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1

Few-photon optical diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a novel scheme of realizing an optical diode at the few-photon level. The system consists of a one-dimensional waveguide coupled asymmetrically to a two-level system. The two or multi-photon transport in this system is strongly correlated. We derive exactly the single and two-photon current and show that the two-photon current is asymmetric for the asymmetric coupling. Thus the system serves as an optical diode which allows transmission of photons in one direction much more efficiently than the opposite.

Roy, Dibyendu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Photonic Astronomy and Quantum Optics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum optics potentially offers an information channel from the Universe beyond the established ones of imaging and spectroscopy. All existing cameras and all spectrometers measure aspects of the first-order spatial and/or temporal coherence of light. However, light has additional degrees of freedom, manifest in the statistics of photon arrival times, or in the amount of photon orbital angular momentum. Such quantum-optical measures may carry information on how the light was created at the source, and whether it reached the observer directly or via some intermediate process. Astronomical quantum optics may help to clarify emission processes in natural laser sources and in the environments of compact objects, while high-speed photon-counting with digital signal handling enables multi-element and long-baseline versions of the intensity interferometer. Time resolutions of nanoseconds are required, as are large photon fluxes, making photonic astronomy very timely in an era of large telescopes.

Dainis Dravins

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

3

Photonic integrated circuits for optical logic applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The optical logic unit cell is the photonic analog to transistor-transistor logic in electronic devices. Active devices such as InP-based semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) emitting at 1550 nm are vertically integrated ...

Williams, Ryan Daniel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Effects of photon escape on diagnostic diagrams for HII regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this article we first outline the mounting evidence that a significant fraction of the ionizing photons emitted by OB stars within HII regions escape from their immediate surroundings and explain how an HII region structure containing high density contrast in homogeneities facilitates this escape. Next we describe sets of models containing inhomogeneities which are used to predict tracks in the commonly used diagnostic diagrams (based on ratios of emission lines) whose only independent variable is the photon escape fraction, xi. We show that the tracks produced by the models in two of the most cited of these diagrams conform well to the distribution of observed data points, with the models containing optically thick inhomogeneities ("CLUMPY" models) yielding somewhat better agreement than those with optically thin inhomogeneities ("FF" models). We show how variations in the ionization parameter U, derived from emission line ratios, could be due to photon escape. Using a rather wide range of assumptions abo...

Giammanco, C; Cedres, B

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Optics (XSD) | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the Optics Group is to facilitate the efficient and productive use and operation of APS beamline-based research facilities. In support of this mission, the Optics group:...

6

ISO TC172/SC1 Optics and Photonics/Fundamental ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/TC 172/SC 1 Optics and Photonics/Fundamental Standards. Purpose: ...

2013-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

7

Effects of photon escape on diagnostic diagrams for HII regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this article we first outline the mounting evidence that a significant fraction of the ionizing photons emitted by OB stars within HII regions escape from their immediate surroundings and explain how an HII region structure containing high density contrast in homogeneities facilitates this escape. Next we describe sets of models containing inhomogeneities which are used to predict tracks in the commonly used diagnostic diagrams (based on ratios of emission lines) whose only independent variable is the photon escape fraction, xi. We show that the tracks produced by the models in two of the most cited of these diagrams conform well to the distribution of observed data points, with the models containing optically thick inhomogeneities ("CLUMPY" models) yielding somewhat better agreement than those with optically thin inhomogeneities ("FF" models). We show how variations in the ionization parameter U, derived from emission line ratios, could be due to photon escape. Using a rather wide range of assumptions about the filling factor of dense clumps we find, for a selected set of regions observed in M51 photon escape fraction ranging between 30% and 50%. We show, using oxygen as the test element, that models with different assumptions about the gas inhomogeneity will give variations in the abundance values derived from diagnostic diagrams, but do not claim here to have a fully developed set of diagnostic tools to improve abundance determinations made in this way. We finally propose a combination of line ratios with the absolute Halpha luminosity of a given HII region, which allows us to determine the photon escape fraction, and hence resolve the degeneracy between U and xi.

C. Giammanco; J. E. Beckman; B. Cedres

2005-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

8

New Experimental limit on Optical Photon Coupling to Neutral, Scalar Bosons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the first results of a sensitive search for scalar coupling of photons to a light neutral boson in the mass range of approximately 1.0 milli-electron volts and coupling strength greater than 10$^-6$ GeV$^-1$ using optical photons. This was a photon regeneration experiment using the "light shining through a wall" technique in which laser light was passed through a strong magnetic field upstream of an optical beam dump; regenerated laser light was then searched for downstream of a second magnetic field region optically shielded from the former. Our results show no evidence for scalar coupling in this region of parameter space.

A. Afanasev; O. K. Baker; K. B. Beard; G. Biallas; J. Boyce; M. Minarni; R. Ramdon; M. Shinn; P. Slocum

2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

9

The College of Optics & Photonics Industrial Affiliates Day  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wavelength Sunlight Unclad fiber under UV light Concentrating fiber fabric First complete solar The College of Optics & Photonics Infrared Systems Lab Solar X-ray Imager Near-field Scanning Optical crystals) · OPTICAL DIAGNOSTICS · LIGHT PROCESSING TECH · Laser Energetics · POLARA · Applied Photonics

Van Stryland, Eric

10

Disordered Optical Modes for Photon Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wave transport in disordered systems is a vast research topic, ranging from electrons in semiconductors, to light in random dielectrics, to cold atoms in laser speckles. In optics, light transport is conveyed by random electromagnetic modes and the wave can be localized about a point or extended throughout the system, depending on disorder strength, structural correlations and dimensionality of the system. Light localization phenomena are more dominantly present in two-dimensional systems than in three-dimensional ones and their optical modes can be tailored to a greater extent. Here, we show that it is possible to make use of the properties of lower-dimensional disordered structures to obtain photon management in three-dimensional space. More particularly, we argue that two-dimensional disorder and wave interferences can be exploited to improve the performance of light absorbers or emitters. Our findings have direct applications for enhancing the absorption efficiency of third-generation solar cells in a rel...

Vynck, Kevin; Riboli, Francesco; Wiersma, Diederik S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Hybrid Silicon Photonics for Optical Interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and J. U. Yoon, Silicon photonics for compact, energy- ef?www.zurich.ibm.com/st/photonics/interconnects.html [3] R.comb laser, in Proc. SPIE Photonics West 2010, pp. 76070W

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Linear-optics manipulations of photon-loss codes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss codes for protecting logical qubits carried by optical fields from the effects of amplitude damping, i.e. linear photon loss. We demonstrate that the correctability condition for one-photon loss imposes limitations on the range of manipulations than can be implemented with passive linear-optics networks.

Konrad Banaszek; Wojciech Wasilewski

2007-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

13

Single-photon nonlinear optics with graphene plasmons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show theoretically that it is possible to realize significant nonlinear optical interactions at the few photon level in graphene nanostructures. Our approach takes advantage of the electric field enhancement associated with the strong confinement of graphene plasmons and the large intrinsic nonlinearity of graphene. Such a system could provide a powerful platform for quantum nonlinear optical control of light. As an example, we consider an integrated optical device that exploits this large nonlinearity to realize a single photon switch.

M. Gullans; D. E. Chang; F. H. L. Koppens; F. J. Garca de Abajo; M. D. Lukin

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

14

Optical Nanomaterials for Photonics/Biophotonics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applications of optical nanoparticles in telecommunications, photodetectors, LED , etc. - Fluorescent Imaging using optical nanolabels (including multiphoton...

15

Interaction of Independent Single Photons based on Integrated Nonlinear Optics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photons are ideal carriers of quantum information, as they can be easily created and can travel long distances without being affected by decoherence. For this reason, they are well suited for quantum communication. However, the interaction between single photons is negligible under most circumstances. Realising such an interaction is not only fundamentally fascinating but holds great potential for emerging technologies. It has recently been shown that even weak optical nonlinearities between single photons can be used to perform important quantum communication tasks more efficiently than methods based on linear optics, which have fundamental limitations. Nonlinear optical effects at single photon levels in atomic media have been studied and demonstrated but these are neither flexible nor compatible with quantum communication as they impose restrictions on photons' wavelengths and bandwidths. Here we use a high efficiency nonlinear waveguide to observe the sum-frequency generation between a single photon and a single-photon level coherent state from two independent sources. The use of an integrated, room-temperature device and telecom wavelengths makes this approach to photon-photon interaction well adapted to long distance quantum communication, moving quantum nonlinear optics one step further towards complex quantum networks and future applications such as device independent quantum key distribution.

Thiago Guerreiro; Enrico Pomarico; Bruno Sanguinetti; Nicolas Sangouard; J. S. Pelc; C. Langrock; M. M. Fejer; Hugo Zbinden; Robert T. Thew; Nicolas Gisin

2013-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

16

Slow light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate the generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs from a Si photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. A slow-light supermode realized by the collective resonance of high-Q and small-mode-volume photonic-crystal cavities successfully enhanced the efficiency of the spontaneous four-wave mixing process. The generation rate of photon pairs was improved by two orders of magnitude compared with that of a photonic-crystal line defect waveguide without a slow-light effect.

Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya; 10.1364/OE.21.008596

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Optical bistability with a repulsive optical force in coupled silicon photonic crystal membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate actuation of a silicon photonic crystal membrane with a repulsive optical gradient force. The extent of the static actuation is extracted by examining the optical bistability as a combination of the ...

Hui, Pui-Chuen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Magneto-optical oxide thin films and integrated nonreciprocal photonic devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nonreciprocal photonic devices including optical isolators and optical circulators are indispensible components in present day optical communication systems. Although highly desired by the fast development of silicon ...

Bi, Lei, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Optical and magneto-optical properties of one-dimensional magnetized coupled resonator plasma photonic crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the optical and magneto-optical properties of one-dimensional magnetized coupled resonator plasma photonic crystals have been investigated. We use transfer matrix method to solve our magnetized coupled resonator plasma photonic crystals consist of dielectric and magnetized plasma layers. The results of the change in the optical and magneto-optical properties of structure as a result of the alteration in the structural properties such as thickness, plasma frequency and collision frequency, plasma filling factor, number of resonators and dielectric constant of dielectric layers and external magnetic field have been reported. The main feature of this structure is a good magneto-optical rotation that takes place at the defect modes and the edge of photonic band gap of our proposed optical magnetized plasma waveguide. Our outcomes demonstrate the potential applications of the device for tunable and adjustable filters or reflectors and active magneto-optic in microwave devices under structural parameter and external magnetic field.

Hamidi, S. M. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, G. C., Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

University of Central Florida CREOL The College of Optics and Photonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-6816 http://mqw.creol.ucf.edu/patrick/likamwa.html Research · Fiber-optic transmission systems · All-optical Systems for Phased Array Antennas · Co-Editor, SPIE Milestone series Volume on Analog Fiber-Optic Links to EUV and X-rays, including photonic technologies such as lasers; optical fibers; semiconductor

Richardson, Martin C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Axiomatic Geometrical Optics, Abraham-Minkowski Controversy, and Photon Properties Derived Classically  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By restating geometrical optics within the eld-theoretical approach, the classical concept of a photon in arbitrary dispersive medium is introduced, and photon properties are calculated unambiguously. In particular, the canonical and kinetic momenta carried by a photon, as well as the two corresponding energy-momentum tensors of a wave, are derived straightforwardly from rst principles of Lagrangian mechanics. The Abraham-Minkowski controversy pertaining to the de nitions of these quantities is thereby resolved for linear waves of arbitrary nature, and corrections to the traditional formulas for the photon kinetic quantities are found. An application of axiomatic geometrical optics to electromagnetic waves is also presented as an example.

L.Y. Dodin and N.J. Fisch

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

22

University of Central Florida CREOL The College of Optics and Photonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

://mqw.creol.ucf.edu/patrick/likamwa.html Research · Fiber-optic transmission systems · All-optical signal processing · Free-space optical spectrum of programs covering materials, devices, and systems for applications including photonic, communication and information technology, biology and medicine, energy and lighting, aerospace, and homeland

Glebov, Leon

23

Efficiency limits for linear optical processing of single photons and single-rail qubits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the problem of increasing the efficiency of single-photon sources or single-rail photonic qubits via linear optical processing and destructive conditional measurements. In contrast to previous work we allow for the use of coherent states and do not limit to photon-counting measurements. We conjecture that it is not possible to increase the efficiency, prove this conjecture for several important special cases, and provide extensive numerical results for the general case.

Dominic W. Berry; A. I. Lvovsky; Barry C. Sanders

2006-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

24

Materials and devices for optical switching and modulation of photonic integrated circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The drive towards photonic integrated circuits (PIC) necessitates the development of new devices and materials capable of achieving miniaturization and integration on a CMOS compatible platform. Optical switching: fast ...

Seneviratne, Dilan Anuradha

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Strain-tuning of periodic optical devices : tunable gratings and photonic crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The advancement of micro- and nano-scale optical devices has heralded micromirrors, semiconductor micro- and nano-lasers, and photonic crystals, among many. Broadly defined with the field of microphotonics and microelect ...

Wong, Chee Wei, 1975-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Carbon budget and carbon chemistry in Photon Dominated Regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a study of small carbon chains and rings in Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs) performed at millimetre wavelengths. Our sample consists of the Horsehead nebula (B33), the rho,Oph L1688 cloud interface, and the cometary-shaped cloud IC63. Using the IRAM 30-m telescope, the SEST and the Effelsberg 100-m teles cope at Effelsberg., we mapped the emission of \\cch, c-C3H2 and C4H, and searched for heavy hydrocarbons such as c-C3H, l-C3H, l-C3H2, l-C4H2 and C6H. The large scale maps show that small hydrocarbons are present until the edge of all PDRs, which is surprising as they are expected to be easily destroyed by UV radiation. Their spatial distribution reasonably agrees with the aromatic emission mapped in mid-IR wavelength bands. Their abundances relative to H2 are relatively high and comparable to the ones derived in dark clouds such as L134N or TMC-1, known as efficient carbon factories. In particular, we report the first detection of C6H in a PDR. We have run steady-state PDR models using several gas-phase chemical networks (UMIST95 and the New Standard Model) and conclude that both networks fail in reproducing the high abundances of some of these hydrocarbons by an order of magnitude. The high abundance of hydrocarbons in the PDR may suggest that the photo-erosion of UV-irradiated large carbonaceous compounds could efficiently feed the ISM with small carbon clusters or molecules. This new production mechanism of carbon chains and rings could overcome their destruction by the UV radiation field. Dedicated theoretical and laboratory measurements are required in order to understand and implement these additional chemical routes.

D. Teyssier; D. Fosse; M. Gerin; J. Pety; A. Abergel; E. Roueff

2004-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics Group | Advanced Photon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics homeimg We seek a predictive understanding of intense x-ray and optical interactions with matter. We study new phenomena induced by intense...

28

Optical Properties and Wave Propagation in Semiconductor-Based Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is a theoretical investigation on the physical properties of semiconductor-based two-dimensional photonic crystals, in particular for what concerns systems embedded in planar dielectric waveguides (GaAs/AlGaAs, GaInAsP/InP heterostructures, and self-standing membranes) or based on macro-porous silicon. The photonic-band structure of photonic crystals and photonic-crystal slabs is numerically computed and the associated light-line problem is discussed, which points to the issue of intrinsic out-of-lane diffraction losses for the photonic bands lying above the light line. The photonic states are then classified by the group theory formalism: each mode is related to an irreducible representation of the corresponding small point group. The optical properties are investigated by means of the scattering matrix method, which numerically implements a variable-angle-reflectance experiment; comparison with experiments is also provided. The analysis of surface reflectance proves the existence of selection rules for coupling an external wave to a certain photonic mode. Such rules can be directly derived from symmetry considerations. Lastly, the control of wave propagation in weak-index contrast photonic-crystal slabs is tackled in view of designing building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The proposed designs are found to comply with the major requirements of low-loss propagation, high and single-mode transmission. These notions are then collected to model a photonic-crystal combiner for an integrated multi-wavelength-source laser.

Mario Agio

2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Deposited Silicon Photonics: Optical Interconnect Devices In Polycrystalline Silicon .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Silicon photonics has tremendous potential to provide high-bandwidth and low-power data communication for applications such as computing and telecommunication, over length scales ranging from 100 (more)

Preston, Kyle

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Highly efficient coupling of photons from nanoemitters into single-mode optical fibers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Highly efficient coupling of photons from nanoemitters into single-mode optical fibers is demonstrated using tapered fibers. 7.4 +/- 1.2 % of the total emitted photons from single CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals were coupled into a 300-nm-diameter tapered fiber. The dependence of the coupling efficiency on the taper diameter was investigated and the coupling efficiency was found to increase exponentially with decreasing diameter. This method is very promising for nanoparticle sensing and single-photon sources.

Masazumi Fujiwara; Kiyota Toubaru; Tetsuya Noda; Hong-Quan Zhao; Shigeki Takeuchi

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

31

THE ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF Ly{alpha} RESONANT PHOTONS EMERGING FROM AN OPTICALLY THICK MEDIUM  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the angular distribution of Ly{alpha} photons scattering or emerging from an optically thick medium. Since the evolution of specific intensity I in frequency space and angular space are coupled with each other, we first develop the WENO numerical solver to find the time-dependent solutions of the integro-differential equation of I in frequency and angular space simultaneously. We first show that the solutions with the Eddington approximation, which assume that I is linearly dependent on the angular variable {mu}, yield similar frequency profiles of the photon flux as those without the Eddington approximation. However, the solutions of the {mu} distribution evolution are significantly different from those given by the Eddington approximation. First, the angular distribution of I is found to be substantially dependent on the frequency of the photons. For photons with the resonant frequency {nu}{sub 0}, I contains only a linear term of {mu}. For photons with frequencies at the double peaks of the flux, the {mu}-distribution is highly anisotropic; most photons are emitted radially forward. Moreover, either at {nu}{sub 0} or at the double peaks, the {mu} distributions actually are independent of the initial {mu} distribution of photons of the source. This is because the photons with frequencies either at {nu}{sub 0} or the double peaks undergo the process of forgetting their initial conditions due to resonant scattering. We also show that the optically thick medium is a collimator of photons at the double peaks. Photons from the double peaks form a forward beam with a very small opening angle.

Yang Yang; Shu Chiwang [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Roy, Ishani [Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering Division, St Thomas Hospital, Kings College London, SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Fang Lizhi [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

32

Photonic Switching Techniques and Architecture for Next Generation Optical Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Currently, the growth in capacity demand is still increasing by the emergence of a large number of applications that dramatically increase bandwidth demand and generate a large number of resource requirements in the network. Since the emerging applications ... Keywords: Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG), Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM), optical CMDA, optical switching, wavelength converters

Driss Benhaddou; Ghulam Chaudhry

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Kinoform optics applied to X-ray photon correlation specroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moderate-demagnification higher-order silicon kinoform focusing lenses have been fabricated to facilitate small-angle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) experiments. The geometric properties of such lenses, their focusing performance and their applicability for XPCS measurements are described. It is concluded that one-dimensional vertical X-ray focusing via silicon kinoform lenses significantly increases the usable coherent flux from third-generation storage-ring light sources for small-angle XPCS experiments.

Sandy, A.R.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Narayanan, S.; Sprung, M.; Su, J.D; Isakovic, A.F.; Stein, A.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

EFFECT OF DUST ON Ly{alpha} PHOTON TRANSFER IN AN OPTICALLY THICK HALO  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effects of dust on Ly{alpha} photons emergent from an optically thick medium by solving the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer of resonant photons. To solve the differential equations numerically, we use the weighted essentially non-oscillatory method. Although the effects of dust on radiative transfer are well known, the resonant scattering of Ly{alpha} photons makes the problem non-trivial. For instance, if the medium has an optical depth of dust absorption and scattering of {tau}{sub a} >> 1, {tau} >> 1, and {tau} >> {tau}{sub a}, the effective absorption optical depth in a random walk scenario would be equal to {radical}({tau}{sub a}({tau}{sub a}+{tau})). We show, however, that for a resonant scattering at frequency {nu}{sub 0}, the effective absorption optical depth would be even larger than {tau}({nu}{sub 0}). If the cross section of dust scattering and absorption is frequency-independent, the double-peaked structure of the frequency profile given by the resonant scattering is basically dust-independent. That is, dust causes neither narrowing nor widening of the width of the double-peaked profile. One more result is that the timescales of the Ly{alpha} photon transfer in an optically thick halo are also basically independent of the dust scattering, even when the scattering is anisotropic. This is because those timescales are mainly determined by the transfer in the frequency space, while dust scattering, either isotropic or anisotropic, does not affect the behavior of the transfer in the frequency space when the cross section of scattering is wavelength-independent. This result does not support the speculation that dust will lead to the smoothing of the brightness distribution of a Ly{alpha} photon source with an optically thick halo.

Yang Yang; Shu Chiwang [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Roy, Ishani [Computing Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QD (United Kingdom); Fang Lizhi [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Quantum optical coherence can survive photon losses using a continuous-variable quantum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum optical coherence can survive photon losses using a continuous-variable quantum erasure,5 , Nicolas J. Cerf3 and Ulrik L. Andersen1 * A fundamental requirement for enabling fault-tolerant quantum information processing is an efficient quantum error-correcting code that robustly protects the involved

Cerf, Nicolas

36

Two-dimensional defect modes in optically induced photonic lattices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, localized linear defect modes due to band gap guidance in two-dimensional photonic lattices with localized or nonlocalized defects are investigated theoretically. First, when the defect is localized and weak, eigenvalues of defect modes bifurcated from edges of Bloch bands are derived analytically. It is shown that in an attractive (repulsive) defect, defect modes bifurcate out from Bloch-band edges with normal (anomalous) diffraction coefficients. Furthermore, distances between defect-mode eigenvalues and Bloch-band edges decrease exponentially with the defect strength, which is very different from the one-dimensional case where such distances decrease quadratically with the defect strength. It is also found that some defect-mode branches bifurcate not from Bloch-band edges, but from quasiedge points within Bloch bands, which is very unusual. Second, when the defect is localized but strong, defect modes are determined numerically. It is shown that both the repulsive and attractive defects can support various types of defect modes such as fundamental, dipole, quadrupole, and vortex modes. These modes reside in various band gaps of the photonic lattice. As the defect strength increases, defect modes move from lower band gaps to higher ones when the defect is repulsive, but remain within each band gap when the defect is attractive, similar to the one-dimensional case. The same phenomena are observed when the defect is held fixed while the applied dc field (which controls the lattice potential) increases. Lastly, if the defect is nonlocalized (i.e., it persists at large distances in the lattice), it is shown that defect modes can be embedded inside the continuous spectrum, and they can bifurcate out from edges of the continuous spectrum algebraically rather than exponentially.

Wang Jiandong; Yang Jianke; Chen Zhigang [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132 (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Nonlinear optical properties of low temperature annealed silicon-rich oxide and silicon-rich nitride materials for silicon photonics  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the nonlinear optical properties of Si-rich silicon oxide (SRO) and Si-rich silicon nitride (SRN) samples as a function of silicon content, annealing temperature, and excitation wavelength. Using the Z-scan technique, we measure the non-linear refractive index n{sub 2} and the nonlinear absorption coefficient {beta} for a large number of samples fabricated by reactive co-sputtering. Moreover, we characterize the nonlinear optical parameters of SRN in the broad spectral region 1100-1500 nm and show the strongest nonlinearity at 1500 nm. These results demonstrate the potential of the SRN matrix for the engineering of compact devices with enhanced Kerr nonlinearities for silicon photonics applications.

Minissale, S. [Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary's street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215-2421 (United States) and Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary's Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States); Yerci, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary's Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215-2421 (United States); Dal Negro, L. [Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary's street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215-2421 (United States) and Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary's Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary's Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215-2421 (United States)

2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

38

Photon Sciences Directorate | 2010 Annual Report | Beamline & Optics R&D:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beamline & Optics R&D: Enhancing Tools at NSLS, NSLS-II Beamline & Optics R&D: Enhancing Tools at NSLS, NSLS-II Qun Shen "Synchrotron sources have quickly become an essential tool for a wide spectrum of research. All the action takes place at beamlines, each one consisting of a suite of sophisticated scientific instruments. The robust beamlines at NSLS produce remarkable science, and we made excellent progress on developing NSLS-II beamlines and associated science programs." - Qun Shen Director, Photon Division While keeping the existing ring and beamline mechanical systems running, Photon Sciences staff completed a number of R&D projects this year that will improve the tools of researchers at NSLS and, in the near future, NSLS-II. One of the major accomplishments was the installation and commissioning of

39

Cerenkov light spectrum in an optical fiber exposed to a photon or electron radiation therapy beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Cerenkov signal is generated when energetic charged particles enter the core of an optical fiber. The Cerenkov intensity can be large enough to interfere with signals transmitted through the fiber. We determine the spectrum of the Cerenkov background signal generated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber exposed to photon and electron therapeutic beams from a linear accelerator. This spectral measurement is relevant to discrimination of the signal from the background, as in scintillation dosimetry using optical fiber readouts. We find that the spectrum is approximated by the theoretical curve after correction for the wavelength dependent attenuation of the fiber. The spectrum does not depend significantly on the angle between the radiation beam and the axis of the fiber optic but is dependent on the depth in water at which the fiber is exposed to the beam.

Lambert, Jamil; Yin Yongbai; McKenzie, David R.; Law, Sue; Suchowerska, Natalka

2009-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

40

Optical resonators and quantum dots: and excursion into quantum optics, quantum information and photonics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Modern communications technology has encouraged an intimate connection between Semiconductor Physics and Optics, and this connection shows best in the combination of electron-confining structures with (more)

Bianucci, Pablo, 1975-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Elastic photon scattering from sup 4 He in the. Delta. (1232) region  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the differential cross section at laboratory angles 24{degree}, 30{degree}, 45{degree}, and 60{degree} for the reaction {sup 4}He({gamma},{gamma}){sup 4}He at an average lab energy of 320 MeV. This work was performed at the MIT Bates Linear Accelerator using a bremsstrahlung photon beam produced by a 330 MeV electron beam. The scattered photons were detected with a new, high resolution (1.68% FWHM at 330 MeV) NaI(Tl) total absorption scintillation counter. The data were summed over a nine MeV interval below the endpoint of the elastically scattered photon spectrum. Cosmic ray background was rejected by a plastic scintillator veto shield that surrounded the detector and the energy resolution was sufficient to exclude photons from {pi}{sup 0} decay and inelastic scattering from the region of interest. The results were compared with the predictions of the {Delta}-hole calculations of Koch, Moniz, and Ohtsuka and were found to be in excellent agreement. This measurement is the first unambiguous test of the {Delta}-hole formalism for this reaction near the peak of the {Delta} resonance.

Austin, E.J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

All-optical diode action in asymmetric nonlinear photonic multilayers with perfect transmission resonances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Light propagation in asymmetric Kerr-nonlinear multilayers with perfect transmission resonances is theoretically investigated. It is found that hybrid Fabry-Perot-resonator-photonic-crystal structures of the type (BA){sup k}(AB){sup k}(AABB){sup m} exhibit both pronounced unidirectionality (due to strong spatial asymmetry of the resonant mode) and high transmission (due to the existence of a perfect transmission resonance). This results in nonlinear optical diode action with low reflection losses without need for a pumping beam or input pulse modulation. By slightly perturbing the perfect transmission resonance condition, the operating regime of the optical diode can be tuned, with a tradeoff between minimizing the reflection losses and maximizing the frequency bandwidth where unidirectional transmission exists. Optical diode action is demonstrated in direct numerical simulation, showing >92% transmittance in one direction and about 22% in the other. The effect of perfect transmission resonance restoration induced by nonlinearity was observed analytically and numerically. The proposed geometry is shown to have advantages over previously reported designs based on photonic quasicrystals.

Zhukovsky, Sergei V. [Department of Physics and Institute for Optical Sciences, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada); Smirnov, Andrey G. [B. I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Pr. Nezalezhnasti 68, 220072 Minsk (Belarus)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Stable single-photon interference in a 1 km fiber-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer with continuous phase adjustment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We experimentally demonstrate stable and user-adjustable single-photon interference in a 1 km long fiber- optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer, using an active phase control system with the feedback provided by a classical laser. We are able to continuously tune the single-photon phase difference between the interferometer arms using a phase modulator, which is synchronized with the gate window of the single-photon detectors. The phase control system employs a piezoelectric fiber stretcher to stabilize the phase drift in the interferometer. A single-photon net visibility of 0.97 is obtained, yielding future possibilities for experimental realizations of quantum repeaters in optical fibers, and violation of Bell's inequalities using genuine energy-time entanglement

Xavier, G B

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Stable single-photon interference in a 1 km fiber-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer with continuous phase adjustment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We experimentally demonstrate stable and user-adjustable single-photon interference in a 1 km long fiber- optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer, using an active phase control system with the feedback provided by a classical laser. We are able to continuously tune the single-photon phase difference between the interferometer arms using a phase modulator, which is synchronized with the gate window of the single-photon detectors. The phase control system employs a piezoelectric fiber stretcher to stabilize the phase drift in the interferometer. A single-photon net visibility of 0.97 is obtained, yielding future possibilities for experimental realizations of quantum repeaters in optical fibers, and violation of Bell's inequalities using genuine energy-time entanglement

G. B. Xavier; J. P. von der Weid

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

45

Soft-Lithographical Fabrication of Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals in the Optical Regime  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This dissertation describes several projects to realize low-cost and high-quality three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication using non-photolithographic techniques for layer-by-layer photonic crystals. Low-cost, efficient 3D microfabrication is a demanding technique not only for 3D photonic crystals but also for all other scientific areas, since it may create new functionalities beyond the limit of planar structures. However, a novel 3D microfabrication technique for photonic crystals implies the development of a complete set of sub-techniques for basic layer-by-layer stacking, inter-layer alignment, and material conversion. One of the conventional soft lithographic techniques, called microtransfer molding ({mu}TM), was developed by the Whitesides group in 1996. Although {mu}TM technique potentially has a number of advantages to overcome the limit of conventional photolithographic techniques in building up 3D microstructures, it has not been studied intensively after its demonstration. This is mainly because of technical challenges in the nature of layer-by-layer fabrication, such as the demand of very high yield in fabrication. After two years of study on conventional {mu}TM, We have developed an advanced microtransfer molding technique, called two-polymer microtransfer molding (2P-{mu}TM) that shows an extremely high yield in layer-by-layer microfabrication sufficient to produce highly layered microstructures. The use of two different photo-curable prepolymers, a filler and an adhesive, allows for fabrication of layered microstructures without thin films between layers. The capabilities of 2P-{mu}TM are demonstrated by the fabrication of a wide-area 12-layer microstructure with high structural fidelity. Second, we also had to develop an alignment technique. We studied the 1st-order diffracted moire fringes of transparent multilayered structures comprised of irregularly deformed periodic patterns. By a comparison study of the diffracted moire fringe pattern and detailed microscopy of the structure, we show that the diffracted moire fringe can be used as a nondestructive tool to analyze the alignment of multilayered structures. We demonstrate the alignment method for the case of layer-by-layer microstructures using soft lithography. The alignment method yields high contrast of fringes even when the materials being aligned have very weak contrasts. The imaging method of diffracted moire fringes is a versatile visual tool for the microfabrication of transparent deformable microstructures in layer-by-layer fashion. Third, we developed several methods to convert a polymer template to dielectric or metallic structures, for instance, metallic infiltration using electrodeposition, metallic coating using sputter deposition, dielectric infiltration using titania nano-slurry, and dielectric coating using atomic layer deposition of Titania. By several different developed techniques, high quality photonic crystals have been successfully fabricated; however, I will focus on a line of techniques to reach metallic photonic crystals in this dissertation since they are completely characterized at this moment. In addition to the attempts for photonic crystal fabrication, our non-photolithographic technique is applied for other photonic applications such as small optical waveguides whose diameter is comparable to the wavelength of guided light. Although, as guiding medium, polymers have tremendous potential because of their enormous variation in optical, chemical and mechanical properties, their application for optical waveguides is limited in conventional photolithography. By 2P-{mu}TM, we achieve low cost, high yield, high fidelity, and tailorable fabrication of small waveguides. Embedded semiconductor quantum-dots and grating couplers are used for efficient internal and external light source, respectively.

Jae-Hwang Lee

2006-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

46

Fabrication and testing of nano-optical structures for advanced photonics and quantum information processing applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interest in the fabrication of nano-optical structures has increased dramatically in recent years, due to advances in lithographic resolution. In particular, metallic nanostructures are of interest because of their ability to concentrate light to well below the diffraction limit. Such structures have many potential applications, including nanoscale photonics, quantum information processing and single molecule detection/imaging. In the case of quantum computing and quantum communication, plasmon-based metal nanostructures offer the promise of scalable devices. This is because the small optical mode volumes of such structures give the large atom-photon coupling needed to interface solid-state quantum bits (qubits) to photons. The main focus of this dissertation is on fabrication and testing of surface plasmon-based metal nanostructures that can be used as optical wires for effciently collecting and directing an isolated atom or molecule's emission. In this work, Ag waveguides having 100nm50nm and 50nm50nm cross sections have been fabricated ranging from 5m to 16m in length. Different types of coupling structures have also been fabricated to allow in-coupling and out-coupling of free space light into and out of the nanometric waveguides. The design of waveguides and couplers have been accomplished using a commercial finite difference in time domain (FDTD) software. Different nanofabrication techniques and methods have been investigated leading to robust and reliable process conditions suitable for very high aspect ratio fabrication of metal structures. Detailed testing and characterization of the plasmon based metal waveguides and couplers have also been carried out. Test results have revealed effective surface plasmon propagation range. 0.5dB/m and 0.07dB/m transmission losses have been found for 100nm and 50nm wide waveguides respectively, which correspond to 1/e propagation lengths of 9m and 60m. Input coupling effciency was found to be 2% and output coupling effciency was found to be 35%. The fabrication and testing results presented provide critical demonstrations to establish the feasibility of nanophotonic integrated circuits, scalable quantum information processing devices, as well as other devices, such as single molecule detectors and imaging systems.

Khan, Mughees Mahmood

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Fundamental modes of a trapped probe photon in optical fibers conveying periodic pulse trains  

SciTech Connect

Wave modes induced by cross-phase reshaping of a probe photon in the guiding structure of a periodic train of temporal pulses are investigated theoretically with emphasis on exact solutions to the wave equation for the probe. The study has direct connection with recent advances on the issue of light control by light, the focus being on the trapping of a low-power probe by a temporal sequence of periodically matched high-power pulses of a dispersion-managed optical fiber. The problem is formulated in terms of the nonlinear optical fiber equation with averaged dispersion, coupled to a linear equation for the probe including a cross-phase modulation term. Shape-preserving modes which are robust against the dispersion are shown to be induced in the probe, they form a family of mutually orthogonal solitons the characteristic features of which are determined by the competition between the self-phase and cross-phase effects. Considering a specific context of this competition, the theory predicts two degenerate modes representing a train of bright signals and one mode which describes a train of dark signals. When the walk-off between the pump and probe is taken into consideration, these modes have finite-momentum envelopes and none of them is totally transparent vis-a-vis the optical pump soliton.

Dikande, Alain M. [Laboratory of Research on Advanced Materials and Nonlinear Sciences (LaRAMaNS), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea (Cameroon)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Optical studies of photonic crystals and high index-contrast microphotonic circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Both high index-contrast (HIC) photonic crystals and HIC microphotonic circuits are presented in this thesis. Studies of macro-scale 2D photonic crystal meta-materials are first described. Through comparison of experimental ...

Rakich, Peter Thomas

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Block copolymer photonic crystals : towards self-assembled active optical elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Block copolymers have proven to be a unique materials platform for easily fabricated large-area photonic crystals. While the basic concept of block copolymer based photonic band gap materials has been well demonstrated, ...

Yoon, Jongseung

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion in thin optical fibers as a photon-triplet source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion (TOSPDC) process, as a means to generate entangled photon triplets. Specifically, we consider thin optical fibers as the nonlinear medium to be used as the basis for TOSPDC in configurations where phase matching is attained through the use of more than one fiber transverse modes. Our analysis in this paper, which follows from our earlier paper [Opt. Lett. 36, 190-192 (2011)], aims to supply experimentalists with the details required in order to design a TOSPDC photon-triplet source. Specifically, our analysis focuses on the photon triplet state, on the rate of emission, and on the TOSPDC phase-matching characteristics for the cases of frequency-degenerate and frequency nondegenerate TOSPDC.

Corona, Maria [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, apdo. postal 70-543, DF 04510 Mexico City (Mexico); Departamento de Optica, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2732, BC 22860 Ensenada (Mexico); Garay-Palmett, Karina; U'Ren, Alfred B. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, apdo. postal 70-543, DF 04510 Mexico City (Mexico)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

Coupled optical and electronic simulations of electrically pumped photonic-crystal-based LEDs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to investigate design tradeoffs in electrically pumped photonic crystal light emitting diodes. A finite. Keywords: Photonic crystal light emitting diode, electrically pumped device 1. INTRODUCTION Recently optoelectronic devices, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers. It has been suggested that a thin slab

Dutton, Robert W.

52

Optical and higher layer performance monitoring in photonic networks: progress and challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical performance monitoring (OPM) and optical network management (ONM) are essential in building a reliable and high quality of service system as the optical transmission system continues to evolve towards higher data rates, increased wave length ... Keywords: bit error rate, fiber bragggrating, optical performance monitoring, wavelength division multiplexin

M. S. Islam; S. P. Majumder

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Slow-light photonic crystal devices for high-speed optical signal processing.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This book discusses design, modeling, and the characterization of slow-light photonic crystal waveguides. Guidelines are developed to obtain slow-light waveguides with broadband characteristics and with (more)

Brosi, Jan-Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with optical nano-antennae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical nano-antennae have been integrated with semiconductor lasers to intensify light at the nanoscale and photodiodes to enhance photocurrent. In quantum optics, plasmonic metal structures have been used to enhance ...

Berggren, Karl K.

55

Tunable micro-cavities in photonic band-gap yarns and optical fibers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The vision behind this work is the fabrication of high performance innovative fiber-based optical components over kilometer length-scales. The optical properties of these fibers derive from their multilayer dielectric ...

Benoit, Gilles, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Research ActivitiesCREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics ACADEMICS RESEARCH PARTNERSHIPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center (AMPAC), the Institute for Simulation and Training (IST), the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC://www.odalab-spectrum.org · Infrared Systems Laboratory, conducting research on infrared detector and focal-plane analysis, optics and Modeling of Optical Systems, and characterization of optical phenomena. Led by Dr. James Harvey, further

Li, Guifang

57

Symposium and Industrial Affiliates Program Celebrating 25 Years of Excellence in Optics and Photonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Florida, the Nation, and the World CREOL Industrial Partners NGC Laser Systems, Ocean Optics, Analog Year Perspective on Fiber Innovation Alan Evans Corning 2:50 Optical Communication Beyond Session VI: Fiber Optics Presentations ­ Alumni Center Posters, Tours & Reception ­ CREOL Building #12

Richardson, Martin C.

58

Hybrid Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modulators for sili- con photonics, in Proc. IEEE Photon.J.E. Bowers, Hybrid silicon photonics for optical Intercon-The evolution of silicon photonics as an enabling technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Beam-helicity asymmetry in associated electroproduction of real photons $ep \\to e??N$ in the $?$-resonance region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The beam-helicity asymmetry in associated electroproduction of real photons, $ep\\to e\\gamma \\pi N$, in the $\\Delta$(1232)-resonance region is measured using the longitudinally polarized HERA positron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target. Azimuthal Fourier amplitudes of this asymmetry are extracted separately for two channels, $ep\\to e\\gamma \\pi^0 p$ and $ep\\to e\\gamma \\pi^+ n$, from a data set collected with a recoil detector. All asymmetry amplitudes are found to be consistent with zero.

The HERMES Collaboration; A. Airapetian; N. Akopov; E. C. Aschenauer; W. Augustyniak; R. Avakian; A. Avetissian; E. Avetisyan; H. P. Blok; H. Bttcher; A. Borissov; J. Bowles; I. Brodski; V. Bryzgalov; J. Burns; G. P. Capitani; E. Cisbani; G. Ciullo; M. Contalbrigo; P. F. Dalpiaz; W. Deconinck; R. De Leo; E. De Sanctis; M. Diefenthaler; P. Di Nezza; M. Dren; M. Ehrenfried; G. Elbakian; F. Ellinghaus; E. Etzelmller; R. Fabbri; S. Frullani; G. Gapienko; V. Gapienko; J. Garay Garca; F. Garibaldi; G. Gavrilov; V. Gharibyan; F. Giordano; S. Gliske; M. Hartig; D. Hasch; Y. Holler; I. Hristova; A. Ivanilov; H. E. Jackson; S. Joosten; R. Kaiser; G. Karyan; T. Keri; E. Kinney; A. Kisselev; V. Korotkov; V. Kozlov; P. Kravchenko; V. G. Krivokhijine; L. Lagamba; L. Lapiks; I. Lehmann; P. Lenisa; W. Lorenzon; X. -G. Lu; B. -Q. Ma; D. Mahon; N. C. R. Makins; S. I. Manaenkov; Y. Mao; B. Marianski; H. Marukyan; C. A. Miller; Y. Miyachi; A. Movsisyan; V. Muccifora; M. Murray; A. Mussgiller; Y. Naryshkin; A. Nass; M. Negodaev; W. -D. Nowak; L. L. Pappalardo; R. Perez-Benito; A. Petrosyan; P. E. Reimer; A. R. Reolon; C. Riedl; K. Rith; G. Rosner; A. Rostomyan; J. Rubin; D. Ryckbosch; Y. Salomatin; A. Schfer; G. Schnell; B. Seitz; T. -A. Shibata; M. Stahl; M. Statera; E. Steffens; J. J. M. Steijger; J. Stewart; F. Stinzing; S. Taroian; A. Terkulov; R. Truty; A. Trzcinski; M. Tytgat; Y. Van Haarlem; C. Van Hulse; V. Vikhrov; I. Vilardi; S. Wang; S. Yaschenko; Z. Ye; S. Yen; V. Zagrebelnyy; B. Zihlmann; P. Zupranski

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

60

Adaptive optics wavefront sensors based on photon-counting detector arrays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For adaptive optics systems, there is a growing demand for wavefront sensors that operate at higher frame rates and with more pixels while maintaining low readout noise. Lincoln Laboratory has been investigating Geiger-mode ...

Aull, Brian F.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Measuring photon-photon interactions via photon detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The strong non-linearity plays a significant role in physics, particularly, in designing novel quantum sources of light and matter as well as in quantum chemistry or quantum biology. In simple systems, the photon-photon interaction can be determined analytically. However, it becomes challenging to obtain it for more compex systems. Therefore, we show here how to measure strong non-linearities via allowing the sample to interact with a weakly pumped quantized leaking optical mode. We found that the detected mean-photon number versus pump-field frequency shows several peaks. Interestingly, the interval between neighbour peaks equals the photon-photon interaction potential. Furthermore, the system exhibits sub-Poissonian photon statistics, entanglement and photon switching with less than one photon. Finally, we connect our study with existing related experiments.

Macovei, Mihai A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Measuring photon-photon interactions via photon detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The strong non-linearity plays a significant role in physics, particularly, in designing novel quantum sources of light and matter as well as in quantum chemistry or quantum biology. In simple systems, the photon-photon interaction can be determined analytically. However, it becomes challenging to obtain it for more compex systems. Therefore, we show here how to measure strong non-linearities via allowing the sample to interact with a weakly pumped quantized leaking optical mode. We found that the detected mean-photon number versus pump-field frequency shows several peaks. Interestingly, the interval between neighbour peaks equals the photon-photon interaction potential. Furthermore, the system exhibits sub-Poissonian photon statistics, entanglement and photon switching with less than one photon. Finally, we connect our study with existing related experiments.

Mihai A. Macovei

2010-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

63

Photonic crystal light source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Bur, James A. (Corrales, NM)

2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

64

Ico-photonics-delphi2009.org Fibre-optic interferometric pressure sensor based on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is delivered to the brain region of interest using a fiberoptic-based system or a light-emitting diode (LED-sensitive, molecular, neu- ronal activity "switches." These "switches" are microbial, light- sensitive ion conductance-regulat- ing activity of these "switches" can be controlled externally with light pulses. ChR2 is a cation

Vlachos, Kyriakos G.

65

A New Method for Measuring X-ray Optics Aberrations | Advanced Photon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Clues for Asthma Treatment New Clues for Asthma Treatment Extending Resonant Diffraction to Very High Energies for Structural Studies of Complex Materials Tuning the Collective Properties of Artificial Nanoparticle Supercrystals The Workings of a Key Staph Enzyme and How to Block It Simple Lithium Is Good For Many Surprises Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A New Method for Measuring X-ray Optics Aberrations MARCH 31, 2011 Bookmark and Share Top: Experimental setup. Bottom: Measured and simulated lens aberrations (left) and their corresponding through focus amplitude of reconstructions (right) for different lens angular misalignments. (From Manuel

66

RECONSTRUCTING THE {gamma}-RAY PHOTON OPTICAL DEPTH OF THE UNIVERSE TO z {approx} 4 FROM MULTIWAVELENGTH GALAXY SURVEY DATA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We reconstruct the {gamma}-ray opacity of the universe out to z {approx}gamma}{gamma} optical depth out to several TeV. Here, we use the same database as Helgason et al. where the extragalactic background light was reconstructed from LFs out to 4.5 {mu}m and was shown to recover observed galaxy counts to high accuracy. We extend our earlier library of LFs to 25 {mu}m such that it covers the energy range of pair production with {gamma}-rays (1) in the entire Fermi/LAT energy range, and (2) at higher TeV energies probed by ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. In the absence of significant contributions to the cosmic diffuse background from unknown populations, such as the putative Population III era sources, the universe appears to be largely transparent to {gamma}-rays at all Fermi/LAT energies out to z {approx} 2 whereas it becomes opaque to TeV photons already at z {approx}gamma-ray burst and blazar data shows that there is room for significant emissions originating in the first stars era.

Helgason, Kari [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Kashlinsky, Alexander, E-mail: kari@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: alexander.kashlinsky@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

67

NNMI Comments: A Photonics Manufacturing Institute  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Arizona Optics Industry Association Colorado Photonics ... ground relationships and energy in addition ... simply, coherent techniques mix waves to ...

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

68

Quantum Electronics and Photonics Division Homepage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The mission of the Quantum Electronics and Photonics Division is to ... quantum information and computing, optical and electrical waveform metrology ...

2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

69

Silicon Nanowires for Integrated Photonics: Bridging Nano and Micro Photonics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Silicon Nanowires (SiNWs) with ability to confine carriers and photons in two directions while allowing propagation in third dimension offer interesting modified optical properties such (more)

Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Photonic layered media  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of structured dielectric media which exhibit significant photonic bandstructure has been invented. The new structures, called photonic layered media, are easy to fabricate using existing layer-by-layer growth techniques, and offer the ability to significantly extend our practical ability to tailor the properties of such optical materials.

Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Optical constants of evaporation-deposited silicon monoxide films in the 7.1800 eV photon energy range  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transmittance of silicon monoxide films prepared by thermal evaporation was measured from 7.1 to 800 eV and used to determine the optical constants of the material. SiO filmsdeposited onto C-coated microgrids in ultrahigh vacuum conditions were measured in situ from 7.1 to 23.1 eV. Grid-supported SiO filmsdeposited in high vacuum conditions were characterized ex situ from 28.5 to 800 eV. At each photon energy

Mnica Fernndez-Perea; Manuela Vidal-Dasilva; Juan I. Larruquert; Jos A. Aznrez; Jos A. Mndez; Eric Gullikson; Andy Aquila; Regina Soufli

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Nanowires and nanoribbons as subwavelength optical waveguides and their use as components in photonic circuits and devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nanoribbons and nanowires having diameters less than the wavelength of light are used in the formation and operation of optical circuits and devices. Such nanostructures function as subwavelength optical waveguides which form a fundamental building block for optical integration. The extraordinary length, flexibility and strength of these structures enable their manipulation on surfaces, including the precise positioning and optical linking of nanoribbon/wire waveguides and other nanoribbon/wire elements to form optical networks and devices. In addition, such structures provide for waveguiding in liquids, enabling them to further be used in other applications such as optical probes and sensors.

Yang, Peidong; Law, Matt; Sirbuly, Donald J.; Johnson, Justin C.; Saykally, Richard; Fan, Rong; Tao, Andrea

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

73

Photon-photon collisions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.

Brodsky, S.J.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Conferences and Workshops | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1-5 Advances in X-RayEUV Optics and Components and Adaptive X-Ray Optics SPIE Optics+Photonics, San Diego, CA August 2-6 1st North American Core Shell Spectroscopy Conference held...

75

Beam-helicity asymmetry in associated electroproduction of real photons $ep \\to e\\gamma \\pi N$ in the $\\Delta$-resonance region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The beam-helicity asymmetry in associated electroproduction of real photons, $ep\\to e\\gamma \\pi N$, in the $\\Delta$(1232)-resonance region is measured using the longitudinally polarized HERA positron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target. Azimuthal Fourier amplitudes of this asymmetry are extracted separately for two channels, $ep\\to e\\gamma \\pi^0 p$ and $ep\\to e\\gamma \\pi^+ n$, from a data set collected with a recoil detector. All asymmetry amplitudes are found to be consistent with zero.

Airapetian, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetissian, A; Avetisyan, E; Blok, H P; Bttcher, H; Borissov, A; Bowles, J; Brodski, I; Bryzgalov, V; Burns, J; Capitani, G P; Cisbani, E; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; De Sanctis, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Etzelmller, E; Fabbri, R; Frullani, S; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garca, J Garay; Garibaldi, F; Gavrilov, G; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Gliske, S; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Holler, Y; Hristova, I; Ivanilov, A; Jackson, H E; Joosten, S; Kaiser, R; Karyan, G; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Kravchenko, P; Krivokhijine, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapiks, L; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Lorenzon, W; Lu, X -G; Ma, B -Q; Mahon, D; Makins, N C R; Manaenkov, S I; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Movsisyan, A; Muccifora, V; Murray, M; Mussgiller, A; Naryshkin, Y; Nass, A; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W -D; Pappalardo, L L; Perez-Benito, R; Petrosyan, A; Reimer, P E; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Schfer, A; Schnell, G; Seitz, B; Shibata, T -A; Stahl, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Taroian, S; Terkulov, A; Truty, R; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Van Haarlem, Y; Van Hulse, C; Vikhrov, V; Vilardi, I; Wang, S; Yaschenko, S; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Zagrebelnyy, V; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

On the possible origin of gamma ray bursts as a result of interaction of relativistic jets with the soft photon field in dense stellar regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine and develop the model of gamma ray bursts origin proposed by Shaviv and Dar (astro-ph/9606032), according to which the strong gamma ray emission is produced by the interaction of the baryonic relativistic jet (outflow) with the soft photon field in a dense stellar region. It is shown by the simulations of the burst profiles that these profiles are very sensitive to the jet geometry, and the 'clarity' of the GRB profile is (in this model) somehow connected with the gamma rays beaming. Also some event-rate based restrictions are derived and discussed.

Darja N. Drozdova; Ivan E. Panchenko

1997-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

77

Photonic Technologies for Quantum Information Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The last several years have seen tremendous progress toward practical optical quantum information processing, including the development of single- and entangled-photon sources and high-efficiency photon counting detectors, covering a range of wavelengths. We review some of the recent progress in the development of these photonic technologies. KEY WORDS: Quantum dot; entanglement; down-conversion; single-photon detector.

Prem Kumar; Paul Kwiat; Alan Migdall; Sae Woo Nam; Jelena Vuckovic; Franco N. C. Wong

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Dynamic pixel selection in free-space photon-counting optical communication systems for the exploitation of excess channel capacity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric turbulence in free-space optical communications turns signal demodulation and decoding into a multimode problem as wavefronts of the transmitting laser beams are warped spatially past the desired form of a ...

Chandrasekaran, Nivedita

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Distilling single-photon entanglement from photon loss and decoherence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-photon entanglement may be the simplest type of entanglement but it is of vice importance in quantum communication. Here we present a practical protocol for distilling the single-photon entanglement from both photon loss and decoherence. With the help of some local single photons, the probability of single photon loss can be decreased and the less-entangled state can also be recovered to maximally entangled state simultaneously. It only requires some linear optical elements which makes it feasible in current experiment condition. This protocol might find applications in current quantum communications based on the quantum repeaters.

Yu-Bo Sheng; Lan Zhou

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

80

Ion photon emission microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Optics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optics A computer program to calculate the optical properties of glazing systems and laminates. The program can be used to construct new laminates from existing components and...

82

New Experimental Limit on Photon Hidden-Sector Paraphoton Mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the first results of a search for optical-wavelength photons mixing with hypothetical hidden-sector paraphotons in the mass range between 10^-5 and 10^-2 electron volts for a mixing parameter greater than 10^-7. This was a generation-regeneration experiment using the "light shining through a wall" technique in which regenerated photons are searched for downstream of an optical barrier that separates it from an upstream generation region. The new limits presented here are approximately three times more sensitive to this mixing than the best previous measurement. The present results indicate no evidence for photon-paraphoton mixing for the range of parameters investigated.

A. Afanasev; O. K. Baker; K. B. Beard; G. Biallas; J. Boyce; M. Minarni; R. Ramdon; M. Shinn; P. Slocum

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

83

Anthropogenic and natural contributions to regional trends in aerosol optical depth, 1980-2006.  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the roles of human and natural sources in contributing to aerosol concentrations around the world is an important step toward developing efficient and effective mitigation measures for local and regional air quality degradation and climate change. In this study we test the hypothesis that changes in aerosol optical depth (AOD) over time are caused by the changing patterns of anthropogenic emissions of aerosols and aerosol precursors. We present estimated trends of contributions to AOD for eight world regions from 1980 to 2006, built upon a full run of the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model for the year 2001, extended in time using trends in emissions of man-made and natural sources. Estimated AOD trends agree well (R > 0.5) with observed trends in surface solar radiation in Russia, the United States, south Asia, southern Africa, and East Asia (before 1992) but less well for Organization for Economic Co-operative Development (OECD) Europe (R < 0.5). The trends do not agree well for southeast Asia and for East Asia (after 1992) where large-scale inter- and intraannual variations in emissions from forest fires, volcanic eruptions, and dust storms confound our approach. Natural contributions to AOD, including forest and grassland fires, show no significant long-term trends (<1%/a), except for a small increasing trend in OECD Europe and a small decreasing trend in South America. Trends in man-made contributions to AOD follow the changing patterns of industrial and economic activity. We quantify the average contributions of key source types to regional AOD over the entire time period.

Streets, D. G.; Yan, F.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Mahowald, N.; Schultz, M.; Wild, M.; Wu, Y.; Yu, C.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois; NASA; Cornell Univ.; Forschungszentrum; Inst.for Atmospheric and Climate Science; Tsinghua Univ.

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

84

NNMI Comments: A Photonics Manufacturing Institute  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... devices (such as displays, solar cells, etc ... Mexico Optics Industry Association New York Photonics Industry ... Collecting the market share data on key ...

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

85

Development of shallow trench isolation bounded single- photon avalanche detectors for acousto-optic signal enhancement and frequency up-conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

using 1.55-mum up-conversion single-photon detectors,N. Gisin, Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom3.4. Single Photon Frequency Up-conversion via Hot-carrier

Hsu, Mark J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Conferences and Workshops | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IL August 10-14 X-ray Focusing Workshop and X-ray Optics Conference SPIE Optics+Photonics Symposium, San Diego, CA Sept 24-Oct 11 National School on Neutron and X-ray...

87

Strongly correlated photons on a chip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical non-linearities at the single-photon level are key ingredients for future photonic quantum technologies. Prime candidates for the realization of strong photon-photon interactions necessary for implementing quantum information processing tasks as well as for studying strongly correlated photons in an integrated photonic device setting are quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal nanocavities. Here, we report strong quantum correlations between photons on picosecond timescales. We observe (a) photon antibunching upon resonant excitation of the lowest-energy polariton state, proving that the first cavity photon blocks the subsequent injection events, and (b) photon bunching when the laser field is in two-photon resonance with the polariton eigenstates of the second Jaynes-Cummings manifold, demonstrating that two photons at this color are more likely to be injected into the cavity jointly, than they would otherwise. Together,these results demonstrate unprecedented strong single-photon non-linearities, paving the way for realizing a single-photon transistor or a quantum optical Josephson interferometer.

Andreas Reinhard; Thomas Volz; Martin Winger; Antonio Badolato; Kevin J. Hennessy; Evelyn L. Hu; Atac Imamoglu

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

Polarization-controlled single photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vacuum-stimulated Raman transitions are driven between two magnetic substates of a rubidium-87 atom strongly coupled to an optical cavity. A magnetic field lifts the degeneracy of these states, and the atom is alternately exposed to laser pulses of two different frequencies. This produces a stream of single photons with alternating circular polarization in a predetermined spatio-temporal mode. MHz repetition rates are possible as no recycling of the atom between photon generations is required. Photon indistinguishability is tested by time-resolved two-photon interference.

T. Wilk; S. C. Webster; H. P. Specht; G. Rempe; A. Kuhn

2006-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

89

Polarization-controlled single photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vacuum-stimulated Raman transitions are driven between two magnetic substates of a rubidium-87 atom strongly coupled to an optical cavity. A magnetic field lifts the degeneracy of these states, and the atom is alternately exposed to laser pulses of two different frequencies. This produces a stream of single photons with alternating circular polarization in a predetermined spatio-temporal mode. MHz repetition rates are possible as no recycling of the atom between photon generations is required. Photon indistinguishability is tested by time-resolved two-photon interference.

Wilk, T; Rempe, G; Specht, H P; Webster, S C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Photon Bubbles and the Vertical Structure of Accretion Disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the effects of "photon bubble" shock trains on the vertical structure of radiation pressure-dominated accretion disks. These density inhomogeneities are expected to develop spontaneously in radiation-dominated accretion disks where magnetic pressure exceeds gas pressure, even in the presence of magnetorotational instability. They increase the rate at which radiation escapes from the disk, and may allow disks to exceed the Eddington limit by a substantial factor. We first generalize the theory of photon bubbles to include the effects of finite optical depths and radiation damping. Modifications to the diffusion law at low optical depth tend to fill in the low-density regions of photon bubbles, while radiation damping inhibits the formation of photon bubbles at large radii, small accretion rates, and small heights above the equatorial plane. Accretion disks dominated by photon bubble transport may reach luminosities of 10 to >100 times the Eddington limit (L_E), depending on the mass of the central object, while remaining geometrically thin. However, photon bubble-dominated disks with alpha-viscosity are subject to the same thermal and viscous instabilities that plague standard radiation pressure-dominated disks, suggesting that they may be intrinsically unsteady. Photon bubbles can lead to a "core-halo" vertical disk structure. In super-Eddington disks the halo forms the base of a wind, which carries away substantial energy and mass, but not enough to prevent the luminosity from exceeding L_E. Photon bubble-dominated disks may have smaller color corrections than standard accretion disks of the same luminosity. They remain viable contenders for some ultraluminous X-ray sources and may play a role in the rapid growth of supermassive black holes at high redshift.

Mitchell C. Begelman

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Photon collider at TESLA 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High energy photon colliders (??, ?e) based on backward Compton scattering of laser light is a very natural addition to e + e ? linear colliders. In this report we consider this option for the TESLA project. Recent study has shown that the horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring can be further decreased by a factor of four. In this case the ?? luminosity in the high energy part of spectrum can reach about (1/3)L e e ?. Typical cross sections of interesting processes in ?? collisions are higher than those in e + e ? collisions by about one order of magnitude, so the number of events in ?? collisions will be more than that in e + e ? collisions. Photon colliders can, certainly, give additional information and they are the best for the study of many phenomena. The main question is now the technical feasibility. The key new element in photon colliders is a very powerful laser system. An external optical cavity is a promising approach for the TESLA project. A free electron laser is another option. However, a more straightforward solution is an optical storage ring (optical trap) with a diode pumped solid state laser injector which is today technically feasible. This paper briefly reviews the status of a photon collider based on the linear collider TESLA, its possible parameters and existing problems. PACS: 29.17.+w, 41.75.Ht, 41.75.Lx, 13.60.Fz Key words: photon collider; linear collider; photon photon; gamma gamma; photon electron; Compton scattering; backscattering 1

Valery Telnov

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Photon collider at TESLA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High energy photon colliders (gamma-gamma, gamma-electron) based on backward Compton scattering of laser light is a very natural addition to e+e- linear colliders. In this report we consider this option for the TESLA project. Recent study has shown that the horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring can be further decreased by a factor of four. In this case the gamma-gamma luminosity luminosity in the high energy part of spectrum can reach (1/3)L_{e+e-}. Typical cross sections of interesting processes in gamma-gamma collisions are higher than those in e+e- collisions by about one order of magnitude, so the number of events in gamma-gamma collisions will be more than that in e+e- collisions. Photon colliders can, certainly, give additional information and they are the best for the study of many phenomena. The main question is now the technical feasibility. The key new element in photon colliders is a very powerful laser system. An external optical cavity is a promising approach for the TESLA project. A free electron laser is another option. However, a more straightforward solution is ``an optical storage ring (optical trap)'' with diode pumped solid state laser injector which is today technically feasible. This paper briefly reviews the status of a photon collider based at TESLA, its possible parameters and existing problems.

Valery Telnov

2000-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

93

Photon Channelling in Foams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experiments by Gittings, Bandyopadhyay, and Durian [Europhys. Lett.\\ \\textbf{65}, 414 (2004)] demonstrate that light possesses a higher probability to propagate in the liquid phase of a foam due to total reflection. The authors term this observation photon channelling which we investigate in this article theoretically. We first derive a central relation in the work of Gitting {\\em et al.} without any free parameters. It links the photon's path-length fraction $f$ in the liquid phase to the liquid fraction $\\epsilon$. We then construct two-dimensional Voronoi foams, replace the cell edges by channels to represent the liquid films and simulate photon paths according to the laws of ray optics using transmission and reflection coefficients from Fresnel's formulas. In an exact honeycomb foam, the photons show superdiffusive behavior. It becomes diffusive as soon as disorder is introduced into the foams. The dependence of the diffusion constant on channel width and refractive index is explained by a one-dimensional random-walk model. It contains a photon channelling state that is crucial for the understanding of the numerical results. At the end, we shortly comment on the observation that photon channelling only occurs in a finite range of $\\epsilon$.

Michael Schmiedeberg; MirFaez Miri; Holger Stark

2005-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

94

Direct Photons at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct photons are ideal tools to investigate kinematical and thermodynamical conditions of heavy ion collisions since they are emitted from all stages of the collision and once produced they leave the interaction region without further modification by the medium. The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured direct photon production in p+p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV over a wide transverse momentum ($p_T$) range. The $p$ + $p$ measurements allow a fundamental test of QCD, and serve as a baseline when we try to disentangle more complex mechanisms producing high $p_T$ direct photons in Au+Au. As for thermal photons in Au+Au we overcome the difficulties due to the large background from hadronic decays by measuring "almost real" virtual photons which appear as low invariant mass $e^+e^-$ pairs: a significant excess of direct photons is measured above the above next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. Additional insights on the origin of direct photons can be gained with the study of the azimuthal anisotropy which benefits from the increased statistics and reaction plane resolution achieved in RHIC Year-7 data.

G. David; for the PHENIX Collaboration

2008-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

95

GaN directional couplers for integrated quantum photonics  

SciTech Connect

Large cross-section GaN waveguides are proposed as a suitable architecture to achieve integrated quantum photonic circuits. Directional couplers with this geometry have been designed with aid of the beam propagation method and fabricated using inductively coupled plasma etching. Scanning electron microscopy inspection shows high quality facets for end coupling and a well defined gap between rib pairs in the coupling region. Optical characterization at 800 nm shows single-mode operation and coupling-length-dependent splitting ratios. Two photon interference of degenerate photon pairs has been observed in the directional coupler by measurement of the Hong-Ou-Mandel dip [C. K. Hong, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044 (1987)] with 96% visibility.

Zhang Yanfeng; McKnight, Loyd; Watson, Ian M.; Gu, Erdan; Calvez, Stephane; Dawson, Martin D. [Institute of Photonics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom); Engin, Erman; Cryan, Martin J.; Thompson, Mark G.; O'Brien, Jeremy L. [Centre for Quantum Photonics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UB (United Kingdom)

2011-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

96

Towards a LED based on a photonic crystal nanocavity for single photon sources at telecom wavelength  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fundamental step towards achieving an ''on demand'' single photon source would be the possibility of electrical pumping for a single QD and thus the integration of such a device in an opto-electronic circuit. In this work we describe the fabrication ... Keywords: LED, Optical nanocavities, Photonic crystals, Single photon sources

M. Francardi; A. Gerardino; L. Balet; N. Chauvin; D. Bitauld; C. Zinoni; L. H. Li; B. Alloing; N. Le Thomas; R. Houdr; A. Fiore

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Early photon-shock interaction in stellar wind: sub-GeV photon flash and high energy neutrino emission from long GRBs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) born in a stellar wind, as the reverse shock crosses the ejecta, usually the shocked regions are still precipitated by the prompt MeV \\gamma-ray emission. Because of the tight overlapping of the MeV photon flow with the shocked regions, the optical depth for the GeV photons produced in the shocks is very large. These high energy photons are absorbed by the MeV photon flow and generate relativistic e^\\pm pairs. These pairs re-scatter the soft X-ray photons from the forward shock as well as the prompt \\gamma-ray photons and power detectable high energy emission, significant part of which is in the sub-GeV energy range. Since the total energy contained in the forward shock region and the reverse shock region are comparable, the predicted sub-GeV emission is independent on whether the GRB ejecta are magnetized (in which case the reverse shock IC and synchrotron self-Compton emission is suppressed). As a result, a sub-GeV flash is a generic signature for the GRB wind model, and it should be typically detectable by the future {\\em Gamma-Ray Large Area Telescope} (GLAST). Overlapping also influence neutrino emission. Besides the 10^{15} \\sim 10^{17} eV neutrino emission powered by the interaction of the shock accelerated protons with the synchrotron photons in both the forward and reverse shock regions, there comes another $10^{14}$eV neutrino emission component powered by protons interacting with the MeV photon flow. This last component has a similar spectrum to the one generated in the internal shock phase, but the typical energy is slightly lower.

Y. Z. Fan; Bing Zhang; D. M. Wei

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Nuclear Photonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With new gamma-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest with 10^13 g/s and a bandwidth of Delta E_g/E_g ~10^-3, a new era of g-beams with energies Duke Univ., USA) with 10^8 g/s and Delta E_g/E_g~0.03. Even a seeded quantum FEL for g-beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused g-beams. We describe a new experiment at the g-beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for g-beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for g-beams are being developed. Thus we have to optimize the system of the g-beam facility, the g-beam optics and g-detectors. We can trade g-intensity for band width, going down to Delta E_g/E_g ~ 10^-6 and address individual nuclear levels. 'Nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with g-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, g-beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to micron resolution using Nucl. Reson. Fluorescence for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

D. Habs; M. M. Guenther; M. Jentschel; P. G. Thirolf

2012-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

99

Optical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optical Optical fiber-based single-shot picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy Andrew R. Cook a͒ and Yuzhen Shen Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA ͑Received 27 January 2009; accepted 29 May 2009; published online 17 July 2009͒ A new type of single-shot transient absorption apparatus is described based on a bundle of optical fibers. The bundle contains 100 fibers of different lengths, each successively giving ϳ15 ps longer optical delay. Data are collected by imaging light from the exit of the bundle into a sample where it is overlapped with an electron pulse or laser excitation pulse, followed by imaging onto a charge coupled device ͑CCD͒ detector where the intensity of light from each fiber is measured simultaneously. Application to both ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy and pulse radiolysis is demonstrated. For pulse

100

Folding Photons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scientists have shown that wrinkles and folds can be used to maximize the absorption of low-energy photons by efficiently redirecting them into a thin absorbing film. This inexpensive technique for structuring photonic substrates could be used to increase the efficiency of many organic photovoltaic cells.

Gregg, B. A.; van de Lagemaat, J.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Photon capture cones and embedding diagrams of the Ernst spacetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The differences between the character of the Schwarzschild and Ernst spacetimes are illustrated by comparing the photon capture cones, and the embedding diagrams of the $t=\\mathrm{const}$ sections of the equatorial planes of both the ordinary and optical reference geometry of these spacetimes. The non-flat asymptotic character of the Ernst spacetime reflects itself in two manifest facts: the escape photon cones correspond to purely outward radial direction, and the embedding diagrams of both the ordinary and optical geometry shrink to zero radius asymptotically. Using the properties of the embedding diagrams, regions of these spacetimes which could have similar character are estimated, and it is argued that they can exist for the Ernst spacetimes with a sufficiently low strength of the magnetic field.

Zden?k Stuchlk; Stanislav Hledk

2008-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

102

Effective Photon-Photon Interactions in Largely Detuned Optomechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose to realize effective beam-splitter-like and two-mode-squeezing photon-photon interactions in a strong coupling optomechanical interface by exploiting detuned driving lasers. In this interface, the transitions between the optical system and the mechanical oscillator are suppressed by the large energy offsets, therefore protecting the photon-photon interactions from mechanical dissipations. Moreover, the destructive quantum interference between the eigenmodes of the interface is capable of further reducing the effects of initial mechanical thermal occupations. The interface can serve as a universal block for photon state engineering and hybrid quantum networks in high-temperature thermal bath and without the requirement of cooling the mechanical oscillator to the ground state.

Hao-Kun Li; Xue-Xin Ren; Yong-Chun Liu; Yun-Feng Xiao

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

103

Coherent multi-photon interference and compensation of polarization dispersion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis will explore strategies for coherent manipulation of multi-photon packets. Correlated multi-photon states can arise in nonlinear optical devices. A nonlinear quantum interferometer which includes these states ...

Fini, John Michael

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Few photon switching with slow light in hollow fiber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cold atoms confined inside a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber with core diameters of a few photon wavelengths are a promising medium for studying nonlinear optical interactions at extremely low light levels. The high ...

Bajcsy, M.

105

Photonic crystal fibre source of photon pairs for quantum information processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate two key components for optical quantum information processing: a bright source of heralded single photons; and a bright source of entangled photon pairs. A pair of pump photons produces a correlated pair of photons at widely spaced wavelengths (583 nm and 900 nm), via a $\\chi^{(3)}$ four-wave mixing process. We demonstrate a non-classical interference between heralded photons from independent sources with a visibility of 95%, and an entangled photon pair source, with a fidelity of 89% with a Bell state.

Jeremie Fulconis; Olivier Alibart; Jeremy L. O'Brien; William J. Wadsworth; John G. Rarity

2006-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

106

Ultrafast optics For optics and photonics course,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

techniques or mode locking methods, 4/12/2012 2Liquid Crystal Institute #12;· Light bulbs, lasers lets some light out. R = 100% R #12;· Laser cavity modes: · Although laser light is perhaps the purest form of light

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

107

Wakefields in photonic accelerator structures  

SciTech Connect

Control and manipulation of properties - such as vacuum modal confinement, spatial harmonic content, phase velocity, and group velocity - are reasons why an all-dielectric beam-driven accelerator would be expected to benefit by borrowing from the field of optical bandgap photonics. We outline the general conditions for coherent Cerenkov radiation in a photonic crystal, illustrated by three examples: two Bragg mirrors separated by a vacuum gap, a woodpile with a linear waveguide channel, and a stack of photonic slabs having a planar waveguide channel.

Naranjo, B.; Andonian, G.; Arab, E.; Barber, S.; Fitzmorris, K.; Fukusawa, A.; Hoang, P.; Mahapatra, S.; O'Shea, B.; Valloni, A.; Williams, O.; Yang, C.; Rosenzweig, J. B. [UCLA Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

108

Direct generation of photon triplets using cascaded photon-pair sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-classical states of light, such as entangled photon pairs and number states, are essential for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and optical quantum technologies. The most widespread technique for creating these quantum resources is the spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) of laser light into photon pairs. Conservation of energy and momentum in this process, known as phase-matching, gives rise to strong correlations which are used to produce two-photon entanglement in various degrees of freedom. It has been a longstanding goal of the quantum optics community to realise a source that can produce analogous correlations in photon triplets, but of the many approaches considered, none have been technically feasible. In this paper we report the observation of photon triplets generated by cascaded down-conversion. Here each triplet originates from a single pump photon, and therefore quantum correlations will extend over all three photons in a way not achievable with independently created photon pairs. We expect our photon-triplet source to open up new avenues of quantum optics and become an important tool in quantum technologies. Our source will allow experimental interrogation of novel quantum correlations, the post-selection free generation of tripartite entanglement without post- selection and the generation of heralded entangled-photon pairs suitable for linear optical quantum computing. Two of the triplet photons have a wavelength matched for optimal transmission in optical fibres, ideally suited for three-party quantum communication. Furthermore, our results open interesting regimes of non-linear optics, as we observe spontaneous down-conversion pumped by single photons, an interaction also highly relevant to optical quantum computing.

H. Hbel; D. R. Hamel; A. Fedrizzi; S. Ramelow; K. J. Resch; T. Jennewein

2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

109

Photon generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni (Shoreham, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Ultra-short pulse compression using photonic crystal fibre  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ABSTRACT A short section of photonic crystal fibre has been used for ultra-short pulse compression. The unique optical prop- erties of this novel medium in...

111

Silicon Photonics for chemical sensing and spectroscopy, diagnosis and therapy.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Silicon Photonics has been attracting a lot of research interests in past few years. However, almost all literature results are demonstrated in the optical communication (more)

Hon, Kam Yan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Light generation, size constraints, and dynamic cavities in silicon photonics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Silicon photonics is a rapidly-developing field at the confluence of silicon microelectronicsand fiber optics. In this talk we explore several interesting systems of light in (more)

Shainline, Jeffrey M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Photonics Technologies:  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Reduced product counterfeiting and identity theft through low-cost optical ... Replace aluminum with copper interconnect metal, in combination with ...

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

114

High index contrast platform for silicon photonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses on silicon-based high index contrast (HIC) photonics. In addition to mature fiber optics or low index contrast (LIC) platform, which is often referred to as Planar Lightwave Cirrcuit (PLC) or Silica ...

Akiyama, Shoji, 1972-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Fiber to waveguide couplers for silicon photonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As silicon photonics enters mainstream technology, we find ourselves in need of methods to seamlessly transfer light between the optical fibers of global scale telecommunications networks and the on-chip waveguides used ...

Montalbo, Trisha M., 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Advanced Photon Source | Combining Scanning Probe Microscopy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

02.2013 Shirato presents invited talk at SPIE conference APS The 2013 SPIE Optics and Photonics conference was held at San Diego Convention Center from August 25-29, 2013. It is...

117

Photon blockade in quadratically coupled optomechanical systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the steady-state photon statistics of a quadratically coupled optomechanical cavity, which is weakly driven by a monochromatic laser field. We examine the photon blockade by evaluating the second-order correlation function of the cavity photons. By restricting the system within the zero-, one-, and two-photon subspace, we obtain an approximate analytical expression for the correlation function. We also numerically investigate the correlation function by solving the quantum master equation including both optical and mechanical dissipations. The results show that, in the deep-resolved-sideband and single-photon strong-coupling regimes, the single-photon resonant driving will induce a photon blockade, which is limited by the thermal noise of the mechanical environment.

Jie-Qiao Liao; Franco Nori

2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

118

On Self Sustained Photonic Globes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we consider a classical treatment of a very dense collection of photons forming a self-sustained globe under its own gravitational influence. We call this a "photonic globe" We show that such a dense photonic globe will have a radius closely corresponding to the Schwarzschild radius. Thus lending substance to the conjuncture that the region within the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole contains only pure radiation. As an application example, we consider the case of a very large photonic globe whose radius corresponds to the radius of the universe and containing radiation of the frequency of the microwave background (160.2 GHZ). It so turns out that such a photonic globe has an average density which closely corresponds to the observed average density of our universe.

K. Eswaran

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

119

Silicon Photonics: The Inside Story  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electronic chip industry embodies the height of technological sophistication and economics of scale. Fabricating inexpensive photonic components by leveraging this mighty manufacturing infrastructure has fueled intense interest in silicon photonics. If it can be done economically and in an energy efficient manner, empowering silicon with optical functionality will bring optical communications to the realm of computers where limitations of metallic interconnects are threatening the industry's future. The field is making stunning progress and stands to have a bright future, as long as the community recognizes the real challenges, and maintains an open mind with respect to its applications. This talk will review recent 'game changing' developments and discuss promising applications beyond data communication. It will conclude with recent observation of extreme-value statistical behavior in silicon photonics, a powerful example of how scientific discoveries can unexpectedly emerge in the course of technology d...

Jalali, Bahram

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Photon Statistics of a Non-Stationary Periodically Driven Single-Photon Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the photon statistics of a single-photon source that operates under non-stationary conditions. The photons are emitted by shining a periodic sequence of laser pulses on single atoms falling randomly through a high-finesse optical cavity. Strong antibunching is found in the intensity correlation of the emitted light, demonstrating that a single atom emits photons one-by-one. However, the number of atoms interacting with the cavity follows a Poissonian statistics so that, on average, no sub-Poissonian photon statistics is obtained, unless the measurement is conditioned on the presence of single atoms.

M. Hennrich; T. Legero; A. Kuhn; G. Rempe

2004-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Photon Energy Services Photon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Services Photon Services Photon Jump to: navigation, search Name Photon Energy Services (Photon) Place Los Altos, California Zip 94022 Sector Solar Product California-based firm that enables companies and government entities to go solar by managing the design and implementation of the solar PV system as well as the provision of maintenance. References Photon Energy Services (Photon)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Photon Energy Services (Photon) is a company located in Los Altos, California . References ↑ "Photon Energy Services (Photon)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Photon_Energy_Services_Photon&oldid=349726"

122

Characteristics of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters in the spread-out Bragg peak region of clinical proton beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Optically stimulated luminescent detectors (OSLDs) have a number of advantages in radiation dosimetry making them excellent dosimeters for quality assurance and patient dose verification. Although the dosimeters have been investigated in several modalities, relatively little work has been done in examining the dosimeters for use in clinical proton beams. This study examined a number of characteristics of the response of the dosimeters in the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) region of clinical proton beams. Methods: Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters from Landauer, Inc., specifically the nanoDot dosimeter, were investigated. These dosimeters were placed in a special phantom with a recess to fit the dosimeters without an air gap. Beams with nominal energies of 160, 200, and 250 MeV were used in the passively-scattered proton beam at the MD Anderson Cancer Center Proton Therapy Center. Dosimetric properties including linearity, field size dependence, energy dependence, residual signal as a function of cumulative dose, and postirradiation fading were investigated by taking measurements at the center of SOBPs. Results: The dosimeters showed 1% supralinearity at 200 cGy and 5% supralinearity at 1000 cGy. No noticeable field size dependence of the detector was found for field sizes from 2 x 2 cm{sup 2} to 18 x 18 cm{sup 2}. Residual signal as a function of cumulative dose showed a small increase for measurements up to 1000 cGy. Readout signal depletion of the dosimeters after consecutive readings showed a slightly larger depletion in protons for doses up to 500 cGy but not by a clinically significant amount. Within the center of various SOBP widths and proton energies the variation in response was less than 2%. An average beam quality factor of 1.089 with experimental standard deviation of 0.007 was determined and applied to the data such that the results were within 1.2% of ion chamber data. Conclusions: The nanoDot OSL dosimeter characteristics were studied in the SOBP region of clinical proton beams. To achieve accurate dosimetric readings, corrections to the dosimeter response were applied. Corrections tended to be minimal or broadly consistent. The nanoDot OSLD was found to be an acceptable dosimeter for measurement in the SOBP region for a range of clinical proton beams.

Kerns, James R.; Kry, Stephen F.; Sahoo, Narayan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Radiological Physics Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

DI-PHOTON AND PHOTON+B/C PRODUCTION CROSS SECTIONS AT ECM=2TEV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inclusive di-photon cross-section is measured in the central region and found to be in good agreement with NLO QCD predictions. Cross-sections are presented for events containing an energetic photon in addition to a heavy flavour jet. The ratio of photon+c to photon+b events is also measured. Results are currently statistically limited and in agreement with Pythia predictions. 1

R. Mcnulty

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Who has seen a free photon?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While the notion of the position of photons is indispensable in the quantum optical situations, it has been known in mathematical physics that any position operator cannot be defined for a massless free particle with a non-zero finite spin. This dilemma is resolved by introducing the "effective mass" of a photon due to the interaction with matter. The validity of this interpretation is confirmed in reference to the picture of "polariton", a basic notion in optical and solid physics. In this connection, we discuss the long-standing controversy between Minkowski's and Abraham's definitions of the momenta of a photon in media from the general viewpoint adopted in the appendix.

Izumi Ojima; Hayato Saigo

2011-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

125

Non-deterministic Gates for Photonic Single Rail Quantum Logic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss techniques for producing, manipulating and measureing qubits encoded optically as vacuum and single photon states. We show that a universal set of non-deterministic gates can be constructed using linear optics and photon counting. We investigate the efficacy of a test gate given realistic detector efficiencies.

A. P. Lund; T. C. Ralph

2002-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

126

Seasonal variations of aerosol optical properties, vertical distribution and associated radiative effects in the Yangtze Delta Region of China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four years of columnar aerosol particle optical properties (2006 to 2009) and one year database worth of aerosol particle vertical profile of 527 nm extinction coefficient (June 2008 to May 2009) are analyzed at Taihu in the central Yangtze Delta region in eastern China. Seasonal variations of aerosol optical properties, vertical distribution, and influence on shortwave radiation and heating rates were investigated. Multiyear variations of aerosol optical depths (AOD), Angstrom exponents, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry factor (ASY) are analyzed, together with the vertical profile of aerosol extinction. AOD is largest in summer and smallest in winter. SSAs exhibit weak seasonal variation with the smallest values occurring during winter and the largest during summer. The vast majority of aerosol particles are below 2 km, and about 62%, 67%, 67% and 83% are confined to below 1 km in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Five-day back trajectory analyses show that the some aerosols aloft are traced back to northern/northwestern China, as far as Mongolia and Siberia, in spring, autumn and winter. The presence of dust aerosols were identified based on the linear depolarization measurements together with other information (i.e., back trajectory, precipitation, aerosol index). Dust strongly impacts the vertical particle distribution in spring and autumn, with much smaller effects in winter. The annual mean aerosol direct shortwave radiative forcing (efficiency) at the bottom, top and within the atmosphere are -34.8 {+-} 9.1 (-54.4 {+-} 5.3), -8.2 {+-} 4.8 (-13.1 {+-} 1.5) and 26.7 {+-} 9.4 (41.3 {+-} 4.6) W/m{sup 2} (Wm{sup -2} T{sup -1}), respectively. The mean reduction in direct and diffuse radiation reaching surface amount to 109.2 {+-} 49.4 and 66.8 {+-} 33.3 W/m{sup 2}, respectively. Aerosols significantly alter the vertical profile of solar heating, with great implications for atmospheric stability and dynamics within the lower troposphere.

Liu, Jianjun; Zheng, Youfei; Li, Zhanqing; Flynn, Connor J.; Cribb, Maureen

2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

127

Photon - Jet Correlations and Constraints on Fragmentation Functions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the production of a large-pT photon in association with a jet in proton-proton collisions. We examine the sensitivity of the jet rapidity distribution to the gluon distribution function in the proton. We then assess the sensitivity of various photon + jet correlation observables to the photon fragmentation functions. We argue that RHIC data on photon-jet correlations can be used to constrain the photon fragmentation functions in a region which was barely accessible in LEP experiments.

Z. Belghobsi; M. Fontannaz; J. -Ph. Guillet; G. Heinrich; E. Pilon; M. Werlen

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

128

Nonlinearity sensing via photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We propose photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy as an adequate tool to describe the optical response of a nonlinear system. To this end we suggest to use optical excitation with varying photon statistics as another spectroscopic degree of freedom to gather information about the system in question. The responses of several simple model systems to excitation beams with different photon statistics are discussed. Possible spectroscopic applications in terms of identifying lasing operation are pointed out.

Assmann, Marc; Bayer, Manfred [Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Understanding interference experiments with polarized light through photon trajectories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bohmian mechanics allows to visualize and understand the quantum-mechanical behavior of massive particles in terms of trajectories. As shown by Bialynicki-Birula, Electromagnetism also admits a hydrodynamical formulation when the existence of a wave function for photons (properly defined) is assumed. This formulation thus provides an alternative interpretation of optical phenomena in terms of photon trajectories, whose flow yields a pictorial view of the evolution of the electromagnetic energy density in configuration space. This trajectory-based theoretical framework is considered here to study and analyze the outcome from Young-type diffraction experiments within the context of the Arago-Fresnel laws. More specifically, photon trajectories in the region behind the two slits are obtained in the case where the slits are illuminated by a polarized monochromatic plane wave. Expressions to determine electromagnetic energy flow lines and photon trajectories within this scenario are provided, as well as a procedure to compute them in the particular case of gratings totally transparent inside the slits and completely absorbing outside them. As is shown, the electromagnetic energy flow lines obtained allow to monitor at each point of space the behavior of the electromagnetic energy flow and, therefore, to evaluate the effects caused on it by the presence (right behind each slit) of polarizers with the same or different polarization axes. This leads to a trajectory-based picture of the Arago-Fresnel laws for the interference of polarized light.

A. S. Sanz; M. Davidovic; M. Bozic; S. Miret-Artes

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Anti-photon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum electrodynamics corrects miscalculations of classical electrodynamics, but by introducing the pseudo-particle "photon" it is the source of errors whose practical consequences are serious. Thus W. E. Lamb disadvises the use of the word "photon" in an article whose this text takes the title. The purpose of this paper is neither a compilation, nor a critique of Lamb's paper: It adds arguments and applications to show that the use of this concept is dangerous while the semi-classical theory is always right provided that common errors are corrected: in particular, the classical field of electromagnetic energy is often, wrongly, considered as linear, so that Bohr's electron falls on the nucleus and photon counting is false. Using absolute energies and radiances avoids doing these errors. Quantum electrodynamics quantizes "normal modes" chosen arbitrarily among the infinity of sets of orthogonal modes of the electromagnetic field. Changing the choice of normal modes splits the photons which are pseudo-particles, not physical objects. Considering the photons as small particles interacting without pilot waves with single atoms, astrophysicists use Monte-Carlo computations for the propagation of light in homogeneous media while it works only in opalescent media as clouds. Thus, for instance, two theories abort while, they are validated using coherence and Einstein theories, giving a good interpretation of the rings of supernova remnant 1987A, and the spectrum found inside. The high frequency shifts of this spectrum can only result from a parametric interaction of light with excited atomic hydrogen which is found in many regions of the universe.

Jacques Moret-Bailly

2010-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

131

Generating Single Microwave Photons in a Circuit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electromagnetic signals in circuits consist of discrete photons, though conventional voltage sources can only generate classical fields with a coherent superposition of many different photon numbers. While these classical signals can control and measure bits in a quantum computer (qubits), single photons can carry quantum information, enabling non-local quantum interactions, an important resource for scalable quantum computing. Here, we demonstrate an on-chip single photon source in a circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) architecture, with a microwave transmission line cavity that collects the spontaneous emission of a single superconducting qubit with high efficiency. The photon source is triggered by a qubit rotation, as a photon is generated only when the qubit is excited. Tomography of both qubit and fluorescence photon shows that arbitrary qubit states can be mapped onto the photon state, demonstrating an ability to convert a stationary qubit into a flying qubit. Both the average power and voltage of the photon source are characterized to verify performance of the system. This single photon source is an important addition to a rapidly growing toolbox for quantum optics on a chip.

A. A. Houck; D. I. Schuster; J. M. Gambetta; J. A. Schreier; B. R. Johnson; J. M. Chow; J. Majer; L. Frunzio; M. H. Devoret; S. M. Girvin; R. J. Schoelkopf

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

132

Nano-plasma Interactions in Optical and Meta-nanomaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Optical Nanomaterials for Photonics/Biophotonics. Presentation Title, Plasma...

133

Observation of two-photon interference with temporally non-overlapping coherent pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report experiments on two-photon interference between temporally non-overlapping weak coherent pulses. While the single-photon interference is washed out, the two-photon interference shows a Hong-Ou-Mandel dip with visibility of $0.50\\pm0.09$, which shows that the two-photon classical interference does not require temporal overlapping between optical pulses.

Kim, Yong-Su; Kuo, Paulina S; Tang, Xiao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Photonic switching devices based on semiconductor nanostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Squeezing and guiding light into semiconductor nanostructures delivers revolutionary concepts of photonic devices, which may offer a practical pathway towards power-efficient optical networks. In this review, we consider photonic switches using semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and photonic cavities. By intuitively introducing in a field enhancement factor, the optical nonlinearity of nano-photonic switches can be understood and this has shown their unique features to dramatically improve the power-density/speed limitation that has lain in conventional photonic switches for decades. In addition, the power consumption has been reduced due to the atom-like characterization of QDs as well as the nano-size footprint of photonic cavities. Based on this theoretical perspective, the current progress of QD/cavity switches is reviewed in terms of various optical nonlinearities which have been employed to demonstrate photonic switching at the nanoscale. Emerging functionalities enabled by cavity nonlinear effects such as the wavelength tuning and Purcell-factor tuning have been further introduced.

Chao-Yuan Jin; Osamu Wada

2013-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

135

Efficient quantum computing using coherent photon conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single photons provide excellent quantum information carriers, but current schemes for preparing, processing and measuring them are inefficient. For example, down-conversion provides heralded, but randomly timed single photons, while linear-optics gates are inherently probabilistic. Here, we introduce a deterministic scheme for photonic quantum information. Our single, versatile process---coherent photon conversion---provides a full suite of photonic quantum processing tools, from creating high-quality heralded single- and multiphoton states free of higher-order imperfections to implementing deterministic multiqubit entanglement gates and high-efficiency detection. It fulfils all requirements for a scalable photonic quantum computing architecture. Using photonic crystal fibres, we experimentally demonstrate a four-colour nonlinear process usable for coherent photon conversion and show that current technology provides a feasible path towards deterministic operation. Our scheme, based on interacting bosonic fields, is not restricted to optical systems, but could also be implemented in optomechanical, electromechanical and superconducting systems which exhibit extremely strong intrinsic nonlinearities.

N. K. Langford; S. Ramelow; R. Prevedel; W. J. Munro; G. J. Milburn; A. Zeilinger

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

136

OPTICS5  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optics5 (5.1.02) Knowledge Base Optics5 (5.1.02) Knowledge Base Last Updated: 09/11/13 Table of Contents INSTALLATION EXECUTION bullet ** Operating Systems -- Microsoft Windows 7 and Vista ** bullet ** Running Optics5 with Microsoft Windows 7 and Vista ** bullet ** Running Optics5 with Microsoft Windows 7 and Vista 64 bit ** Optics5 may not work correctly with regional/locale settings using "," as a decimal separator. bullet Which Windows operating systems can be used to run Optics? "Class Does Not Support Automation or Expected Interface" error message bullet How much hard disk space should be available to install Optics? Optics user manual bullet I receive a virus warning (nimda-virus) when installing Optics. What should I do? NFRC Procedure for Applied Films bullet I have installed Optics but I can't find the program or the icon.

137

Metalorganic molecular beam epitaxial growth of semi-insulating GaInAsP (? g =1.05?? m ): Fe optical waveguides for integrated photonic devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Irondoping of InP and GaInAsP (? g =1.05?? m ) layers grown by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy was studied using elemental sourcematerial in combination with a conventional effusion cell. This study was aimed at the creation of semi-insulating optical waveguides under growth conditions compatible with selective area growth. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements revealed a reproducible and homogeneous incorporation behavior of the irondopant in the materials investigated. Resistivities in excess of 10 9 ??? cm were obtained for both compositions at medium doping levels. GaInAsP/InP waveguide structures grown at 485? C the minimum temperature necessary for selective depositionexhibited averaged resistivities of 510 7 ??? cm in combination with optical losses of 2.50.5? dB/cm .

H. Knzel; P. Albrecht; S. Ebert; R. Gibis; P. Harde; R. Kaiser; H. Kizuki; S. Malchow

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Photon Aided and Inhibited Tunneling of Photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the light of the interest in the transport of single photons in arrays of waveguides, fiber couplers, photonic crystals, etc., we consider the quantum mechanical process of the tunneling of photons through evanescently or otherwise coupled structures. We specifically examine the issue of tunneling between two structures when one structure already contains few photons. We demonstrate the possibility of both photon aided and inhibited tunneling of photons. The Bosonic nature of photons enhances the tunneling probability. We also show how the multiphoton tunneling probability can be either enhanced or inhibited due to the presence of photons. We find similar results for the higher order tunneling. Finally, we show that the presence of a squeezed field changes the nature of tunneling considerably.

liu, xuele

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Photon Generalized Parton Distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a calculation of the generalized parton distributions of the photon using overlaps of photon light-front wave functions.

Asmita Mukherjee; Sreeraj Nair

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

140

Photon Generalized Parton Distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a calculation of the generalized parton distributions of the photon using overlaps of photon light-front wave functions.

Mukherjee, Asmita

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Heavy photon search experiment at JLAB  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Photon Search (HPS) experiment in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab will search for new heavy vector boson(s), aka "heavy photons", in the mass range of 20 MeV/c{sup 2} to 1000 MeV/c{sup 2} using the scattering of high energy, high intensity electron beams off a high Z target. The proposed measurements will cover the region of parameter space favored by the muon g-2 anomaly, and will explore a significant region of parameter space, not only at large couplings ({alpha}'/{alpha} > 10{sup -7}), but also in the regions of small couplings, down to {alpha}'/{alpha}~10{sup -10}. The excellent vertexing capability of the Si-tracker uniquely enables HPS to cover the small coupling region. Also, HPS will search for heavy photons in an alternative to the e{sup +} e{sup -} decay mode, in the heavy photon's decay to {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}.

Stepanyan, Stepan [JLAB

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

High-speed buffer management for 40 Gb/s-based photonic packet switches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We develop a method of high-speed buffer management for output-buffered photonic packet switches. The use of optical fiber delay lines is a promising solution to constructing optical buffers. The buffer manager determines packet delays in the fiber delay ... Keywords: buffer management, parallel processing, photonic packet switching, pipeline processing, variable-length optical packet

Hiroaki Harai; Masayuki Murata

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Photon-Photon Interactions via Rydberg Blockade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop the theory of light propagation under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in systems involving strongly interacting Rydberg states. Taking into account the quantum nature and the spatial propagation of light, we analyze interactions involving few-photon pulses. We demonstrate that this system can be used for the generation of nonclassical states of light including trains of single photons with an avoided volume between them, for implementing photon-photon quantum gates, as well as for studying many-body phenomena with strongly correlated photons.

Gorshkov, Alexey V; Fleischhauer, Michael; Pohl, Thomas; Lukin, Mikhail D

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Photon-Photon Interactions via Rydberg Blockade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop the theory of light propagation under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in systems involving strongly interacting Rydberg states. Taking into account the quantum nature and the spatial propagation of light, we analyze interactions involving few-photon pulses. We demonstrate that this system can be used for the generation of nonclassical states of light including trains of single photons with an avoided volume between them, for implementing photon-photon quantum gates, as well as for studying many-body phenomena with strongly correlated photons.

Alexey V. Gorshkov; Johannes Otterbach; Michael Fleischhauer; Thomas Pohl; Mikhail D. Lukin

2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

145

Light trapping in thin film solar cells using textured photonic crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar cell includes a photoactive region that receives light. A photonic crystal is coupled to the photoactive region, wherein the photonic crystal comprises a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) for trapping the light.

Yi, Yasha (Somerville, MA); Kimerling, Lionel C. (Concord, MA); Duan, Xiaoman (Amesbury, MA); Zeng, Lirong (Cambridge, MA)

2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

146

Breakthroughs in Photonics 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bio-Photonics Magneto-Photonics Photovoltaics and Sensors Integrated Photonics Systems Photo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U. Keller 225 Fundamentals of Light Propagation and Interaction; Nonlinear Effects Major Accomplishments in 2009 on Slow Light . . . . R. W. Boyd and J. R. Lowell 229 Terahertz Photonics Breakthroughs

Keller, Ursula

147

Di-Photon and Photon+b/c Production Cross Sections at Ecm=1.96 TeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of the di-photon cross section have been made in the central region and are found to be in good agreement with NLO QCD predictions. The cross section of events containing a photon and additional heavy flavour jet have also been measured, as well as the ratio of photon+b to photon+c. The statistically limited sample shows good agreement with Leading Order predictions. 1

Anant Gajjar; Cdf Collaboration

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Quantum Enabled Security (QES) for Optical Communications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantum Enabled Security (QES) for Optical Communications Quantum Enabled Security (QES) for Optical Communications Quantum Enabled Security (QES) for Optical Communications Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed Quantum Enabled Security (QES), a revolutionary new cybersecurity capability using quantum (single-photon) communications integrated with optical communications to provide a strong, innate, security foundation at the photonic layer for optical fiber networks. July 10, 2013 Quantum Enabled Security (QES) for Optical Communications Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Quantum Enabled Security (QES) for Optical Communications Applications: Secure communication over optical or free space networks Financial networks Transparent access networks: fiber to the home (FTTH); fiber to the

149

Experimental generation of multi-photon Fock states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We experimentally demonstrate the generation of multi-photon Fock states with up to three photons in well-defined spatial-temporal modes synchronized with a classical clock. The states are characterized using quantum optical homodyne tomography to ensure mode selectivity. The three-photon Fock states are probabilistically generated by pulsed spontaneous parametric down conversion at a rate of one per second, enabling complete characterization in 12 hours.

Merlin Cooper; Laura J. Wright; Christoph Sller; Brian J. Smith

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

150

Photon-photon scattering: a tutorial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Long-established results for the low-energy photon-photon scattering, gamma gamma --> gamma gamma, have recently been questioned. We analyze that claim and demonstrate that it is inconsistent with experience. We demonstrate that the mistake originates from an erroneous manipulation of divergent integrals and discuss the connection with another recent claim about the Higgs decay into two photons. We show a simple way of correctly computing the low-energy gamma gamma scattering.

Liang, Yi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Multiplexing Techniques: Evaluation of Photonic Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This poster reports progress related to photonic technologies. Specifically, the authors developed diagnostic system architecture for a Multiplexed Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (MPDV) that incorporates frequency and time-division multiplexing into existing PDV methodology to provide increased channel count. Current MPDV design increases number of data records per digitizer channel 8x, and also operates as a laser-safe (Class 3a) system. Further, they applied heterodyne interferometry to allow for direction-of-travel determination and enable high-velocity measurements (>10 km/s) via optical downshifting. They also leveraged commercially available, inexpensive and robust components originally developed for telecom applications. Proposed MPDV architectures employ only commercially available, fiber-coupled hardware.

Edward Daykin

2012-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

152

Mechanical and Optical Characterization of a Suspended Core Fiber Exhibiting Fundamental-Mode Cutoff Wavelength in Presence of Nanoscale Air Holes in the Core Region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, mechanical and optical characterization of a new type of suspended core fiber (SCF) has been performed. The proposed SCF along with additional central air holes exhibits an unusual property of fundamental mode cutoff at short wavelengths. Two variants (single hole and double hole) of design under two different fiber platforms (SiO2 and As2Se3) have been considered to develop better insight into the mechanical and optical properties of the structure deploying plane strain and full vector eigen analysis, respectively. Dependence of thermal stress likely to be present in such nanostructured fibers on fiber materials and geometries are thoroughly studied. A relation between the cutoff condition and geometrical parameters of the design has been obtained with reference to characteristic decay length which nullifies the possibility of any numerical artifact. In addition, improvement of fiber birefringence and evanescence sensing capability due to the presence of such air holes in the guided region has ...

Hasan, Dihan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Aerosol Optical Properties in the Iranian Region Obtained by Ground-Based Solar Radiation Measurements in the Summer Of 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar radiation measurements were made using sun photometers and pyranometers during 31 May-7 June 1991 at several places in Iran and during 12 June-17 September 1991 at a fixed place, Bushehr, Iran. In the first period the aerosol optical ...

Teruyuki Nakajima; Tadahiro Hayasaka; Akiko Higurashi; Gen Hashida; Naser Moharram-Nejad; Yahya Najafi; Hamzeh Valavi

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Photon position measure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The positive operator valued measure (POVM) for a photon counting array detector is derived and found to equal photon flux density integrated over pixel area and measurement time. Since photon flux density equals number density multiplied by the speed of light, this justifies theoretically the observation that a photon counting array provides a coarse grained measurement of photon position. The POVM obtained here can be written as a set of projectors onto a basis of localized states, consistent with the description of photon position in a recent quantum imaging proposal [M. Tsang, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{102}, 253601 (2009)]. The wave function that describes a photon counting experiment is the projection of the photon state vector onto this localized basis. Collapse is to the electromagnetic vacuum and not to a localized state, thus violating the text book rules of quantum mechanics but compatible with the theory of generalized observables and the nonlocalizability of an incoming photon.

Hawton, Margaret

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Photon position measure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The positive operator valued measure (POVM) for a photon counting array detector is derived and found to equal photon flux density integrated over pixel area and measurement time. Since photon flux density equals number density multiplied by the speed of light, this justifies theoretically the observation that a photon counting array provides a coarse grained measurement of photon position. The POVM obtained here can be written as a set of projectors onto a basis of localized states, consistent with the description of photon position in a recent quantum imaging proposal [M. Tsang, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{102}, 253601 (2009)]. The wave function that describes a photon counting experiment is the projection of the photon state vector onto this localized basis. Collapse is to the electromagnetic vacuum and not to a localized state, thus violating the text book rules of quantum mechanics but compatible with the theory of generalized observables and the nonlocalizability of an incoming photon.

Margaret Hawton

2010-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

156

Fabrication and Characterization of Metallo-dielectric Photonic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Register as a New User ... The novel 3D plasmonic waveguides, or nanotruss lattices, were fabricated utilizing two photon lithography, followed by ... Graphene Coating-enabled Surface Plasmon Coupled Emission and Optical Diode Action.

157

Hybrid approaches to quantum information using ions, atoms and photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents two hybrid systems for quantum information processing - one joining cold ions and cold atoms and another coupling linear chains of atomic ions with photons via an optical resonator. The first experimental ...

Cetina, Marko, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Nonlinear silicon photonics from the near to mid infrared.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation presents experimental work investigating silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic waveguides for parametric nonlinear optic devices. An introduction is presented in Chapter 1, including background and (more)

Park, Jung Soo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Efficiently Coupling Light to Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We designed superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) integrated with silver optical antennae for free-space coupling and a dielectric waveguide for fiber coupling. According to our finite-element simulation, ...

Hu, Xiaolong

160

Three dimensional silicon photonic crystals fabricated by two photon phase mask lithography.  

SciTech Connect

We describe the fabrication of silicon three dimensional photonic crystals using polymer templates defined by a single step, two-photon exposure through a layer of photopolymer with relief molded on its surface. The resulting crystals exhibit high structural quality over large areas, displaying geometries consistent with calculation. Spectroscopic measurements of transmission and reflection through the silicon and polymer structures reveal excellent optical properties, approaching properties predicted by simulations that assume ideal layouts.

Wiltzius, P. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Braun, P. V. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Liao, H. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Brzezinski, A. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Chen, Y. C. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Nelson, E. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Shir, D. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Rogers, J. A. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Direct Photons at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A brief overview of direct-photon measurements in p+p and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV with the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is given. Direct-photon yields for pT > 4 GeV/c and photon-hadron azimuthal correlations were determined with the aid of an electromagnetic calorimeter. By detecting e+e- pairs from the internal conversion of virtual photons direct-photon yields were measured between 1 direct-photon yield in this range.

Klaus Reygers; for the PHENIX Collaboration

2009-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

162

Electrically driven photonic crystal nanocavity devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interest in photonic crystal nanocavities is fueled by advances in device performance, particularly in the development of low-threshold laser sources. Effective electrical control of high performance photonic crystal lasers has thus far remained elusive due to the complexities associated with current injection into cavities. A fabrication procedure for electrically pumping photonic crystal membrane devices using a lateral p-i-n junction has been developed and is described in this work. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasing in our junctions with a threshold of 181 nA at 50K - the lowest threshold ever demonstrated in an electrically pumped laser. At room temperature we find that our devices behave as single-mode light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which when directly modulated, have an ultrafast electrical response up to 10 GHz corresponding to less than 1 fJ/bit energy operation - the lowest for any optical transmitter. In addition, we have demonstrated electrical pumping of photonic crystal nanobeam LEDs...

Shambat, Gary; Petykiewicz, Jan; Mayer, Marie A; Majumdar, Arka; Sarmiento, Tomas; Harris, James; Haller, Eugene E; Vuckovic, Jelena

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

165

Direct Photons at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. The PHENIX experiment has measured direct photons in ? sNN = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions and p+p collisions. The fraction of photons due to direct

Saskia Mioduszewski; Phenix Collaboration

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Photon Sciences | About the Photon Sciences Directorate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About the Photon Sciences Directorate About the Photon Sciences Directorate The Photon Sciences Directorate operates the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and is constructing the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), both funded by the Department of Energy Office of Science. These facilities support a large community of scientists using photons (light) to carry out research in energy and environmental sciences, physics, materials science, chemistry, biology and medicine. NSLS National Synchrotron Light Source NSLS-II National Synchrotron Light Source II This is a very exciting period for photon sciences at Brookhaven Lab and a time of unprecedented growth for the directorate. The NSLS-II Project is progressing rapidly and smoothly through design and construction, driven by

167

Verification of Patch- and Regional-Scale Energy Balance Estimates Derived from Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing during SGP97  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1997 Southern Great Plains Hydrology Experiment (SGP97) was designed and conducted to extend surface soil moisture retrieval algorithms based on passive microwave observations to coarser resolutions, larger regions with more diverse ...

William P. Kustas; Thomas J. Jackson; Andrew N. French; J. Ian MacPherson

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Introduction to Photon 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The introductory remarks to the conference Photon 2007 organized at the Sorbonne in Paris in July 2007 are presented.

Maria Krawczyk

2008-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

169

Photon 2009 - Experimental Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I present a summary of the experimental talks given at the Photon 2009 conference held at DESY, Hamburg, Germany.

P. J. Bussey

2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

170

FURTHER EVIDENCE THAT QUASAR X-RAY EMITTING REGIONS ARE COMPACT: X-RAY AND OPTICAL MICROLENSING IN THE LENSED QUASAR Q J0158-4325  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present four new seasons of optical monitoring data and six epochs of X-ray photometry for the doubly imaged lensed quasar Q J0158-4325. The high-amplitude, short-period microlensing variability for which this system is known has historically precluded a time delay measurement by conventional methods. We attempt to circumvent this limitation by the application of a Monte Carlo microlensing analysis technique, but we are only able to prove that the delay must have the expected sign (image A leads image B). Despite our failure to robustly measure the time delay, we successfully model the microlensing at optical and X-ray wavelengths to find a half-light radius for soft X-ray emission log (r{sub 1/2,X,soft}/cm) = 14.3{sup +0.4}{sub -0.5}, an upper limit on the half-light radius for hard X-ray emission log (r{sub 1/2,X,hard}/cm) {<=} 14.6, and a refined estimate of the inclination-corrected scale radius of the optical R-band (rest frame 3100 A) continuum emission region of log (r{sub s} /cm) = 15.6 {+-} 0.3.

Morgan, Christopher W.; Hainline, Laura J. [Department of Physics, United States Naval Academy, 572C Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Chen Bin; Dai Xinyu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Tewes, Malte; Courbin, F.; Meylan, G. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Kochanek, Christopher S.; Kozlowski, Szymon; Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Mosquera, Ana M. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States); Chartas, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

APS News 2010 | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lahsen Assoufid Named Fellow of the Optical Society Lahsen Assoufid Named Fellow of the Optical Society Lahsen Assoufid Named Fellow of the Optical Society December 16, 2010 Lahsen Assoufid of the Argonne X-ray Science Division has been made a Fellow of the Optical Society "For contributions and leadership in x-ray optics, metrology, and nanofocusing optics development." George Srajer and Jin Wang Elected Fellows of the American Physical Society George Srajer and Jin Wang Elected Fellows of the American Physical Society December 16, 2010 George Srajer and Jin Wang, both of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, have been elected Fellows of the American Physical Society. Argonne-U. of C. Collaborative Seed Grant to Fund Novel PET System Argonne-U. of C. Collaborative Seed Grant to Fund Novel PET System

172

Direct photon interferometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We consider recent developments in the theory of the two-photon interferometry in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions with emphasis on the difference between photon and hadron interferometry. We review the available experimental results and discuss possibilities of measurement of the photon Bose-Einstein correlations in ongoing and future experiments.

D. Peressounko

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Direct photon interferometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider recent developments in the theory of the two-photon interferometry in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions with emphasis on the difference between photon and hadron interferometry. We review the available experimental results and discuss possibilities of measurement of the photon Bose-Einstein correlations in ongoing and future experiments.

D. Peressounko

2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

174

Photon Physics in ALICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give an overview of photon physics which will be studied by the ALICE experiment in proton-proton and heavy ion collisions at LHC. We compare properties of ALICE photon detectors and estimate their ability to measure neutral meson and direct photon spectra as well as gamma-hadron and gamma-jet correlations in pp and Pb+Pb collisions.

D. Peressounko; Y. Kharlov; for the ALICE collaboration

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

175

Photon-added Coherent States in Parametric Down-conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photon-added coherent states have been realized in optical parametric down-conversion by Zavatta {\\em et al} [Science 306 (2004) 660-662]. In this report, it is established that the states generated in the process are {\\em ideal} photon-added coherent states. It is shown that the scheme can generate higher order photon-added coherent states. A comparative study of the down-conversion process and atom-cavity interaction in generating the photon-added coherent states is presented.

S. Sivakumar

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

176

Photonic Science Portfolio  

Abstract Fees; Cross-Talk Free, Low-Noise Optical Amplifier. 5,436,759. A low-noise optical amplifier solves crosstalk problems in optical amplifiers ...

177

Photonic circuits for generating modal, spectral, and polarization entanglement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the design of photonic circuits that make use of Ti:LiNbO$_{3}$ diffused channel waveguides for generating photons with various combinations of modal, spectral, and polarization entanglement. Down-converted photon pairs are generated via spontaneous optical parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in a two-mode waveguide. We study a class of photonic circuits comprising: 1) a nonlinear periodically poled two-mode waveguide structure, 2) a set of single-mode and two-mode waveguide-based couplers arranged in such a way that they suitably separate the three photons comprising the SPDC process, and, for some applications, 3) a holographic Bragg grating that acts as a dichroic reflector. The first circuit produces frequency-degenerate down-converted photons, each with even spatial parity, in two separate single-mode waveguides. Changing the parameters of the elements allows this same circuit to produce two nondegenerate down-converted photons that are entangled in frequency or simultaneously entangled in frequency and polarization. The second photonic circuit is designed to produce modal entanglement by distinguishing the photons on the basis of their frequencies. A modified version of this circuit can be used to generate photons that are doubly entangled in mode number and polarization. The third photonic circuit is designed to manage dispersion by converting modal, spectral, and polarization entanglement into path entanglement.

Mohammed F. Saleh; Giovanni Di Giuseppe; Bahaa E. A. Saleh; Malvin Carl Teich

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

178

Solar Hidden Photon Search  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS) is a joint astroparticle project of the Hamburger Sternwarte and DESY. The main target is to detect the solar emission of a new species of particles, so called Hidden Photons (HPs). Due to kinetic mixing, photons and HPs can convert into each other as they propagate. A small number of solar HPs - originating from photon to HP oscillations in the interior of the Sun - can be converted into photons in a long vacuum pipe pointing to the Sun - the SHIPS helioscope.

Schwarz, Matthias; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Wiedemann, Guenter

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Photon: history, mass, charge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The talk consists of three parts. ``History'' briefly describes the emergence and evolution of the concept of photon during the first two decades of the 20th century. ``Mass'' gives a short review of the literature on the upper limit of the photon's mass. ``Charge'' is a critical discussion of the existing interpretation of searches for photon charge. Schemes, in which all photons are charged, are grossly inconsistent. A model with three kinds of photons (positive, negative and neutral) seems at first sight to be more consistent, but turns out to have its own serious problems.

L. B. Okun

2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

180

Bio-inspired optical components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Guiding electro-magnetic radiation is fundamental to optics. Lenses, mirrors, and photonic crystals all accomplish this task by different routes. Understanding the interaction of light with materials is fundamental to ...

Walish, Joseph John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Quantum nondemolition detection of a propagating microwave photon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to detect the presence of a single, travelling photon without destroying it has been a long standing project in optics and is fundamental for applications in quantum information and measurement. The realization of such a detector has been complicated by the fact that photon- photon interactions are very weak at optical frequencies. At microwave frequencies, very strong photon-photon interactions have been demonstrated. Here however, the single-photon detector has been elusive due to the low energy of the microwave photon. In this article, we present a realistic proposal for quantum nondemolition measurements of a single propagating microwave photon. The detector design is built on a of chain of artificial atoms connected through circulators which break time-reversal symmetry, making both signal and probe photons propagate in one direction only. Our analysis is based on the theory of cascaded quantum systems and quantum trajectories which takes the full dynamics of the atom-field interaction into account. We show that a signal-to-noise ratio above one can be realized with current state of the art microwave technology.

Sankar R. Sathyamoorthy; L. Tornberg; Anton F. Kockum; Ben Q. Baragiola; Joshua Combes; C. M. Wilson; Thomas M. Stace; G. Johansson

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

182

Creation of multiple identical single photon emitters in diamond  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emitters of indistinguishable single photons are crucial for the growing field of quantum technologies. To realize scalability and increase the complexity of quantum optics technologies, multiple independent yet identical single photon emitters are also required. However typical solid-state single photon sources are dissimilar, necessitating the use of electrical feedback or optical cavities to improve spectral overlap between distinct emitters. Here, we present controllable growth of bright silicon-vacancy (SiV-) centres in bulk diamond which intrinsically show almost identical emission (spectral overlap of up to 83%) and near transform-limited excitation linewidths. We measure the photo-physical properties of defects at room and cryogenic temperatures, and demonstrate incorporation into a solid immersion lens (SIL). Our results have impact upon the application of single photon sources for quantum optics and cryptography, and the production of next generation fluorophores for bio-imaging.

Lachlan J. Rogers; Kay D. Jahnke; Luca Marseglia; Christoph. Mller; Boris Naydenov; Hardy Schauffert; C. Kranz; T. Teraji; Junichi Isoya; Liam P. McGuinness; Fedor Jelezko

2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

183

Atom-photon entanglement generation and distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We extend an earlier model by Law {\\it et al.} \\cite{law} for a cavity QED based single-photon-gun to atom-photon entanglement generation and distribution. We illuminate the importance of a small critical atom number on the fidelity of the proposed operation in the strong coupling limit. Our result points to a promisingly high purity and efficiency using currently available cavity QED parameters, and sheds new light on constructing quantum computing and communication devices with trapped atoms and high Q optical cavities.

B. Sun; M. S. Chapman; L. You

2003-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

184

A National Institute for Advanced Optics, Photonic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... smart bombs, energy is looking to solar power to ... participation by leading US defense contractors and their ... no company in 1998 in the top 10 largest ...

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

185

A National Institute for Advanced Optics, Photonic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... bombs, energy is looking to solar power to ... disclosures Number of issued patents Number of ... of intellectual property and patent generation by ...

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

186

Fabrication of Emissible Metallic Layer-by-Layer Photonic Crystals Using Microtransfer Molding with Electro-Deposition  

Photonic crystals are optical materials that can be used to control and manipulate the flow of light. Ames Laboratoryresearchers have developed a ...

187

Non-linear photonic crystals as a source of entangled photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-linear photonic crystals can be used to provide phase-matching for frequency conversion in optically isotropic materials. The phase-matching mechanism proposed here is a combination of form birefringence and phase velocity dispersion in a periodic structure. Since the phase-matching relies on the geometry of the photonic crystal, it becomes possible to use highly non-linear materials. This is illustrated considering a one-dimensional periodic Al$_{0.4}$Ga$_{0.6}$As / air structure for the generation of 1.5 $\\mu$m light. We show that phase-matching conditions used in schemes to create entangled photon pairs can be achieved in photonic crystals.

Michiel J. A. de Dood; William T. M. Irvine; Dirk Bouwmeester

2004-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

188

Experimental search for solar hidden photons in the eV energy range using kinetic mixing with photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have searched for solar hidden photons in the eV energy range using a dedicated hidden photon detector. The detector consisted of a parabolic mirror with a diameter of 500mm and a focal length of 1007mm installed in a vacuum chamber, and a photomultiplier tube at its focal point. The detector was attached to the Tokyo axion helioscope, Sumico which has a mechanism to track the sun. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of hidden photons and set a limit on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameter \\chi depending on the hidden photon mass m_{\\gamma '}. This limit is most stringent in the hidden photon mass region between 10^{-3} and 10^{-1} eV.

Mizumoto, T; Horie, T; Suzuki, J; Inoue, Y; Minowa, M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Thermalisation of a two-dimensional photonic gas in a 'white-wall' photon box  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic accumulation of bosonic particles in the energetic ground state below a critical temperature, has been demonstrated in several physical systems. The perhaps best known example of a bosonic gas, blackbody radiation, however exhibits no Bose-Einstein condensation at low temperatures. Instead of collectively occupying the lowest energy mode, the photons disappear in the cavity walls when the temperature is lowered - corresponding to a vanishing chemical potential. Here we report on evidence for a thermalised two-dimensional photon gas with freely adjustable chemical potential. Our experiment is based on a dye filled optical microresonator, acting as a 'white-wall' box for photons. Thermalisation is achieved in a photon number-conserving way by photon scattering off the dye-molecules, and the cavity mirrors both provide an effective photon mass and a confining potential - key prerequisites for the Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. As a striking example for the unusual system properties, we demonstrate a yet unobserved light concentration effect into the centre of the confining potential, an effect with prospects for increasing the efficiency of diffuse solar light collection.

Jan Klaers; Frank Vewinger; Martin Weitz

2010-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

190

Direct Photons at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The PHENIX experiment has measured direct photons in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200$ GeV Au+Au collisions and p+p collisions. The fraction of photons due to direct production in Au+Au collisions is shown as a function of $p_T$ and centrality. This measurement is compared with expectation from pQCD calculations. Other possible sources of direct photons are discussed.

S. Mioduszewski; for the PHENIX Collaboration

2004-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

191

Photonically Engineered Incandescent Emitter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.

Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

192

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon photonics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Silicon Photonics is quickly proving to be a suitable interconnect technology for meeting the future goals of on-chip bandwidth and low power requirements. However, it (more)

Narayanan, Karthik

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Curves and The Photon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study of the number of photons leads to a new way of characterizing curves and to a novel integral invariant over curves.

L. Stodolsky

2005-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

194

Photon Sciences Training Courses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photon Sciences Training Courses Beamline Ops (BLOSA) BNL Web Courses (Help) BNL Class Schedules Business Systems & Software Contractor Orientation Cranes, Forklifts, Aerial Lifts...

195

Measuring Single Photons  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by Phillip Warner. Dive right into the single photon pages here. Program Contact: Tom Jordan Web Maintainer: qnet-webmaster@fnal.gov Last Updated: 18 January 2000 http:...

196

Brochures | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Podcasts Image Gallery external site Video Library Syndicated Feeds (RSS) The Advanced Photon Source: Lighting the Way to a Better Tomorrow aps brochure The APS helps...

197

Divisions | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chart Argonne Research Divisions APS Research Divisions In May 2002, The Advanced Photon Source was reorganized into three divisions: the Accelerator Systems Division...

198

How stable is the photon?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Yes, the photon. While a nonzero photon mass has been under experimental and theoretical study for years, the possible implication of a finite photon lifetime lacks discussion. The tight experimental upper bound of the photon mass restricts the kinematically allowed final states of photon decay to the lightest neutrino and/or particles beyond the Standard Model. We discuss the modifications of the well-measured cosmic microwave background spectrum of free streaming photons due to photon mass and lifetime and obtain model-independent constraints on both parameters---most importantly a lower direct bound of 3 yrs on the photon lifetime, should the photon mass be at its conservative upper limit.

Heeck, Julian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Counting statistics of collective photon transmissions  

SciTech Connect

We theoretically study cooperative effects in the steady-state transmission of photons through a medium of N radiators. Using methods from quantum transport, we find a cross-over in scaling from N to N{sup 2} in the current and to even higher powers of N in the higher cumulants of the photon counting statistics as a function of the tunable source occupation. The effect should be observable for atoms confined within a nano-cell with a pumped optical cavity as photon source. - Highlights: > Super-radiance transfers to super-transmittance in steady-state transport. > Higher cumulants are much more sensitive indicators for collective behavior than the first cumulant. > Effects should be measurable by pumped-cavity experiment.

Vogl, M., E-mail: malte.vogl@tu-berlin.de; Schaller, G., E-mail: gernot.schaller@tu-berlin.de; Brandes, T.

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

Optical Activity as a Two?State Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phenomenon of optical activity is analyzed as a quantum two?state process with transitions between photon states of perpendicular plane polarizations

E. A. Power; T. Thirunamachandran

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Efficient Optical Spectroscopy of Single Solid-State Quantum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... photon sources, as memory nodes in a quantum network, or as low power optical transistors ... wavelength band in which low-loss transmission of ...

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

202

Higgs-Z-photon Coupling from Effect of Composite Resonances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the Higgs-Z-photon coupling in the Minimal Composite Higgs Model with vector and axial resonances. The electroweak precision measurement, i.e. S and T, is estimated for this model. We calculate the signal strength for Higgs decay into Z-photon and notable enhancement is found in certain EWPT allowed parameter region.

Cai, Haiying

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

On the Photon Mass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the case for the photon having a tiny mass compatible with the experimental limits. We go over some possible experimental tests for such a photon mass including the violation of Lorentz symmetry. We point out that such violations may already have been witnessed in tests involving high energy gamma rays from outer space as also ultra high energy cosmic rays.

Burra G. Sidharth

2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

204

Projection imaging of photon beams by the Cerenkov effect  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A novel technique for beam profiling of megavoltage photon beams was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cerenkov emission in water, as a potential surrogate for the imparted dose in irradiated media. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire 2D projection images of Cerenkov emission from a 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 cm{sup 2} 6 MV linear accelerator (LINAC) x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 400 MU/min incident on a water tank with transparent walls. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the LINAC sync pulse to reduce background light artifacts, and the measurement quality was investigated by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and measurement repeatability as a function of delivered dose. Monte Carlo simulations were used to derive a calibration factor for differences between the optical images and deposited dose arising from the anisotropic angular dependence of Cerenkov emission. Finally, Cerenkov-based beam profiles were compared to a percent depth dose (PDD) and lateral dose profile at a depth of d{sub max} from a reference dose distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system (TPS). Results: The signal to noise ratio was found to be 20 at a delivered dose of 66.6 cGy, and proportional to the square root of the delivered dose as expected from Poisson photon counting statistics. A 2.1% mean standard deviation and 5.6% maximum variation in successive measurements were observed, and the Monte Carlo derived calibration factor resulted in Cerenkov emission images which were directly correlated to deposited dose, with some spatial issues. The dose difference between the TPS and PDD predicted by Cerenkov measurements was within 20% in the buildup region with a distance to agreement (DTA) of 1.5-2 mm and {+-}3% at depths beyond d{sub max}. In the lateral profile, the dose difference at the beam penumbra was within {+-}13% with a DTA of 0-2 mm, {+-}5% in the central beam region, and 2%-3% in the beam umbra. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Cerenkov emission imaging to profile x-ray photon LINAC beams in water. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method.

Glaser, Adam K.; Davis, Scott C.; McClatchy, David M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W.; Gladstone, David J. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Fiber optic detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

206

Photons at PHENIX  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct photons are a powerful probe to study the properties of the unique matter created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. They carry information on the various stages of a heavy-ion collision. At different transverse momenta (pT), different production processes dominate the direct photon yield in heavy-ion collisions. Photons at high pT can be used to study initial hard scattering processes while photons at low and intermediate pT provide direct information on the hot and dense medium created in such collisions since they origin predominantly from jet-medium interactions and from thermal radiation from the medium itself. PHENIX has measured direct-photon yields over a broad pT and energy range in different collision systems such as Au+Au and Cu+Cu, allowing systematic studies of the behavior of direct photons in heavy-ion collisions. Two different methods have been used to measure the direct photons. An excess of direct photons in Au+Au collisions at low pT beyond the expectation from p+p collisions was measured for the first time via internal conversion. Furthermore, the azimuthal anisotropy parameter v2 has been measured. The direct photon v2 sheds light on the different processes contributing to the production of direct photons. The p+p data at the same energy provide a baseline for understanding the heavy-ion data, but are also interesting in their own right, e.g. for testing pQCD calculations or - as RHIC collides polarized protons - for constraining models on the gluon contribution to the proton spin.

Baldo Sahlmueller; for the PHENIX collaboration

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

207

Multi-Photon Interference and Temporal Distinguishability of Photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A number of recent interference experiments involving multiple photons are reviewed. These experiments include generalized photon bunching effects, generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel interference effects and multi-photon interferometry for demonstrations of multi-photon de Broglie wavelength. The multi-photon states used in these experiments are from two pairs of photons in parametric down-conversion. We find that the size of the interference effect in these experiments, characterized by the visibility of interference pattern, is governed by the degree of distinguishability among different pairs of photons. Based on this discovery, we generalize the concept of multi-photon temporal distinguishability and relate it to a number of multi-photon interference effects. Finally, we make an attempt to interpret the coherence theory by the multi-photon interference via the concept of temporal distinguishability of photons.

Z. Y. Ou

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Integrated optical tamper sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention consists of an monolithic optical tamper sensor, comprising an optical emitter and detector, connected by an optical waveguide and placed into the critical entry plane of an enclosed sensitive region, the tamper sensor having a myriad of scraps of a material optically absorbent at the wavelength of interest, such that when the absorbent material is in place on the waveguide, an unique optical signature can be recorded, but when entry is attempted into the enclosed sensitive region, the scraps of absorbent material will be displaced and the optical/electrical signature of the tamper sensor will change and that change can be recorded.

Carson, R.F.; Casalnuovo, S.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

209

MULTI-WAVELENGTH EMISSION REGION OF {gamma}-RAY EMITTING PULSARS  

SciTech Connect

Using the outer gap model, we investigate the emission region for the multi-wavelength light curve from energetic pulsars. We assume that {gamma}-ray and non-thermal X-ray photons are emitted from a particle acceleration region in the outer magnetosphere, and UV/optical photons originate above that region. We assume that {gamma}-rays are radiated only by outwardly moving particles, whereas the other photons are produced by particles moving inward and outward. We parameterize the altitude of the emission region as the deviation from the rotating dipole in a vacuum and determine it from the observed multi-wavelength pulse profile using the observationally constrained magnetic dipole inclination angle and viewing angle of the pulsars. We find that the outer gap model can explain the multi-wavelength pulse behavior by a simple distribution of emissivity, and discuss the possibility of further improvement. From observational fitting, we also find a general tendency for the altitude of the {gamma}-ray emission region to depend on the inclination angle. In particular, the emission region for low inclination angle is required to be located at very low altitude, which corresponds to the inner region within the last-open field line of the rotating dipole in a vacuum. This model suggests a modification of the statistics for observed {gamma}-ray pulsars: the number of sources with low inclination and viewing angles increases compared with previous estimates.

Kisaka, S.; Kojima, Y., E-mail: kisaka@theo.phys.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kojima@theo.phys.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

210

Counting constituents in molecular complexes by fluorescence photon antibunching  

SciTech Connect

Modern single molecule fluorescence microscopy offers new, highly quantitative ways of studying the systems biology of cells while keeping the cells healthy and alive in their natural environment. In this context, a quantum optical technique, photon antibunching, has found a small niche in the continuously growing applications of single molecule techniques to small molecular complexes. Here, we review some of the most recent applications of photon antibunching in biophotonics, and we provide a guide for how to conduct photon antibunching experiments at the single molecule level by applying techniques borrowed from time-correlated single photon counting. We provide a number of new examples for applications of photon antibunching to the study of multichromophoric molecules and small molecular complexes.

Fore, S; Laurence, T; Hollars, C; Huser, T

2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

211

Pair creation by a photon in an electric field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The process of pair creation by a photon in a constant and homogeneous electric field is investigated basing on the polarization operator in the field. The total probability of the process is found in a relatively simple form. At high energy the quasiclassical approximation is valid. The corrections to the standard quasiclassical approximation (SQA) are calculated. In the region relatively low photon energies, where SQA is unapplicable, the new approximation is used. It is shown that in this energy interval the probability of pair creation by a photon in electric field exceeds essentially the corresponding probability in a magnetic field. This approach is valid at the photon energy much larger than "vacuum" energy in electric field: $\\omega\\gg eE/m$. For smaller photon energies the low energy approximation is developed. At $\\omega\\ll eE/m$ the found probability describes the absorption of soft photon by the particles created by an electric field.

V. N. Baier; V. M. Katkov

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

212

Electronic and photonic power applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Efficient conversion of radioactive decay to electrical power has been the goal of a number of past research efforts. One of these was the Elgin-Kidde nuclear battery. In this concept promethium-147 was used as a beta source which was then mixed with a phosphor to produce a radioluminescent (RL) source of light. The light source was coupled to silicon photovoltaic converters to create electricity. This photoelectric approach is being revisited using tritium based solid state compounds and advanced gas concepts to produce RL light sources being disclosed at this conference. Efficient conversion of the RL light energy to electrical energy imposes certain requirements on the semiconductor converter. These requirements will be discussed. Projections of power source electrical and physical characteristics will be presented based on reasonable design parameter assumptions. The words Power Supply'' usually evoke a vision of a rotating machine or chemical battery. However, today's technology is making increasing use of photonics, where information and even power can be moved through optical fibers. Brighter volumetric RL light sources open a whole new range of photonics-based applications, while solid state tritiated compounds provide the foundation for improved mechanical adaptability and safety. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Walko, R.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.; Reed, S.T.; Renschler, C.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Shepodd, T.J. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)); Ellefson, R.E.; Gill, J.T. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Leonard, L.E. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Electronic and photonic power applications  

SciTech Connect

Efficient conversion of radioactive decay to electrical power has been the goal of a number of past research efforts. One of these was the Elgin-Kidde nuclear battery. In this concept promethium-147 was used as a beta source which was then mixed with a phosphor to produce a radioluminescent (RL) source of light. The light source was coupled to silicon photovoltaic converters to create electricity. This photoelectric approach is being revisited using tritium based solid state compounds and advanced gas concepts to produce RL light sources being disclosed at this conference. Efficient conversion of the RL light energy to electrical energy imposes certain requirements on the semiconductor converter. These requirements will be discussed. Projections of power source electrical and physical characteristics will be presented based on reasonable design parameter assumptions. The words Power Supply'' usually evoke a vision of a rotating machine or chemical battery. However, today's technology is making increasing use of photonics, where information and even power can be moved through optical fibers. Brighter volumetric RL light sources open a whole new range of photonics-based applications, while solid state tritiated compounds provide the foundation for improved mechanical adaptability and safety. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Walko, R.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.; Reed, S.T.; Renschler, C.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Shepodd, T.J. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)); Ellefson, R.E.; Gill, J.T. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Leonard, L.E. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Entangling photons via the double quantum Zeno effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a scheme for entangling two photons via the quantum Zeno effect, which describes the inhibition of quantum evolution by frequent measurements and is based on the difference between summing amplitudes and probabilities. Our scheme requires that the one-photon loss rate $\\xi_{1\\gamma}$ and the two-photon absorption rate $\\xi_{2\\gamma}$ in some medium satisfy $\\xi_{1\\gamma}/\\xi_{2\\gamma}=\\ord(P_{\\rm error}^2)$, where $P_{\\rm error}$ is the allowed error probability. Again based on the quantum Zeno effect, as well as coherent excitations, we present a possibility to fulfill this requirement in an otherwise linear optics set-up.

Brinke, Nicolai ten; Schtzhold, Ralf

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Breaking symmetries in ordered materials : spin polarized light transport in magnetized noncentrosymmetric 1D photonic crystals, and photonic gaps and fabrication of quasiperiodic structured materials from interference lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of breaking various symmetries on optical properties in ordered materials have been studied. Photonic crystals lacking space-inversion and time-reversal symmetries were shown to display nonreciprocal dispersion ...

Bita, Ion

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

New Results for a Photon-Photon Collider  

SciTech Connect

We present new results from studies in progress on physics at a two-photon collider. We report on the sensitivity to top squark parameters of MSSM Higgs boson production in two-photon collisions; Higgs boson decay to two photons; radion production in models of warped extra dimensions; chargino pair production; sensitivity to the trilinear Higgs boson coupling; charged Higgs boson pair production; and we discuss the backgrounds produced by resolved photon-photon interactions.

Asner, D; Grzadkowski, B; Gunion, J F; Logan, H E; Martin, V; Schmitt, M; Velasco, M M

2002-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

217

New results for a photon-photon collider  

SciTech Connect

We present new results from studies in progress on physics at a two-photon collider. We report on the sensitivity to top squark parameters of MSSM Higgs boson production in two-photon collisions; Higgs boson decay to two photons; radion production in models of warped extra dimensions; chargino pair production; sensitivity to the trilinear Higgs boson coupling; charged Higgs boson pair production; and we discuss the backgrounds produced by resolved photon-photon interactions.

David Asner et al.

2002-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

218

Photon Source Parameters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photon Source Parameters Photon Source Parameters Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety of polarization modes, including circular, elliptical, horizontal, and vertical. These modes can be chosen by appropriate phasing of the magnet rows. The brightness and flux curves below are shown for horizontal and circular polarization. Curves for elliptical and vertical polarization are similar to the horizontal polarization curve, but the minimum photon energy is higher.

219

What is a photon?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the absorber theory of radiation as put forward by Wheeler and Feynman. We show that it gives a better understanding of the photon compared to the usual quantum electrodynamics (QED) picture.

Vasant Natarajan

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

220

Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

software services to the accelerator and beamlines in support of world-class photon science at the APS. Learn more News and Events Effective End-to-end Management...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

About | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the APS Welcome to the Advanced Photon Source Here you will find an introduction and tour of the facility, as well as information about the organizations and opportunities at...

222

Photonics Research and Development  

SciTech Connect

During the period August 2005 through October 2009, the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF), a non-profit affiliate of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), in collaboration with UNLV??s Colleges of Science and Engineering; Boston University (BU); Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and Sunlight Direct, LLC, has managed and conducted a diverse and comprehensive research and development program focused on light-emitting diode (LED) technologies that provide significantly improved characteristics for lighting and display applications. This final technical report provides detailed information on the nature of the tasks, the results of the research, and the deliverables. It is estimated that about five percent of the energy used in the nation is for lighting homes, buildings and streets, accounting for some 25 percent of the average home??s electric bill. However, the figure is significantly higher for the commercial sector. About 60 percent of the electricity for businesses is for lighting. Thus replacement of current lighting with solid-state lighting technology has the potential to significantly reduce this nation??s energy consumption ?? by some estimates, possibly as high as 20%. The primary objective of this multi-year R&D project has been to develop and advance lighting technologies to improve national energy conversion efficiencies; reduce heat load; and significantly lower the cost of conventional lighting technologies. The UNLVRF and its partners have specifically focused these talents on (1) improving LED technologies; (2) optimizing hybrid solar lighting, a technology which potentially offers the benefits of blending natural with artificial lighting systems, thus improving energy efficiency; and (3) building a comprehensive academic infrastructure within UNLV which concentrates on photonics R&D. Task researchers have reported impressive progress in (1) the development of quantum dot laser emitting diodes (QDLEDs) which will ultimately improve energy efficiency and lower costs for display and lighting applications (UNLV College of Engineering); (2) advancing green LED technology based on the Indium-Gallium-Nitride system (BU), thus improving conversion efficiencies; (3) employing unique state-of-the-art X-ray, electron and optical spectroscopies with microscopic techniques to learn more about the electronic structure of materials and contacts in LED devices (UNLV College of Science); (4) establishing a UNLV Display Lighting Laboratory staffed with a specialized team of academic researchers, students and industrial partners focused on identifying and implementing engineering solutions for lighting display-related problems; and (5) conducting research, development and demonstration for HSL essential to the resolution of technological barriers to commercialization.

Pookpanratana, Sujitra; Shlayan, Neveen; Venkat, Rama; Das, Bisjwajit; Boehm, Bob; Heske, Clemens; Fraser, Donald; Moustakas, Theodore

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

223

RJTA Vol. 14 No. 4 2010 Jacquard-Woven Photonic Bandgap Fiber Displays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, `Fiber optic sensors and smart fabrics' J. Intelligent Mat. Systems & Struct., vol. 11, pp. 407-414. [6 that integrate several optical functionalities at the fiber level. As indicated by their name, photonic textiles of specialty optical fibers during the weaving process of textile manufacturing. This approach is quite natural

Skorobogatiy, Maksim

224

On-chip, photon-number-resolving, telecommunication-band detectors for scalable photonic information processing  

SciTech Connect

Integration is currently the only feasible route toward scalable photonic quantum processing devices that are sufficiently complex to be genuinely useful in computing, metrology, and simulation. Embedded on-chip detection will be critical to such devices. We demonstrate an integrated photon-number-resolving detector, operating in the telecom band at 1550 nm, employing an evanescently coupled design that allows it to be placed at arbitrary locations within a planar circuit. Up to five photons are resolved in the guided optical mode via absorption from the evanescent field into a tungsten transition-edge sensor. The detection efficiency is 7.2{+-}0.5 %. The polarization sensitivity of the detector is also demonstrated. Detailed modeling of device designs shows a clear and feasible route to reaching high detection efficiencies.

Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E.; Calkins, Brice; Tomlin, Nathan A.; Fox, Anna E.; Linares, Antia Lamas; Mirin, Richard P.; Nam, Sae Woo [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado, 80305 (United States); Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Metcalf, Benjamin J.; Spring, Justin B.; Langford, Nathan K.; Walmsley, Ian A. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Gates, James C.; Smith, Peter G. R. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Highfield SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Narrow-band optical transmission of metallic nanoslit arrays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metallic nanoslit arrays usually demonstrate wide transmission bands for transverse-magnetic-polarized incidence light. Here, we show that by introducing multi-dielectric layers underneath the metallic structure layer on the substrate, a narrow peak is formed, whose bandwidth can be down to a few nanometers. Three types of resonance modes in the region under the metal layer are identified responsible for the formation of the peak, i.e., a two-dimensional cavity resonance mode, which supports optical transmission, and two in-plane hybrid surface plasmon resonance modes locating on both sides of the peak that suppresses the transmission. Such structures can be applied in advanced photonic devices.

Sun Zhijun; Yang Ying; Zuo Xiaoliu [Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

226

Two-photon interference of photon pairs created in photonic crystal fibers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate a method to produce photon pairs by four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). By controlling the wavelength of the pump light, which determines the phase matching condition for four-wave mixing, we can obtain a broader spectrum of photon pairs than undesired Raman-scattered photons. We observe two-photon interference of photon pairs from a PCF with the help of an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Two-photon interference fringes with 83% visibility, which exceeds the classical limit of 50%, are obtained.

Toshihiro Nakanishi; Kazuo Sakemi; Hirokazu Kobayashi; Kazuhiko Sugiyama; Masao Kitano

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Multi-Photon Interference and Temporal Distinguishability of Photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A number of recent interference experiments involving multiple photons are reviewed. These experiments include generalized photon bunching effects, generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel interference effects and multi-photon interferometry for demonstrations of multiphoton de Broglie wavelength. The multi-photon states used in these experiments are from two pairs of photons in parametric down-conversion. We find that the size of the interference effect in these experiments, characterized by the visibility of interference pattern, is governed by the degree of distinguishability among different pairs of photons. Based on this discovery, we generalize the concept of multi-photon temporal distinguishability and relate it to a number of multi-photon interference effects. Keywords: Interference; Distinguishability; Photon Counting. 1.

Z. Y. Ou

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Entangling photons via the quantum Zeno effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum Zeno effect describes the inhibition of quantum evolution by frequent measurements. Here, we propose a scheme for entangling two given photons based on this effect. We consider a linear-optics set-up with an absorber medium whose two-photon absorption rate $\\xi_{2\\gamma}$ exceeds the one-photon loss rate $\\xi_{1\\gamma}$. In order to reach an error probability $P_{\\rm error}$, we need $\\xi_{1\\gamma}/\\xi_{2\\gamma}based on coherent excitations of many atoms and exploits the fact that $\\xi_{2\\gamma}$ scales with the number of excitations but $\\xi_{1\\gamma}$ does not. The third mechanism envisages three-level systems where the middle level is meta-stable ($\\Lambda$-system). In this case, $\\xi_{1\\gamma}$ is more strongly reduced than $\\xi_{2\\gamma}$ and thus it should be possible to achieve $\\xi_{2\\gamma}/\\xi_{1\\gamma}\\gg1$. In conclusion, although our scheme poses challenges regarding the density of active atoms/molecules in the absorber medium, their coupling constants and the detuning, etc., we find that a two-photon gate with an error probability $P_{\\rm error}$ below 25% might be feasible using present-day technology.

Nicolai ten Brinke; Andreas Osterloh; Ralf Schtzhold

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

229

Integrated Photon Pair Sources, Quantum Memories, and Lasers in Lithium Niobate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrated Photon Pair Sources, Quantum Memories, and Lasers in Lithium Niobate W. Sohler1 , H developments in the field of integrated quantum optics [1] exploiting lithium niobate (LN) waveguide technology: single photon pair sources with Ti:PPLN (periodically poled lithium niobate) waveguide, quantum memories

230

Tunable Fano resonance in large scale polymer-dielectric slab photonic crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using interference lithography and deposition technique we have fabricated large scale quasi one dimensional polymer-dielectric photonic crystal that provides sharp and deep Fano resonance in the transmission spectrum of the PC at normal incidence. Due ... Keywords: Interference lithography, Optical switch, Photonic crystals, Polymer, Tunable filter

Reza Asadi; Shahin Bagheri; Mahdi Khaje; Mohammad Malekmohammad; Mohammad-Taghi Tavassoly

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Photonic bandgap fibers for transmitting high peak-power pulses in the near infrared  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (PBG) offer the opportunity to suppress highly the optical absorption and nonlinearities of their constituent materials, which makes them viable candidates for transmitting high-peak ...

Ruff, Zachary

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors and sub-10-nm lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) are useful in applications such as free-space optical communications to achieve high-speed data transfer across vast distances with minimum transmission power. In ...

Yang, Joel K. (Joel Kwang wei)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Advanced Optics | Center for Functional Nanomaterials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optical Spectroscopy and Microscopy Optical Spectroscopy and Microscopy optics The Advanced Optical Spectroscopy & Microscopy Facility combines a broad range of optical instruments suitable for studies of optical properties of hard, soft or biological materials using ultrafast and nonlinear spectroscopy, and single-molecule optical and confocal methods. Capabilities Fluorescence imaging (up to five channels simultaneously), two-color fluorescence lifetime imaging, spectral imaging, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy Fluorescence lifetime measurements, including time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy and time-resolved fluorescence spectra, using single-photon counting and fluorescence upconversion methods Single-molecule spectroscopy: fluorescence intensity, lifetimes, anisotropy and fluorescence spectra

234

Photon Sciences Training Courses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photon Sciences Training Courses Photon Sciences Training Courses Beamline Ops (BLOSA) BNL Web Courses (Help) BNL Class Schedules Business Systems & Software Contractor Orientation Cranes, Forklifts, Aerial Lifts Electrical Environmental ESH Briefings ESH Tours GERT GERT Reciprocity Human Resources IRP (Briefings) (Procedures) Job Briefings JRAs and FRAs Lasers Lead Machine Shops Medical Surveillance Nano Materials NSLS-II (Bldg 740) Photographic Dark Rm Procedures (Control Rm) Procedures (PRMs) (SOPs) Radiological Remedial (GERT) (NSLS) Roster Form (.docx) R2A2s Source Dev Lab Staff Development Study Guides Supervisory Training Training Course Dev Form User Training Work Control All Photon Sciences (PS) courses and some BNL courses (HP, OM, TQ, and GE) commonly assigned by the PS Directorate for work within PS buildings are

235

Photon Source Parameters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photon Source Parameters Print Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety of polarization modes, including circular, elliptical, horizontal, and vertical. These modes can be chosen by appropriate phasing of the magnet rows. The brightness and flux curves below are shown for horizontal and circular polarization. Curves for elliptical and vertical polarization are similar to the horizontal polarization curve, but the minimum photon energy is higher.

236

Photon Source Parameters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photon Source Parameters Print Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety of polarization modes, including circular, elliptical, horizontal, and vertical. These modes can be chosen by appropriate phasing of the magnet rows. The brightness and flux curves below are shown for horizontal and circular polarization. Curves for elliptical and vertical polarization are similar to the horizontal polarization curve, but the minimum photon energy is higher.

237

Photon Source Parameters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photon Source Parameters Print Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety of polarization modes, including circular, elliptical, horizontal, and vertical. These modes can be chosen by appropriate phasing of the magnet rows. The brightness and flux curves below are shown for horizontal and circular polarization. Curves for elliptical and vertical polarization are similar to the horizontal polarization curve, but the minimum photon energy is higher.

238

Photon Source Parameters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photon Source Parameters Print Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety of polarization modes, including circular, elliptical, horizontal, and vertical. These modes can be chosen by appropriate phasing of the magnet rows. The brightness and flux curves below are shown for horizontal and circular polarization. Curves for elliptical and vertical polarization are similar to the horizontal polarization curve, but the minimum photon energy is higher.

239

Hark! Group Demonstrates First Heralded Single Photon ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... photon pair generation, a laser pumps photons into a ... properties cause two incoming pump photons to ... example, to trigger the storage of information ...

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

240

Relativistic Photon Mediated Shocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A system of equations governing the structure of a steady, relativistic radiation dominated shock is derived, starting from the general form of the transfer equation obeyed by the photon distribution function. Closure is obtained by truncating the system of moment equations at some order. The anisotropy of the photon distribution function inside the shock is shown to increase with increasing shock velocity, approaching nearly perfect beaming at upstream Lorentz factors $\\Gamma_{-}>>1$. Solutions of the shock equations are presented for some range of upstream conditions. These solutions are shown to converge as the truncation order is increased.

Amir Levinson; Omer Bromberg

2007-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Engineering of Schroedinger cat states by a sequence of displacements and photon additions or subtractions  

SciTech Connect

A method to generate Schroedinger cat states in free propagating optical fields based on the use of displaced states (or displacement operators) is developed. Some optical schemes with photon-added coherent states are studied. The schemes are modifications of the general method based on a sequence of displacements and photon additions or subtractions adjusted to generate Schroedinger cat states of a larger size. The effects of detection inefficiency are taken into account.

Podoshvedov, S. A., E-mail: podoshvedov@mail.ru [Seoul National University, Center for Subwavelength Optics and Department of Physics and Astronomy (Korea, Republic of)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Laser assisted Compton scattering of X-ray photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Compton scattering of X-ray photons, assisted by a short intense optical laser pulse is discussed. The differential scattering cross section reveals the interesting feature that the main Klein-Nishina line is accompanied by a series of side-lines forming a broad plateau where up to ${\\cal O} (10^3)$ laser photons participate simultaneously in a single scattering event. Due to the non-linear mixing of X-ray and laser photons a frequency dependent rotation of the polarization of the final state photons relative to the scattering plane emerges. A consistent description of the scattering process with short laser pulses requires to work with X-ray pulses. An experimental investigation can be accomplished, e.g., at LCLS or the European XFEL in the near future.

D. Seipt; B. Kampfer

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

243

Controllable stimulation of retinal rod cells using single photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New tools and approaches of quantum optics offer a unique opportunity to generate light pulses carrying a precise number of photons (1). Accurate control over the light pulses helps to improve the characterization of photo-induced processes in biological systems (2). Here, we present a design of a specialised light source which provides exactly one photon at a time, and it is interfaced with retinal rod cells of Xenopus laevis toads. We give an independent proof for the single photon sensitivity of rod cells and measure single photon responses of individual cells. We determined their quantum efficiencies without the use of any pre-calibrated detectors (3-5), and obtained the value of (29+-4.7)%. Our approach provides the path for future studies and applications of quantum properties of light in phototransduction, vision, and photosynthesis (6-9).

Nam Mai Phan; Mei Fun Cheng; Dmitri A. Bessarab; Leonid A. Krivitsky

2013-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

244

Photonics theme publications: January 1st 2010 July 31st  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on light beams for quantum information science, Optics and Photonics News 21, 48 (2010). (Gla/Strath) 6. R. Keeble, Bipolaron formation in organic solar cells observed by pulsed electrically detected magnetic- diffracting light beams from broad-stripe edge-emitting semiconductor lasers. Tech. Phys. Lett. 36, 9 (2010

Greenaway, Alan

245

Odd-order aberration cancellation in correlated-photon imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We discuss a correlated two-photon imaging apparatus that is capable of producing images that are free of the effects of odd-order aberration introduced by the optical system. We show that both quantum-entangled and classically correlated light sources are capable of producing the desired spatial-aberration cancellation.

Simon, D. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary's Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary's Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Sergienko, A. V. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary's Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary's Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

Photon-photon interactions. [Brief summary of present status  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A brief summary of the present status of photon-photon interactions is presented. Stress is placed on the use of two-photon collisions to test present ideas on the quark constituents of hadrons and on the theory of strong interactions.

Gilman, F.J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

AE Photonics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Photonics Place Germany Product Germany-based PV system and component supplier References AE Photonics1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one...

248

Sunlight Photonics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Photonics Place South Plainfield, New Jersey Zip 7080 Product New Jersey-based stealth thin-film PV maker. References Sunlight Photonics1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase...

249

A Study of Air Quality in the Southeastern HamptonNorfolkVirginia Beach Region with Airborne Lidar Measurements and MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study of air quality was performed using a compact, aircraft aerosol lidar designed in the Science Directorate at NASA Langley Research Center and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals. ...

Jasper Lewis; Russell De Young; D. Allen Chu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Metropolis photon sampling with optional user guidance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present Metropolis Photon Sampling (MPS), a visual importance-driven algorithm for populating photon maps. Photon Mapping and other particle tracing algorithms fail if the photons are poorly distributed. Our approach samples light transport paths ...

Shaohua Fan; Stephen Chenney; Yu-chi Lai

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Photon Splitting and Pair Conversion in Strong Magnetic Fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The magnetospheres of neutron stars provide a valuable testing ground for as-yet unverified theoretical predictions of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in strong electromagnetic fields. Exhibiting magnetic field strengths well in excess of a TeraGauss, such compact astrophysical environments permit the action of exotic mechanisms that are forbidden by symmetries in field-free regions. Foremost among these processes are single-photon pair creation, where a photon converts to an electron-positron pair, and magnetic photon splitting, where a single photon divides into two of lesser energy via the coupling to the external field. The pair conversion process is exponentially small in weak fields, and provides the leading order contribution to vacuum polarization. In contrast, photon splitting possesses no energy threshold and can operate in kinematic regimes where the lower order pair conversion is energetically forbidden. This paper outlines some of the key physical aspects of these processes, and highlights their manifestation in neutron star magnetospheres. Anticipated observational signatures include profound absorption turnovers in pulsar spectra at gamma-ray wavelengths. The shapes of these turnovers provide diagnostics on the possible action of pair creation and the geometrical locale of the photon emission region. There is real potential for the first confirmation of strong field QED with the new GLAST mission, to be launched by NASA in 2008. Suppression of pair creation by photon splitting and its implications for pulsars is also discussed.

Matthew G. Baring

2008-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

252

High energy photon emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary goal of this work was to initiate the use of BaF2 arrays for detection of high energy photon emission from nuclear reactions. A beam from the Texas A&M University K-500 Superconducting Cyclotron, and a variety of detectors for hard photons, neutrons, charged particles, and fission fragments were used to study the reaction 160 + 238 U at a projectile energy of 50 MeV/u. Inverse slope values of the photon spectra were extracted for inclusive data and data of higher multiplicities at angles of 90' and 135'. Two 19-element barium fluoride (BaF2) arrays, an array of liquid scintillation fast neutron detectors and plastic scintillation charged-particle veto detectors, together with a silicon-cesium iodide (Si-CsI) telescope and a silicon fission fragment detector allowed the possibility of impact parameter selection through neutron and charged particle multiplicities. The associated multiplicity distributions of photon and fast neutron triggers were compared at 30' and 90' angles. The hardware and electronics layout of the experimental set up are described. Fundamental properties of the various detectors are explained and typical spectra are shown as examples for each detector system. The data acquisition and data compression is described in Chap. III, and followed by the calibration methods used for the BaF2 and Nal(TI) detectors. A description of a dynamic pedestal (zero level) correction mechanism, is followed by a description of several cosmic ray background reduction methods, including the highly effective centrality condition. A summary is given to compare the various methods. After a description of the other types of detectors used in the experiment, an example is given how the final photon spectra were produced. In Chap. IV the measured results are presented and compared to those in the literature. The last chapter provides the conclusions of this work.

Jabs, Harry

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Slow light enhanced photon echoes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a slow light-enhanced photon echo method, whose retrieval efficiency is two orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional photon echoes. The enhanced photon echo efficiency is due to lengthened interaction time given by ultraslow group velocity.

J. Hahn; B. S. Ham

2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

254

Transversely stable soliton trains in photonic lattices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the existence of transversely stable soliton trains in optics. These stable soliton trains are found in two-dimensional square photonic lattices when they bifurcate from X-symmetry points with saddle-shaped diffraction inside the first Bloch band and their amplitudes are above a certain threshold. We also show that soliton trains with low amplitudes or bifurcated from edges of the first Bloch band ({Gamma} and M points) still suffer transverse instability. These results are obtained in the continuous lattice model and are further corroborated by the discrete model.

Yang Jianke [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

Coherent propagation of a single photon in a lossless medium: $0?$ pulse formation, slow photon, storage and retrieval in multiple temporal modes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-photon coherent optics represents a fundamental importance for the investigation of quantum light-matter interactions. While most work has considered the interaction in the steady-state regime, here we demonstrate that a single-photon pulse shorter than any relaxation time in a medium propagates without energy loss and is consistently transformed into a zero-area pulse. A general analytical solution is found for photon passage through a cold ensemble of $\\Lambda$-type atoms confined inside a hollow core of a single-mode photonic-crystal fiber. We use the robust far off-resonant Raman scheme to control the pulse reshaping by an intense control laser beam and show that in the case of cw control field, for exact two-photon resonance, the outgoing photon displays an oscillating temporal distribution, which is the quantum counterpart of a classical field ringing, while for nonzero two-photon detuning a slow photon is produced. We demonstrate also that a train of readout control pulses coherently recalls the stored photon in many well-separated temporal modes, thus producing time-bin entangled single-photon states. Such states, which allow sharing quantum information among many users, are highly demanded for applications in long-distance quantum communication.

Shushan Petrosyan; Yuri Malakyan

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

256

Photon and Charged Particle Data Center  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photon and Charged Particle Data Center. Summary: The Photon and Charged Particle Data Center has long been an ...

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

257

The influence of Lorentz violation on UHE photon detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that violation of the Lorentz symmetry in quantum electrodynamics can suppress the rates of the interactions crucial for the formation of photon-induced air showers, such as pair production on nuclei and in the geomagnetic field. As a consequence, the allowed region in the space of Lorentz-violating parameters will be seriously restricted if several photons with energies $\\gtrsim\\,10^{19}\\, {eV}$ are detected.

Grigory Rubtsov; Petr Satunin; Sergey Sibiryakov

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

258

Special Issue: Selected Research from the First Optical Interconnects Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This introduction to the special issue summarizes the creation of the first Optical Interconnects Conference, discusses some key themes in the field, and introduces the seven articles included in the special issue. Keywords: Special issues and sections,Optical interconnections,High performance computing,Silicon,Photonics,Data communications,Wavelength division multiplexing,wavelength division multiplexing,optical interconnects,high-performance computing,data centers,datacomm,silicon photonics

Jeffrey A. Kash, Raymond G. Beausoleil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Knot Undulator to Generate Linearly Polarized Photons with Low on-Axis Power Density  

SciTech Connect

Heat load on beamline optics is a serious problem to generate pure linearly polarized photons in the third generation synchrotron radiation facilities. For permanent magnet undulators, this problem can be overcome by a figure-8 operating mode. But there is still no good method to tackle this problem for electromagnetic elliptical undulators. Here, a novel operating mode is suggested, which can generate pure linearly polarized photons with very low on-axis heat load. Also the available minimum photon energy of linearly polarized photons can be extended much by this method.

Qiao, S.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL /LBNL, ALS /Fudan U.; Ma, De-wei; Feng, Dong-lai; /Fudan U.; Hussain, Z.; /LBNL, ALS; Shen, Z.-X.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL

2009-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

260

Scheme for generating a sequence of single photons of alternating polarisation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-photons of well-defined polarisation that are deterministically generated in a single spatio-temporal field mode are the key to the creation of multi-partite entangled states in photonic networks. Here, we present a novel scheme to produce such photons from a single atom in an optical cavity, by means of vacuum-stimulated Raman transitions between the Zeeman substates of a single hyperfine state. Upon each transition, a photon is emitted into the cavity, with a polarisation that depends on the direction of the Raman process.

T. Wilk; H. P. Specht; S. C. Webster; G. Rempe; A. Kuhn

2006-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Scheme for generating a sequence of single photons of alternating polarisation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-photons of well-defined polarisation that are deterministically generated in a single spatio-temporal field mode are the key to the creation of multi-partite entangled states in photonic networks. Here, we present a novel scheme to produce such photons from a single atom in an optical cavity, by means of vacuum-stimulated Raman transitions between the Zeeman substates of a single hyperfine state. Upon each transition, a photon is emitted into the cavity, with a polarisation that depends on the direction of the Raman process.

Wilk, T; Webster, S C; Rempe, G; Kuhn, A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

A Quiet Phase: NIST Optical Tools Produce Ultra-low-noise ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Described in Nature Photonics,* NIST's low-noise apparatus is a new application of optical frequency combs, tools based on ultrafast lasers for ...

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

263

Switching of light with light using cold atoms inside a hollow optical fiber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate a fiber-optical switch that operates with a few hundred photons per switching pulse. The light-light interaction is mediated by laser-cooled

Bajcsy, M.

264

Photon + jets at D0  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photon plus jet production has been studied by the D0 experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at a centre of mass energy of sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV. Measurements of the inclusive photon, inclusive photon plus jet, photon plus heavy flavour jet cross sections and double parton interactions in photon plus three jet events are presented. They are based on integrated luminosities between 0.4 fb$^-1 and 1.0 fb^-1. The results are compared to perturbative QCD calculations in various approximations.

Lars Sonnenschein

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Hidden Photons in Extra Dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Additional U(1) gauge symmetries and corresponding vector bosons, called hidden photons, interacting with the regular photon via kinetic mixing are well motivated in extensions of the Standard Model. Such extensions often exhibit extra spatial dimensions. In this note we investigate the effects of hidden photons living in extra dimensions. In four dimensions such a hidden photon is only detectable if it has a mass or if there exists additional matter charged under it. We note that in extra dimensions suitable masses for hidden photons are automatically present in form of the Kaluza-Klein tower.

Chris J. Wallace; Joerg Jaeckel; Sabyasachi Roy

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

266

The GPDs of The Photon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a recent calculation of the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of the photon when the momentum transfer in the transverse direction is non-zero. We use an overlap representation of the photon GPDs in terms of the photon light-front wave functions. We calculate the GPDs at leading order in electromagnetic coupling $\\alpha$ and zeroth order in strong coupling $\\alpha_s$. We consider also the case when the helicity of the photon is flipped. Fourier transform of the GPDs with respect to the transverse momentum transfer gives the parton distributions of the photon in impact parameter space.

Asmita Mukherjee

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

267

Deterministic source of a train of indistinguishable single-photon pulses with single-atom-cavity system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a mechanism to produce indistinguishable single-photon pulses on demand from an optical cavity. The sequences of two laser pulses generate, at the two Raman transitions of a four-level atom, the same cavity-mode photons without repumping of the atom between photon generations. Photons are emitted from the cavity with near-unit efficiency in well-defined temporal modes of identical shapes controlled by the laser fields. The second order correlation function reveals the single-photon nature of the proposed source. A realistic setup for the experimental implementation is presented.

A. Gogyan; S. Gurin; H. -R. Jauslin; Yu. Malakyan

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

An extremely low-noise heralded single-photon source: a breakthrough for quantum technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low noise single-photon sources are a critical element for quantum technologies. We present a heralded single-photon source with an extremely low level of residual background photons, by implementing low-jitter detectors and electronics and a fast custom-made pulse generator controlling an optical shutter (a LiNbO3 waveguide optical switch) on the output of the source. This source has a second-order autocorrelation g^{(2)}(0)=0.005(7), and an "Output Noise Factor" (defined as the ratio of the number of noise photons to total photons at the source output channel) of 0.25(1)%. These are the best performance characteristics reported to date.

G. Brida; I. P. Degiovanni; M. Genovese; F. Piacentini; P. Traina; A. Della Frera; A. Tosi; A. Bahgat Shehata; C. Scarcella; A. Gulinatti; M. Ghioni; S. V. Polyakov; A. Migdall; A. Giudice

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

269

Photon Sciences | Lectures & Seminars  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photon Sciences Events Photon Sciences Events Upcoming Events There are no events scheduled at this time. Past Events National Synchrotron Light Source Lunch Time Seminar "Electric-field driven magnetism in thin films" Presented by Dr. Mikhail Zhernenkov, Photon Sciences Directorate, BNL Friday, November 22, 2013, 12 pm Seminar Room, Bldg. 725 Hosted by: Dario Arena and Klaus Attenkofer Photon Sciences Town Meeting Monday, November 18, 2013, 1 pm Seminar Room, Bldg. 725 Photon Sciences Town Meeting on Monday, November 18th The Photon Sciences staff and user community are invited to a Town Meeting on Monday, November 18, from 1-3 p.m. in the NSLS Seminar Room, Bldg. 725. Agenda: Discovery Park, NSLS equipment disposition, Photon Sciences update, and safety and machine updates. Watch live webcast starting at 1 p.m. at

270

Posters | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Your Cart (0 Posters) Your Cart (0 Posters) Your cart is empty. checkout Subtotal: $0.00 update empty Posters Order a printed APS poster! 11 in. x 17 in. prints will be mailed in the order requests are received. 36 in. x 36 in. posters will be sent to school addresses once all orders are processed. The Advanced Photon Source Is The Advanced Photon Source Is Qty: 1 add to cart Technologies from Materials Science Technologies from Materials Science Qty: 1 add to cart Materials Under Extreme Pressure Materials Under Extreme Pressure Qty: 1 add to cart Biological Macromolecules in Action Biological Macromolecules in Action Qty: 1 add to cart Journey to the Center of the Earth Journey to the Center of the Earth Qty: 1 add to cart Earthshaking Monitor Earthshaking Monitor Qty: 1 add to cart Imaging with X-rays

271

Welcome | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Welcome Welcome Aerial view of APS Aerial view of the APS Welcome to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. Whether you are a current or potential scientific user of our unique facility or are simply interested in learning more about the APS, we are delighted that you are visiting our website. The APS is funded by the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy. We operate a National User Facility that is open to everyone who has a need for extremely brilliant x-ray photon beams. The APS is one of the most technologically complex machines in the world. This premier national research facility provides the brightest x-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere to more than 5,000 (and growing) scientists from

272

Photon Sciences Training Courses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photon Sciences Training & Qualification Requirements for Accelerator Photon Sciences Training & Qualification Requirements for Accelerator Operators Medical Surveillance BNL Web-Based Training (BNL) Web-Based Training (PSD) Web-Based Training (Help) Instructor-Led Training (BNL) Instructor-Led Training (PSD) Other Training Instructions Medical Surveillance Print the forms and follow the instructions to satisfy the requirement. Web-Based Training Complete the course online. Training credit is entered immediately into the trainee's training history on successful completion of the course. Instructor-Led Training Training is in-person and led by an instructor. Training may be in the form of a briefing, tour, classroom training, hands-on training, event scenario, and may require an exam. Click on the icon for the instructor's name.

273

Overview | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

APS Overview: APS Overview: Introduction APS Systems Map LINAC Booster Synchrotron Storage Ring Insertion Devices Experiment Hall LOMs & Beamlines Overview of the APS The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory provides this nation's (in fact, this hemisphere's) brightest storage ring-generated x-ray beams for research in almost all scientific disciplines. Photo: Aerial Photo of APS Aerial photo of the Advanced Photon Source These x-rays allow scientists to pursue new knowledge about the structure and function of materials in the center of the Earth and in outer space, and all points in between. The knowledge gained from this research can impact the evolution of combustion engines and microcircuits, aid in the development of new pharmaceuticals, and pioneer nanotechnologies whose

274

Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tomography Interest Group Contact: Robert Winarski, Center for Nanoscale Materials winarski@anl.gov Contact: Francesco De Carlo, Advanced Photon Source decarlo@aps.anl.gov The tomography special interest group of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory has been created to promote awareness of the tomography facilities at the APS and to foster communications between the various research groups. Through this group, we believe we can build a strong user community for tomography. The following beamlines have active tomography research programs: 2-BM-B (XOR) http://www.aps.anl.gov/Xray_Science_Division/Xray_Microscopy_and_Imaging/Science_and_Research/Techniques/Tomography/index.html Information about the beamline: http://beam.aps.anl.gov/pls/apsweb/beamline_display_pkg.display_beamline?p_beamline_num_c=31

275

Photon Sciences | Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contact Us Contact Us User Administration Postal Address User Administration Office Brookhaven National Laboratory 75 Brookhaven Avenue, Bldg. 725B Upton, NY 11973-5000 USA Office Hours Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. Check In All new and returning users must personally check in at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Guests, Users, and Visitors (GUV) Center. The GUV Center is located on the first floor in Bldg. 400, on Brookhaven Avenue diagonally across from Berkner Hall. Phone Number 631.344.8737 Fax Number 631.344.7206 Email Address nslsuser@bnl.gov Email is retrieved daily Monday through Friday. Responses to requests or information are made the same or next day. Communications Office Email a question or comment to the Photon Sciences Directorate. Postal Address Photon Sciences Directorate

276

Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 Advanced Photon Source 0 Advanced Photon Source A U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences national synchrotron x-ray research facility Search Button About Welcome Overview Visiting the APS Mission & Goals Find People Organization Charts Committees Job Openings User Information Prospective Users New Users Current Users APS User Portal Macromolecular Crystallographers Administrators Find a Beamline Apply for Beam Time Contacts Calendars Community Scientific Access Site Access Training Science & Education Science & Research Highlights Conferences Seminars Publications Annual Reports APS Upgrade Courses and Schools Graduate Programs Scientific Software Media Center Calendar of Events APS News User News Argonne/APS Press Releases Argonne/APS Feature Stories Argonne/APS In The News

277

Fabrication of Ceramic Layer-by-Layer Infrared Wavelength Photonic Band Gap Crystals  

SciTech Connect

Photonic band gap (PBG) crystals, also known as photonic crystals, are periodic dielectric structures which form a photonic band gap that prohibit the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves of certain frequencies at any incident angles. Photonic crystals have several potential applications including zero-threshold semiconductor lasers, the inhibition of spontaneous emission, dielectric mirrors, and wavelength filters. If defect states are introduced in the crystals, light can be guided from one location to another or even a sharp bending of light in micron scale can be achieved. This generates the potential for optical waveguide and optical circuits, which will contribute to the improvement in the fiber-optic communications and the development of high-speed computers.

Henry Hao-Chuan Kang

2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

278

Photonic Crystals for Enhancing Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermophotovoltaics (TPV) converts the radiant energy of a thermal source into electrical energy using photovoltaic cells. TPV has a number of attractive features, including: fuel versatility (nuclear, fossil, solar, etc.), quiet operation, low maintenance, low emissions, light weight, high power density, modularity, and possibility for cogeneration of heat and electricity. Some of these features are highly attractive for military applications (Navy and Army). TPV could also be used for distributed power and automotive applications wherever fuel cells, microturbines, or cogeneration are presently being considered if the efficiencies could be raised to around 30%. This proposal primarily examine approaches to improving the radiative efficiency. The ideal irradiance for the PV cell is monochromatic illumination at the bandgap. The photonic crystal approach allows for the tailoring of thermal emission spectral bandwidth at specific wavelengths of interest. The experimental realization of metallic photonic crystal structures, the optical transmission, reflection and absorption characterization of it have all been carried out in detail and will be presented next. Additionally, comprehensive models of TPV conversion has been developed and applied to the metallic photonic crystal system.

LIN, SHAWN-YU; FLEMING, JAMES G.; MORENO, JOSEPH A.

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

No-go theorem for passive single-rail linear optical quantum computing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photonic quantum systems are among the most promising architectures for quantum computers. It is well known that for dual-rail photons effective non-linearities and near-deterministic non-trivial two-qubit gates can be achieved via the measurement process and by introducing ancillary photons. While in principle this opens a legitimate path to scalable linear optical quantum computing, the technical requirements are still very challenging and thus other optical encodings are being actively investigated. One of the alternatives is to use single-rail encoded photons, where entangled states can be deterministically generated. Here we prove that even for such systems universal optical quantum computing using only passive optical elements such as beam splitters and phase shifters is not possible. This no-go theorem proves that photon bunching cannot be passively suppressed even when extra ancilla modes and arbitrary number of photons are used. Our result provides useful guidance for the design of optical quantum computers.

Lian-Ao Wu; Philip Walther; Daniel A. Lidar

2011-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

280

Status of a Multiplexed Single Photon On-Demand Source A. L. Migdalla, S. Castellettoa,b and M. Warea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of downconverters and an array of staggered length optical fibers allowing a single detector to measure a herald to be replaced by a series of staggered length optical fibers and a single detector. Each of the trigger photons is coupled into an optical fiber of a unique length. The output ends of the fibers are all bundled together

Hart, Gus

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Photon Physics and Plasma Research, WILGA 2012; EuCARD Sessions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments, astroparticle physica and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. This paper is the third part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with Photon Physics and Plasma Research. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the Jubilee XXXth SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET tokamak and pi-of-the sky experiments ...

Romaniuk, R S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Correlated photon pairs generated from a warm atomic ensemble  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present measurements of the cross-correlation function of photon pairs at 780 nm and 1367 nm, generated in a hot rubidium vapor cell. The temporal character of the biphoton is determined by the dispersive properties of the medium where the pair generation takes place. We show that short correlation times occur for optically thick samples, which can be understood in terms of off-resonant pair generation. By modifying the linear response of the sample, we produce near-resonant photon pairs, which could in principle be used for entanglement distribution.

Willis, R T; Orozco, L A; Rolston, S L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Correlated photon pairs generated from a warm atomic ensemble  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present measurements of the cross-correlation function of photon pairs at 780 nm and 1367 nm, generated in a hot rubidium vapor cell. The temporal character of the biphoton is determined by the dispersive properties of the medium where the pair generation takes place. We show that short correlation times occur for optically thick samples, which can be understood in terms of off-resonant pair generation. By modifying the linear response of the sample, we produce near-resonant photon pairs, which could in principle be used for entanglement distribution.

R. T. Willis; F. E. Becerra; L. A. Orozco; S. L. Rolston

2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

284

Advanced silicon photonic modulators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various electrical and optical schemes used in Mach-Zehnder (MZ) silicon plasma dispersion effect modulators are explored. A rib waveguide reverse biased silicon diode modulator is designed, tested and found to operate at ...

Sorace, Cheryl M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Highly dispersive micro-ring resonator based on one dimensional photonic crystal waveguide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulus, "Coupling of modes analysis optics devices, (140.4780) Optical resonators, (999.9999) slow light References and Links 1. Q. Xu, B-327 (2005). 2. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two

Levy, Uriel

286

Selected publications related to the experimental facilities of the Advanced Photon Source, 1987--1991  

SciTech Connect

This report contain papers on work related to the experimental facilities of the Advanced Photon Source. The general topics of these papers are: insertion devices; front ends; high heat load x-ray optics; novel optics and techniques; and radiation safety, interlocks, and personnel safety. (LSP)

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Subcentimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a single-mode telecommunications fiber to the rest of the optical ranging system. This type of detector of of the reflected laser sig- nal, which is focused into a multimode optical fiber. An in-line bandpass interferenceSubcentimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system

Buller, Gerald S.

288

Two-photon (VUV + visible) resonance ionization spectroscopy of molecular hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two-photon transitions have been examined in molecular hydrogen using coherent vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons at a fixed wavelength of 118 nm and a tunable photon from a dye laser. Though the VUV intensity is very weak (/approximately/100 nJ per pulse) it was utilized very efficiently since most VUV photons in the ionoization region were absorbed. This is the first time that coherent VUV light has been employed with tunable visible light for the production of two-photon spectra and the measurement of two-photon rates. A new parameter is proposed for direct comparison of the data from various two-photon experiments. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

McCann, M.P.; Chen, C.H.; Payne, M.G.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Electron quantum optics in quantum Hall edge channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we review recent developments in the emerging field of electron quantum optics, stressing analogies and differences with the usual case of photon quantum optics. Electron quantum optics aims at preparing, manipulating and measuring coherent single electron excitations propagating in ballistic conductors such as the edge channels of a 2DEG in the integer quantum Hall regime. Because of the Fermi statistics and the presence of strong interactions, electron quantum optics exhibits new features compared to the usual case of photon quantum optics. In particular, it provides a natural playground to understand decoherence and relaxation effects in quantum transport.

Grenier, Charles; Fve, Gwendal; Degiovanni, Pascal

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Electron quantum optics in quantum Hall edge channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we review recent developments in the emerging field of electron quantum optics, stressing analogies and differences with the usual case of photon quantum optics. Electron quantum optics aims at preparing, manipulating and measuring coherent single electron excitations propagating in ballistic conductors such as the edge channels of a 2DEG in the integer quantum Hall regime. Because of the Fermi statistics and the presence of strong interactions, electron quantum optics exhibits new features compared to the usual case of photon quantum optics. In particular, it provides a natural playground to understand decoherence and relaxation effects in quantum transport.

Charles Grenier; Rmy Herv; Gwendal Fve; Pascal Degiovanni

2011-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

291

THEORETICAL STUDY OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES. PHOTON ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS, OPACITIES, AND EQUATIONS OF STATE OF LIGHT ELEMENTS INCLUDING THE EFFECT OF LINES. Final Report. APPENDIX A: THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES AND MEAN OPACITIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photon absorption coefficients and mean opacities were calculated for hydrogen, beryllium, carbon, nitrogen, aluminum, and silicon over a temperature range froni l.5 to 34 ev and a density range from about l0/sup -1/g/cm/sup 3/ downward. Contributions to the absorption coefficient from free-free (inverse- bremsstrahlung), bound-free (photoelectric), and bound-bound (line-absorption) processes are included, as is Compton scattering. Certain thermodynamic properties are also given. An improved recipe for pressure ionization was derived which is approximately valid at nondegencrate densities for any ratio of Debye length to ion-sphere radius. Line absorption was evaluated using recent results from pressure-broadening theory and a representation of line series which is computationally as simple as the statistical method. The results show that lines increase the Rosseland mean opacity by a factor which can be nearly ten and which is insensitive to moderate changes in line widths. The code employed generated ionic energy levels internally by isoelectronic interpolation, and is immediately applicable to any- mixture of elements in which no ion has more than 14 bound electrons. The results of the calculations of thermodynamic properties and mean opacities are given in the tables in Appendix A, and the graphs of the monochromatic absorption coefficients are given in Appendix B, which comprises Vols. II and III. (auth)

Stewart, J.C.; Pyatt, K.D. Jr.

1961-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Experimental optimal maximum-confidence discrimination and optimal unambiguous discrimination of two mixed single-photon states  

SciTech Connect

We present an experimental implementation of optimum measurements for quantum state discrimination. Optimum maximum-confidence discrimination and optimum unambiguous discrimination of two mixed single-photon polarization states were performed. For the latter the states of rank 2 in a four-dimensional Hilbert space are prepared using both path and polarization encoding. Linear optics and single photons from a true single-photon source based on a semiconductor quantum dot are utilized.

Steudle, Gesine A.; Knauer, Sebastian; Herzog, Ulrike; Benson, Oliver [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, AG Nanooptik, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Stock, Erik; Bimberg, Dieter [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Haisler, Vladimir A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrenteva Avenue 13, Novosibirsk RU-630090 (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Video Library | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Archives APS Brochure Annual Reports Posters Podcasts Image Gallery external site Video Library Syndicated Feeds (RSS) Now Playing: The Advanced Photon Source More videos:...

294

Video Library | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Video Library Related Links: APS Colloquium APS Podcasts APS Today More videos: Introduction to the APS Physics of the Blues Now Playing: Building the Advanced Photon Source This...

295

User Information | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

User Information The Advanced Photon Source provides a variety of guides, resources, and information for prospective, new, and current users. In this section: For Prospective Users...

296

Media Center | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

impact on nearly every aspect of our lives. Annual Reports Articles on Advanced Photon Source research and engineering highlights that are written for the interested...

297

Information Technology | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Photon Source Information Technology Support Search APS ... Search Button About User Information News & Events Science & Education Beamlines Divisions Argonne Home >...

298

Seminars & Meetings | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The seminars focus on the physics, technology, and applications of particle and photon beams. InterCAT Technical Workgroup (TWG) A forum for direct discussion and...

299

CAT Communicator | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Division XSD Groups Industry Argonne Home Advanced Photon Source News Archives CAT Communicator CAT Communicator was a newsletter intended to provide APS information to...

300

Photon Science for Renewable Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photon Science for renewable Energy at Light-Sourceour planet. The quest for renewable, nonpolluting sources ofa global revolution in renewable and carbon- neutral energy

Hussain, Zahid

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Photon and di-photon production at ATLAS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The latest ATLAS measurements of the cross section for the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons in $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV at the LHC are presented, as well as the measurement of the di-photon production cross section.

Marco Delmastro

2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

302

Photon compression in cylinders  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It has been shown theoretically that intense microwave radiation is absorbed non-classically by a newly enunciated mechanism when interacting with hydrogen plasma. Fields > 1 Mg, lambda > 1 mm are within this regime. The predicted absorption, approximately P/sub rf/v/sub theta/sup e/, has not yet been experimentally confirmed. The applications of such a coupling are many. If microwave bursts approximately > 5 x 10/sup 14/ watts, 5 ns can be generated, the net generation of power from pellet fusion as well as various military applications becomes feasible. The purpose, then, for considering gas-gun photon compression is to obtain the above experimental capability by converting the gas kinetic energy directly into microwave form. Energies of >10/sup 5/ joules cm/sup -2/ and powers of >10/sup 13/ watts cm/sup -2/ are potentially available for photon interaction experiments using presently available technology. The following topics are discussed: microwave modes in a finite cylinder, injection, compression, switchout operation, and system performance parameter scaling.

Ensley, D.L.

1977-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

303

Entangling photons via the double quantum Zeno effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a scheme for entangling two photons via the quantum Zeno effect, which describes the inhibition of quantum evolution by frequent measurements and is based on the difference between summing amplitudes and probabilities. For a given error probability $P_{\\rm error}$, our scheme requires that the one-photon loss rate $\\xi_{1\\gamma}$ and the two-photon absorption rate $\\xi_{2\\gamma}$ in some medium satisfy $\\xi_{1\\gamma}/\\xi_{2\\gamma}=2P_{\\rm error}^2/\\pi^2$, which is significantly improved in comparison to previous approaches. Again based on the quantum Zeno effect, as well as coherent excitations, we present a possibility to fulfill this requirement in an otherwise linear optics set-up.

Nicolai ten Brinke; Andreas Osterloh; Ralf Schtzhold

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Compact Couplers for Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures  

SciTech Connect

Photonic crystal waveguides are promising candidates for laser-driven accelerator structures because of their ability to confine a speed-of-light mode in an all-dielectric structure. Because of the difference between the group velocity of the waveguide mode and the particle bunch velocity, fields must be coupled into the accelerating waveguide at frequent intervals. Therefore efficient, compact couplers are critical to overall accelerator efficiency. We present designs and simulations of high-efficiency coupling to the accelerating mode in a three-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide from a waveguide adjoining it at 90{sup o}. We discuss details of the computation and the resulting transmission. We include some background on the accelerator structure and photonic crystal-based optical acceleration in general.

Cowan, Benjamin; /Tech-X, Boulder; Lin, M.C.; /Tech-X, Boulder; Schwartz, Brian; /Tech-X, Boulder; Byer, Robert; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; McGuinness, Christopher; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Colby, Eric; /SLAC; England, Robert; /SLAC; Noble, Robert; /SLAC; Spencer, James; /SLAC

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

305

Photonic devices based on periodic arrays of carbon nanotubes and silicon nanopillars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reflection from Si surfaces. These arrays of Si inverted nanocones displayed a 3 to 4 fold enhanced reflection in the optical regime. These arrays find application in photovoltaic devices for enhancing the reflection of infrared (IR) radiations, which... -optical devices [9], solar cells to increase efficiency [10], optical antenna arrays [11, 12] and photonic crystals Chapter 2: Carbon nanotubes and nanophotonics devices 4 [13]. Carbon nanotubes are one of the most promising materials for device fabrication...

Butt, Haider

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

306

Photonics poster small  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities Capabilities in Solid State Lighting Research and Development of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) Research & Development Applications Optical Measurements National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM) Advanced Light Source (ALS) Research in LEDs Spin casting of OLED Growing Low Defect GaN Crystals to reduce the density of structural defects Minigoniometer viewing LED Optical design of device and packaging Local Lattice Constants and Electric Fields LEDs Research & Development of OLEDs Measurement of spectral power distribution and efficacy of OLED Design and fabrication of luminaires: LED porchlight Electric fields and lattice parameters are simultaneously recorded by the side band and autocorrelation of an electron

307

Anomalous GPDs in the photon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) on a photon target, in the generalized Bjorken limit, at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. This leads us to the extraction of the photon anomalous generalized parton distributions (GPDs) \\cite{url, DVCSphoton}.

S. Friot; B. Pire; L. Szymanowski

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

308

Hyper-parallel photonic quantum computation with coupled quantum dots  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is well known that a parallel quantum computer is more powerful than a classic computer. By far, there are some important works about the construction of universal quantum logic gates, key elements in quantum computation. However, all existing quantum gates are focused on operating on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems. Here, we investigate the possibility of achieving the scalable hyper-parallel quantum computation based on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct a deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate operating on both the spatial-mode and the polarization DOFs of a two-photon system simultaneously, by exploiting the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We analyze the experimental feasibility of this hyper-CNOT gate, concluding that it can be implemented with current technology.

Bao-Cang Ren; Fu-Guo Deng

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Home Group Members Accelerator Magnets Insertion Devices Facilities Presentations & Publications Internal Magnetic Devices Group The primary mission of the Magnetic Devices (MD) Group is to design, build, and maintain Insertion Devices (IDs) that are reliable and transparent to the electron beam at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The majority of IDs at the APS are conventional planar hybrid undulators, but an essential part of the mission is to develop novel IDs, such as short-period superconducting undulators and long-period electromagnetic undulators. The capabilities of APS IDs are matched to users' experimental needs. The mission also includes magnetic tuning of the IDs to ensure their near-ideal performance as x-ray sources and calculations to predict the radiation

310

NETL: Gasification Systems - Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation Virginia Polytechnic Institute Project No.: DE-FC26-99FT40685 Phase I - The Photonics Laboratory at Virginia Tech has...

311

Practical scheme for non-postselection entanglement concentration using linear optical elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a practical non-postselection entanglement concentration scheme in which a maximally entangled Bell-state photon pair is produced from two pairs of partially (or non-maximally) entangled photons. Since this scheme is built only upon linear optical elements and does not require photon-number resolving detectors, it has immediate applications in experimental implementations of various quantum information protocols which require two-photon Bell-states.

Myung-Joong Hwang; Yoon-Ho Kim

2007-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

312

Quantum Teleportation from a Propagating Photon to a Solid-State Spin Qubit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The realization of a quantum interface between a propagating photon used for transmission of quantum information, and a stationary qubit used for storage and manipulation, has long been an outstanding goal in quantum information science. A method for implementing such an interface between dissimilar qubits is quantum teleportation, which has attracted considerable interest not only as a versatile quantum-state-transfer method but also as a quantum computational primitive. Here, we experimentally demonstrate transfer of quantum information carried by a photonic qubit to a quantum dot spin qubit using quantum teleportation. In our experiment, a single photon in a superposition state of two colors -- a photonic qubit is generated using selective resonant excitation of a neutral quantum dot. We achieve an unprecedented degree of indistinguishability of single photons from different quantum dots by using local electric and magnetic field control. To teleport a photonic qubit, we generate an entangled spin-photon state in a second quantum dot located 5 meters away from the first and interfere the photons from the two dots in a Hong-Ou-Mandel set-up. A coincidence detection at the output of the interferometer heralds successful teleportation, which we verify by measuring the resulting spin state after its coherence time is prolonged by an optical spin-echo pulse sequence. The demonstration of successful inter-conversion of photonic and semiconductor spin qubits constitute a major step towards the realization of on-chip quantum networks based on semiconductor nano-structures.

Wei-bo Gao; P. Fallahi; E. Togan; A. Delteil; Y. S. Chin; J. Miguel-Sanchez; A. Imamoglu

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

313

Photon polarisation in electron-seeded pair-creation cascades  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An electromagnetic pair-creation cascade seeded by an electron or a photon in an intense plane wave interacts in a complicated way with the external field. Many simulations neglect the vector nature of photons by including their interaction using unpolarised cross-sections. After deriving rates for the tree-level processes of nonlinear Compton scattering and pair creation with an arbitrary linearly-polarised photon in a constant-crossed field, we present results of numerical simulations that include the photon's vector nature. The simulations of seed electrons in a rotating electric field of optical frequency on the one hand support the approximation of using unpolarised cross-sections for tree-level processes, which predicts the same number of created particles when using polarised cross-section to within around 5 percent. On the other hand, these simulations show that when the polarisation of the photon can be influenced by its environment, the asymmetry in the polarisation distribution could be used to significantly increase the rates of each process.

B. King; N. Elkina; H. Ruhl

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

314

Development of High Average Power Lasers for the Photon Collider  

SciTech Connect

The laser and optics system for the photon collider seeks to minimize the required laser power by using an optical stacking cavity to recirculate the laser light. An enhancement of between 300 to 400 is desired. In order to achieve this the laser pulses which drive the cavity must precisely match the phase of the pulse circulating within the cavity. We report on simulations of the performance of a stacking cavity to various variations of the drive laser in order to specify the required tolerances of the laser system.

Gronberg, Jeff; /LLNL, Livermore; Stuart, Brent; /LLNL, Livermore; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

2012-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

315

Nano-manipulation of diamond-based single photon sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to manipulate nano-particles at the nano-scale is critical for the development of active quantum systems. This paper presents a new technique to manipulate diamond nano-crystals at the nano-scale using a scanning electron microscope, nano-manipulator and custom tapered optical fibre probes. The manipulation of a ~ 300 nm diamond crystal, containing a single nitrogen-vacancy centre, onto the endface of an optical fibre is demonstrated. The emission properties of the single photon source post manipulation are in excellent agreement with those observed on the original substrate.

E. Ampem-Lassen; D. A. Simpson; B. C. Gibson; S. Trpkovski; F. M. Hossain; S. T. Huntington; K. Ganesan; L. C. L. Hollenberg; S. Prawer

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

316

Nano-manipulation of diamond-based single photon sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to manipulate nano-particles at the nano-scale is critical for the development of active quantum systems. This paper presents a new technique to manipulate diamond nano-crystals at the nano-scale using a scanning electron microscope, nano-manipulator and custom tapered optical fibre probes. The manipulation of a ~ 300 nm diamond crystal, containing a single nitrogen-vacancy centre, onto the endface of an optical fibre is demonstrated. The emission properties of the single photon source post manipulation are in excellent agreement with those observed on the original substrate.

Ampem-Lassen, E; Gibson, B C; Trpkovski, S; Hossain, F M; Huntington, S T; Ganesan, K; Hollenberg, L C L; Prawer, S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

NIST Photon Detectors Have Record Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... change in temperature is proportional to the photon energy, allowing the ... This type of detector typically has limited efficiency because some photons ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

318

New Quantum Dot Transistor Counts Individual Photons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... (See table for a comparison of various types of single ... Photons enter the device and their energy is transferred to ... a record high for this type of photon ...

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

319

An entangling quantum-logic gate operated with an ultrabright single photon-source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate unambiguous entangling operation of a photonic quantum-logic gate driven by an ultrabright solid-state single-photon source. Indistinguishable single photons emitted by a single semiconductor quantum dot in a micropillar optical cavity are used as target and control qubits. For a source brightness of 0.56 collected photons-per-pulse, the measured truth table has an overlap with the ideal case of 68.4%, increasing to 73.0% for a source brightness of 0.17 photons- per-pulse. The gate is entangling: at a source brightness of 0.48, the Bell-state fidelity is above the entangling threshold of 50%, and reaches 71.0% for a source brightness of 0.15.

O. Gazzano; M. P. Almeida; A. K. Nowak; S. L. Portalupi; A. Lematre; I. Sagnes; A. G. White.; P. Senellart

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Advanced Photon Source Industrial Liaison Office | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Industrial Liaison Office Industrial Liaison Office registration page New to Synchrotron Radiation New to the APS Already a User Advanced Photon Source Industrial Liaison Office APS Welcome to the Advanced Photon Source Welcome to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. We are one of five synchrotron radiation light sources operated as national user facilities by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. The APS is open to everyone who can utilize extremely bright x-ray photon beams for high-value research. This premier national research facility provides these x-ray beams to more than 5,000 scientists from all 50 United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and several foreign countries. These scientists come to the APS from industry, universities,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Photon energy tunability of advanced photon source undulators  

SciTech Connect

At a fixed storage ring energy, the energy of the harmonics of an undulator can be shifted or ''tuned'' by changing the magnet gap of the device. The possible photon energy interval spanned in this way depends on the undulator period, minimum closed gap, minimum acceptable photon intensity and storage ring energy. The minimum magnet gap depends directly on the stay clear particle beam aperture required for storage ring operation. The tunability of undulators planned for the Advanced Photon Source with first harmonic photon energies in the range of 5 to 20 keV are discussed. The results of an analysis used to optimize the APS ring energy is presented and tunability contours and intensity parameters are presented for two typical classes of devices.

Viccaro, P.J.; Shenoy, G.K.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Direct Photons and Photon-Hadron Correlations at PHENIX  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct photons are a powerful tool to study the hot and dense matter created in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC, since they are created in the different stages of the collision. Since they do not interact via the strong force, they can travel through the hot and dense matter mostly unaffected. The PHENIX experiment has measured direct photons using different methods, over a broad range of transverse momentum (\\pt), in different collision systems, and at different energies. These measurements help interpreting the measurement of hadrons as well as understanding the temperature of the created quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The azimuthal anisotropy of direct photons may shed light on the thermalization time of the medium. Using direct photons to tag jets is a crucial tool to understand the energy loss of scattered partons in the medium.

Baldo Sahlmueller

2011-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

323

Tomography of a High-Purity Narrowband Photon From a Transient Atomic Collective Excitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate the efficient heralded generation of high purity narrow-bandwidth single photons from a transient collective spin excitation in a hot atomic vapour cell. Employing optical homodyne tomography, we fully reconstruct the density matrix of the generated photon and observe a Wigner function reaching the zero value without correcting for any inefficiencies. The narrow bandwidth of the photon produced is accompanied by a high generation rate yielding a high spectral brightness. The source is therefore compatible with atomic-based quantum memories as well as other applications in light-atom interfacing. This work paves the way to preparing and measuring arbitrary superposition states of collective atomic excitations.

MacRae, A; Lvovsky, A I

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Ultranarrow-Band Photon Pair Source Compatible with Solid State Quantum Memories and Telecommunication Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a source of ultranarrow-band photon pairs generated by widely nondegenerate cavity-enhanced spontaneous down-conversion. The source is designed to be compatible with Pr3+ solid state quantum memories and telecommunication optical fibers, with signal and idler photons close to 606 nm and 1436 nm, respectively. Both photons have a spectral bandwidth around 2 MHz, matching the bandwidth of Pr3+ doped quantum memories. This source is ideally suited for long distance quantum communication architectures involving solid state quantum memories.

Julia Fekete; Daniel Rielander; Matteo Cristiani; Hugues de Riedmatten

2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

325

Manufacturing method of photonic crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.

Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

326

Summary of Lepton Photon 2011  

SciTech Connect

In this lecture, I summarize developments presented at the Lepton Photon 2011 conference and give my perspective on the current situation in high-energy physics. I am grateful to the organizers of Lepton Photon 2011 for providing us a very pleasant and simulating week in Mumbai. This year's Lepton Photon conference has covered the full range of subjects that fall within the scope of high-energy physics, including connections to cosmology, nuclear physics, and atomic physics. The experiments that were discussed detect particles ranging in energy from radio frequencies to EeV.

Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

327

New directions in photonics simulation: Lanczos recursion and finite-difference time-domain  

SciTech Connect

Computational Integrated Photonics (CIP) is the area of computational physics that treats the propagation of light in optical fibers and in integrated optical circuits. The purpose of integrated photonics simulation is to develop the computational tools that will support the design of photonic and optoelectronic integrated devices. CIP has, in general, two thrusts: (1) predictive models of photonic device behavior that can be used reliably to enhance significantly the speed with which designs axe optimized for development applications, and (2) to further our ability to describe the linear and nonlinear processes that occur - and can be exploited - in real photonic devices. Experimental integrated optics has been around for over a decade with much of the work during this period. centered on proof-of-principle devices that could be described using simple analytic and numerical models. Recent advances in material growths, photolithography, and device complexity have conspired to reduce significantly the number of devices that can be designed with simple models and to increase dramatically the interest in CIP. In the area of device design, CIP is viewed as critical to understanding device behavior and to optimization. In the area of propagation physics, CIP is an important tool in the study of nonlinear processes in integrated optical devices and fibers. In this talk I will discuss two of the new directions we have been investigating in CIP: Lanczos recursion and finite-difference time-domain.

Hawkins, R.J.; McLeod, R.R.; Kallman, J.S.; Ratowsky, R.P.; Feit, M.D.; Fleck, J.A. Jr.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

People | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About the APS: About the APS: Welcome Overview Visitor Information Mission & Goals Find People Organization Charts Committees Job Openings Find People Fields marked * are required. Search: search By last name: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z By division: Select a division Accelerator Systems Division (ASD) APS Engineering Support (AES) Xray Science Division (XSD) Photon Sciences (PSC) By group: Select a group AES-ADM AES-BC AES-CS AES-CTL AES-DD AES-IAG AES-IS AES-IT AES-MED AES-MIS AES-MOM AES-PRO AES-QA AES-SA AES-SI AES-SO AES-SSG AES-UES ASD-ADM ASD-AOP ASD-APH ASD-DIA ASD-MD ASD-OPT ASD-PS ASD-QA ASD-RF XSD-ADM XSD-AMO XSD-CJJ XSD-CMS XSD-DET XSD-GS XSD-IMG XSD-IXN XSD-MIC XSD-MM XSD-MPE XSD-OPT XSD-QA XSD-SPC XSD-SRS XSD-SSM XSD-TAS XSD-TRR XSD-UAS XSD-XMI PSC-PA General Inquiries

329

Photons and Dileptons at LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss real and virtual photon sources in heavy ion collisions and present results for dilepton yields in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC at intermediate and large transverse momentum p_T.

Rainer J. Fries; S. Turbide; C. Gale; D. K. Srivastava

2007-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

330

APS Upgrade | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshop on new science opportunities provided by a multi-bend achromat lattice at the APS October 21-22 Advanced Photon Source Argonne National Lab To prepare for the workshop...

331

Publicly Submitted White Papers - Electronics and Photonics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Components; A Transformative Approach to the Holy Grail of Chipscale Ultrafast Photonic-Electronic Integration; Accelerating ...

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

332

NIST Advances Single Photon Management for Quantum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Advances Single Photon Management for Quantum Computers. For Immediate Release: January 19, 2011. ...

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

333

Spinor wave equation of photon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we give the spinor wave equations of free and unfree photon, which are the differential equation of space-time one order. For the free photon, the spinor wave equations are covariant, and the spinors $\\psi$ are corresponding to the the reducibility representations $D^{10}+D^{01}$ and $D^{10}+D^{01}+D^{1/2 1/2}$ of the proper Lorentz group.

Xiang-Yao Wu; Bo-Jun Zhang; Xiao-Jing Liu; Si-Qi Zhang; Jing Wang; Hong Li; Xi-Hui Fan; Jing-Wu Li

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

334

Generation and manipulation of entangled photons in a domain-engineered lithium niobate waveguide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose to integrate the electro-optic tuning function into polarization-entangled photon pair generation process in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). Due to the versatility of PPLN, both the spontaneously parametric down conversion and electro-optic polarization rotation effects could be realized simultaneously. Orthogonally-polarized and parallel-polarized photon pairs thus are instantly switchable by tuning the applied field. The characteristics of the source are investigated showing adjustable bandwidths and high entanglement degrees. Moreover, other kinds of reconfigurable entanglement are also achievable based on suitable domain-design. We believe the domain engineering is a very promising solution for next generation function-integrated quantum circuits.

Yang Ming; Ai-hong Tan; Zi-jian Wu; Zhao-xian Chen; Fei Xu; Yan-qing Lu

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

Photon wave functions and quantum interference experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a general theory to describe two-photon interference, including a formal description of few photon intereference in terms of single-photon amplitudes. With this formalism, it is possible to describe both frequency entangled and separable two-photon interference in terms of single-photon wave functions. Using this description, we address issues related to the physical interpretation of two-photon interference experiments. We include a discussion on how few-photon interference can be interpreted as a bosonic exchange effect, and how this relates to traditional exchange effects with fermions.

G. G. Lapaire; J. E. Sipe

2006-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

336

Two-photon interference with thermal light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study of entangled states has greatly improved the basic understanding about two-photon interferometry. Two-photon interference is not the interference of two photons but the result of superposition among indistinguishable two-photon amplitudes. The concept of two-photon amplitude, however, has generally been restricted to the case of entangled photons. In this letter we report an experimental study that may extend this concept to the general case of independent photons. The experiment also shows interesting practical applications regarding the possibility of obtaining high resolution interference patterns with thermal sources.

Giuliano Scarcelli; Alejandra Valencia; Yanhua Shih

2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

337

Relativistic statistical thermodynamics of dense photon gas  

SciTech Connect

We discuss some aspects of interactions of high-frequency electromagnetic waves with plasmas, assuming that the intensity of radiation is sufficiently large, so that the photon-photon interaction is more likely than the photon-plasma particle interaction. In the stationary limit, solving the kinetic equation of the photon gas, we derive a distribution function. With this distribution function at hand, we investigate the adiabatic photon self-capture and obtain the number density of the trapped photons. We employ the distribution function to calculate the thermodynamic quantities for the photon gas. Having expressions of the entropy and the pressure of the photon gas, we define the heat capacities and exhibit the existence of the ratio of the specific heats {gamma}, which equals 7/6 for nonrelativistic temperatures. In addition, we disclose the magnitude of the mean square fluctuation of the number of photons. Finally, we discuss the uniform expansion of the photon gas.

Tsintsadze, Levan N.; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Callebaut, Dirk K.; Tsintsadze, Nodar L. [Department of Fundamental Energy, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University (Japan); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium); Department of Plasma Physics, Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi (Georgia)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

A quantum logic gate between a solid-state quantum bit and a photon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrated quantum photonics provides a promising route towards scalable solid-state implementations of quantum networks, quantum computers, and ultra-low power opto-electronic devices. A key component for many of these applications is the photonic quantum logic gate, where the quantum state of a solid-state quantum bit (qubit) conditionally controls the state of a photonic qubit. These gates are crucial for development of robust quantum networks, non-destructive quantum measurements, and strong photon-photon interactions. Here we experimentally realize a quantum logic gate between an optical photon and a solid-state qubit. The qubit is composed of a quantum dot (QD) strongly coupled to a nano-cavity, which acts as a coherently controllable qubit system that conditionally flips the polarization of a photon on picosecond timescales, implementing a controlled-NOT (cNOT) gate. Our results represent an important step towards solid-state quantum networks and provide a versatile approach for probing QD-photon inter...

Kim, Hyochul; Shen, Thomas C; Solomon, Glenn S; Waks, Edo; 10.1038/nphoton.2013.48

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Light tracking through ice and water -- Scattering and absorption in heterogeneous media with Photonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the field of neutrino astronomy, large volumes of optically transparent matter like glacial ice, lake water, or deep ocean water are used as detector media. Elementary particle interactions are studied using in situ detectors recording time distributions and fluxes of the faint photon fields of Cherenkov radiation generated by ultra-relativistic charged particles, typically muons or electrons. The Photonics software package was developed to determine photon flux and time distributions throughout a volume containing a light source through Monte Carlo simulation. Photons are propagated and time distributions are recorded throughout a cellular grid constituting the simulation volume, and Mie scattering and absorption are realised using wavelength and position dependent parameterisations. The photon tracking results are stored in binary tables for transparent access through ANSI-C and C++ interfaces. For higher-level physics applications, like simulation or reconstruction of particle events, it is then possible to quickly acquire the light yield and time distributions for a pre-specified set of light source and detector properties and geometries without real-time photon propagation. In this paper the Photonics light propagation routines and methodology are presented and applied to the IceCube and Antares neutrino telescopes. The way in which inhomogeneities of the Antarctic glacial ice distort the signatures of elementary particle interactions, and how Photonics can be used to account for these effects, is described.

J. Lundberg; P. Miocinovic; K. Woschnagg; T. Burgess; J. Adams; S. Hundertmark; P. Desiati; P. Niessen

2007-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

340

Photon flux and distance from the source: consequences for quantum foundations and technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper explores the fundamental physical principles of quantum mechanics (in fact, quantum field theory) which limit the bit rate for long distances. Propagation of photons in optical fibers is modeled using methods of quantum electrodynamics. We define photon "duration" as the standard deviation of the photon arrival time; we find its asymptotics for long distances and then obtain the main result of the paper: the linear dependence of photon duration on the distance. This effect puts the limit to joint increasing of the photon flux and the distance from the source and it has important consequences both for quantum information technologies and quantum foundations. Once quantum communication develops into a real technology, it would be appealing to the engineers to increase both the photon flux and the distance. And here our "photon flux/distance effect" has to be taken into account (at least if successively emitted photons are considered as independent). This effect also has to be taken into account in a loophole free test of Bell's type -- to close jointly the detection and locality loopholes.

Andrei Khrennikov; Brje Nilsson; Sven Nordebo; Igor Volovich

2013-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Characterization of an asynchronous source of heralded single photons generated at a wavelength of 1550 nm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We make a thorough analysis of heralded single photon sources regarding how factors such as the detector gate-period, the photon rates, the fiber coupling efficiencies, and the system losses affect the performance of the source. In the course of this we give a detailed description of how to determine fiber coupling efficiencies from experimentally measurable quantities. We show that asynchronous sources perform, under most conditions, better than synchronous sources with respect to multiphoton events, but only for nearly perfect coupling efficiencies. We apply the theory to an asynchronous source of heralded single photons based on spontaneous parametric downconversion in a periodically poled, bulk, KTiOPO4 crystal. The source generates light with highly non-degenerate wavelengths of 810 nm and 1550 nm, where the 810 nm photons are used to announce the presence of the 1550 nm photons inside a single-mode optical fiber. For our setup we find the probability of having a 1550 nm photon present in the single-mode fiber, as announced by the 810 nm photon, to be 48%. The probability of multiphoton events is strongly suppressed compared to a Poissonian light source, giving highly sub-Poisson photon statistics.

Maria Tengner; Daniel Ljunggren

2007-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

342

1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs  

SciTech Connect

An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Photon position eigenvectors lead to complete photon wave mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have recently constructed a photon position operator with commuting components. This was long thought to be impossible, but our position eigenvectors have a vortex structure like twisted light. Thus they are not spherically symmetric and the position operator does not transform as a vector, so that previous non-existence arguments do not apply. We find two classes of position eigenvectors and obtain photon wave functions by projection onto the bases of position eigenkets that they define, following the usual rules of quantum mechanics. The hermitian position operator, r0, leads to a Landau-Peierls wave function, while field-like eigenvectors of the nonhermitian position operator and its adjoint lead to a biorthonormal basis. These two bases are equivalent in the sense that they are related by a similarity transformation. The eigenvectors of the nonhermitian position operators lead to a field-potential wave function pair. These field-like positive frequency wave functions satisfy Maxwell's equations, and thus justify the supposition that MEs describe single photon wave mechanics. The expectation value of the number operator is photon density with undetected photons integrated over, consistent with Feynman's conclusion that the density of non-interacting particles can be interpreted as probability density.

Margaret Hawton

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Apparent spatial blurring and displacement of a point optical source due to cloud scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Monte Carlo algorithm is used to determine the apparent spatial blurring of a terrestrial 1.07 micron optical point source due to cloud scattering as seen from space. The virtual image of a point source over a virtual source plane area 22.4 x 22.4 square kilometers arising from cloud scattering was determined for stratus clouds (NASA cloud number 5) and altostratus clouds optical source arises from photon scattering by cloud water droplets. Displacement of the virtual source is due to the apparent illumination of the cloud top region directly about the actual source which when viewed at a nonzero look angle gives a projected displacement of the apparent source relative to the actual source. These features are quantified by an analysis of the Monte Carlo computational results.

Brower, K.L.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Interconvertibility of single-rail optical qubits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show how to convert between partially coherent superpositions of a single photon with the vacuum using linear optics and postselection based on homodyne measurements. We introduce a generalized quantum efficiency for such states and show that any conversion that decreases this quantity is possible. We also prove that our scheme is optimal by showing that no linear optical scheme with generalized conditional measurements, and with one single-rail qubit input can improve the generalized efficiency.

Dominic W. Berry; Alexander I. Lvovsky; Barry C. Sanders

2005-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

346

Western Area Power Administration, Desert Southwest Region  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Western Area Power Administration, Desert Southwest Region Liberty-Parker 2 230-kV Transmission Line Optical Power Ground Wire Repairs - Continuation Sheet Project Description...

347

Engineered optical nonlinearity for a quantum light source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-photon pairs created in the nonlinear process of spontaneous parametric downconversion form the backbone of fundamental and applied experimental quantum information science. Many applications benefit from careful spectral shaping of the single-photon wave-packets. In this paper we tailor the joint spectral wave-function of downconverted photons by modulating the nonlinearity of a poled crystal without affecting the phase-matching conditions. We designed a crystal with a Gaussian nonlinearity profile and confirmed successful wave-packet shaping by two-photon interference experiments. We numerically show how our method can be applied for attaining one of the currently most important goals of single-photon quantum optics, the creation of pure single photons without spectral correlations.

Agata M. Bra?czyk; Alessandro Fedrizzi; Timothy C. Ralph; Andrew G. White

2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

348

Deterministic nano-assembly of a coupled quantum emitter - photonic crystal cavity system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The interaction of a single quantum emitter with its environment is a central theme in quantum optics. When placed in highly confined optical fields, such as those created in optical cavities or plasmonic structures, the optical properties of the emitter can change drastically. In particular, photonic crystal (PC) cavities show high quality factors combined with an extremely small mode volume. Efficiently coupling a single quantum emitter to a PC cavity is challenging because of the required positioning accuracy. Here, we demonstrate deterministic coupling of single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers to high-quality gallium phosphide PC cavities, by deterministically positioning their 50 nm-sized host nanocrystals into the cavity mode maximum with few-nanometer accuracy. The coupling results in a 25-fold enhancement of NV center emission at the cavity wavelength. With this technique, the NV center photoluminescence spectrum can be reshaped allowing for efficient generation of coherent photons, providing new opportunities for quantum science.

T. van der Sar; J. Hagemeier; W. Pfaff; E. C. Heeres; S. M. Thon; H. Kim; P. M. Petroff; T. H. Oosterkamp; D. Bouwmeester; R. Hanson

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

349

Photonic density of states maps for design of photonic crystal devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, it has been investigated whether photonic density of states maps can be applied to the design of photonic crystal-based devices. For this reason, comparison between photonic density of states maps and transmittance maps was carried out. Results of comparison show full correspondence between these characteristics. Photonic density of states maps appear to be preferable for the design of photonic crystal devices, than photonic band gap maps presented earlier and than transmittance maps shown in the paper.

Sukhoivanov, I A; Lucio, J A Andrade; Mendez, E Alvarado; Trejo-Duran, M; Torres-Cisneros, M; 10.1016/j.mejo.2007.07.091

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Photons with tunable spectral shapes: The transition from frequency anticorrelated to correlated photon pairs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an experimental demonstration of the full control of the frequency correlations of entangled photon pairs. The joint spectrum of photon pairs is continuously varied from photons that exhibit anticorrelation in frequency to photons that exhibit correlation in frequency, passing through the case of uncorrelated photons. Highly entangled frequency-anticorrelated photon pairs were obtained even when an ultrafast laser was used as a pump. The different kinds of correlations are obtained without changing neither the wavelength, nor the nonlinear crystal.

M. Hendrych; M. Mi?uda; A. Valencia; J. P. Torres

2009-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

351

Optical Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Optical Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

352

Photon 2009: Summary of Theory Talks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conference 'Photon 2009' on the structure and the interactions of the photon included sessions on photon-photon collisions and a future high-energy photon linear collider. This summary of theoretical contributions to the conference therefore has two parts. I will discuss the physics potential of photon colliders with an emphasis on the study of electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the standard model. Secondly, I will describe a few highlights in recent progress in the understanding of the properties and the interaction of the photon, comprising the production of prompt photons, the photon structure and exclusive hadron production, small-x and total cross sections of deep inelastic scattering. Finally, I will review the status of the comparison of measurement and theory for the muon anomalous magnetic moment g-2.

H. Spiesberger

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

353

Shaping the Phase of a Single Photon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While the phase of a coherent light field can be precisely known, the phase of the individual photons that create this field, considered individually, cannot. Phase changes within single-photon wave packets, however, have observable effects. In fact, actively controlling the phase of individual photons has been identified as a powerful resource for quantum communication protocols. Here we demonstrate the arbitrary phase control of a single photon. The phase modulation is applied without affecting the photon's amplitude profile and is verified via a two-photon quantum interference measurement, which can result in the fermionic spatial behaviour of photon pairs. Combined with previously demonstrated control of a single photon's amplitude, frequency, and polarisation, the fully deterministic phase shaping presented here allows for the complete control of single-photon wave packets.

H. P. Specht; J. Bochmann; M. Muecke; B. Weber; E. Figueroa; D. L. Moehring; G. Rempe

2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

354

Self-homodyne RF-optical microdisk receiver  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modulation with optical transfer function (Po VRF 2 ) Self-homodyne RF-photonic receiver f ip Nonlinear and nonlinear modulation Transmittedoptical power t Wavelength t t Linear (Po VRF) Nonlinear (Po VRF 2) VRF ),,,,,( , 0 2 0 2 2 tPQGf dV Pd N EinoV VRF RF == = Microdisk optical mixer (laser= res) GV : voltage gain Q

Levi, Anthony F. J.

355

Analysis of challenges for on-chip optical interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical interconnects are touted as the solution to the performance bottleneck of future interconnects in scaled technology nodes. Though significant strides have been made in realizing silicon photonic devices that can give high performance in controlled ... Keywords: modulator, on-chip optical interconnect, polarization sensitivity, ring-resonator, thermal sensitivity

Rajeev K. Dokania; Alyssa B. Apsel

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Integrated optical tamper sensor with planar waveguide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A monolithic optical tamper sensor, comprising an optical emitter and detector, connected by an optical waveguide and placed into the critical entry plane of an enclosed sensitive region, the tamper sensor having a myriad of scraps of a material optically absorbent at the wavelength of interest, such that when the absorbent material is in place on the waveguide, an unique optical signature can be recorded, but when entry is attempted into the enclosed sensitive region, the scraps of absorbent material will be displaced and the optical/electrical signature of the tamper sensor will change and that change can be recorded.

Carson, R.F.; Casalnuovo, S.A.

1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

357

Video Library | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Media Center: Media Center: Calendar of Events APS News User News Article Archives APS Brochure Annual Reports Posters Podcasts Image Gallery external site Video Library Syndicated Feeds (RSS) Featured Videos: Introduction to the Advanced Photon Source The Advanced Photon Source An introduction and overview of the technology that produces the brightest x-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those x-rays. Timelapse of the APS construction Building the APS A timelapse video from 1990-1995 that shows the Advanced Photon Source rising from an empty field to become the site of a national synchrotron x-ray research facility. Physics of the Blues Physics of the Blues In looking at commonalities between music and science, former PSC Director

358

The Photon and Magnetic Monopoles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Energy-Length Rule implies the following properties for a transversal isolated system : on one side energy multiplied with zero component of x = both sign of ch, on the other side the sine of the p perpendicular to x, representing the helicity of the photon, is positive and negative. It corresponds to the sign of zero component of x, referring to the two cones which define respectively system and antisystem. The energy is obviously positive for both of them. Keeping p orthogonal to x implies right and left handed circular polarization simultaneously .Then in our interpretation the isolated real photon hides what we call the two monopoles. They are manifested in the real polarized photons being independent but united through their root as system and antisystem.

Eleonora A Mihul; Alexandru C Mihul

2008-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

359

Integrated Photonics for Low-Power Packet Networking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MARCH/APRIL 2011 Integrated Photonics for Low-Power Packetmaximizing the bene- ?ts of photonics technology is highlypower, and large-scale photonics integration. In this paper,

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

The spinor field theory of the photon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I introduce a spinor field theory for the photon. The three-dimensional vector electromagnetic field and the four-dimensional vector potential are components of this spinor photon field. A spinor equation for the photon field is derived from Maxwell's equations,the relations between the electromagnetic field and the four-dimensional vector potential, and the Lorentz gauge condition. The covariant quantization of free photon field is done, and only transverse photons are obtained. The vacuum energy divergence does not occur in this theory. A covariant "positive frequency" condition is introduced for separating the photon field from its complex conjugate in the presence of the electric current and charge.

Ruo Peng Wang

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

CRC handbook of laser science and technology. Volume 3. Optical materials, Part 1 - Nonlinear optical properties/radiation damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book examines the nonlinear optical properties of laser materials. The physical radiation effects on laser materials are also considered. Topics considered include: nonlinear optical properties; nonlinear and harmonic generation materials; two-photon absorption; nonlinear refractive index; stimulated Raman scattering; radiation damage; crystals; and glasses.

Weber, M.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Weaving independently generated photons into an arbitrary graph state  

SciTech Connect

The controlled-Z (cz) operations acting separately on pairs of qubits are commonly adopted in the schemes of generating graph states, the multipartite entangled states for the one-way quantum computing. For this purpose, we propose a setup of cascade cz operation on a whole group of qubits in sequence. The operation of the setup starts with entangling an ancilla photon with the first photon as qubit, and this ancilla automatically moves from one entanglement link to another in assisting the formation of a string in graph states. The generation of some special types of graph states, such as the three-dimensional ones, can be greatly simplified in this approach. The setup presented uses weak nonlinearities, but an implementation using probabilistic linear optics is also possible.

Lin, Qing [College of Information Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University (Xiamen), Xiamen 361021 (China); He, Bing [University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States); Institute for Quantum Information Science, University of Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Weaving independently generated photons into an arbitrary graph state  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The controlled Z (CZ) operations acting separately on pairs of qubits are commonly adopted in the schemes of generating graph states, the multi-partite entangled states for the one-way quantum computing. For this purpose, we propose a setup of cascade CZ operation on a whole group of qubits in sequence. The operation of the setup starts with entangling an ancilla photon to the first photon as qubit, and this ancilla automatically moves from one entanglement link to another in assisting the formation of a string in graph states. The generation of some special types of graph states, such as the three-dimensional ones, can be greatly simplified in this approach. The setup presented uses weak nonlinearities, but an implementation using probabilistic linear optics is also possible.

Qing Lin; Bing He

2010-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

364

Google In A Photonic Lattice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum version of Google PageRank has recently been investigated by various groups and shown to be quadratically faster in time than the classical PageRank algorithm. In this paper we propose the implementation of Quantum PageRank by a stochastic quantum walk of correlated photons in a photonic waveguide lattice, where we allow the density matrix to evolve according to the Lindblad-Kossakowski master equation. This yields a stationary state, the diagonal of whose density matrix gives the page ranking.

Kallol Roy; Ji Liu; Le Luo; R. Srikanth; Tapan Mishra; Bhanu Das; T. Srinivas

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

365

Formation of photon spheres in boson stars with a nonminimally coupled field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A static, spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat spacetime may allow for circular, closed null-geodesics which are said to belong to a photon sphere. In the context of gravitational lensing in the strong deflection regime, the presence of a photon sphere leads to an unbounded angle of deflection of light (multiple turns) and formation of relativistic images. In this paper, we show that photon spheres may form in some configurations of boson stars constructed with a free massive complex scalar field nonminimally coupled to gravity. Assuming that the boson star is transparent to light, photon spheres would give raise not only to phenomena in the realm of strong gravitational lensing, but also to considerably increased photon flux in the central region of the star, relative to the flux in its surroundings.

Dubravko Horvat; Sasa Ilijic; Anamarija Kirin; Zoran Narancic

2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

366

Optical Nanocavities in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Planar Waveguides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, not just as an abstract set of mathematical axioms, but as a powerful tool for analyzing phys- ical systems software package, both of which were instrumental to my thesis work. I also feel fortunate to have met Lon Rosen taught me mathematics while I was at UBC. Their superb teaching abilities and generosity

Painter, Oskar

367

Optics and Photonics Essential Technologies for Our Nation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, The National Materials and Manufacturing Board Dissemination Series.

368

Photonic crystal cavity based architecture for optical interconnects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Todays information and communication industry is confronted with a serious bottleneck due to the prohibitive energy consumption and limited transmission bandwidth of electrical interconnects. Silicon (more)

Debnath, Kapil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photonic innovation is becoming ever more important in the modern world. Optical systems are dominating shorter and shorter communications distances, LED's are rapidly emerging for a variety of applications, and solar cells show potential to be a mainstream technology in the energy space. The need for novel, energy-efficient photonic and optoelectronic devices will only increase. This work unites fundamental physics and a novel computational inverse design approach towards such innovation. The first half of the dissertation is devoted to the physics of high-efficiency solar cells. As solar cells approach fundamental efficiency limits, their internal physics transforms. Photonic considerations, instead of electronic ones, are the key to reaching the highest voltages and efficiencies. Proper photon management led to Alta Device's recent dramatic increase of the solar cell efficiency record to 28.3%. Moreover, approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit for any solar cell technology will require light extraction to ...

Miller, Owen D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Distillation of mixed-state continuous-variable entanglement by photon subtraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a detailed theoretical analysis for the distillation of one copy of a mixed two-mode continuous-variable entangled state using beam splitters and coherent photon-detection techniques, including conventional on-off detectors and photon-number-resolving detectors. The initial Gaussian mixed-entangled states are generated by transmitting a two-mode squeezed state through a lossy bosonic channel, corresponding to the primary source of errors in current approaches to optical quantum communication. We provide explicit formulas to calculate the entanglement in terms of logarithmic negativity before and after distillation, including losses in the channel and the photon detection, and show that one-copy distillation is still possible even for losses near the typical fiber channel attenuation length. A lower bound for the transmission coefficient of the photon-subtraction beam splitter is derived, representing the minimal value that still allows to enhance the entanglement.

Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van [Optical Quantum Information Theory Group, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1/Bau 26, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany) and Institute of Theoretical Physics I, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudstr. 7/B2, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Direct photons in 200 GeV p+p, d+Au, and Au+Au from PHENIX  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct photons were measured with the PHENIX experiment in p+p, d+Au, and Au+Au at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. To tackle the p_T region below 5 GeV/c, direct photons were measured through their internal conversion into e^+e^- in Au+Au collisions.

Stefan Bathe; for the PHENIX Collaboration

2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

372

Photon Beamlines and Diagnostics at LCLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the first hard-x-ray free electron laser in operation. The turn-on of LCLS was rapid and operation has been reliable. Performance has exceeded the design parameters in several areas. The photon energy output covers a range from 480 eV to over 9 keV; the pulse energy is typically 2-3 mJ, with a maximum of 4 mJ at 2 keV. Electron pulse lengths can be varied from 500 fs to shorter than 10 fs. A low-charge option at 20 pC is being explored, which delivers pulses shorter than 10 fs with a reduced pulse energy, typically around 0.2 mJ. On-demand, single-shot and multi-shot modes up to 60 Hz (planned is 120 Hz) can be made available. The photon diagnostics built for LCLS have been commissioned and provide measurements of various properties of the FEL beam, such as pulse energy, beam size and position, wavelength, and allows for intensity attenuation over the entire wavelength range. The two soft x-ray instruments, the Atomic Molecular and Optics (AMO) and Soft X-ray Material Science (SXR) stations, are fully operational and completed their second user run in mid September 2010. The third user run is scheduled from October to December 2010, and will include the first hard x-ray instrument X-ray Pump-and-Probe (XPP). Three additional hard x-ray stations will follow: CXI (Coherent X-ray Imaging) is planned to start commissioning in December 2010, the XCS (X-ray correlation spectroscopy) instrument will start in June 2011, and the station for Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) in 2012. A list of past and future milestones for LCLS commission and operations is shown in table 1. The LCLS hard x-ray Free Electron Laser at SLAC reported first lasing in April of 2009. Since then two successful user runs have been completed at the two soft x-ray stations. The first hard x-ray station has started commissioning in July of 2010. Beam diagnostics play an essential role for tuning the machine and delivering the requested beam properties to the users. An overview of the LCLS photon diagnostics will be presented including some selected commissioning results. Plans for future improvements and upgrades will be briefly discussed.

Moeller, Stefan

2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

373

Nanofaceting and alloy decomposition: From basic studies to advanced photonic devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the modern epitaxial structures for semiconductor lasers serving the needs of optical storage and fiber pumping are grown on misoriented GaAs(001) substrates. It has been found in metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy that surface misorientation ... Keywords: Alloy decomposition, High resolution, Nanofaceting, Photonic bangap crystal laser, Polarized photoluminescence, Quantum well, Quantum wire, Transmission electron microscopy

V. A. Shchukin; N. N. Ledentsov; I. P. Soshnikov; N. V. Kryzhanovskaya; M. V. Maximov; N. D. Zakharov; P. Werner; D. Bimberg

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Modeling and Simulation Environment for Photonic Interconnection Networks in High Performance Computing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the scale of high performance computer clusters and warehouse scale data centers, system level simulations and results for rack scale photonic interconnection networks for high performance computing. Keywords: optical to the newsworthy power consumption [3], latency [4] and bandwidth challenges [5] of high performance computing (HPC

Bergman, Keren

375

Laser-cooled atoms inside a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the loading of laser-cooled rubidium atoms into a single-mode hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber. Inside the fiber, the atoms are confined by a far-detuned optical trap and probed by a weak resonant beam. We ...

Bajcsy, M.

376

Unified single-photon and single-electron counting statistics: From cavity QED to electron transport  

SciTech Connect

A key ingredient of cavity QED is the coupling between the discrete energy levels of an atom and photons in a single-mode cavity. The addition of periodic ultrashort laser pulses allows one to use such a system as a source of single photons--a vital ingredient in quantum information and optical computing schemes. Here we analyze and time-adjust the photon-counting statistics of such a single-photon source and show that the photon statistics can be described by a simple transport-like nonequilibrium model. We then show that there is a one-to-one correspondence of this model to that of nonequilibrium transport of electrons through a double quantum dot nanostructure, unifying the fields of photon-counting statistics and electron-transport statistics. This correspondence empowers us to adapt several tools previously used for detecting quantum behavior in electron-transport systems (e.g., super-Poissonian shot noise and an extension of the Leggett-Garg inequality) to single-photon-source experiments.

Lambert, Neill [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Chen, Yueh-Nan [Department of Physics and National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

A hybrid electron and photon IMRT planning technique that lowers normal tissue integral patient dose using standard hardware  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present a mixed electron and photon IMRT planning technique using electron beams with an energy range of 6-22 MeV and standard hardware that minimizes integral dose to patients for targets as deep as 7.5 cm. Methods: Ten brain cases, two lung, a thyroid, an abdominal, and a parotid case were planned using two planning techniques: a photon-only IMRT (IMRT) versus a mixed modality treatment (E + IMRT) that includes an enface electron beam and a photon IMRT portion that ensures a uniform target coverage. The electron beam is delivered using a regular cutout placed in an electron cone. The electron energy was chosen to provide a good trade-off between minimizing integral dose and generating a uniform, deliverable plan. The authors choose electron energies that cover the deepest part of PTV with the 65%-70% isodose line. The normal tissue integral dose, the dose for ring structures around the PTV, and the volumes of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isosurfaces were used to compare the dose distributions generated by the two planning techniques. Results: The normal tissue integral dose was lowered by about 20% by the E + IMRT plans compared to the photon-only IMRT ones for most studied cases. With the exception of lungs, the dose reduction associated to the E + IMRT plans was more pronounced further away from the target. The average dose ratio delivered to the 0-2 cm and the 2-4 cm ring structures for brain patients for the two planning techniques were 89.6% and 70.8%, respectively. The enhanced dose sparing away from the target for the brain patients can also be observed in the ratio of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isodose line volumes for the two techniques, which decreases from 85.5% to 72.6% and further to 65.1%, respectively. For lungs, the lateral electron beams used in the E + IMRT plans were perpendicular to the mostly anterior/posterior photon beams, generating much more conformal plans. Conclusions: The authors proved that even using the existing electron delivery hardware, a mixed electron/photon planning technique (E + IMRT) can decrease the normal tissue integral dose compared to a photon-only IMRT plan. Different planning approaches can be enabled by the use of an electron beam directed toward organs at risk distal to the target, which are still spared due the rapid dose fall-off of the electron beam. Examples of such cases are the lateral electron beams in the thoracic region that do not irradiate the heart and contralateral lung, electron beams pointed toward kidneys in the abdominal region, or beams treating brain lesions pointed toward the brainstem or optical apparatus. For brain, electron vertex beams can also be used without irradiating the whole body. Since radiation retreatments become more and more common, minimizing the normal tissue integral dose and the dose delivered to tissues surrounding the target, as enabled by E + IMRT type techniques, should receive more attention.

Rosca, Florin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Danvers, Massachusetts 01923 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Time-resolved measurement of the quantum states of photons using two-photon interference with short-time reference pulses  

SciTech Connect

To fully utilize the energy-time degree of freedom of photons for optical quantum-information processes, it is necessary to control and characterize the temporal quantum states of the photons at extremely short time scales. For measurements of the temporal coherence of the quantum states beyond the time resolution of available detectors, two-photon interference with a photon in a short-time reference pulse may be a viable alternative. In this paper, we derive the temporal measurement operators for the bunching statistics of a single-photon input state with a photon from a weak coherent reference pulse. It is shown that the effects of the pulse shape of the reference pulse can be expressed in terms of a spectral filter selecting the bandwidth within which the measurement can be treated as an ideal projection on eigenstates of time. For full quantum tomography, temporal coherence can be determined by using superpositions of reference pulses at two different times. Moreover, energy-time entanglement can be evaluated based on the two-by-two entanglement observed in the coherences between pairs of detection times.

Ren Changliang; Hofmann, Holger F. [Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan) and JST, CREST, Sanbancho 5, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

Designing manycore processor networks using silicon photonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a vertical integration approach for designing silicon photonic networks for communication in manycore systems. Using a top-down approach we project the photonic device requirements for a 64-tile system designed ...

Stojanovic, Vladimir Marko

380

Photon management in thermal and solar photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photovoltaics is a technology that directly converts photon energy into electrical energy. Depending on the photon source, photovoltaic systems can be categorized into two groups: solar photovoltaics (PV) and thermophotovoltaics ...

Hu, Lu

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Advanced Solar Photonics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Photonics Place Lake Mary, Florida Zip 32746 Product Florida-based thin film PV module manufacturer. References Advanced Solar Photonics1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile...

382

Progressive Photon Mapping Toshiya Hachisuka  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

involves light sources embedded in glass (e.g. light bulbs, and headlights of car), and this type Henrik Wann Jensen UC San Diego Path tracing Bidirectional path tracing Metropolis light transport Photon caustics lighting pattern on the wall. This type of illumination is difficult to simulate with Monte Carlo

Kazhdan, Michael

383

Photon Sciences Material Handling Equipment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Active Y Y Rhein Craig 20622 PSBC Active Y Y Page 3 of 80 List of Photon Sciences Mat'l Handling Equip 5242013 4:09:58 PM 725 UV East GE-56 PS-C01 Yale A-422-3749 2 ton...

384

On Rayleigh Optical Depth Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many different techniques are used for the calculation of Rayleigh optical depth in the atmosphere. In some cases differences among these techniques can be important, especially in the UV region of the spectrum and under clean atmospheric ...

Barry A. Bodhaine; Norman B. Wood; Ellsworth G. Dutton; James R. Slusser

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Medium-induced multi-photon radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the spectrum of multi-photon radiation off a fast quark in medium in the BDMPS/ASW approach. We reproduce the medium-induced one-photon radiation spectrum in dipole approximation, and go on to calculate the two-photon radiation in the Moli\\`{e}re limit. We find that in this limit the LPM effect holds for medium-induced two-photon ladder emission.

Ma, Hao; Tywoniuk, Konrad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Photon Redshift in a Magnetic field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous results from the authors concerning the arising a tiny photon anomalous paramagnetic moment are also interpreted as a red-shift in analogy to the gravitational known effect. It is due to the photon interaction with the magnetized virtual electron-positron background which withdraw transverse momentum from photons and is polarization-dependent. If the photon frequency red-shift implies a change in time, a clock would go faster for increasing magnetic field intensity.

Rojas, H Prez

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Electronic, Magnetic & Photonic Materials Division Council - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Welcome to the Electronic, Magnetic, and Photonic Materials Division (EMPMD) which is composed of fourteen technical and administrative committees. TMS...

388

TWO-PHOTON INTERFERENCE USING BACKGROUND ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... OF SINGLE PHOTONS FROM A SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM DOT. ... material systems, self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have ...

389

Snowmass White Paper CMS Upgrade: Forward Lepton-Photon System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This White Paper outlines a proposal for an upgraded forward region to extend CMS lepton (e, mu) and photon physics reach out to 2.2

Bilki, Burak; Onel, Yasar; Winn, David R; Yetkin, Taylan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Catalytic, Photonic and Electronic Ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 20, 2010 ... With the aim coupling good thermal conductivity with optical light transmission and emission, aluminum nitride with rare earth dopants (Gd2O3,...

391

Optical Nanofibers for Manipulating and Probing Single-Atom Fluorescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate how optical nanofibers can be used to manipulate and probe single-atom fluorescence. We show that fluorescence photons from a very small number of atoms, average atom number of less than 0.1, around the nanofiber can readily be observed through single-mode optical fiber under resonant laser irradiation. We show also that optical nanofibers enable us to probe the van der Waals interaction between atoms and surface with high precision by observing the fluorescence excitation spectrum.

K. P. Nayak; P. N. Melentiev; M. Morinaga; Fam Le Kien; V. I. Balykin; K. Hakuta

2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

392

Comments on the mass of the Photon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

De Broglie believed that the photon has a mass, a view shared by a few others. Quite recently, the author has argued that the photon has a mass which is consistent with the latest experimental limits. In the present paper we point out that there is experimental evidence for this mass and also give a theoretical demonstration of the photon mass.

Burra G. Sidharth

2006-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

393

High-pT photon processes and the photon structure - results from HERA jet and prompt photon (photo)production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many important QCD tests with jets and prompt photons have been performed with the experiments H1 and ZEUS at the HERA ep collider. This contribution focuses on results from jet and prompt photon photoproduction. In particular, the concept of resolved photon interactions and various jet cross sections and their sensitivity to the photon (and proton) PDFs will be discussed. In addition, recent results from prompt photon production will be shown. Finally results on multi-parton interactions and the underlying event will be presented.

Thomas Schoerner-Sadenius; for the H1; ZEUS Collaborations

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

394

Multidimensional quantum information based on single-photon temporal wavepackets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a multidimensional quantum information encoding approach based on temporal modulation of single photons, where the Hilbert space can be spanned by an in-principle infinite set of orthonormal temporal profiles. We analyze two specific realizations of such modulation schemes, and show that error rate per symbol can be smaller than 1% for practical implementations. Temporal modulation may enable multidimensional quantum communication over the existing fiber optical infrastructure, as well as provide an avenue for probing high-dimensional entanglement approaching the continuous limit.

Alex Hayat; Xingxing Xing; Amir Feizpour; Aephraim M. Steinberg

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

395

Photonic implementation for the topological cluster-state quantum computer  

SciTech Connect

An implementation of the topological cluster-state quantum computer is suggested, in which the basic elements are linear optics, measurements, and a two-dimensional array of quantum dots. This overcomes the need for nonlinear devices to create a lattice of entangled photons. Whereas the thresholds found for computational errors are quite satisfactory (above 10{sup -3}), the estimates of the minimum efficiencies needed for the detectors and quantum dots are beyond current technology's reach. This is because we rely heavily on probabilistic entangling gates, which introduces loss into the scheme irrespective of detector and quantum-dot efficiencies.

Herrera-Marti, David A.; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Fowler, Austin G. [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Effect of window reflections on photonic Doppler velocimetry measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) has rapidly become a standard diagnostic for measuring velocities in dynamic compression research. While free surface velocity measurements are fairly straightforward, complications occur when PDV is used to measure a dynamically loaded sample through a window. Fresnel reflections can severely affect the velocity and time resolution of PDV measurements, especially for low-velocity transients. Shock experiments of quartz compressed between two sapphire plates demonstrate how optical window reflections cause ringing in the extracted PDV velocity profile. Velocity ringing is significantly reduced by using either a wedge window or an antireflective coating.

Ao, T.; Dolan, D. H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Optical keyboard  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical keyboard includes an optical panel having optical waveguides stacked together. First ends of the waveguides define an inlet face, and opposite ends thereof define a screen. A projector transmits a light beam outbound through the waveguides for display on the screen as a keyboard image. A light sensor is optically aligned with the inlet face for sensing an inbound light beam channeled through the waveguides from the screen upon covering one key of the keyboard image.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY); Feichtner, John D. (Fiddletown, CA); Phillips, Thomas E. (San Diego, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Periodic Materials and Interference Lithography for Photonics ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

02/28/2011 - Periodic Materials and Interference Lithography for Photonics, ... photonic crystals (electromagnetic wave propagation) and phononic crystals...

399

Photon Sciences | About Photon Sciences | Information for the General  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About Photon Sciences About Photon Sciences The human eye can see only visible light. It comes in the form of different wavelengths. These wavelengths are what create the colors of the rainbow. Other wavelengths of lights are not visible to the human eye. Although, we cannot see them, these types of light are also used in our everyday life. For example, a TV remote control uses infrared light to adjust the volume or change the channel of the TV. Airport scanners use x-rays to scan luggage. Tanning lamps use ultraviolet light to tan the skin. Microwave ovens use microwaves to cook your food. A synchrotron is a huge machine that produces very bright light of many different wavelengths. The light is much brighter than that found in your TV remote, microwave oven, or dentist's x-ray machine because the

400

Photon Sciences | About Photon Sciences | Information for Teachers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photon Sciences Educational Opportunities Photon Sciences Educational Opportunities Teachers and students are welcome to experience science first hand at NSLS and NSLS-II. We work primarily in partnership with Brookhaven Lab's Office of Educational Programs, which coordinates programs aimed at boosting teachers' content knowledge and improving student achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). These programs help motivate and prepare all students, especially minorities and females, and address the serious under representation of minorities and females in STEM careers. A diverse workforce of scientists, engineers, and educators will help keep America at the forefront of innovation. InSynC InSynC, launched in 2010, enables high school teachers and students to gain remote access to experiments with synchrotron beam time through a

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Universal squash model for optical communications using linear optics and threshold detectors  

SciTech Connect

Transmission of photons through open-air or optical fibers is an important primitive in quantum-information processing. Theoretical descriptions of this process often consider single photons as information carriers and thus fail to accurately describe experimental implementations where any number of photons may enter a detector. It has been a great challenge to bridge this big gap between theory and experiments. One powerful method for achieving this goal is by conceptually squashing the received multiphoton states to single-photon states. However, until now, only a few protocols admit a squash model; furthermore, a recently proven no-go theorem appears to rule out the existence of a universal squash model. Here we show that a necessary condition presumed by all existing squash models is in fact too stringent. By relaxing this condition, we find that, rather surprisingly, a universal squash model actually exists for many protocols, including quantum key distribution, quantum state tomography, Bell's inequality testing, and entanglement verification.

Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F. [Department of Physics and Center of Computational and Theoretical Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Lo, Hoi-Kwong [Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, Department of Physics and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G4 (Canada)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb RICH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters use the pixel Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD) as a photo-sensitive device. Photo-electrons are produced in semi-transparent multi-alkali photo-cathode (S20) and are accelerated by a voltage of 20 kV onto a pixelated silicon anode. The anode is bump-bonded to the LHCBPIX1 pixel readout chip which amplifies and digitises the anode signals at the LHC speed of 40 MHz. Using a demagnification of five, the effective pixel size at the HPD window is 2.5 x 2.5 mm$^2$. Over the course of 18 months, 550 HPSs will undergo a quality-assurance programme to verify the specifications and to characterise the tubes. The tested parameters include the threshold and noise behaviour of the chip, the response to light emitting diode (LED) light, the demagnification of the electron optics, the leakage current and the depletion of the silicon sensor, the quality of the vacuum, the signal efficiency and the dark count rate. Results of tests of the first nine HPDs of the final design are pr...

Eisenhardt, Stephan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Quantum receivers with squeezing and photon-number-resolving detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose quantum receivers with optical squeezing and photon-number-resolving detector (PNRD) for the near-optimal discrimination of quaternary phase-shift-keyed coherent state signals. The basic scheme is similar to the previous proposals (e.g. Phys. Rev. A 84, 042328 (2012)) in which displacement operations, on-off detectors, and electrical feedforward operations were used. Here we study two types of receivers where one installs optical squeezings and the other uses PNRDs instead of on-off detectors. We show that both receivers can attain lower error rates than that by the previous scheme and in particular, the PNRD based receiver has a significant gain under the fixed number of feedfoward steps. Moreover, we show that the PNRD based receiver can suppress the errors due to dark counts, which is not possible by the on-off detector based receiver with a limited number of feedforwards.

Shuro Izumi; Masahiro Takeoka; Kazuhiro Ema; Masahide Sasaki

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

404

Lightwave Photonics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Photonics Photonics Place Encinitas, California Zip 92024 Product California-based LED chip manufacturer startup. Coordinates 33.045436°, -117.292518° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.045436,"lon":-117.292518,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

405

APS Upgrade | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshop on new science opportunities provided by a multi-bend achromat lattice at the APS APS-U MBA Lattice Workshop Registration is now closed. Please contact Diane Wilkinson ext. 7810 or a member of the Workshop Organizing Committee for changes or modifications to your registration. Submit Comments, Suggestions, and Ideas for MBA Lattice Workshop October 21-22 Advanced Photon Source Argonne National Lab The Advanced Photon Source Upgrade is focused on delivering a powerful, versatile facility for science using high-brightness, high-energy X-rays. At APS, and around the light source community, scientists have been developing storage ring designs that push closer to the ultimate diffraction limit for X-ray sources. A recent report by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, which advises the Director of the U.S.

406

A quantum optical diode in a nonlinear-linear resonators junction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electronic diodes, which enable the rectification of an electrical energy flux, have played a crucial role in the development of current microelectronics after the invention of semiconductor p-n junctions. Analogously, creating complete optical rectification at specific target wavelengths has recently become a key goal in optical communication and signal processing on-chip. Here we propose a genuinely quantum optical diode, designed as a universal quantum nonlinear device working as a valve for photonic transport at the single or few photons level. The essential rectifying features are demonstrated in a general model of a nonlinear-linear junction of coupled resonators. It is shown that such a surprisingly simple structure behaves as a single- or two-photon rectifier, depending on the input frequency. Given the relevance of non-reciprocal operations in integrated circuits, the quantum optical diode realizes a crucial building component in prospective quantum photonic applications.

Eduardo Mascarenhas; Daniel Valente; Simone Montangero; Alexia Auffeves; Dario Gerace; M. Franca Santos

2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

407

New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

408

Automatic Quenching of High Energy gamma-ray Sources by Synchrotron Photons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Here we investigate evolution of a magnetized system, in which continuously produced high energy emission undergoes annihilation on a soft photon field, such that the synchrotron radiation of the created electron-positron pairs increases number density of the soft photons. This situation is important in high energy astrophysics, because, for an extremely wide range of magnetic field strengths (nano to mega Gauss), it involves {gamma}-ray photons with energies between 0.3GeV and 30TeV. We derive and analyze the conditions for which the system is unstable to runaway production of soft photons and ultrarelativistic electrons, and for which it can reach a steady state with an optical depth to photon-photon annihilation larger than unity, as well those for which efficient pair loading of the emitting volume takes place. We also discuss the application of our analysis to a realistic situation involving astrophysical sources of a broad-band {gamma}-ray emission and briefly consider the particular case of sources close to active supermassive black holes.

Stawarz, Lukasz; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Kirk, John; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.

2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

409

Generation of polarization entangled photons using type-II doubly periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we address the issue of the generation of non-degenerate cross-polarization-entangled photon pairs using type-II periodically poled lithium niobate. We show that, by an appropriate engineering of the quasi-phase-matching grating, it is possible to simultaneously satisfy the conditions for two spontaneous parametric down-conversion processes, namely ordinary pump photon down-conversion to either extraordinary signal and ordinary idler paired photons, or to ordinary signal and extraordinary idler paired photons. In contrast to single type-II phase-matching, these two processes, when enabled together, can lead to the direct production of cross-polarization-entangled state for non degenerate signal and idler wavelengths. Such a scheme should be of great interest in applications requiring polarization-entangled non degenerate paired photons with, for instance, one of the entangled photons at an appropriate wavelength being used for local operation or for quantum storage in an atomic ensemble, and the other one at the typical wavelength of 1550 nm for propagation through an optical fiber.

K. Thyagarajan; K. Sinha; J. Lugani; S. Ghosh; A. Martin; D. B. Ostrowsky; O. Alibart; S. Tanzilli

2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

410

Enhancement of photoluminescence and raman scattering in one-dimensional photonic crystals based on porous silicon  

SciTech Connect

In porous-silicon-based multilayered structures that exhibit the properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals, an increase in the photoluminescence and Raman scattering intensities is observed upon optical excitation at the wavelength 1.064 {mu}m. When the excitation wavelength falls within the edge of the photonic band gap of the structures, a multiple increase (by a factor larger than 400) in the efficiency of Raman scattering is detected. The effect is attributed to partial localization of excitation light and, correspondingly, to the much longer time of interaction of light with the material in the structures.

Gonchar, K. A., E-mail: k.a.gonchar@gmail.com [Moscow State University, Physics Faculty (Russian Federation); Musabek, G. K.; Taurbayev, T. I. [Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Physics Department (Kazakhstan); Timoshenko, V. Yu. [Moscow State University, Physics Faculty (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Extrinsic orbital angular momentum of entangled photon-pairs in spontaneous parametric down-conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Starting from the standard Hamiltonian describing the optical non-linear process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, we theoretically show that the generated entangled photon-pairs carry non-negligible orbital angular momentum in the degrees of freedom of relative movement in the type-II cases due to spatial symmetry breaking. We also show that the orbital angular momentum carried by photon-pairs in these degrees of freedom escapes detection in the traditional measurement scheme, which demands development of new techniques for further experimental investigations.

Sheng Feng; Prem Kumar

2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

412

OPTICS 5  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OPTICS (Version 5.1.02) OPTICS (Version 5.1.02) Release notes NOTE: See the Optics Knowledge Base for how to run this version of Optics on the Microsoft Vista and Microsoft Windows 7 operating systems March 5, 2003: Release Maintenance Pack 2 New ! January 7, 2003: Release Maintenance Pack 1 October 23, 2002: Release Optics 5.1.01 September 27, 2002: Release Optics 5.1.00 (only released on CDs at NFRC Annual Fall Meeting) Release notes Maintenance Pack 2 Bug fixes: New features: bullet Applied films that were created could not be saved or exported. This has been fixed. bullet Exporting glazing systems generated a message that the operation failed because the glazing system type is unknown. Glazing systems can now be exported to file (e.g. to view the spectral data), but the structure information will be lost.

413

Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are acquired using a scanning optical system and an individual single-photon detector. Depth images have been-and-tilt head mechanism to scan a compact optical system containing an opti- mized silicon single identification under daylight conditions [12]. Time-of-flight imaging systems using arrays of sin- gle

Buller, Gerald S.

414

Optical engineering  

SciTech Connect

The Optical Engineering thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was created in the summer of 1996 with the following main objectives: (1) to foster and stimulate leading edge optical engineering research and efforts key to carrying out LLNL's mission and enabling major new programs; (2) to bring together LLNL's broad spectrum of high level optical engineering expertise to support its programs. Optical engineering has become a pervasive and key discipline, with applications across an extremely wide range of technologies, spanning the initial conception through the engineering refinements to enhance revolutionary application. It overlaps other technologies and LLNL engineering thrust areas.

Saito, T T

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

A Fisheye Lens as a Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Probe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new fisheye lens design is used as a miniature probe to measure the velocity distribution of an imploding surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed and scattered back along each beam on the surface, is Doppler shifted by the moving surface and collected into the launching fiber. The received light is mixed with reference laser light in each optical fiber in a technique called photonic Doppler velocimetry, providing a continuous time record. An array of single-mode optical fibers sends laser light through the fisheye lens. The lens consists of an index-matching positive element, two positive doublet groups, and two negative singlet elements. The optical design minimizes beam diameters, physical size, and back reflections for excellent signal collection. The fiber array projected through the fisheye lens provides many measurement points of surface coverage over a hemisphere with very little crosstalk. The probe measures surface movement with only a small encroachment into the center of the cavity. The fiber array is coupled to the index-matching element using index-matching gel. The array is bonded and sealed into a blast tube for ease of assembly and focusing. This configuration also allows the fiber array to be flat polished at a common object plane. In areas where increased measurement point density is desired, the fibers can be close packed. To further increase surface density coverage, smaller-diameter cladding optical fibers may be used.

Frogget, B C; Cox, B C; DeVore, D O; Esquibel, D L; Frayer, D K; Furlanetto, M R; Holtkamp, D B; Kaufman, M I; Malone, R M

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Teleporting photonic qudits using multimode quantum scissors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While it is possible to teleport quantum information carried by a photon in a superposition of a number d of light modes (a ``qudit'') by the help of d additional entangled photons (Goyal et al. arXiv: 1212.5115), we here describe a photonic teleportation scheme based on transcription. A qudit encoded into a single excitation of d light modes (in our case Laguerre-Gauss modes which carry orbital angular momentum) is transcribed to d single-rail photonic qubits, which are spatially separated. Each single-rail qubit consists of a superposition of vacuum and a single photon in each one of the modes. After successful teleportation of each of the d single-rail qubits by means of ``quantum scissors'' they are converted back into a qudit carried by a single photon which completes the teleportation scheme.

Sandeep K Goyal; Thomas Konrad

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

417

Photon Linear Collider Gamma-Gamma Summary  

SciTech Connect

High energy photon - photon collisions can be achieved by adding high average power short-pulse lasers to the Linear Collider, enabling an expanded physics program for the facility. The technology required to realize a photon linear collider continues to mature. Compton back-scattering technology is being developed around the world for low energy light source applications and high average power lasers are being developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion.

Gronberg, J

2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

418

Waveguide photon-number-resolving detectors for quantum photonic integrated circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum photonic integration circuits are a promising approach to scalable quantum processing with photons. Waveguide single-photon-detectors (WSPDs) based on superconducting nanowires have been recently shown to be compatible with single-photon sources for a monolithic integration. While standard WSPDs offer single-photon sensitivity, more complex superconducting nanowire structures can be configured to have photon-number-resolving capability. In this work, we present waveguide photon-number-resolving detectors (WPNRDs) on GaAs/Al0.75Ga0.25As ridge waveguides based on a series connection of nanowires. The detection of 0-4 photons has been demonstrated with a four-wire WPNRD, having a single electrical read-out. A device quantum efficiency ~24 % is reported at 1310 nm for the TE polarization.

Sahin, D; Zhou, Z; Jahanmirinejad, S; Mattioli, F; Leoni, R; Beetz, J; Lermer, M; Kamp, M; Hfling, S; Fiore, A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Two-photon joint temporal density measurements via ultrafast single-photon upconversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed the technique of two-photon joint temporal density measurements for temporal state characterization, thus facilitating two-photon generation with high temporal entanglement or nearly factorizable outputs ...

Wong, Franco N. C.

420

Universal Squash Model For Optical Communications Using Linear Optics And Threshold Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transmission of photons through open-air or an optical fiber is an important primitive in quantum information processing. Theoretical description of such a transmission process often considers only a single photon as the information carrier and thus fails to accurately describe experimental optical implementations where any number of photons may enter a detector. It is important to bridge this big gap between experimental implementations and the theoretical description. One powerful method that emerges from recent efforts to achieve this goal is to consider a squash model that conceptually converts multi-photon states to single-photon states, thereby justifying the equivalence between theory and experiments. However, up to now, only a limited number of protocols admit a squash model; furthermore, a no-go theorem has been proven which appears to rule out the existence of a universal squash model. Here, we observe that an apparently necessary condition demanded by all existing squash models to preserve measurement statistics is too stringent a requirement for many protocols. By chopping this requirement, we show that rather surprisingly, a universal squash model actually exists for a wide range of protocols including quantum key distribution protocols, quantum state tomography, the testing of Bell's inequalities, and entanglement verification, despite the standard no-go theorem.

Chi-Hang Fred Fung; H. F. Chau; Hoi-Kwong Lo

2010-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Brookhaven National Laboratory/Photon Sciences Subject:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

materials not returned to the home institution shall be disposed as hazardous waste. Brookhaven National LaboratoryPhoton Sciences Subject: NSLS Explosives Training (de minimis...

422

Photon Induced Positron Annihilation (PIPA) - Energy ...  

The photon source is directed toward a target to create positrons within it, ... Biomass and Biofuels; Building Energy Efficiency; Electricity Transmission;

423

Search for chameleon particles via photon regeneration  

SciTech Connect

We report the first results from the GammeV search for chameleon particles, which may be created via photon-photon interactions within a strong magnetic field. The chameleons are assumed to have matter effects sufficiently strong that they reflect from all solid surfaces of the apparatus, thus evading detection in our previous search for weakly-interacting axion-like particles. We implement a novel technique to create and trap the reflective particles within a jar and to detect them later via their afterglow as they slowly convert back into photons. These measurements provide the first experimental constraints on the couplings of chameleons to photons.

Chou, Aaron S.; /CCPP, New York U.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Mission and Goals | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mission and Goals The mission of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is to deliver world-class science and technology by operating an outstanding synchrotron radiation research...

425

Perfecting Catalytic Arrays | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are much more complicated than that. Now, work carried out at the Argonne Advanced Photon Source (APS), Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), and Electron Microscopy Center...

426

APS Upgrade: News | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Superconducting Undulator January 21, 2013 More than eight years of effort by Advanced Photon Source (APS) physicists, engineers, and technicians culminated on January 21, 2013,...

427

Adding Up Photons with a TES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... made by different devices at different power levels more ... the TES to shed its heat and return ... converted to two photons whose combined energy and ...

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

428

Lepton Photon Symposium 2005: Summary and Outlook  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lepton Photon 2005 told the saga of the Standard Model which is still exhilarating because it leaves all questions of consequence unanswered.

Francis Halzen

2005-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

429

NIST: Photon Cross Section Bibliography - Text References  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Berger, MJ and Hubbell, JH, Photon Attenuation Coefficients, in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 74th Edition, DR Lide, Editor-in-Chief ...

430

Science Highlights 2009 | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scientists using the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Photon Source have manipulated electron mobility and pinpointed the mechanism controlling the strength of magnetic...

431

Loopy Photons Clarify 'Spookiness' of Quantum Physics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Since the paths are indistinguishable, the weird rules of quantum physics say that the photon pairs actually ... Physical Review A 76, 043836 (2007). ...

2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

432

GHZ-type and W-type entangled coherent states: generation and Bell-type inequality tests without photon counting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study GHZ-type and W-type three-mode entangled coherent states. Both the types of entangled coherent states violate Mermin's version of the Bell inequality with threshold photon detection (i.e., without photon counting). Such an experiment can be performed using linear optics elements and threshold detectors with significant Bell violations for GHZ-type entangled coherent states. However, to demonstrate Bell-type inequality violations for W-type entangled coherent states, additional nonlinear interactions are needed. We also propose an optical scheme to generate W-type entangled coherent states in free-traveling optical fields. The required resources for the generation are a single-photon source, a coherent state source, beam splitters, phase shifters, photodetectors, and Kerr nonlinearities. Our scheme does not necessarily require strong Kerr nonlinear interactions, i.e., weak nonlinearities can be used for the generation of the W-type entangled coherent states. Furthermore, it is also robust against inefficiencies of the single-photon source and the photon detectors.

Hyunseok Jeong; Nguyen Ba An

2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

433

Photon and graviton mass limits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We review past and current studies of possible long-distance, low-frequency deviations from Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein gravity. Both have passed through three phases: (1) Testing the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) Seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) Considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving gauge or general-coordinate invariance. For electrodynamics there continues to be no sign of any deviation. Since our previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength (associated with weakening of electromagnetic fields in vacuum over large distance scale) has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit. Rapid current progress in astronomical observations makes it likely that there will be further advances. These ultimately could yield a bound exceeding galactic dimensions, as has long been contemplated. Meanwhile, for gravity there have been strong arguments about even the concept of a graviton rest mass. At the same time there are striking observations, commonly labeled 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' that some argue imply modified gravity. This makes the questions for gravity much more interesting. For dark matter, which involves increased attraction at large distances, any explanation by modified gravity would be qualitatively different from graviton mass. Because dark energy is associated with reduced attraction at large distances, it might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect.

Nieto, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldhaber Scharff, Alfred [SUNY

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Dark Photon Search at BABAR  

SciTech Connect

Presented is the current progress of a search for the signature of a dark photon or new particle using the BaBar data set. We search for the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {gamma}{sub ISR}A{prime},A{prime} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} and e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {gamma}{sub ISR}{gamma}, {gamma} {yields} A{prime},A{prime} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}, where {gamma}{sub ISR} is an initial state radiated photon of energy E{sub {gamma}} >= 1 GeV. Twenty-five sets of Monte Carlo, simulating e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions at an energy of 10.58 GeV, were produced with different values of the A{prime} mass ranging from 100 MeV to 9.5 GeV. The mass resolution is calculated based on Monte Carlo simulations. We implement ROOT's Toolkit for Multivariate Analysis (TMVA), a machine learning tool that allows us to evaluate the signal character of events based on many of discriminating variables. TMVA training is conducted with samples of Monte Carlo as signal and a small portion of Run 6 as background. The multivariate analysis produces additional cuts to separate signal and background. The signal efficiency and sensitivity are calculated. The analysis will move forward to fit the background and scan the residuals for the narrow resonance peak of a new particle.

Greenwood, Ross N; /MIT /SLAC

2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

435

Resonant high energy graviton to photon conversion at post recombination epoch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Resonant conversion of high energy gravitons into photons in large scale cosmological magnetic fields at the post recombination epoch is considered. It is shown that the probability of the resonance photon production is much higher than the non-resonant one. As a result an observable isotropic background of cosmic gamma rays might be created. As shown in our previous paper, an early population of primordial black holes (PBHs) prior to big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) could be an efficient source of high frequency gravitational waves. For the primordial black hole mass about $10^8$ g the produced photons would be the dominant component of the soft to hard Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB) and for lower masses the spectrum is shifted down to the ultraviolet and optic.

Alexander D. Dolgov; Damian Ejlli

2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

436

Success rates for linear optical generation of cluster states in coincidence basis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on theoretical research in photonic cluster-state computing. Finding optimal schemes of generating non-classical photonic states is of critical importance for this field as physically implementable photon-photon entangling operations are currently limited to measurement-assisted stochastic transformations. A critical parameter for assessing the efficiency of such transformations is the success probability of a desired measurement outcome. At present there are several experimental groups which are capable of generating multi-photon cluster states carrying more than eight qubits. Separate photonic qubits or small clusters can be fused into a single cluster state by a probabilistic optical CZ gate conditioned on simultaneous detection of all photons with 1/9 success probability of each gate. This design mechanically follows the original theoretical scheme of cluster state generation proposed more than a decade ago by Raussendorf, Browne and Briegel. The optimality of the destructive CZ gate in application to linear optical cluster state generation has not been analyzed previously. Our results reveal that this method is far from the optimal one. Employing numerical optimization we have identified that maximal success probability of fusing n unentangled dual-rail optical qubits into a linear cluster state is equal to 1/2^(n-1); m-tuple of photonic Bell pair states, commonly generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, can be fused into a single cluster with the maximal success probability of 1/4^(m-1).

D. B. Uskov; P. M. Alsing; M. L. Fanto; L. Kaplan; A. M. Smith

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

437

Atomic, Molecular & Optical Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences The goal of the program is to understand the structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules using photons and ions as probes. The current program is focussed on studying inner-shell photo-ionization and photo-excitation of atoms and molecules, molecular orientation effects in slow collisions, slowing and cooling molecules, and X-ray photo-excitation of laser-dressed atoms. The experimental and theoretical efforts are designed to break new ground and to provide basic knowledge that is central to the programmatic goals of the Department of Energy (DOE). Unique LBNL facilities such as the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the ECR ion sources at the 88-inch cyclotron, and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) are

438

Optical ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Optical ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

440

Integrated resonant micro-optical gyroscope and method of fabrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An integrated optic gyroscope is disclosed which is based on a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) having a bidirectional laser source, a pair of optical waveguide phase modulators and a pair of waveguide photodetectors. The PIC can be connected to a passive ring resonator formed either as a coil of optical fiber or as a coiled optical waveguide. The lasing output from each end of the bidirectional laser source is phase modulated and directed around the passive ring resonator in two counterpropagating directions, with a portion of the lasing output then being detected to determine a rotation rate for the integrated optical gyroscope. The coiled optical waveguide can be formed on a silicon, glass or quartz substrate with a silicon nitride core and a silica cladding, while the PIC includes a plurality of III V compound semiconductor layers including one or more quantum well layers which are disordered in the phase modulators and to form passive optical waveguides.

Vawter, G. Allen (Albuquerque, NM); Zubrzycki, Walter J. (Sandia Park, NM); Guo, Junpeng (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "regional optics photonics" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Single-photon source characterization with infrared-sensitive superconducting single-photon detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-photon sources and detectors are key enabling technologies in quantum information processing. Nanowire-based superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) offer single-photon detection from the visible well into the infrared with low dark counts, low jitter and short dead times. We report on the high fidelity characterization (via antibunching and spontaneous emission lifetime measurements) of a cavity-coupled single-photon source at 902 nm using a pair of SSPDs. The twin SSPD scheme reported here is well-suited to the characterization of single-photon sources at telecom wavelengths (1310 nm, 1550 nm).

Robert H. Hadfield; Martin J. Stevens; Richard P. Mirin; Sae Woo Nam

2006-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

442

Prompt-photon production in DIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prompt-photon cross sections in deep inelastic ep scattering were measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 320pb^-1. Measurements of differential cross sections are presented for inclusive prompt-photon production as a function of Q^2, x, E_T and eta. Perturbative QCD predictions and Monte Carlo predictions are compared to the measurements.

Matthew Forrest

2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

443

Resilient microring resonator based photonic networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microring resonator-based photonic interconnects are being considered for both on-chip and off-chip communication in order to satisfy the power and bandwidth requirements of future large scale chip multiprocessors. However, microring resonators are prone ... Keywords: fault model, microring, photonic interconnect, resilience

Christopher J. Nitta; Matthew K. Farrens; Venkatesh Akella

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Method of manufacturing flexible metallic photonic band gap structures, and structures resulting therefrom  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of manufacturing a flexible metallic photonic band gap structure operable in the infrared region, comprises the steps of spinning on a first layer of dielectric on a GaAs substrate, imidizing this first layer of dielectric, forming a first metal pattern on this first layer of dielectric, spinning on and imidizing a second layer of dielectric, and then removing the GaAs substrate. This method results in a flexible metallic photonic band gap structure operable with various filter characteristics in the infrared region. This method may be used to construct multi-layer flexible metallic photonic band gap structures. Metal grid defects and dielectric separation layer thicknesses are adjusted to control filter parameters.

Gupta, Sandhya (Bloomington, MN); Tuttle, Gary L. (Ames, IA); Sigalas, Mihail (Ames, IA); McCalmont, Jonathan S. (Ames, IA); Ho, Kai-Ming (Ames, IA)

2001-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

445

Photonics.com Spectra Home Technology World Innovative Products Business World Presstime Bulletin Article Abstracts Microscopy Focus | June 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Optical Science and Email Article Printer Friendly Save Article Enter search term Entire SiteExplore Photonics directory in the industry. Subscribe to the Print Directory | Update Your Listing Enter search term microscopy offers the highest resolution possible for this search, but the technique has difficulty imaging

Rogers, John A.

446

Magneto-Optical Cooling of Atoms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose an alternative method to laser cooling. Our approach utilizes the extreme brightness of a supersonic atomic beam, and the adiabatic atomic coilgun to slow atoms in the beam or to bring them to rest. We show how internal-state optical pumping and stimulated optical transitions, combined with magnetic forces can be used to cool the translational motion of atoms. This approach does not rely on momentum transfer from photons to atoms, as in laser cooling. We predict that our method can surpass laser cooling in terms of flux of ultra-cold atoms and phase-space density, with lower required laser power and reduced complexity.

Raizen, Mark G; Rochester, Simon; Narevicius, Julia; Narevicius, Edvardas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Three-photon above-threshold ionization of magnesium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-photon ionization cross sections from the ground state, and two-photon ionization from the 3 {sup 1}P(3s3p) state have been calculated for Mg in the region between the 3p and 4s ionization thresholds. These processes include an above-threshold ionization process for the last absorbed photon. We have used the Green's-function method in the Feshbach formalism and an L{sup 2} close coupling approach, with a basis of L{sup 2} integrable B-spline functions. We report the positions, widths, and assignments of a number of relevant {sup 1}P{sup o} and{sup 1}F{sup o} doubly excited Feshbach states. We also observe unusually high cross sections due to a bound-bound transition from the 3 {sup 1}S(3s{sup 2}) to the 3 {sup 1}P(3s3p) state, a core excitation process, and the population of an intermediate doubly excited state. Both total cross sections and angular distributions are reported.

Reber, A.; Berry, R.S. [Department of Chemistry and James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Martin, F. [Departamento de Quimica C-9, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bachau, H. [Centre des Lasers Intenses et Applications (UMR 5107 du CNRS), Universite de Bordeaux I, 351 Cours de la Liberation, F-33405 Talence (France)

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

An Assessment of "What does photon energy tell us about cellphone safety" by Dr. William Bruno  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dr. Bruno asserts the well-known fact that cell phones radiate microwaves in the classical regime. This, he says, means that the photon energy is not relevant to assessing safety. Citing optical tweezers as an example of biologically relevant non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation, Bruno concludes that all other reports of non-thermal effects from microwaves are likely valid. He seeks safety thresholds based upon requiring that cell phone energy density be less than k_BT. This proposal and related ideas produce thresholds many orders of magnitude below present values. While Dr. Bruno is correct that cell phone microwave radiation is generally in the classical regime, he uses peculiar estimates (number of photons per cubic wavelength) that overstate the circumstance by more than 20 factors of ten. He misunderstands the operation of optical tweezers and ignores their significant thermal effects. He credulously accepts poorly supported claims of non-existent non-thermal effects. He mistakenly believes ...

Leikind, Bernard

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

The Road to Ultrahigh-Resolution X-ray Spectrometers | Advanced Photon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Atoms Behave: Characteristics of Microstructural Avalanches How Atoms Behave: Characteristics of Microstructural Avalanches Iodate Refuses to Intimidate Creating the Heart of a Planet in the Heart of a Gem How a Powerful Antibody Neutralizes HIV Taking a Page from Nature to Build Better Nanomaterials Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed The Road to Ultrahigh-Resolution X-ray Spectrometers NOVEMBER 22, 2011 Bookmark and Share Basic phenomena underlying the AD&AT x-ray optics. In x-ray Bragg diffraction from atomic planes composing nonzero angle η to the crystal entrance face, the crystal acts (a) like an optical prism dispersing the photons into a divergent x-ray fan with photons of different energies E

450

Breakdown of Bose-Einstein distribution in photonic crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced non-Markovian dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey the standard Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine nontrivial quantum dissipation with thermal fluctuations to form photon states that can memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger than the photonic band gap.

Ping-Yuan Lo; Heng-Na Xiong; Wei-Min Zhang

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

451

Silicon Photonics for chemical sensing and spectroscopy, diagnosis and therapy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sih & M. Paniccia, Nature Photonics 2, 170 [10] M. Krause,and E. Mazur, Nature Photonics 2, 219-225 (2008). [6] T. H.Chou, and B. Jalali, Nature Photonics 2, 48-51 (2008). [16

Hon, Kam Yan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Nonlinear silicon photonics from the near to mid infrared  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

waveguides, Nature Photonics, 2 (2), 90- P. R. Bandaru, S.Vol. 7612, 76120Q, Photonics West (SPIE, San Francisco, CA,spectroscopy, Nature Photonics, 2 (1), 48 (2008) [8] M. A.

Park, Jung Soo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Photon-number tomography and fidelity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The scheme of photon-number tomography is discussed in the framework of star-product quantization. The connection of dual quantization scheme and observables is reviewed. The quantizer and dequantizer operators and kernels of star product of tomograms in photon-number tomography scheme and its dual one are presented in explicit form. The fidelity and state purity are discussed in photon{number tomographic scheme, and the expressions for fidelity and purity are obtained in the form of integral of the product of two photon-number tomograms with integral kernel which is presented in explicit form. The properties of quantumness are discussed in terms of inequalities on state photon{number tomograms.

O. V. Man'ko

2012-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

454

Computational Study and Analysis of Structural Imperfections in 1D and 2D Photonic Crystals  

SciTech Connect

Dielectric reflectors that are periodic in one or two dimensions, also known as 1D and 2D photonic crystals, have been widely studied for many potential applications due to the presence of wavelength-tunable photonic bandgaps. However, the unique optical behavior of photonic crystals is based on theoretical models of perfect analogues. Little is known about the practical effects of dielectric imperfections on their technologically useful optical properties. In order to address this issue, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code is employed to study the effect of three specific dielectric imperfections in 1D and 2D photonic crystals. The first imperfection investigated is dielectric interfacial roughness in quarter-wave tuned 1D photonic crystals at normal incidence. This study reveals that the reflectivity of some roughened photonic crystal configurations can change up to 50% at the center of the bandgap for RMS roughness values around 20% of the characteristic periodicity of the crystal. However, this reflectivity change can be mitigated by increasing the index contrast and/or the number of bilayers in the crystal. In order to explain these results, the homogenization approximation, which is usually applied to single rough surfaces, is applied to the quarter-wave stacks. The results of the homogenization approximation match the FDTD results extremely well, suggesting that the main role of the roughness features is to grade the refractive index profile of the interfaces in the photonic crystal rather than diffusely scatter the incoming light. This result also implies that the amount of incoherent reflection from the roughened quarterwave stacks is extremely small. This is confirmed through direct extraction of the amount of incoherent power from the FDTD calculations. Further FDTD studies are done on the entire normal incidence bandgap of roughened 1D photonic crystals. These results reveal a narrowing and red-shifting of the normal incidence bandgap with increasing RMS roughness. Again, the homogenization approximation is able to predict these results. The problem of surface scratches on 1D photonic crystals is also addressed. Although the reflectivity decreases are lower in this study, up to a 15% change in reflectivity is observed in certain scratched photonic crystal structures. However, this reflectivity change can be significantly decreased by adding a low index protective coating to the surface of the photonic crystal. Again, application of homogenization theory to these structures confirms its predictive power for this type of imperfection as well. Additionally, the problem of a circular pores in 2D photonic crystals is investigated, showing that almost a 50% change in reflectivity can occur for some structures. Furthermore, this study reveals trends that are consistent with the 1D simulations: parameter changes that increase the absolute reflectivity of the photonic crystal will also increase its tolerance to structural imperfections. Finally, experimental reflectance spectra from roughened 1D photonic crystals are compared to the results predicted computationally in this thesis. Both the computed and experimental spectra correlate favorably, validating the findings presented herein.

K.R. Maskaly

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Multiphoton Quantum Optics and Quantum State Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a review of theoretical and experimental aspects of multiphoton quantum optics. Multiphoton processes occur and are important for many aspects of matter-radiation interactions that include the efficient ionization of atoms and molecules, and, more generally, atomic transition mechanisms; system-environment couplings and dissipative quantum dynamics; laser physics, optical parametric processes, and interferometry. A single review cannot account for all aspects of such an enormously vast subject. Here we choose to concentrate our attention on parametric processes in nonlinear media, with special emphasis on the engineering of nonclassical states of photons and atoms. We present a detailed analysis of the methods and techniques for the production of genuinely quantum multiphoton processes in nonlinear media, and the corresponding models of multiphoton effective interactions. We review existing proposals for the classification, engineering, and manipulation of nonclassical states, including Fock states, macroscopic superposition states, and multiphoton generalized coherent states. We introduce and discuss the structure of canonical multiphoton quantum optics and the associated one- and two-mode canonical multiphoton squeezed states. This framework provides a consistent multiphoton generalization of two-photon quantum optics and a consistent Hamiltonian description of multiphoton processes associated to higher-order nonlinearities. Finally, we discuss very recent advances that by combining linear and nonlinear optical devices allow to realize multiphoton entangled states of the electromnagnetic field, that are relevant for applications to efficient quantum computation, quantum teleportation, and related problems in quantum communication and information.

F. Dell'Anno; S. De Siena; F. Illuminati

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

456

NIST Optical Radiation Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical Radiation Group. Welcome. The Optical Radiation Group maintains, improves, and disseminates the national scales ...

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

457

Regional Residential  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

upward pressure from crude oil markets, magnified by a regional shortfall of heating oil supplies, residential prices rose rapidly to peak February 7. The problem was...

458

Regional Maps  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

United States Census Divisions Figure 2.Electricity Market Module (EMM)Regions Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting Figure...

459

Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals  

SciTech Connect

In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates with the observed negatively refractive phenomena. They found that in the PC system, negative refraction is neither a prerequisite nor guarantees left-handed behavior. They examined carefully the condition to obtain left-handed behavior in the PC. They proposed a wedge type of experiment, in accordance with the experiment performed on the traditional LHM, to test these conditions. They found that for certain frequencies the PC shows left-handed behavior and acts in some respects like a homogeneous medium with a negative refractive index. they used the realistic PC system for this case to show how negative refraction occurs at the interface between a material with a positive and a material with a negative refractive index. Their findings indicate that the formation of the negatively refracted beam is not instantaneous and involves a transient time. With this time-dependent analysis, they were able to address previous controversial issues about negative refraction concerning causality and the speed of light limit. Finally, they attempt a systematic study of anomalous refractive phenomena that can occur at the air-PC interface. They observe cases where only a single refracted beam (in the positive or negative direction) is present, as well as cases with birefringence. they classify these different effects according to their origin and type of propagation (left-handed or not). For a complete study of the system, they also obtain expressions for the energy and group velocities, and show their equality. For cases with very low index contrast, band folding becomes an artificiality. They discuss the validity of their findings when they move to the limit of photonic crystals with a low index modulation.

Stavroula Foteinopoulou

2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

460

APS News | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

APS News Archives: APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed APS News Kim of ASD Awarded 2014 Wilson Prize for Achievement in Physics of Particle Accelerators Kim of ASD Awarded 2014 Wilson Prize for Achievement in Physics of Particle Accelerators January 7, 2014 Kwang-Je Kim of the Advanced Photon Source has been named the recipient of the 2014 Robert R. Wilson Prize for Achievement in the Physics of Particle Accelerators, Harkay of ASD Elected to Fellowship in the American Physical Society Harkay of ASD Elected to Fellowship in the American Physical Society December 18, 2013 Katherine Harkay of the Accelerator Systems Division has been elected to Fellowship in the American Physical Society for

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461

Detectors (XSD) | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

APS Detector Pool (X-ray Science Division) The Detector Pool provides many different types of x-ray detectors to beamline scientists at the Advanced Photon Source. These detectors are made available for short term loans (typically several days to a week or two, but this is flexible). The detector pool also coordinates loans between sectors, helps sectors repair equipment, and coordinates group purchases. Depending on budgets, we purchase new equipment, based largely on suggestions from the beamline scientists. Requests for detectors are submitted by beamline scientists at the sectors on behalf of general users. General Users are free to contact us regarding detector capabilities and other questions. The Detector Pool is staffed during normal working hours,

462

Photon Science for Renewable Energy  

SciTech Connect

Our current fossil-fuel-based system is causing potentially catastrophic changes to our planet. The quest for renewable, nonpolluting sources of energy requires us to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Light-source facilities - the synchrotrons of today and the next-generation light sources of tomorrow - are the scientific tools of choice for exploring the electronic and atomic structure of matter. As such, these photon-science facilities are uniquely positioned to jump-start a global revolution in renewable and carbonneutral energy technologies. In these pages, we outline and illustrate through examples from our nation's light sources possible scientific directions for addressing these profound yet urgent challenges.

Hussain, Zahid; Tamura, Lori; Padmore, Howard; Schoenlein, Bob; Bailey, Sue

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

463

Photon Science for Renewable Energy  

SciTech Connect

Our current fossil-fuel-based system is causing potentially catastrophic changes to our planet. The quest for renewable, nonpolluting sources of energy requires us to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Light-source facilities - the synchrotrons of today and the next-generation light sources of tomorrow - are the scientific tools of choice for exploring the electronic and atomic structure of matter. As such, these photon-science facilities are uniquely positioned to jump-start a global revolution in renewable and carbonneutral energy technologies. In these pages, we outline and illustrate through examples from our nation's light sources possible scientific directions for addressing these profound yet urgent challenges.

Hussain, Zahid; Tamura, Lori; Padmore, Howard; Schoenlein, Bob; Bailey, Sue

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

464

Ultrabroadband nonreciprocal transverse energy flow of light in linear passive photonic circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a technique, analogous to coherent population trapping in an atomic system, we propose schemes to create transverse light propagation violating left-right symmetry in a photonic circuit consisting of three coupled waveguides. The frequency windows for the symmetry breaking of the left-right energy flow span over 80 nm. Our proposed system only uses linear passive optical materials and is easy to integrate on a chip.

Keyu Xia; M. Alamri; M. Suhail Zubairy

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

465

Programmably structured plasma waveguide for development of table-top photon and particle sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Programmable fabrication of longitudinal spatial structures in an optically preformed plasma waveguide in a gas jet was achieved, by using laser machining with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator as the pattern mask. Fabrication of periodic structures with a minimal period of 200 {mu}m and density-ramp structures with a minimal slope length of 100 {mu}m was attained. The technique is useful for the optimization of various laser-plasma-based photon and particle sources.

Hung, T.-S.; Ho, Y.-C.; Wong, S.-J.; Chen, S.-Y. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhong-Li 320, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y.-L. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Chu, H.-H. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhong-Li 320, Taiwan (China); Lin, J.-Y. [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Wang, J. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhong-Li 320, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

466

High-Efficiency Nitride-Base Photonic Crystal Light Sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research activities performed in the framework of this project represent a major breakthrough in the demonstration of Photonic Crystals (PhC) as a competitive technology for LEDs with high light extraction efficiency. The goals of the project were to explore the viable approaches to manufacturability of PhC LEDS through proven standard industrial processes, establish the limits of light extraction by various concepts of PhC LEDs, and determine the possible advantages of PhC LEDs over current and forthcoming LED extraction concepts. We have developed three very different geometries for PhC light extraction in LEDs. In addition, we have demonstrated reliable methods for their in-depth analysis allowing the extraction of important parameters such as light extraction efficiency, modal extraction length, directionality, internal and external quantum efficiency. The information gained allows better understanding of the physical processes and the effect of the design parameters on the light directionality and extraction efficiency. As a result, we produced LEDs with controllable emission directionality and a state of the art extraction efficiency that goes up to 94%. Those devices are based on embedded air-gap PhC - a novel technology concept developed in the framework of this project. They rely on a simple and planar fabrication process that is very interesting for industrial implementation due to its robustness and scalability. In fact, besides the additional patterning and regrowth steps, the process is identical as that for standard industrially used p-side-up LEDs. The final devices exhibit the same good electrical characteristics and high process yield as a series of test standard LEDs obtained in comparable conditions. Finally, the technology of embedded air-gap patterns (PhC) has significant potential in other related fields such as: increasing the optical mode interaction with the active region in semiconductor lasers; increasing the coupling of the incident light into the active region of solar cells; increasing the efficiency of the phosphorous light conversion in white light LEDs etc. In addition to the technology of embedded PhC LEDs, we demonstrate a technique for improvement of the light extraction and emission directionality for existing flip-chip microcavity (thin) LEDs by introducing PhC grating into the top n-contact. Although, the performances of these devices in terms of increase of the extraction efficiency are not significantly superior compared to those obtained by other techniques like surface roughening, the use of PhC offers some significant advantages such as improved and controllable emission directionality and a process that is directly applicable to any material system. The PhC microcavity LEDs have also potential for industrial implementation as the fabrication process has only minor differences to that already used for flip-chip thin LEDs. Finally, we have demonstrated that achieving good electrical properties and high fabrication yield for these devices is straightforward.

James Speck; Evelyn Hu; Claude Weisbuch; Yong-Seok Choi; Kelly McGroddy; Gregor Koblmuller; Elison Matioli; Elizabeth Rangel; Fabian Rol; Dobri Simeonov

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

467

A Study on Future Scientific Directions for the Advanced Photon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Goals Meeting Home Meeting Chairs: Gabrielle Long (Advanced Photon Source) Gopal Shenoy (Advanced Photon Source) Strategic Planning Meeting September 2 September 3, 2004, The...

468

Nanomaterials General I: Electronic, Photonic, and Bio-Nano ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 5, 2013... patent-pending nanomembrane lasers on Si for Si photonics, Fano resonance photonic crystal membrane reflectors and filters, flexible solar...

469

Regional Purchasing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regional Purchasing Regional Purchasing Regional Purchasing Pursuant to Appendix M of Prime Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396 between DOE/NNSA and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS), LANS is committed to building a strong supplier base with Northern New Mexico businesses and the local Native American pueblos in the purchases of goods and services. Contact Small Business Office (505) 667-4419 Email We seek out and utilize known Northern New Mexico business as suppliers The Northern New Mexico counties included are Los Alamos Santa Fe Rio Arriba Taos Mora San Miguel Sandoval The eight regional pueblos included are Nambe Ohkay Owingeh (formerly known as San Juan) Picuris Pojoaque San Ildefonso Santa Clara Taos Tesuque When the Laboratory cannot identify regional firms, it will expand its

470

Space-charge perturbation effects in photonic tubes under high irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Potential perturbation effects at the cathode region of a photonic tube can occur at high intensity due to space-charge. Using appropriate photoelectron energy distribution functions, the electric field at the cathode is calculated and its effect upon the spatial/temporal resolution is examined.

Kalibjian, R.; Peterson, G.G.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Photon and Neutrino Spectra of Time-Dependent Photospheric Models of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal photons from the photosphere may be the primary source of the observed prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In order to produce the observed non-thermal spectra, some kind of dissipation mechanism near the photosphere is required. In this paper we numerically simulate the evolution of the photon spectrum in a relativistically expanding shell with a time-dependent numerical code. We consider two basic models. One is a leptonic model, where a dissipation mechanism heats the thermal electrons maintaining their high temperature. The other model involves a cascade process induced by $pp$($pn$)-collisions which produce high-energy electrons, modify the thermal spectrum, and emit neutrinos. The qualitative properties of the photon spectra are mainly determined by the optical depth at which the dissipation mechanism sets in. Too large optical depths lead to a broad and curved spectrum contradicting the observations, while for optical depths smaller than unity the spectral hardness becomes softer than observed. A significant shift of the spectral peak energy to higher energies due to a large energy injection can lead to an overly broad spectral shape. We show ideal parameter ranges for which these models are able to reproduce the observed spectra. For the $pn$-collision model, the neutrino fluence in the 10-100 GeV range is well above the atmospheric neutrino fluence, but its detection is challenging for presently available detectors.

K. Asano; P. Mszros

2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

472

Porous silicon optical cavity structure applied to high sensitivity organic solvent sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present work reports the thermal annealing process, the number of layer and electrochemical process effect in the optical response quality of Bragg and microcavity devices that were applied as organic solvent sensors. These devices have been obtained ... Keywords: Microcavities, Optical sensors, Photonic crystal, Porous silicon

Danilo R. Huanca; Francisco J. Ramirez-Fernandez; Walter J. Salcedo

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Wave propagation in photonic crystals and metamaterials: Surface waves, nonlinearity and chirality  

SciTech Connect

Photonic crystals and metamaterials, both composed of artificial structures, are two interesting areas in electromagnetism and optics. New phenomena in photonic crystals and metamaterials are being discovered, including some not found in natural materials. This thesis presents my research work in the two areas. Photonic crystals are periodically arranged artificial structures, mostly made from dielectric materials, with period on the same order of the wavelength of the working electromagnetic wave. The wave propagation in photonic crystals is determined by the Bragg scattering of the periodic structure. Photonic band-gaps can be present for a properly designed photonic crystal. Electromagnetic waves with frequency within the range of the band-gap are suppressed from propagating in the photonic crystal. With surface defects, a photonic crystal could support surface modes that are localized on the surface of the crystal, with mode frequencies within the band-gap. With line defects, a photonic crystal could allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves along the channels. The study of surface modes and waveguiding properties of a 2D photonic crystal will be presented in Chapter 1. Metamaterials are generally composed of artificial structures with sizes one order smaller than the wavelength and can be approximated as effective media. Effective macroscopic parameters such as electric permittivity {epsilon}, magnetic permeability {mu} are used to characterize the wave propagation in metamaterials. The fundamental structures of the metamaterials affect strongly their macroscopic properties. By designing the fundamental structures of the metamaterials, the effective parameters can be tuned and different electromagnetic properties can be achieved. One important aspect of metamaterial research is to get artificial magnetism. Metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs) and variants are widely used to build magnetic metamaterials with effective {mu} < 1 or even {mu} < 0. Varactor based nonlinear SRRs are built and modeled to study the nonlinearity in magnetic metamaterials and the results will be presented in Chapter 3. Negative refractive index n is one of the major target in the research of metamaterials. Negative n can be obtained with a metamaterial with both {epsilon} and {mu} negative. As an alternative, negative index for one of the circularly polarized waves could be achieved with metamaterials having a strong chirality ?. In this case neither {epsilon} nor {mu} negative is required. My work on chiral metamaterials will be presented in Chapter 4.

Wang, Bingnan

2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

474

Atmospheric Turbidity in the Polar Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis is presented of 800 measurements of atmospheric monochromatic aerosol optical depth made poleward of 65 latitude. The atmosphere of the southern polar region appears to be uncontaminated but is charged with a background aerosol having ...

Glenn E. Shaw

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Mensky's path integral and photon mass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is commonly assumed that zero and non-zero photon mass would lead to qualitatively different physics. For example, massless photon has two polarization degrees of freedom, while massive photon at least three. This feature seems counter-intuitive. In this paper we will show that if we change propagator by setting $i \\epsilon$ (needed to avoid poles) to a finite value, and also introduce it in a way that breaks Lawrentz symmetry, then we would obtain the continuous transition we desire once the speed of the photons is "large enough" with respect to "preferred" frame. The two transverse polarization degrees of freedom will be long lived, while longitudinal will be short lived. Their lifetime will be near-zero if $m \\ll \\sqrt{\\epsilon}$, which is where the properties of two circular polarizations arize. The $i \\epsilon$ corresponds to the intensity of Mensky's "continuous measurement" and the short lifetime of the longitudinal photons can be understood as the "conversion" of quantum degrees of freedom (photons) into "classical" ones by the measurement device (thus getting rid of the former). While the "classical" trajectory of the longitudinal photons does arize, it plays no physical role due to quantum Zeno effect: intuitively, it is similar to an electron being kept at a ground state due to continuous measurement.

Roman Sverdlov

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

476

Redshift of photons penetrating a hot plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new interaction, plasma redshift, is derived, which is important only when photons penetrate a hot, sparse electron plasma. The derivation of plasma redshift is based entirely on conventional axioms of physics, without any new assumptions. The calculations are only more exact than those usually found in the literature. When photons penetrate a cold and dense electron plasma, they lose energy through ionization and excitation, through Compton scattering on the individual electrons, and through Raman scattering on the plasma frequency. But when the plasma is very hot and has low density, such as in the solar corona, the photons lose energy also in plasma redshift, which is an interaction with the electron plasma. The energy loss of a photon per electron in the plasma redshift is about equal to the product of the photons energy and one half of the Compton cross-section per electron. This energy loss (plasma redshift of the photons) consists of very small quanta, which are absorbed by the plasma and cause a significant heating. In quiescent solar corona, this heating starts in the transition zone to the solar corona and is a major fraction of the coronal heating. Plasma redshift contributes also to the heating of the interstellar plasma, the galactic corona, and the intergalactic plasma. Plasma redshift explains

Ari Brynjolfsson

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Photon 2003: a theorist's summary and outlook  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this talk I present a summary of some of the discussions at the conference on various topics in Photon physics, selected with a view to give a theorist's perspective, of the current status and future prospects, of the developments in the field. After discussing some of the recent theoretical developments in the subject of Photon Structure function, I will focus on what the photon has helped us learn about the spin structure of a proton, aspects of perturbative and nonperturbative QCD as well as forward and diffractive physics. I will discuss the challenges that the data on heavy flavour production in the two photon reactions and in photo production, seem to have presented to the theorists. Then I discuss the direction in which photon physics is likely to go in future and what we {\\em need} the photons to still tell us. I will end by talking about the newer developments in prospects for photon studies at future colliders and opportunities that these will provide us to learn about the physics beyond the Standard Model.

Rohini M. Godbole

2003-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

478

Miniaturization of chip-scale photonic circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heating, electromagnetic interference between those wires,optics: electromagnetic theory of propagation, interference

Zamek, Steve

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Experiment Hazard Classes at the Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Experiment Hazard Classes at the Advanced Photon Source Experiment Hazard Classes at the Advanced Photon Source January 18, 2012 Beamline Operation: HC1 APS Base Low Temperatures: HC2 Cryogenic Systems High Temperatures: HC3.1 Electric Furnace HC3.2 Optical Furnace HC3.3 Other High Temperature Lasers: HC4.2 Laser, Class 2 HC4.3a Laser, Class 3a HC4.3b Laser, Class 3b HC4.4 Laser, Class 4 High Pressures: HC5.1 High Pressure, DAC HC5.2 High Pressure, LVP HC5.3 High Pressure Vessels HC5.4 High Pressure Comp. Gas Chemicals: HC6.0 Chemicals, General HC6.1 Chemicals, Carcinogen HC6.2 Chemicals, Corrosive HC6.3 Chemicals, Toxic HC6.4 Chemicals, Flammable HC6.5 Chemicals, Oxidizer HC6.6 Chemicals, Other HC6.7 Chemicals, Explosive/Energetic Materials Biosafety: HC7.1 Biosafety Level 1 HC7.2 Biosafety Level 2 HC7.3 Biosafety Level 3

480

U2B Beamline | Photon Sciences | Brookhaven National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BNL People BNL People Photon SciencesInfrared Programs PS Home Infrared Home Beamlines U2A U2B U4IR U10A U10B U12IR Publications User Info Useful Sites Beamline U2B Home Publications Equipment Schedule Beamtime Instrument Spectrometer endstation: Thermo Nicolet Magna 860 Step-Scan FTIR and Continuum IR microscope Frequency Range (cm-1): 500 - 4000 Spectral resolution (cm-1): 4.0 Spatial resolution: diffraction-limit (i.e. ~ 3 to 10 microns) Brightness (compared to a black body): 100x to 1000x Smallest practical targeting aperture size: 3 microns square Beamline angular acceptance: (milliradians): 40H x 40V (100% vertical collection down to 240 cm-1) Optical Configuration A two-mirror system (M1 and M2) collects and re-images the synchrotron infrared source at a point just outside of the storage ring's UHV. M1 is a

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