidence from Dominican coral proxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greer, Lisa

    Decadal cyclicity of regional mid-Holocene precipitation: Evidence from Dominican coral proxies of four Holocene specimens of Montastraea sp. and Siderastrea sp. coral skeletons from the Dominican Republic were analyzed to examine decadal-scale fluctuations in regional precipitation. The specimens range

  10. From Regionalisation to Territorial Management: the role of the "Regional" Development Agencies in Turkey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in Turkey Benoît Montabone UMR CNRS 6590 ESO - Rennes Université Européenne de Bretagne ­ Rennes 2 benoit.montabone@uhb.fr Abstract : The creation of Regional Development Agencies at the regional scale in Turkey introduces new, Regionalisation, Endogenous Growth, Territorial Management, Turkey. Résumé : La récente mise en place d

  11. Homogenization of regional river dynamics by dams and global biodiversity implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poff, N. LeRoy

    Homogenization of regional river dynamics by dams and global biodiversity implications N. Le differ- ences in climate and geology. Extensive construction of dams by humans has greatly dampened to regional-scale environmental templates caused by dams is largely unexplored but of critical conservation

  12. Transition from Large-Scale to Small-Scale Dynamo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponty, Y. [Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, B.P. 4229, Nice cedex 04 (France); Plunian, F. [Institut des Sciences de la Terre, CNRS, Universite Joseph Fourier, B.P. 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamo equations are solved numerically with a helical forcing corresponding to the Roberts flow. In the fully turbulent regime the flow behaves as a Roberts flow on long time scales, plus turbulent fluctuations at short time scales. The dynamo onset is controlled by the long time scales of the flow, in agreement with the former Karlsruhe experimental results. The is governed by a generalized {alpha} effect, which includes both the usual {alpha} effect and turbulent diffusion, plus all higher order effects. Beyond the onset we find that this generalized {alpha} effect scales as O(Rm{sup -1}), suggesting the takeover of small-scale dynamo action. This is confirmed by simulations in which dynamo occurs even if the large-scale field is artificially suppressed.

  13. The ecology of dust: local- to global-scale perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Field, Jason P [UA; Belnap, Jayne [NON LANL; Breshears, David D [UA; Neff, Jason [CU; Okin, Gregory S [UCLA; Painter, Thomas H [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Ravi, Sujith [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Reheis, Marith C [UCLA; Reynolds, Richard L [NON LANL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission and redistribution of dust due to wind erosion in drylands drives major biogeochemical dynamics and provides important aeolian environmental connectivity at scales from individual plants up to the global scale. Yet, perhaps because most relevant research on aeolian processes has been presented in a geosciences rather than ecological context, most ecological studies do not explicitly consider dust-driven processes. To bridge this disciplinary gap, we provide a general overview of the ecological importance of dust, examine complex interactions between wind erosion and ecosystem dynamics from the plant-interspace scale to regional and global scales, and highlight specific examples of how disturbance affects these interactions and their consequences. Changes in climate and intensification of land use will both likely lead to increased dust production. To address these challenges, environmental scientists, land managers and policy makers need to more explicitly consider dust in resource management decisions.

  14. Solar Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  15. Edinburgh Motor Assessment (EMAS) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Thomas

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Edinburgh Motor Assessment (EMAS) is a brief motor screening test, specifically designed for assessment of patients with dementia, aphasia and other cognitive disorders. It focuses, therefore, on those motor symptoms, ...

  16. Results of an Enhanced Save Energy Now (SEN) Energy Assessment- A Case Study of a Steel Mini-Mill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cullen, K. A.; Crowe, E.; Gopalakrishnan, B.; Chaudhari, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This case study represents the potential impact of one energy assessment conducted under West Virginia's Save Energy Now Regional Partnership program for delivery of 'enhanced' industrial energy efficiency assessments and implementation...

  17. Structure Function Scaling of a 2MASS Extinction Map of Taurus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Padoan; Laurent Cambresy; William Langer

    2002-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the structure function scaling of a 2MASS extinction map of the Taurus molecular cloud complex. The scaling exponents of the structure functions of the extinction map follow the Boldyrev's velocity structure function scaling of supersonic turbulence. This confirms our previous result based on a spectral map of 13CO J=1-0 covering the same region and suggests that supersonic turbulence is important in the fragmentation of this star--forming cloud.

  18. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A.; Kalb, P.D.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies Name Survey of...

  20. Writing Assessment: Additional Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    29 Appendix A Writing Assessment: Additional Resources #12;30 Where can I find out more into the assessment process. On-campus resources give you with a "real person" to contact should you have questions Resources for Higher Education Outcomes Assessment http://www2.acs.ncsu.edu/UPA/survey/resource.htm Ohio

  1. Probabilistic seismic risk analysis of existing buildings in regions with moderate seismicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Probabilistic seismic risk analysis of existing buildings in regions with moderate seismicity C to apply an approach based on risk for the seismic assessment of existing buildings. In this innovative analytical seismic assessment methods, as the ratio between the capacity and the requirement of the current

  2. Inflation from Broken Scale Invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Csaba Csaki; Nemanja Kaloper; Javi Serra; John Terning

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a model of inflation based on a low-energy effective theory of spontaneously broken global scale invariance. This provides a shift symmetry that protects the inflaton potential from quantum corrections. Since the underlying scale invariance is non-compact, arbitrarily large inflaton field displacements are readily allowed in the low-energy effective theory. A weak breaking of scale invariance by almost marginal operators provides a non-trivial inflaton minimum, which sets and stabilizes the final low-energy value of the Planck scale. The underlying scale invariance ensures that the slow-roll approximation remains valid over large inflaton displacements, and yields a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations as required by the CMB observations.

  3. Coordinated Regional Public Transportation Plan: Heart of Texas Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heart of Texas Council of Governments

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coordinated Regional Public Transportation Plan Heart of Texas Region Bosque, Falls, Freestone, Hill, Limestone & McLennan Counties December 1, 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements... of Texas Council of Governments (HOTCOG) and the McLennan County Youth Collaboration (MCYC) ---21 Central Texas Senior Ministries (CTSM), Hill County Transit (HCT) and Scott and White (S&W) Medical Facilities...

  4. Scaling of structural failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazant, Z.P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Chen, Er-Ping [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article attempts to review the progress achieved in the understanding of scaling and size effect in the failure of structures. Particular emphasis is placed on quasibrittle materials for which the size effect is complicated. Attention is focused on three main types of size effects, namely the statistical size effect due to randomness of strength, the energy release size effect, and the possible size effect due to fractality of fracture or microcracks. Definitive conclusions on the applicability of these theories are drawn. Subsequently, the article discusses the application of the known size effect law for the measurement of material fracture properties, and the modeling of the size effect by the cohesive crack model, nonlocal finite element models and discrete element models. Extensions to compression failure and to the rate-dependent material behavior are also outlined. The damage constitutive law needed for describing a microcracked material in the fracture process zone is discussed. Various applications to quasibrittle materials, including concrete, sea ice, fiber composites, rocks and ceramics are presented.

  5. 2010 Northwest Federal Market Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanlon, Tim; Sandusky, William F.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary intent of this market assessment is to provide insights on the effectiveness of current energy efficiency and renewable energy program offerings available to Federal sites in the region. The level of detail, quality and currency of the data used in this market assessment varies significantly by Federal agency and energy efficiency service provider. Limited access to some Federal sites, limited availability of key points of contact, time/resource constraints, and other considerations limited the total number of Federal agencies and energy efficiency service providers participating in the survey.

  6. Management Assessment and Independent Assessment Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The revision to this Guide reflects current assessment practices, international standards, and changes in the Department of Energy expectations. Cancels DOE G 414.1-1. Canceled by DOE G 414.1-1B.

  7. Assessing the assessments: Pharmaceuticals in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enick, O.V. [Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada)], E-mail: oana.enick@gov.bc.ca; Moore, M.M. [Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada)], E-mail: mmoore@sfu.ca

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The relatively new issue of pharmaceutical contamination of the environment offers the opportunity to explore the application of values to the construction, communication and management of risk. The still-developing regulatory policies regarding environmental contamination with pharmaceuticals provide fertile ground for the introduction of values into the definition and management of risk. In this report, we summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmaceutical contamination of the environment and discuss specific attributes of pharmaceuticals that require special consideration. We then present an analysis showing that if values are incorporated into assessing, characterizing and managing risk, the results of risk assessments will more accurately reflect the needs of various stakeholders. Originating from an acknowledgement of the inherent uncertainty and value-laden nature of risk assessment, the precautionary principle (and later, the multi-criteria, integrated risk assessment), provides a direction for further research and policy development.

  8. Broad area search for regions and objects of interest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skurikhin, Alexei N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pope, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A quad chart provides an overview on the on-going project 'Broad Area Search for Regions and Objects of Interest' funded by the DOE Office of Nonproliferation and Verification Research and Development. Specifically, the quad chart shows: (1) Project title 'Broad Area Search for Regions and Objects of Interest'; (2) PI and Co-investigators; (3) Concept Panel outlining the project's approach built upon front-end scale-space image analysis; (4) Technical Challenges posed by the project, such as robustness, non-conformities, disparate spatial configuration and weak correlation between presence of objects of interest and low-level description of the surrounding geospatial background; and (5) Planned Accomplishment.

  9. Non-Economic Obstacles to Wind Deployment: Issues and Regional Differences (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides an overview of national obstacles to wind deployment, with regional assessments. A special mention of offshore projects and distributed wind projects is provided. Detailed maps examine baseline capacity, military and flight radar, golden and bald eagle habitat, bat habitat, whooping crane habitat, and public lands. Regional deployment challenges are also discussed.

  10. The Houston Pollution Problem: An analysis of the primary and secondary regional pollution peak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    266 The Houston Pollution Problem: An analysis of the primary and secondary regional pollution peak was conducted in the Houston area to assess the secondary regional pollution peak that occurs at that time pollution episodes, which correlated with stagnant weather patterns and high temperatures. During spring

  11. Scale Insects on Ornamental Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muegge, Mark A.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Scale insects on o rnamental plants B-6097 8-00 Mark A. Muegge and Michael Merchant* M any species of scale insects damage land- scape plants, shrubs and trees. Scale insects insert their mouthparts into plant tissues and suck out the sap. When... period. Most species never move again in their lives. Scale insects feed by inserting their hairlike mouth- parts into plant tissue and siphoning the plant?s sap. While feeding, many species excrete a sweet, sticky liquid referred to as ?honeydew...

  12. Isotopic Scaling in Nuclear Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. B. Tsang; W. A. Friedman; C. K. Gelbke; W. G. Lynch; G. Verde; H. Xu

    2001-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A three parameter scaling relationship between isotopic distributions for elements with Z$\\leq 8$ has been observed that allows a simple description of the dependence of such distributions on the overall isospin of the system. This scaling law (termed iso-scaling) applies for a variety of reaction mechanisms that are dominated by phase space, including evaporation, multifragmentation and deeply inelastic scattering. The origins of this scaling behavior for the various reaction mechanisms are explained. For multifragmentation processes, the systematics is influenced by the density dependence of the asymmetry term of the equation of state.

  13. Home Energy Assessments

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dispenza, Jason

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A home energy assessment, also known as a home energy audit, is the first step to assess how much energy your home consumes and to evaluate what measures you can take to make your home more energy efficient. An assessment will show you problems that may, when corrected, save you significant amounts of money over time. This video shows some of the ways that a contractor may test your home during an assessment, and helps you understand how an assessment can help you move toward energy savings. Find out more at: http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/energy_audits/index.cfm/mytopic=11160

  14. MNE 697k Introduction to Social and Environmental Assessment Spring Semester 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holliday, Vance T.

    MNE 697k Introduction to Social and Environmental Assessment Spring Semester 2010 Instructors the receiving environment and the local communities in the region. Social and environmental assessments fundamentals. This course introduces students to the basics of the social and environmental assessment process

  15. Scale, scaling and multifractals in geophysics: twenty Shaun Lovejoy1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    Scale, scaling and multifractals in geophysics: twenty years on Shaun Lovejoy1 and Daniel Schertzer number of degrees of freedom approaches to nonlin- ear geophysics: a) the transition from fractal are generally necessary for geophysical applications. We illustrate these ideas with data analyses from both

  16. Regional Energy Efficiency Programs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Programs Regional Energy Efficiency Programs This presentation covers regional industrial energy efficiency programs in the Midwest, Southeast, and Southwest. Regional Energy...

  17. North American Carbon Program (NACP) Regional Interim Synthesis: Terrestrial Biospheric Model Intercomparision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Michalak, Anna [University of Michigan; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Baker, Ian [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Chen, Jing M. [University of Toronto; Davis, Kenneth [Pennsylvania State University; Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Liu, Shuguang [United States Geological Survey, Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS EROS); Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Neilson, Ronald [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Poulter, Ben [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Tian, Hanqin [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Tomelleri, Enrico [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Viovy, Nicolas [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be improved through direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to much larger terrestrial regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle science is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the years 2000-2005. Here, we compare the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare the 19 participating TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America. Thus, the RCIS focuses on model simulations available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies. The TBM flux estimates are compared and evaluated over different spatial (1{sup o} x 1{sup o} and spatially aggregated to different regions) and temporal (monthly and annually) scales. The range in model estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for North America is much narrower than estimates of productivity or respiration, with estimates of NEP varying between -0.7 and 2.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, while gross primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration vary between 12.2 and 32.9 PgC yr{sup -1} and 5.6 and 13.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, respectively. The range in estimates from the models appears to be driven by a combination of factors, including the representation of photosynthesis, the source and of environmental driver data and the temporal variability of those data, as well as whether nutrient limitation is considered in soil carbon decomposition. The disagreement in current estimates of carbon flux across North America, including whether North America is a net biospheric carbon source or sink, highlights the need for further analysis through the use of model runs following a common simulation protocol, in order to isolate the influences of model formulation, structure, and assumptions on flux estimates.

  18. Industrial Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving Transformational Energy Productivity Gains Industrial Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving...

  19. Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies Energy ...................................................................................................................................4 Biomass Resource Assessment Products and Assessment Methodologies, Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources, Australia Ms. Siti Hafsah, Office of the Minister of Energy

  20. PITTSBURGH REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    AND COMMUNITIES PITTSBURGH, PA. | AUGUST 2013 #12;PRETA AIR: HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS 32 PITTSBURGH REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS ANALYSIS REPORT PRETA AIR: HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (HAPs)/AIR TOXICS PREPARED BY AUTHORSPITTSBURGH REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS ANALYSIS (PRETA) REPORT PRETA AIR: HAZARDOUS AIR

  1. 1, 497531, 2004 Regional hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    BGD 1, 497­531, 2004 Regional hydrology controls stream microbial biofilms T. J. Battin et al hydrology controls stream microbial biofilms: evidence from a glacial catchment T. J. Battin1, , A. Wille2@pflaphy.pph.univie.ac.at) 497 #12;BGD 1, 497­531, 2004 Regional hydrology controls stream microbial biofilms T. J. Battin et al

  2. Presentation of Regional SDSN Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garulli, Andrea

    ;Conference topics: Pollution in the Mediterranean sea Climate change Improving the management Energy#12;Presentation of UN SDSN and MED SDSN Regional SDSN Center for the Mediterranean Region #12;UN for the Mediterranean Basin Why a Mediterranean Network? Shared history Shared environment Shared future MED

  3. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change and climate mitigation policies, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), we investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity. Two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The baseline scenario results in more than half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 36% (28%) and 44% (39%) of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in grid cells (in basins) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). When comparing the climate policy scenarios to the baseline scenario while maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops.

  4. A Hydro-Economic Approach to Representing Water Resources Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.

    2004-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Grant Number DE-FG02-98ER62665 Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Abstract Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) divide the world into a small number of highly aggregated regions. Non-OECD countries are aggregated geographically into continental and multiple-continental regions or economically by development level. Current research suggests that these large scale aggregations cannot accurately represent potential water resources-related climate change impacts. In addition, IAMs do not explicitly model the flow regulation impacts of reservoir and ground water systems, the economics of water supply, or the demand for water in economic activities. Using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as a case study, this research implemented a set of methodologies to provide accurate representation of water resource climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models. There were also detailed examinations of key issues related to aggregated modeling including: modeling water consumption versus water withdrawals; ground and surface water interactions; development of reservoir cost curves; modeling of surface areas of aggregated reservoirs for estimating evaporation losses; and evaluating the importance of spatial scale in river basin modeling. The major findings include: - Continental or national or even large scale river basin aggregation of water supplies and demands do not accurately capture the impacts of climate change in the water and agricultural sector in IAMs. - Fortunately, there now exist gridden approaches (0.5 X 0.5 degrees) to model streamflows in a global analysis. The gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with national boundaries. This combined with GIS tools, high speed computers, and the growing availability of socio-economic gridded data bases allows assignment of demands to river basins to create hydro-economic zones that respect as much as possible both political and hydrologic integrity in different models. - To minimize pre-processing of data and add increased flexibility to modeling water resources and uses, it is recommended that water withdrawal demands be modeled, not consumptive requirements even though this makes the IAM more complex. - IAMs must consider changes in water availability for irrigation under climate change; ignoring them is more inaccurate than ignoring yield changes in crops under climate change. - Determining water availability and cost in river basins must include modeling streamflows, reservoirs and their operations, and ground water and its interaction with surface water. - Scale issues are important. The results from condensing demands and supplies in a large complex river basin to one node can be misleading for all uses under low flow conditions and instream flow uses under all conditions. Monthly is generally the most accurate scale for modeling river flows and demands. Challenges remain in integrating hydrologic units with political boundaries but the gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with political boundaries. - Using minimal reservoir cost data, it is possible to use basin topography to estimate reservoir storage costs. - Reservoir evaporation must be considered when assessing the usable water in a watershed. Several methods are available to estimate the relationship between aggregated storage surface area and storage volume. - For existing or future IAMs that can not use the appropriate aggregation for water, a water preprocessor may be required due the finer scale of hydrologic impacts.

  5. A Note on the Intermediate Region in Turbulent Boundary Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. I. Barenblatt; A. J. Chorin; V. M. Prostokishin

    2000-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that the processing of the experimental data for the average velocity profiles obtained by J. M. \\"Osterlund (www.mesh.kth.se/$\\sim$jens/zpg/) presented in [1] was incorrect. Properly processed these data lead to the opposite conclusion: they confirm the Reynolds-number-dependent scaling law and disprove the conclusion that the flow in the intermediate (`overlap') region is Reynolds-number-independent.

  6. Implicit Scaling in Ecological Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    - sion, and abstruse structures, such as communities and ecosystems. The diversity of organisms and eco. It was our supposition that the often unrecognized relation- ship between organism/concept and scale should- ination, we hope to raise ecologists' awareness of scale-dependent rela- tionships among organisms and eco

  7. Low-Q scaling, duality, and the EMC effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Arrington; R. Ent; C. E. Keppel; J. Mammei; I. Niculescu

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy lepton scattering has been the primary tool for mapping out the quark distributions of nucleons and nuclei. Data on the proton and deuteron have shown that there is a fundamental connection between the low and high energy regimes, referred to as quark-hadron duality. We present the results of similar studies to more carefully examine scaling, duality, and in particular the EMC effect in nuclei. We extract nuclear modifications to the structure function in the resonance region, and for the first time demonstrate that nuclear effects in the resonance region are identical to those measured in deep inelastic scattering.

  8. FIP Bias Evolution in a Decaying Active Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, D; Démoulin, P; Yardley, S L; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L; Long, D M; Green, L M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar coronal plasma composition is typically characterized by first ionization potential (FIP) bias. Using spectra obtained by Hinode's EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, we present a series of large-scale, spatially resolved composition maps of active region (AR) 11389. The composition maps show how FIP bias evolves within the decaying AR from 2012 January 4-6. Globally, FIP bias decreases throughout the AR. We analyzed areas of significant plasma composition changes within the decaying AR and found that small-scale evolution in the photospheric magnetic field is closely linked to the FIP bias evolution observed in the corona. During the AR's decay phase, small bipoles emerging within supergranular cells reconnect with the pre-existing AR field, creating a pathway along which photospheric and coronal plasmas can mix. The mixing time scales are shorter than those of plasma enrichment processes. Eruptive activity also results in shifting the FIP bias closer to photospheric in the affected areas. Final...

  9. The Project The Southern Region Water Quality Regional Coordination Project is designed to promote regional collaboration,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Project The Southern Region Water Quality Regional Coordination Project is designed to promote to protect and restore water resources. Effective approaches for watershed management, pollution prevention to the research, extension and education resources available through the Land Grant University System

  10. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Midwest Regional Summit...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Midwest Regional Summit: Lightweighting Breakout Session Summary Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Midwest Regional Summit: Lightweighting...

  11. TMCC WIND RESOURCE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turtle Mountain Community College

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    North Dakota has an outstanding resource--providing more available wind for development than any other state. According to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) studies, North Dakota alone has enough energy from good wind areas, those of wind power Class 4 and higher, to supply 36% of the 1990 electricity consumption of the entire lower 48 states. At present, no more than a handful of wind turbines in the 60- to 100-kilowatt (kW) range are operating in the state. The first two utility-scale turbines were installed in North Dakota as part of a green pricing program, one in early 2002 and the second in July 2002. Both turbines are 900-kW wind turbines. Two more wind turbines are scheduled for installation by another utility later in 2002. Several reasons are evident for the lack of wind development. One primary reason is that North Dakota has more lignite coal than any other state. A number of relatively new minemouth power plants are operating in the state, resulting in an abundance of low-cost electricity. In 1998, North Dakota generated approximately 8.2 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity, largely from coal-fired plants. Sales to North Dakota consumers totaled only 4.5 million MWh. In addition, the average retail cost of electricity in North Dakota was 5.7 cents per kWh in 1998. As a result of this surplus and the relatively low retail cost of service, North Dakota is a net exporter of electricity, selling approximately 50% to 60% of the electricity produced in North Dakota to markets outside the state. Keeping in mind that new electrical generation will be considered an export commodity to be sold outside the state, the transmission grid that serves to export electricity from North Dakota is at or close to its ability to serve new capacity. The markets for these resources are outside the state, and transmission access to the markets is a necessary condition for any large project. At the present time, technical assessments of the transmission network indicate that the ability to add and carry wind capacity outside of the state is limited. Identifying markets, securing long-term contracts, and obtaining a transmission path to export the power are all major steps that must be taken to develop new projects in North Dakota.

  12. The Arctic as a test case for an assessment of climate impacts on national security.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Mark A.; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Backus, George A.; Ivey, Mark D.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arctic region is rapidly changing in a way that will affect the rest of the world. Parts of Alaska, western Canada, and Siberia are currently warming at twice the global rate. This warming trend is accelerating permafrost deterioration, coastal erosion, snow and ice loss, and other changes that are a direct consequence of climate change. Climatologists have long understood that changes in the Arctic would be faster and more intense than elsewhere on the planet, but the degree and speed of the changes were underestimated compared to recent observations. Policy makers have not yet had time to examine the latest evidence or appreciate the nature of the consequences. Thus, the abruptness and severity of an unfolding Arctic climate crisis has not been incorporated into long-range planning. The purpose of this report is to briefly review the physical basis for global climate change and Arctic amplification, summarize the ongoing observations, discuss the potential consequences, explain the need for an objective risk assessment, develop scenarios for future change, review existing modeling capabilities and the need for better regional models, and finally to make recommendations for Sandia's future role in preparing our leaders to deal with impacts of Arctic climate change on national security. Accurate and credible regional-scale climate models are still several years in the future, and those models are essential for estimating climate impacts around the globe. This study demonstrates how a scenario-based method may be used to give insights into climate impacts on a regional scale and possible mitigation. Because of our experience in the Arctic and widespread recognition of the Arctic's importance in the Earth climate system we chose the Arctic as a test case for an assessment of climate impacts on national security. Sandia can make a swift and significant contribution by applying modeling and simulation tools with internal collaborations as well as with outside organizations. Because changes in the Arctic environment are happening so rapidly, a successful program will be one that can adapt very quickly to new information as it becomes available, and can provide decision makers with projections on the 1-5 year time scale over which the most disruptive, high-consequence changes are likely to occur. The greatest short-term impact would be to initiate exploratory simulations to discover new emergent and robust phenomena associated with one or more of the following changing systems: Arctic hydrological cycle, sea ice extent, ocean and atmospheric circulation, permafrost deterioration, carbon mobilization, Greenland ice sheet stability, and coastal erosion. Sandia can also contribute to new technology solutions for improved observations in the Arctic, which is currently a data-sparse region. Sensitivity analyses have the potential to identify thresholds which would enable the collaborative development of 'early warning' sensor systems to seek predicted phenomena that might be precursory to major, high-consequence changes. Much of this work will require improved regional climate models and advanced computing capabilities. Socio-economic modeling tools can help define human and national security consequences. Formal uncertainty quantification must be an integral part of any results that emerge from this work.

  13. Houston-Galveston Region Public Transportation Coordination Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houston-Galveston Area Council

    2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    18 E. Summary of Related Planning Activities 19 Houston?Galveston Area Council (H-GAC) as Lead Agency Many organizations and transportation service providers are grappling with declining resources to meet the growing number of citizens... comprehensive transportation coordination study led to the development of a pilot project streamlining the delivery of transportation services to qualifying persons unable to rely on a personal car for critical trip-making. However, a regional assessment...

  14. Threshold for sweepout from pedestal region of Mark III containment. [BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The assessment of the consequences of highly unlikely severe accident sequences in boiling water reactors includes those sequences in which molten corium is postulated to meltthrough the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head and enter the pedestal region beneath the vessel. If localized melt-through of the reactor vessel occurs at elevated primary system pressure, the ejection of molten corium from the vessel will be followed by a blowdown of steam and hydrogen. The gases flowing from the breached vessel constitute a source of driving forces capable of dispersing corium from the pedestal into other parts of the containment. The extent of the gas blowdown-driven sweepout process depends upon a number of factors including the primary system pressure at melt through, breach flow area, overall blowdown timescale, and the specific pedestal/containment geometry. A model is presented to predict whether or not the conditions of gas flow from the failed RPV are sufficient to cause sweepout of corium and/or water from the pedestal. The model is shown to predict the onset of sweepout in scale model, simulant material experiments and is applied to the investigation of sweepout in the full-size reactor system.

  15. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  16. ESCO PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT TEMPLATE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document presents a template and example to help energy service companies (ESCOs) conduct preliminary assessments required for Federal energy savings performance contract (ESPC) projects.

  17. Hoisting & Rigging Assessment Form

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      Assess the institutional and department/division hoisting and rigging (including forklift, overhead cranes small hoists, and mobile cranes) requirements, policies, procedures, and work practices...

  18. Sandia Energy - Assessment Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    petroleum storage and refineries; and transportation systems. Assessments were an early way to help clarify the systems as they existed in the field. This knowledge has...

  19. NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

  20. Hydranet: network support for scaling of large scale servic es

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chawla, Hamesh

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the explosive growth of demand for services on the Internet, the networking infrastructure (routers 7 protocols, servers) is under considerable stress. Mechanisms are needed for current and future IP services to scale in a client transparent...

  1. The Influence of Artisanal Small Scale Gold Mining on Deforestation Rates: The case of Seguenega, Burkina Faso. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palacios, Daniela

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates how Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems can be used to assess the influence of Artisanal Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM) on deforestation rates in Africa. Using the department of Seguenega in Burkina Faso...

  2. Pacific Islands Region News Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pacific Islands Region News Release Contact: Wende Goo FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE 808-721-4098 May 27 of these unique twins by contributing more than 100 hours of work to construct a holding pen for the young seal

  3. Council's Regional Hydropower Potential Scoping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Council's Regional Hydropower Potential Scoping Study Generating Resources Advisory Committee 11 to determine potential, and draw conclusions Determine if realistic, reasonable assumption for hydropower at existing non-powered dams, and upgrades at existing hydropower facilities #12;Questions Asked Can

  4. Anomalous Emission from HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Dickinson

    2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Spinning dust appears to be the best explanation for the anomalous emission that has been observed at $\\sim 10-60$ GHz. One of the best examples of spinning dust comes from a HII region in the Perseus molecular cloud. Observations of other HII regions also show tentative evidence for excess emission at frequencies $\\sim 30$ GHz, although at lower emissivity levels. A new detection of excess emission at 31 GHz in the HII region RCW175 has been made. The most plausible explanation again comes from spinning dust. HII regions are a good place to look for spinning dust as long as accurate radio data spanning the $\\sim 5-100$ GHz range is available.

  5. RAFT Regional Algal Feedstock Testbed

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3B—Integration of Supply Chains III: Algal Biofuels Strategy RAFT Regional Algal Feedstock Testbed Kimberly Ogden, Professor, University of Arizona, Engineering Technical Lead, National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

  6. Regional 166 Direct Loan (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Ohio Development Services Agency's (ODSA) Regional 166 Direct Loan provides low-interest loans to businesses creating new jobs or preserving existing employment opportunities in the State of Ohio.

  7. Variable Density Flow Modeling for Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Sminchak

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arches Province in the Midwestern U.S. has been identified as a major area for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage applications because of the intersection of Mt. Simon sandstone reservoir thickness and permeability. To better understand large-scale CO{sub 2} storage infrastructure requirements in the Arches Province, variable density scoping level modeling was completed. Three main tasks were completed for the variable density modeling: Single-phase, variable density groundwater flow modeling; Scoping level multi-phase simulations; and Preliminary basin-scale multi-phase simulations. The variable density modeling task was successful in evaluating appropriate input data for the Arches Province numerical simulations. Data from the geocellular model developed earlier in the project were translated into preliminary numerical models. These models were calibrated to observed conditions in the Mt. Simon, suggesting a suitable geologic depiction of the system. The initial models were used to assess boundary conditions, calibrate to reservoir conditions, examine grid dimensions, evaluate upscaling items, and develop regional storage field scenarios. The task also provided practical information on items related to CO{sub 2} storage applications in the Arches Province such as pressure buildup estimates, well spacing limitations, and injection field arrangements. The Arches Simulation project is a three-year effort and part of the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE)/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) program on innovative and advanced technologies and protocols for monitoring/verification/accounting (MVA), simulation, and risk assessment of CO{sub 2} sequestration in geologic formations. The overall objective of the project is to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic CO{sub 2} storage infrastructure along the Arches Province of the Midwestern U.S.

  8. Scale Insects on Ornamental Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muegge, Mark A.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    of all insect groups. Scale insects are generally small ( 1 /4 inch long or less) and often mimic various plant parts, such as bark and buds. Other species appear as small, white, waxy blotches or small bits of cotton on leaves and stems. The one... crawlers are pre- sent, they will fall onto the paper, where you can eas- ily see them moving about. Using natural enemies to control scales Many natural enemies?small parasitic wasps, lady- bird beetles and some fungi?can significantly reduce scale insect...

  9. Homogeneous isotropic turbulence in dilute polymers: scale by scale budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. De Angelis; C. M. Casciola; R. Benzi; R. Piva

    2002-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The turbulent energy cascade in dilute polymers solution is addressed here by considering a direct numerical simulation of homogeneous isotropic turbulence of a FENE-P fluid in a triply periodic box. On the basis of the DNS data, a scale by scale analysis is provided by using the proper extension to visco-elastic fluids of the Karman-Howarth equation for the velocity. For the microstructure, an equation, analogous to the Yaglom equation for scalars, is proposed for the free-energy density associated to the elastic behavior of the material. Two mechanisms of energy removal from the scale of the forcing are identified, namely the classical non-linear transfer term of the standard Navier-Stokes equations and the coupling between macroscopic velocity and microstructure. The latter, on average, drains kinetic energy to feed the dynamics of the microstructure. The cross-over scale between the two corresponding energy fluxes is identified, with the flux associated with the microstructure dominating at small separations to become sub-leading above the cross-over scale, which is the equivalent of the elastic limit scale defined by De Gennes-Tabor on the basis of phenomenological assumptions.

  10. Model for assessing bronchial mucus transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnew, J.E.; Bateman, J.R.M.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors propose a scheme for the assessment of regional mucus transport using inhaled Tc-99m aerosol particles and quantitative analysis of serial gamma-camera images. The model treats input to inner and intermediate lung regions as the total of initial deposition there plus subsequent transport into these regions from more peripheral airways. It allows for interregional differences in the proportion of particles deposited on the mucus-bearing conducting airways, and does not require a gamma image 24 hr after particle inhalation. Instead, distribution of particles reaching the respiratory bronchioles or alveoli is determined from a Kr-81m ventilation image, while the total amount of such deposition is obtained from 24-hr Tc-99m retention measured with a sensitive counter system. The model is applicable to transport by mucociliary action or by cough, and has been tested in ten normal and ten asthmatic subjects.

  11. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  12. Additional Phase and Assessment Descriptive Quality Indicators for Single-case Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boles, Margot

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This table presents a rating scale for additional phase and assessment descriptive quality indicators in single-case research. This table is adapted from CEC (2014), Horner et al. (2005), Reichow (2008), and Wolery (2013)....

  13. Assessing the costs of solar power plants for the Island of Roatàn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huwe, Ethan (Ethan L.)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an analysis assessing the installation costs of different solar power plant technologies and the current commercial availability for installation on the Island or Roatàn. Commercial large-scale power plants have ...

  14. Additional Phase and Assessment Descriptive Quality Indicators for Single-case Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boles, Margot

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This table presents a rating scale for additional phase and assessment descriptive quality indicators in single-case research. This table is adapted from CEC (2014), Horner et al. (2005), Reichow (2008), and Wolery (2013)....

  15. Commercial Scale Wind Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Trust of Oregon’s Commercial Scale Wind offering provides resources and cash incentives to help communities, businesses land owners, and government entities install wind turbine systems up...

  16. Sizing Up Allometric Scaling Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savage, Van M.; Deeds, Eric J.; Fontana, Walter

    2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Metabolic rate, heart rate, lifespan, and many other physiological properties vary with body mass in systematic and interrelated ways. Present empirical data suggest that these scaling relationships take the form of power ...

  17. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmer, Rick L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, Don T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Archiblad, Kip E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  18. Assessments A Training Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modern Industrial Assessments A Training Manual Version 2.0 Sponsored by: Produced by: Dr. Michael. Modern Industrial Assessments: A Training Manual, grew from the desires of the United States Department conservation and waste minimization / pollution prevention training courses and information agencies sponsored

  19. Service Assessment HURRICANE FRAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Service Assessment HURRICANE FRAN August 28 - September 8, 1996 U.S.Department of Commerce National-12 Visible, 753 a.m. EDT, September4, 1996. #12;Service Assessment HURRICANE FRAN August 28 Bureau Hurricane Series ERRATA NOTICE One or more conditions of the original document may affect

  20. Final Draft ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Final Draft ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE CONSTRUCTION, MODIFICATION, AND OPERATION OF THREE OF THE CONSTELLATION PROGRAM, JOHN F. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLORIDA Abstract This Environmental Assessment addresses AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION JOHN F. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAM OFFICE KENNEDY SPACE

  1. Assessment Statute Academic Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frean, Marcus

    ) and reliability (accurately representing the student's performance). #12;Assessment Statute Academic Policy to write clearly and accurately may be an important component of the assessment. 4.2 Passing a Course (a items. Lectures, tutorials, electronic and other distance- learning resources, practical and fieldwork

  2. INTERMOUNTAIN INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT CENTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MELINDA KRAHENBUHL

    2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The U. S. Department of Energy’s Intermountain Industrial Assessment Center (IIAC) at the University of Utah has been providing eligible small- and medium-sized manufacturers with no-cost plant assessments since 2001, offering cost-effective recommendations for improvements in the areas of energy efficiency, pollution prevention, and productivity improvement.

  3. Logistics, Costs, and GHG Impacts of Utility Scale Cofiring with 20% Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, Richard D.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Nichol, Corrie; Searcy, Erin M.; Westover, Tyler; Wood, Richard; Bearden, Mark D.; Cabe, James E.; Drennan, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Male, Jonathan L.; Muntean, George G.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of utility-scale biomass cofiring in large pulverized coal power plants. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the cost and greenhouse gas reduction benefits of substituting relatively high volumes of biomass in coal. Two scenarios for cofiring up to 20% biomass with coal (on a lower heating value basis) are presented; (1) woody biomass in central Alabama where Southern Pine is currently produced for the wood products and paper industries, and (2) purpose-grown switchgrass in the Ohio River Valley. These examples are representative of regions where renewable biomass growth rates are high in correspondence with major U.S. heartland power production. While these scenarios may provide a realistic reference for comparing the relative benefits of using a high volume of biomass for power production, this evaluation is not intended to be an analysis of policies concerning renewable portfolio standards or the optimal use of biomass for energy production in the U.S.

  4. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates National Grid Northeast Utilities PA Office of Consumer Advocates Pacific Gas & Electric Corporation Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission PJM Interconnection The Electricity Consumers Resource Council U.S. Department of Energy US Department of the Interior Van Ness Feldman Western Interstate Energy Board Wind on the Wires Wisconsin Public Service Commission Xcel Energy

  5. Regional

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-SettingHead5 IdleRegardingIndustrial Technologies|3

  6. Bringing Water into an Integrated Assessment Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Sands, Ronald; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a modeling capability to understand how water is allocated within a river basin and examined present and future water allocations among agriculture, energy production, other human requirements, and ecological needs. Water is an essential natural resource needed for food and fiber production, household and industrial uses, energy production, transportation, tourism and recreation, and the functioning of natural ecosystems. Anthropogenic climate change and population growth are anticipated to impose unprecedented pressure on water resources during this century. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers have pioneered the development of integrated assessment (IA) models for the analysis of energy and economic systems under conditions of climate change. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort led to the development of a modeling capability to evaluate current and future water allocations between human requirements and ecosystem services. The Water Prototype Model (WPM) was built in STELLA®, a computer modeling package with a powerful interface that enables users to construct dynamic models to simulate and integrate many processes (biological, hydrological, economics, sociological). A 150,404-km2 basin in the United States (U.S.) Pacific Northwest region served as the platform for the development of the WPM. About 60% of the study basin is in the state of Washington with the rest in Oregon. The Columbia River runs through the basin for 874 km, starting at the international border with Canada and ending (for the purpose of the simulation) at The Dalles dam. Water enters the basin through precipitation and from streamflows originating from the Columbia River at the international border with Canada, the Spokane River, and the Snake River. Water leaves the basin through evapotranspiration, consumptive uses (irrigation, livestock, domestic, commercial, mining, industrial, and off-stream power generation), and streamflow through The Dalles dam. Water also enters the Columbia River via runoff from land. The model runs on a monthly timescale to account for the impact of seasonal variations of climate, streamflows, and water uses. Data for the model prototype were obtained from national databases and ecosystem model results. The WPM can be run from three sources: 1) directly from STELLA, 2) with the isee Player®, or 3) the web version of WPM constructed with NetSim® software. When running any of these three versions, the user is presented a screen with a series of buttons, graphs, and a table. Two of the buttons provide the user with background and instructions on how to run the model. Currently, there are five types of scenarios that can be manipulated alone or in combination using the Sliding Input Devices: 1) interannual variability (e.g., El Niño), 2) climate change, 3) salmon policy, 4) future population, and 5) biodiesel production. Overall, the WPM captured the effects of streamflow conditions on hydropower production. Under La Niña conditions, more hydropower is available during all months of the year, with a substantially higher availability during spring and summer. Under El Niño conditions, hydropower would be reduced, with a total decline of 15% from normal weather conditions over the year. A policy of flow augmentation to facilitate the spring migration of smolts to the ocean would also reduce hydropower supply. Modeled hydropower generation was 23% greater than the 81 TWh reported in the 1995 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) database. The modeling capability presented here contains the essential features to conduct basin-scale analyses of water allocation under current and future climates. Due to its underlying data structure iv and conceptual foundation, the WPM should be appropriate to conduct IA modeling at national and global scales.

  7. Southeast Texas Region Regional Public Transportation Coordination Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southeast Texas Regional Planning Commission

    Providers Public transportation in the southeast Texas region includes primarily demand- response service, with two localities managing fixed-route systems. Table 2 identifies the transportation providers within the region. The major transportation... citywide bus services with eleven local routes. PAT operates from 6:15am to 6:15pm five days a week. Annual ridership for BMT totaled 671,420 fixed route and 22,155 demand response trips in 2005, while PAT ridership reached 116,632 fixed route and 20...

  8. Environmental assessment of electricity scenarios with Life Cycle Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    been assessed with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies [1], [2], [3] and [4]. However environmentalEnvironmental assessment of electricity scenarios with Life Cycle Assessment Touria Larbi1 impacts assessment of scenarios is very rarely evaluated through a life cycle perspective partly because

  9. Impact of Potential Large-Scale Irrigation on the West African Monsoon and Its Dependence on Location of Irrigated Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, Eun-Soon

    This study investigates the impact of potential large-scale irrigation on the West African monsoon using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology regional climate model (MRCM). A new irrigation module is implemented to ...

  10. Radiation from Small-Scale Magnetic Field Turbulence: Implications for Gamma-Ray Bursts and Laboratory Astrophysical Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Sarah J

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistic charged particles moving within regions of small-scale magnetic field turbulence radiate as they undergo transverse accelerations reflective of the magnetic field variation along the particle's path. For a ...

  11. Scaling of Charged Particle Production in d+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the PHOBOS Collaboration; B. B. Back

    2004-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The measured pseudorapidity distributions of primary charged particles over a wide pseudorapidity range of |eta| N^{pp}_{ch} and the energy dependence of the density of charged particles produced in the fragmentation region exhibits extensive longitudinal scaling.

  12. Policy recommendations to improve the competitiveness of small scale farmers in Colombia through Information and Communication Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maya, Natalia (Natalia Carolina Maya Ortiz)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Half of the Colombian population lives in regions dependent on primary activities such as agriculture, livestock, and fishing. This sector is characterized for being a mix of two kinds of productive systems: large-scale ...

  13. Unattended ground sensor situation assessment workstation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeppesen, D.; Trellue, R.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective utilization of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) in a theater reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition, and kill assessment environment requires that a human operator be able to interpret, and collectively assess, the significance of real time data obtained from UGS emplacements over large geographical regions of interest. The products of this UGS data interpretation and assessment activity can then be used in the decision support process for command level evaluation of appropriate courses of action. Advancements in both sensor hardware technology and in software systems and processing technology have enabled the development of practical real time situation assessment capabilities based upon information from unattended ground sensors. A decision support workstation that employs rule-based expert system processing of reports from unattended ground sensors is described. The primary goal of this development activity is to produce a suite of software to track vehicles using data from unattended ground sensors. The situational assessment products from this system have stand-alone utility, but are also intended to provide cueing support for overhead sensors and supplementary feeds to all-source fusion centers. The conceptual framework, developmental architecture, and demonstration field tests of the system are described.

  14. Technical and Cost Assessment of the PCAST Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technical and Cost Assessment of the PCAST Machine Final Report PCAST ITER Volume I Chapter 2.0 Trade Studies prepared by PCAST Study Group December, 1995 9l-95 1208-MWDBMontgomery-0 1 #12;2.0 Trade for ignition is 0.74 times the confinement time predicted by using ITER ELM-free H-mode scaling

  15. RESEARCH ARTICLE Empirical assessment of short-term variability from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -term variability; PV plant ramp rate; daily aggregate ramp rate; inverter shells *Correspondence Rob van HaarenRESEARCH ARTICLE Empirical assessment of short-term variability from utility-scale solar PV plants and the output from 390 inverters. We use a simple metric, "daily aggregate ramp rate" to quantify, categorize

  16. Assessing the Energy Costs of Computing Devices in Developing Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simha, Rahul

    Assessing the Energy Costs of Computing Devices in Developing Countries K. Gopinath1 and Rahul to power these devices in developing countries. (2) the energy-efficient design of large information@gwu.edu Abstract Competition, technological developments, and economies of scale have together brought down

  17. Assessing Novel Foundation Options for Offshore Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Byron

    Assessing Novel Foundation Options for Offshore Wind Turbines B.W. Byrne, BE(Hons), BCom, MA, DPhil G.T. Houlsby, MA, DSc, FREng, FICE Oxford University, UK SYNOPSIS Offshore wind farms, and of these wind power is the only one to be exploited on a commercial scale at present. Three major offshore

  18. Integrated assessment briefs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated assessment can be used to evaluate and clarify resource management policy options and outcomes for decision makers. The defining characteristics of integrated assessment are (1) focus on providing information and analysis that can be understood and used by decision makers rather than for merely advancing understanding and (2) its multidisciplinary approach, using methods, styles of study, and considerations from a broader variety of technical areas than would typically characterize studies produced from a single disciplinary standpoint. Integrated assessment may combine scientific, social, economic, health, and environmental data and models. Integrated assessment requires bridging the gap between science and policy considerations. Because not everything can be valued using a single metric, such as a dollar value, the integrated assessment process also involves evaluating trade-offs among dissimilar attributes. Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recognized the importance and value of multidisciplinary approaches to solving environmental problems early on and have pioneered the development of tools and methods for integrated assessment over the past three decades. Major examples of ORNL`s experience in the development of its capabilities for integrated assessment are given.

  19. Solar wind turbulence from MHD to sub-ion scales: high-resolution hybrid simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franci, Luca; Matteini, Lorenzo; Landi, Simone; Hellinger, Petr

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from a high-resolution and large-scale hybrid (fluid electrons and particle-in-cell protons) two-dimensional numerical simulation of decaying turbulence. Two distinct spectral regions (separated by a smooth break at proton scales) develop with clear power-law scaling, each one occupying about a decade in wave numbers. The simulation results exhibit simultaneously several properties of the observed solar wind fluctuations: spectral indices of the magnetic, kinetic, and residual energy spectra in the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) inertial range along with a flattening of the electric field spectrum, an increase in magnetic compressibility, and a strong coupling of the cascade with the density and the parallel component of the magnetic fluctuations at sub-proton scales. Our findings support the interpretation that in the solar wind large-scale MHD fluctuations naturally evolve beyond proton scales into a turbulent regime that is governed by the generalized Ohm's law.

  20. An Analysis of Two Industrial Assessment Center Extended Assessments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farouz, H. E.; Gafford, G. D.; Eggebrecht, J. A.; Heffington, W. M.

    The Industrial Assessment Center at Texas A&M University extended assessments by spending about two extra days at each of three manufacturing plants. The extended assessments are characterized by use of sophisticated electronic monitoring equipment...

  1. Regions for Select Spot Prices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently Approved JustificationBio-Inspired PowerRegional companiesRegions

  2. Viability Assessment Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 4 provides the DOE plan and cost estimate for the remaining work necessary to proceed from completing this VA to submitting an LA to NRC. This work includes preparing an EIS and evaluating the suitability of the site. Both items are necessary components of the documentation required to support a decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend that the President approve the site for development as a repository. If the President recommends the site to Congress and the site designation becomes effective, then DOE will submit the LA to NRC in 2002 for authorization to construct the repository. The work described in Volume 4 constitutes the last step in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site and the design and evaluation of the performance of a repository system in the geologic setting of this site. The plans in this volume for the next 4 years' work are based on the results of the previous 15 years' work, as reported in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 of this VA. Volume 1 summarizes what DOE has learned to date about the Yucca Mountain site. Volume 2 describes the current, reference repository design, several design options that might enhance the performance of the reference design, and several alternative designs that represent substantial departures from the reference design. Volume 2 also summarizes the results of tests of candidate materials for waste packages and for support of the tunnels into which waste would be emplaced. Volume 3 provides the results of the latest performance assessments undertaken to evaluate the performance of the design in the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain. The results described in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 provide the basis for identifying and prioritizing the work described in this volume. DOE believes that the planned work, together with the results of previous work, will be sufficient to support a site suitability evaluation for site recommendation and, if the site is recommended and designated, a defensible LA. Volume 4 is divided into seven sections. Section 2 presents a rationale and summary for the technical work to be done to develop the preclosure and postclosure safety cases that will support the compliance evaluations required for the evaluation of site suitability and for licensing. Section 2 also describes other necessary technical work, including that needed to support design decisions and development of the necessary design information. Section 3 presents a more detailed description of the technical work required to address the issues identified in Section 2. Section 3 also describes activities that will continue after submittal of the site recommendation and the LA. Examples include the drift scale heater test in the Exploratory Studies Facility (Section 3.1.4.3) and long-term waste package corrosion testing (Section 3.2.2.9). Section 4 discusses the statutory and regulatory framework for site recommendation and submittal of an LA, and describes the activities and documentation that must be completed to achieve these milestones, including the development of an EIS. Section 5 describes the numerous activities required to support program milestones, including support for completing the testing program, continuing tests as part of the performance confirmation program, and managing information and records to support regulatory and legal review. Sections 6 and 7 provide cost and schedule information for the activities planned.

  3. MODELING THE POREWATER CHEMISTRY OF THE CALLOVIAN-OXFORDIAN FORMATION AT A REGIONAL SCALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , France 2 ANDRA, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet , 92298 Châtenay-Malabry, France 3 ANTEA, 3 avenue C. Guillemin, BP 6009, Orléans 45061, France 4 ANDRA, Lab. Meuse/Haute Marne, Cd 960, 55290 Bure, France * Corresponding, France), pour étudier la faisabilité d'un stockage profond de déchets radioactifs au sein de la formation

  4. Hybrid Image Registration based on Configural Matching of Scale-Invariant Salient Region Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xiaolei

    and Visualization Department, Siemens Corporate Research, Princeton, NJ, USA {yiyong.sun, frank.sauer, chenyang.xu}@scr.siemens is then used to recover the opti- mal transformation parameters. We applied our method to registering a pair, are to be recovered to geometrically transform a moving image to achieve high spatial correspondence with a fixed

  5. Where the Sky Is the Right Color: Scale and Air Pollution in the Big Bend Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donez, Francisco Juan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Joe Nick. “Far Out Far West Texas. ” Texas Observer, 16controversies in rural west Texas to illustrate the functioncontroversies in rural west Texas as (1) efforts by various

  6. A numerical model for free infragravity waves: definition and validation at regional and global scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    waves are expected to be generated mostly along shorelines by nonlinear interactions of the shorter wind-generated the wind-generated wind sea and swells, with periods shorter than 30 s, into sub-harmonics. For waves

  7. Where the Sky Is the Right Color: Scale and Air Pollution in the Big Bend Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donez, Francisco Juan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    including choking pollution in Mexico City. According to oneof potential pollution sources in Mexico. Ultimately, thean invasion of pollution from a dirty Mexico reinforced the

  8. Urban Form and Travel Patterns at the Regional Scale Considering Polycentric Urban Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Young-Jae

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    ) per capita and daily transit passenger miles (DPMT) per capita. To overcome major problems of previous studies, i.e., lack of generalizability and multicollinearity, a cross-sectional analysis of 203 U.S. urbanized areas was conducted, using directed...

  9. Aviation environmental policy effects on national- and regional-scale air quality, noise, and climate impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Philip J. (Philip James)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The continued growth of the aviation industry poses a challenge to policy-makers and industry stakeholders as each decision represents a trade-off on efficiency, equity, and environmental impact. The Aviation environmental ...

  10. Where the Sky Is the Right Color: Scale and Air Pollution in the Big Bend Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donez, Francisco Juan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a coal-fired power plant in Coahuila, Mexico. AlthoughNegras, Mexico: the towering smokestacks of a mammoth coal-the large coal deposits there. However, Mexico had strong

  11. Where the Sky Is the Right Color: Scale and Air Pollution in the Big Bend Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donez, Francisco Juan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Press, 1994. Wirth, John D. Smelter Smoke in North America:a time power plants or smelters or refineries or whatever,We also know, through the smelter studies, that emissions of

  12. Human dimension of conservation planning: the case of Madagascar at national and regional scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramaharitra Tondrasoa, Tendro

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    survey Forest inventory Development of contract Development of details Development of management plan

  13. Where the Sky Is the Right Color: Scale and Air Pollution in the Big Bend Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donez, Francisco Juan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Transboundary Air Pollution. Lawrence, Kansas: UniversityW. Stationary Source Air Pollution Law. Washington, D. C. :Pact -- Texas Too; Mexican Pollution Fuels U.S. Criticism. ”

  14. Human dimension of conservation planning: the case of Madagascar at national and regional scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramaharitra Tondrasoa, Tendro

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integratedThe effects of climate change on agriculture have been theirrigated agriculture under climate change need not greatly

  15. Tests of an ensemble Kalman filter for mesoscale and regional-scale data assimilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Zhiyong

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    observations) are assimilated by directly comparing the EnKF and 3DVar and both are implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. A case study and month-long experiments show that the EnKF is efficient in tracking observations in terms of both...

  16. 2015 ALASKA REGIONAL ENERGY WORKSHOPS Facility- and Community-Scale Project Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartment ofCBFO-13-3322(EE)DepartmentVery LargeStandards40NaturalALASKA

  17. 2015 TRIBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY REGIONAL WORKSHOPS Commercial- and Community-Scale Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHEEnergyReliability2015 Peer Review |5 SSL R&D5Project

  18. Regional Scale Surface CO2 Exchange Estimates Using a Boundary Layer Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-SettingHead5"Redline"Method over the

  19. The Fractal Distribution of HII Regions in Disk Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nestor Sanchez; Emilio J. Alfaro

    2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that the gas has a fractal structure in a wide range of spatial scales with a fractal dimension that seems to be a constant around Df = 2.7. It is expected that stars forming from this fractal medium exhibit similar fractal patterns. Here we address this issue by quantifying the degree to which star-forming events are clumped. We develop, test, and apply a precise and accurate technique to calculate the correlation dimension Dc of the distribution of HII regions in a sample of disk galaxies. We find that the determination of Dc is limited by the number of HII regions, since if there are fractal dimension among galaxies, contrary to a universal picture sometimes claimed in literature. The fractal dimension exhibits a weak but significant correlation with the absolute magnitude and, to a lesser extent, with the galactic radius. The faintest galaxies tend to distribute their HII regions in more clustered (less uniform) patterns. The fractal dimension for the brightest HII regions within the same galaxy seems to be smaller than for the faintest ones suggesting some kind of evolutionary efffect, but the obtained correlation remains unchanged if only the brightest regions are taken into account.

  20. QUANTIFYING THE EVOLVING MAGNETIC STRUCTURE OF ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conlon, Paul A.; McAteer, R.T. James; Gallagher, Peter T.; Fennell, Linda, E-mail: mcateer@nmsu.ed [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The topical and controversial issue of parameterizing the magnetic structure of solar active regions has vital implications in the understanding of how these structures form, evolve, produce solar flares, and decay. This interdisciplinary and ill-constrained problem of quantifying complexity is addressed by using a two-dimensional wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method to study the multifractal properties of active region photospheric magnetic fields. The WTMM method provides an adaptive space-scale partition of a fractal distribution, from which one can extract the multifractal spectra. The use of a novel segmentation procedure allows us to remove the quiet Sun component and reliably study the evolution of active region multifractal parameters. It is shown that prior to the onset of solar flares, the magnetic field undergoes restructuring as Dirac-like features (with a Hoelder exponent, h = -1) coalesce to form step functions (where h = 0). The resulting configuration has a higher concentration of gradients along neutral line features. We propose that when sufficient flux is present in an active region for a period of time, it must be structured with a fractal dimension greater than 1.2, and a Hoelder exponent greater than -0.7, in order to produce M- and X-class flares. This result has immediate applications in the study of the underlying physics of active region evolution and space weather forecasting.