Sample records for regional input-output modeling

  1. The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caron, J.

    We improve on existing estimates of the carbon dioxide (CO2) content of consumption across regions of the United States. Using a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) framework, we estimate the direct and indirect CO2 emissions ...

  2. Serial Input Output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each stream, record or block name must be unique in its category (i.e. all streams must have different names, but a stream can have the same name as a record). Each category is an arbitrary length list which is handled by a 'manager' and there is one manager for each category.

  3. An Electricity-focused Economic Input-output Model: Life-cycle Assessment and Policy Implications of Future Electricity Generation Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and the different means of generating power. We build a flexible framework for creating new industry sectors, supply of Future Electricity Generation Scenarios Joe Marriott Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in the input- output model of the U.S. economy, the power generation sector is an excellent candidate

  4. DOCUMENTATION FOR APPLICATION OF KOCKELMAN et al.'s RANDOM-UTILITY-BASED MULTI-REGIONAL INPUT-OUTPUT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    . The code, written in both Visual Basic (an earlier version of the code) and C (most recent code version Application Results) 1. Model Description RUBMRIO is a transportation-economic model that simulates the flow, as motivated by foreign and domestic export demands, and computes this trade across numerous economic sectors

  5. Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang Sai [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Yijian [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037 (China)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

  6. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang Sai, E-mail: liangsai09@gmail.com [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  7. Nonlinear quantum input-output analysis using Volterra series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jing Zhang; Yu-xi Liu; Re-Bing Wu; Kurt Jacobs; Sahin Kaya Ozdemir; Lan Yang; Tzyh-Jong Tarn; Franco Nori

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum input-output theory plays a very important role for analyzing the dynamics of quantum systems, especially large-scale quantum networks. As an extension of the input-output formalism of Gardiner and Collet, we develop a new approach based on the quantum version of the Volterra series which can be used to analyze nonlinear quantum input-output dynamics. By this approach, we can ignore the internal dynamics of the quantum input-output system and represent the system dynamics by a series of kernel functions. This approach has the great advantage of modelling weak-nonlinear quantum networks. In our approach, the number of parameters, represented by the kernel functions, used to describe the input-output response of a weak-nonlinear quantum network, increases linearly with the scale of the quantum network, not exponentially as usual. Additionally, our approach can be used to formulate the quantum network with both nonlinear and nonconservative components, e.g., quantum amplifiers, which cannot be modelled by the existing methods, such as the Hudson-Parthasarathy model and the quantum transfer function model. We apply our general method to several examples, including Kerr cavities, optomechanical transducers, and a particular coherent feedback system with a nonlinear component and a quantum amplifier in the feedback loop. This approach provides a powerful way to the modelling and control of nonlinear quantum networks.

  8. Quality assurance of solar thermal systems with the ISFH-Input/Output-Procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quality assurance of solar thermal systems with the ISFH- Input/Output-Procedure Peter Paerisch different solar systems. The simulation model was validated with measured data. The deviation between meas * Tel. +49 (0)5151-999503, Fax: +49 (0)5151-999500, Email: paerisch@isfh.de Abstract Input/Output

  9. Input-output multiplier distributions from probabilistic production paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konecny, R.T.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the standard Leontief input-output model, a single dominant technology is assumed in the production of a particular commodity. However, in the real world, quite similar commodities are produced by firms with vastly different technologies. In addressing this limitation, the Probabilistic Production Path model (PPP) is used to investigate both the method of production and identity of the producer. An important feature of the PPP model is the consideration of the effects that heterogeneous technologies and dissimilar trade patterns have on the properties of the distribution of input-output multipliers. The derivation of the distribution of output multipliers is generalized for discrete probabilities based on market shares. Due to the complexity of the generalized solution, a simulation model is used to approximate the multiplier distribution. Results of the model show that the distributional properties of the multipliers are unpredictable, with the majority of the distributions being multimodal. Typically, the mean of the multipliers lies in a trough between two modes. Multimodal multiplier distributions were found to have a tighter symmetric interval than the corresponding standard normal confidence interval. Therefore, the use of the normal confidence interval appears to be sufficient, though overstated, for the construction of confidence intervals in the PPP model.

  10. Interactive Computing 1 Input/Output and Complex Arithmetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verschelde, Jan

    Interactive Computing 1 Input/Output and Complex Arithmetic interactive Python scripts complex Software (MCS 507 L-3) Interactive Computing 30 August 2013 1 / 33 #12;Interactive Computing 1 Input/Output and Complex Arithmetic interactive Python scripts complex arithmetic 2 Python Coding Style and pylint coding

  11. Quality assurance with the ISFH-Input/Output-Procedure 6-year-experience with 14 solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quality assurance with the ISFH-Input/Output-Procedure 6-year-experience with 14 solar thermal the confidence in solar thermal energy. The so called Input/Output-Procedure is controlling the solar heat systems. The simulation model was validated with measured data and a lot of failures in 11 solar thermal

  12. Process and Intermediate Calculations User AccessInputs Outputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Process and Intermediate Calculations User AccessInputs Outputs Fire Behavior & Probability STARFire System Flow Valuation Processing Temporal Schedules Smoke · Zones · Zone impact · Emissions Fire and compare Valuation (Structured Elicit Process) 1) Value Layers: · Point (housing, cultural trees, etc

  13. SWAT 2012 Input/Output Documentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.G.; Kiniry, J.R.; Srinivasan, R.; Williams, J.R.; Haney, E.B.; Neitsch, S.L.

    2013-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a comprehensive model that requires a diversity of information in order to run. Novice users may feel overwhelmed by the variety and number of inputs when they first begin to use the model. This document...

  14. SWAT 2012 Input/Output Documentation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.G.; Kiniry, J.R.; Srinivasan, R.; Williams, J.R.; Haney, E.B.; Neitsch, S.L.

    2013-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    &M AgriLife Research, part of The Texas A&M University System. SWAT is a small watershed to river basin-scale model to simulate the quality and quantity of surface and ground water and predict the environmental impact of land use, land management practices...

  15. Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yu, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal and coke from a macroeconomic perspective, I apply the ...

  16. Self-consistent input-output formulation of quantum feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanagisawa, M. [Department of Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hope, J. J. [Department of Quantum Science, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple method of analyzing quantum feedback circuits is presented. The classical analysis of feedback circuits can be generalized to apply to quantum systems by mapping the field operators of various outputs to other inputs via the standard input-output formalism. Unfortunately, this has led to unphysical results such as the violation of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for in-loop fields. This paper shows that this general approach can be redeemed by ensuring a self-consistently Hermitian Hamiltonian. The calculations are based on a noncommutative calculus of operator derivatives. A full description of several examples of quantum linear and nonlinear feedback for optical systems is presented.

  17. Data error detection and device controller failure detection in an input/output system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katzman, J.A.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bixler, R.M.; Davidow, W.H.; Despotakis, J.A.; Graziano, P.J.; Green, M.D.; Greig, D.A.; Hayashi, S.J.; Mackie, D.R.

    1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an input/output system for a multiprocessor system of the kind in which separate processor modules are interconnected for parallel processing, each of the processor modules having a central processing unit and a memory, at least some of the processor modules having an input/output channel, the input/output system comprising, at least one device controller for controlling the transfer of data between multiple different ones of the processor modules and a peripheral device.

  18. Enhancing e-waste estimates: Improving data quality by multivariate Input–Output Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng, E-mail: fwang@unu.edu [Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University, Hermann-Ehler-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Design for Sustainability Lab, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628CE Delft (Netherlands); Huisman, Jaco [Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University, Hermann-Ehler-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Design for Sustainability Lab, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628CE Delft (Netherlands); Stevels, Ab [Design for Sustainability Lab, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628CE Delft (Netherlands); Baldé, Cornelis Peter [Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University, Hermann-Ehler-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Statistics Netherlands, Henri Faasdreef 312, 2492 JP Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • A multivariate Input–Output Analysis method for e-waste estimates is proposed. • Applying multivariate analysis to consolidate data can enhance e-waste estimates. • We examine the influence of model selection and data quality on e-waste estimates. • Datasets of all e-waste related variables in a Dutch case study have been provided. • Accurate modeling of time-variant lifespan distributions is critical for estimate. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams, which encompasses a wide and increasing spectrum of products. Accurate estimation of e-waste generation is difficult, mainly due to lack of high quality data referred to market and socio-economic dynamics. This paper addresses how to enhance e-waste estimates by providing techniques to increase data quality. An advanced, flexible and multivariate Input–Output Analysis (IOA) method is proposed. It links all three pillars in IOA (product sales, stock and lifespan profiles) to construct mathematical relationships between various data points. By applying this method, the data consolidation steps can generate more accurate time-series datasets from available data pool. This can consequently increase the reliability of e-waste estimates compared to the approach without data processing. A case study in the Netherlands is used to apply the advanced IOA model. As a result, for the first time ever, complete datasets of all three variables for estimating all types of e-waste have been obtained. The result of this study also demonstrates significant disparity between various estimation models, arising from the use of data under different conditions. It shows the importance of applying multivariate approach and multiple sources to improve data quality for modelling, specifically using appropriate time-varying lifespan parameters. Following the case study, a roadmap with a procedural guideline is provided to enhance e-waste estimation studies.

  19. Input-Output as a Method of Evaluahon of the Economic Impact of Water Resources Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canion, R. L.; Trock, W. L.

    In this report the results of a study of the use of input-output analysis to evaluate the economic impact of water resources development are presented. Blackburn Crossing reservoir on the Upper Neches river was the subject development...

  20. EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC) application developer`s guide. APS Release 3.12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The basic components are: (OPI) Operator Interface; this is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; (IOC) Input/Output Controller; this is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a Motorola 68xxx processor, various I/O modules, and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB, (LAN), Local Area Network; and this is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. Epics provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers.

  1. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratory’s Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  2. Gain, directionality and noise in microwave SQUID amplifiers: Input-output approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archana Kamal; John Clarke; Michel Devoret

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new theoretical framework to analyze microwave amplifiers based on the dc SQUID. Our analysis applies input-output theory generalized for Josephson junction devices biased in the running state. Using this approach we express the high frequency dynamics of the SQUID as a scattering between the participating modes. This enables us to elucidate the inherently nonreciprocal nature of gain as a function of bias current and input frequency. This method can, in principle, accommodate an arbitrary number of Josephson harmonics generated in the running state of the junction. We report detailed calculations taking into account the first few harmonics that provide simple semi-quantitative results showing a degradation of gain, directionality and noise of the device as a function of increasing signal frequency. We also discuss the fundamental limits on device performance and applications of this formalism to real devices.

  3. Input-output Analysis of Quantum Finite-level Systems in Response to Single Photon States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu Pan; Guofeng Zhang; Matthew R. James

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Single photon states, which carry quantum information and coherently interact with quantum systems, are vital to the realization of all-optical quantum networks and quantum memory. In this paper we derive the conditions that enable an exact analysis of the response of passive quantum finite-level systems under the weak driving of single photon input. We show that when a class of finite level systems is driven by single photon inputs, expressions for the output states may be derived exactly using linear systems transfer functions. This removes the need for physical approximations such as weak excitation limit in the analysis of quantum nonlinear systems under single photon driving. We apply this theory to the analysis of a single photon switch. The input-output relations are consistent with the existing results in the study of few photon transport through finite-level systems.

  4. US-CERT Control System Center Input/Output (I/O) Conceputal Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document was prepared for the US-CERT Control Systems Center of the National Cyber Security Division (NCSD) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS has been tasked under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to coordinate the overall national effort to enhance the protection of the national critical infrastructure. Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-7 directs the federal departments to identify and prioritize critical infrastructure and protect it from terrorist attack. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security was prepared by the NCSD to address the control system security component addressed in the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace and the National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security identified five high-level strategic goals for improving cyber security of control systems; the I/O upgrade described in this document supports these goals. The vulnerability assessment Test Bed, located in the Information Operations Research Center (IORC) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), consists of a cyber test facility integrated with multiple test beds that simulate the nation's critical infrastructure. The fundamental mission of the Test Bed is to provide industry owner/operators, system vendors, and multi-agency partners of the INL National Security Division a platform for vulnerability assessments of control systems. The Input/Output (I/O) upgrade to the Test Bed (see Work Package 3.1 of the FY-05 Annual Work Plan) will provide for the expansion of assessment capabilities within the IORC facility. It will also provide capabilities to connect test beds within the Test Range and other Laboratory resources. This will allow real time I/O data input and communication channels for full replications of control systems (Process Control Systems [PCS], Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems [SCADA], and components). This will be accomplished through the design and implementation of a modular infrastructure of control system, communications, networking, computing and associated equipment, and measurement/control devices. The architecture upgrade will provide a flexible patching system providing a quick ''plug and play''configuration through various communication paths to gain access to live I/O running over specific protocols. This will allow for in-depth assessments of control systems in a true-to-life environment. The full I/O upgrade will be completed through a two-phased approach. Phase I, funded by DHS, expands the capabilities of the Test Bed by developing an operational control system in two functional areas, the Science & Technology Applications Research (STAR) Facility and the expansion of various portions of the Test Bed. Phase II (see Appendix A), funded by other programs, will complete the full I/O upgrade to the facility.

  5. Artificial neural networks for input-output dynamic modeling of nonlinear processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarimveis, Haralambos

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    netivork approach. ]v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I woukl lil&e t(& thank Dr. Michael;Mike&laou, ehairn)an of nry gra(h(ate eonuuittee, for &onc e&ving my p&&&jest and giving the assists(&r( nestle(l to n&ake it possible. His guidauce anal support, will always 1...&e appr&'cist('d I also v ish to thank D(s A. Ted watson au&1 Alexander G. Parlos for their valuable eouuuents ou u&y rcseareh anal fo( ac&viz&g on n)v &omm&ttee. Tha?ks to nry frie&r&ls here at Texas Ahi&I, wh(& we&e instrmuental iu the eon...

  6. EPICS : input / output controller (IOC) application developer's guide. EPICS release 3.12 specific documentation.[Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraimer, M. R.

    2002-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. EPICS consists of a set of software components and tools that Application Developers use to create a control system. The basic components are: OPI--Operator Interface. This is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; IOC--Input/Output Controller. This is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a processor, various I/O modules and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB; and LAN--Local Area Network. This is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. EPICS provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers. This report is intended for anyone developing EPICS IOC databases and/or new record/device/driver support.

  7. Control-oriented modeling of two-phase flow and input/output structures for boundary control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Hof, Paul

    , the ability to build plants "a bit bigger" is slowly reaching its limita- tions [5]. Operating the large-scale design and are still not scaled-up to the optimal volume. The scale-up technology is twofold and involves developments. In order to be able to replace the current large-scale equipment and to scale-up a plant more

  8. SYNAPTIC BACKGROUND NOISE CONTROLS THE INPUT/OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE CELLS IN AN IN VITRO MODEL OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Destexhe, Alain

    ) and may be modulated by attention (Steinmetz et al., 2000; Fries et al., 2001; Salinas and Sejnowski, 2001 influence the firing rate and the firing variability of a postsynaptic neuron (Salinas and Sejnowski, 2000

  9. Fuzzy Hough Transform and an MLP with Fuzzy Input/Output for Character Recognition A neuro-fuzzy system for character recognition using a fuzzy Hough transform technique is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sural, Shamik

    : Pattern Recognition, Fuzzy Hough Transform, Linguistic Sets, Multilayer Perceptron, Character RecognitionFuzzy Hough Transform and an MLP with Fuzzy Input/Output for Character Recognition Abstract A neuro-fuzzy system for character recognition using a fuzzy Hough transform technique is presented in this paper

  10. The capacity of the food and fibre system and its interface with the general economy: an application of a quadratic input-output model for the Texas economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fulton, Murray Evans

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    production sector is more subject to shocks in the rest of the world and, as a result, is more likely to suffer greater variability in the prices and quantities de- manded of agricultural products. The agricultural produc- tion sector has also become more...

  11. Input–output behavior of ErbB signaling pathways as revealed by a mass action model trained against dynamic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    The ErbB signaling pathways, which regulate diverse physiological responses such as cell survival, proliferation and motility, have been subjected to extensive molecular analysis. Nonetheless, it remains poorly understood ...

  12. Specifications for the development of a fully three-dimensional numerical groundwater model for regional mass transport of radionuclides from a deep waste repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prickett, T.A.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specifications are given which are necessary to develop a three-dimensional numerical model capable of simulating regional mass transport of radionuclides from a deep waste repository. The model to be developed will include all of the significant mass transport processes including flow, chemical, and thermal advection, mechanical dispersion, molecular diffusion, ion exchange reactions, and radioactive decay. The model specifications also include that density and viscosity fluid properties be functions of pressure, temperature, and concentration and take into account fluid and geologic heterogenieties by allowing possible assignment of individual values to every block of the model. The model specifications furthermore include the repository shape, input/output information, boundary conditions, and the need for documentation and a user's manual. Model code validation can be accomplished with the included known analytical or laboratory solutions. It is recommended that an existing finite-difference model (developed by INTERCOMP and INTERA, Inc.) be used as a starting point either as an acceptable basic code for modification or as a pattern for the development of a completely different numerical scheme. A ten-step plan is given to outline the general procedure for development of the code.

  13. The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , when attributed on a consumption basis, California's per capita emissions are over 25 percent higherThe CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) Approach: globalchange@mit.edu Website: http://globalchange.mit.edu/ #12;The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions

  14. Regions in Energy Market Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, W.

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report explores the different options for spatial resolution of an energy market model--and the advantages and disadvantages of models with fine spatial resolution. It examines different options for capturing spatial variations, considers the tradeoffs between them, and presents a few examples from one particular model that has been run at different levels of spatial resolution.

  15. Regional Climate Modeling: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuqing; Leung, Lai R.; McGregor, John L.; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Ding, Yihui; Kimura, Fujio

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional climate modeling with regional climate models (RCMs) has matured over the past decade and allows for meaningful utilization in a broad spectrum of applications. In this paper, latest progresses in regional climate modeling studies are reviewed, including RCM development, applications of RCMs to dynamical downscaling for climate change assessment, seasonal climate predictions and climate process studies, and the study of regional climate predictability. Challenges and potential directions of future research in this important area are discussed, with the focus on those to which less attention has been given previously, such as the importance of ensemble simulations, further development and improvement of regional climate modeling approach, modeling extreme climate events and sub-daily variation of clouds and precipitation, model evaluation and diagnostics, applications of RCMs to climate process studies and seasonal predictions, and development of regional earth system models. It is believed that with both the demonstrated credibility of RCMs’ capability in reproducing not only monthly to seasonal mean climate and interannual variability but also the extreme climate events when driven by good quality reanalysis and the continuous improvements in the skill of global general circulation models (GCMs) in simulating large-scale atmospheric circulation, regional climate modeling will remain an important dynamical downscaling tool for providing the needed information for assessing climate change impacts and seasonal climate predictions, and a powerful tool for improving our understanding of regional climate processes. An internationally coordinated effort can be developed with different focuses by different groups to advance regional climate modeling studies. It is also recognized that since the final quality of the results from nested RCMs depends in part on the realism of the large-scale forcing provided by GCMs, the reduction of errors and improvement in physics parameterizations in both GCMs and RCMs remain a priority for climate modeling community.

  16. Use of artificial intelligence for process modeling and control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You, Yong

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , recurrent neural networks constitute a simple and effective general method for static and dynmnic input-output mocleling of nonlinear systems. Design of a fuzzy logic control system for a biochemical system is also conducted, Fuzzification membership... method for input-output modeling of static and dynamic nonlinear systems vis, recurrent neural nctvvorks (RNNs) and design of a fuzzy logic control svstem for a biochcnzical process system. Simulation results show tha. t RNNs can learn nonlinear ste...

  17. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Nw Basin & Range Region (Biasi...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Modeling-Computer Simulations Activity Date Usefulness useful regional reconnaissance DOE-funding...

  18. active region model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model (Wheatland and Glukhov 1998; Wheatland 2008; Wheatland 2009). The magnetic free energy of the model active region varies in time due to a prescribed (deterministic)...

  19. Coupling of a regional atmospheric model (RegCM3) and a regional oceanic model (FVCOM) over the maritime continent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Jun

    Climatological high resolution coupled climate model simulations for the maritime continent have been carried out using the regional climate model (RegCM) version 3 and the finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) ...

  20. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Northern Basin & Range Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration...

  1. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Modeling-Computer Simulations Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References J. W. Pritchett...

  2. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Nw Basin & Range Region (Pritchett...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Nw Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration Activity Details...

  3. Expanding circadian input, output, and the clock through genomic screens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwood, Ann Margaret

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Category Term # Genes SP_PIR_KEYWORDS biological rhythmsCategory Term # Genes SP_PIR_KEYWORDS nucleus 2.8475E-09transcription) 4.1293E-07 SP_PIR_KEYWORDS transcription

  4. ANALOG-DIGITAL INPUT OUTPUT SYSTEM FOR APPLE CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    Initialization Program - ADIOS INITB Appendix 2 Test Program - ADIOS TEST Appendix 3 AND9513 Utilization Appendix HI-506A. Multiplexer F. Sprague UHP -507 Relay Driver G. Teledyne Solid-State Relays H. Advanced bus driver, a 4-bit relay driver, or two solid-state relays. Three of the digital output bits can

  5. Expanding circadian input, output, and the clock through genomic screens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwood, Ann Margaret

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    regulation can drive rhythmic gene expression and oscillations in polyamine synthesis. Using a bioinformatic pipeline

  6. MONOTONE INPUT/OUTPUT SYSTEMS, AND APPLICATIONS TO BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, Germán

    . iii #12;Preface: From Tycho Brahe To Microarrays How does mathematics fit into modern biology research

  7. Expanding circadian input, output, and the clock through genomic screens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwood, Ann Margaret

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Philosophy in Biology by Ann Margaret Atwood Committee inSteven Wasserman Copyright Ann Margaret Atwood, 2011 Allreserved The Dissertation of Ann Margaret Atwood is approved

  8. OECD Input-Output Tables | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpenNorth AmericaNorthwest RuralNujira Ltd JumpO

  9. Assessment of the Value, Impact, and Validity of the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Suite of Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billman, L.; Keyser, D.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), use input-output methodology to estimate gross (not net) jobs and economic impacts of building and operating selected types of renewable electricity generation and fuel plants. This analysis provides the DOE with an assessment of the value, impact, and validity of the JEDI suite of models. While the models produce estimates of jobs, earnings, and economic output, this analysis focuses only on jobs estimates. This validation report includes an introduction to JEDI models, an analysis of the value and impact of the JEDI models, and an analysis of the validity of job estimates generated by JEDI model through comparison to other modeled estimates and comparison to empirical, observed jobs data as reported or estimated for a commercial project, a state, or a region.

  10. Spatial Models for Groundwater Behavioral Analysis in Regions of Maharashtra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Spatial Models for Groundwater Behavioral Analysis in Regions of Maharashtra M.Tech Dissertation on groundwater and classified the years into good year if water levels are above the seasonal model in that year such as land-use, local hydrogeology. #12;Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Spatial Models

  11. A Framework for Modeling Uncertainty in Regional Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monier, Erwan

    In this study, we present a new modeling framework and a large ensemble of climate projections to investigate the uncertainty in regional climate change over the US associated with four dimensions of uncertainty. The sources ...

  12. High order hybrid discontinuous Galerkin regional ocean modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ueckermann, Mattheus Percy

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate modeling of physical and biogeochemical dynamics in coastal ocean regions is required for multiple scientific and societal applications, covering a wide range of time and space scales. However, in light of the ...

  13. Scenario Evaluation and Regionalization Analysis (SERA) Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 <Department ofDepartment| DepartmentScale Models andScenario

  14. A regional model coupling with OASIS3-MCT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A regional model coupling with OASIS3-MCT Eric Maisonnave WN/CMGC/13/34 #12;Table of Contents of an OASIS3-MCT based coupled model must be set up providing input informations (grid definition.base.define_clm_limits ), reducing to 1 the number of sub-domain dedicated to DATM, OASIS interpolates the COSMO domain limits

  15. Regional Climate Model Projections for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salathe, E.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Zhang, Yongxin

    2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Global climate models do not have sufficient spatial resolution to represent the atmospheric and land surface processes that determine the unique regional heterogeneity of the climate of the State of Washington. If future large-scale weather patterns interact differently with the local terrain and coastlines than current weather patterns, local changes in temperature and precipitation could be quite different from the coarse-scale changes projected by global models. Regional climate models explicitly simulate the interactions between the large-scale weather patterns simulated by a global model and the local terrain. We have performed two 100-year climate simulations using the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). One simulation is forced by the NCAR Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) and the second is forced by a simulation of the Max Plank Institute, Hamburg, global model (ECHAM5). The mesoscale simulations produce regional changes in snow cover, cloudiness, and circulation patterns associated with interactions between the large-scale climate change and the regional topography and land-water contrasts. These changes substantially alter the temperature and precipitation trends over the region relative to the global model result or statistical downscaling. To illustrate this effect, we analyze the changes from the current climate (1970-1999) to the mid 21st century (2030-2059). Changes in seasonal-mean temperature, precipitation, and snowpack are presented. Several climatological indices of extreme daily weather are also presented: precipitation intensity, fraction of precipitation occurring in extreme daily events, heat wave frequency, growing season length, and frequency of warm nights. Despite somewhat different changes in seasonal precipitation and temperature from the two regional simulations, consistent results for changes in snowpack and extreme precipitation are found in both simulations.

  16. Modeling-Computer Simulations At U.S. West Region (Williams ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modeling-Computer Simulations At U.S. West Region (Williams & Deangelo, 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location U.S. West Region Exploration Technique Modeling-Computer...

  17. Regional Economic Models, Inc. (REMI) Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to:bJumpRedSeismic Imaging,WesternRegional

  18. THE DEVELOPMENT MODEL ELECTRONIC COMMERCE OF REGIONAL AGRICULTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    THE DEVELOPMENT MODEL ELECTRONIC COMMERCE OF REGIONAL AGRICULTURE Jun Kang* , Lecai Cai, Hongchan, Fax: +86-813-5505966, Email: kj_sky@126.com Abstract: With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs

  19. Reference wind farm selection for regional wind power prediction models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Reference wind farm selection for regional wind power prediction models Nils Siebert George.siebert@ensmp.fr, georges.kariniotakis@ensmp.fr Abstract Short-term wind power forecasting is recognized today as a major requirement for a secure and economic integration of wind generation in power systems. This paper deals

  20. A SPATIAL WEB GRAPH MODEL WITH LOCAL INFLUENCE REGIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pralat, Pawel

    mining technique, web pages are often represented as vectors in a word-document space. Using LatentA SPATIAL WEB GRAPH MODEL WITH LOCAL INFLUENCE REGIONS W. AIELLO, A. BONATO, C. COOPER, J. JANSSEN-degree distribution, with exponent in [2, ) depending on the parameters, and with concentration for a wide range of in

  1. Rate models with delays and the dynamics of large networks of spiking neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roxin, Alex

    1 Rate models with delays and the dynamics of large networks of spiking neurons Alex Roxin, Nicolas in a reduced rate model provided that the interactions are delayed. §1. Introduction Simplified models of large transformation through a sigmoidal input-output transfer function. Network models of spiking neurons can

  2. Regional-Scale Climate Change: Observations and Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This collaborative proposal addressed key issues in understanding the Earthâ??s climate system, as highlighted by the U.S. Climate Science Program. The research focused on documenting past climatic changes and on assessing future climatic changes based on suites of global and regional climate models. Geographically, our emphasis was on the mountainous regions of the world, with a particular focus on the Neotropics of Central America and the Hawaiian Islands. Mountain regions are zones where large variations in ecosystems occur due to the strong climate zonation forced by the topography. These areas are particularly susceptible to changes in critical ecological thresholds, and we conducted studies of changes in phonological indicators based on various climatic thresholds.

  3. The CouncilThe Council''s Regionals Regional Portfolio ModelPortfolio Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summer Winter Coal Operating CostsOperating Costs Model Overview #12;Page 3 5 Sources of Uncertainty Power Plan All of those to the left, except, perhaps, aluminum price Power plant construction costs, and labor costs Retirement Risk Carrying the forward-going fixed cost of an unused plant Undervaluing

  4. California Wintertime Precipitation in Regional and Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, P M

    2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, wintertime precipitation from a variety of observational datasets, regional climate models (RCMs), and general circulation models (GCMs) is averaged over the state of California (CA) and compared. Several averaging methodologies are considered and all are found to give similar values when model grid spacing is less than 3{sup o}. This suggests that CA is a reasonable size for regional intercomparisons using modern GCMs. Results show that reanalysis-forced RCMs tend to significantly overpredict CA precipitation. This appears to be due mainly to overprediction of extreme events; RCM precipitation frequency is generally underpredicted. Overprediction is also reflected in wintertime precipitation variability, which tends to be too high for RCMs on both daily and interannual scales. Wintertime precipitation in most (but not all) GCMs is underestimated. This is in contrast to previous studies based on global blended gauge/satellite observations which are shown here to underestimate precipitation relative to higher-resolution gauge-only datasets. Several GCMs provide reasonable daily precipitation distributions, a trait which doesn't seem tied to model resolution. GCM daily and interannual variability is generally underpredicted.

  5. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. Subsequent chapters of this report provide: an overview of NGTDM; a description of the interface between the NEMS and NGTDM; an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM; the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module; the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module; the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module; the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module; and a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs.

  6. Acclimate--a model for economic damage propagation. Part 1: basic formulation of damage transfer within a global supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levermann, Anders

    network is based on data from multi-regional input­output tables. Transportation times are derived from through reduced consumption of the final consumer. As an exam- ple, we investigate the cascading behavior, extreme weather events, such as heat waves, droughts, mid-latitude storms, tropical cyclones, floods

  7. Finite Bisimulation of Reactive Untimed Infinite State Systems Modeled as Automata with Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    1 Finite Bisimulation of Reactive Untimed Infinite State Systems Modeled as Automata with Variables for reactive untimed infinite state systems called input- output extended finite automaton (I/O-EFA), which of a finite bisimilar abstraction. The results are illustrated through examples that model reactive software

  8. Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Derivation from regional analysis of streamflow recession curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Ali, Melkamu; Leng, Guoyong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Wang, Shaowen; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall–runoff response, especially in steep terrain. Its contribution to total runoff is, however, poorly represented in the current generation of land surface models. The lack of physical basis of these common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation of the stormflow (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global land surface models. This paper is aimed at deriving regionalized parameterizations of the storage–discharge relationship relating to subsurface stormflow from a top–down empirical data analysis of streamflow recession curves extracted from 50 eastern United States catchments. Detailed regression analyses were performed between parameters of the empirical storage–discharge relationships and the controlling climate, soil and topographic characteristics. The regression analyses performed on empirical recession curves at catchment scale indicated that the coefficient of the power-law form storage–discharge relationship is closely related to the catchment hydrologic characteristics, which is consistent with the hydraulic theory derived mainly at the hillslope scale. As for the exponent, besides the role of field scale soil hydraulic properties as suggested by hydraulic theory, it is found to be more strongly affected by climate (aridity) at the catchment scale. At a fundamental level these results point to the need for more detailed exploration of the co-dependence of soil, vegetation and topography with climate.

  9. Improving the Simulation of the West African Monsoon Using the MIT Regional Climate Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, Eun-Soon

    This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) regional climate model (MRCM) in simulating the West African monsoon. The MRCM is built on the Regional Climate Model, ...

  10. Improvement of snowpack simulations in a regional climate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, J.; Miller, N.L.

    2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve simulations of regional-scale snow processes and related cold-season hydroclimate, the Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3), developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), was coupled with the Pennsylvania State University/NCAR fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). CLM3 physically describes the mass and heat transfer within the snowpack using five snow layers that include liquid water and solid ice. The coupled MM5–CLM3 model performance was evaluated for the snowmelt season in the Columbia River Basin in the Pacific Northwestern United States using gridded temperature and precipitation observations, along with station observations. The results from MM5–CLM3 show a significant improvement in the SWE simulation, which has been underestimated in the original version of MM5 coupled with the Noah land-surface model. One important cause for the underestimated SWE in Noah is its unrealistic land-surface structure configuration where vegetation, snow and the topsoil layer are blended when snow is present. This study demonstrates the importance of the sheltering effects of the forest canopy on snow surface energy budgets, which is included in CLM3. Such effects are further seen in the simulations of surface air temperature and precipitation in regional weather and climate models such as MM5. In addition, the snow-season surface albedo overestimated by MM5–Noah is now more accurately predicted by MM5–CLM3 using a more realistic albedo algorithm that intensifies the solar radiation absorption on the land surface, reducing the strong near-surface cold bias in MM5–Noah. The cold bias is further alleviated due to a slower snowmelt rate in MM5–CLM3 during the early snowmelt stage, which is closer to observations than the comparable components of MM5–Noah. In addition, the over-predicted precipitation in the Pacific Northwest as shown in MM5–Noah is significantly decreased in MM5 CLM3 due to the lower evaporation resulting from the longer snow duration.

  11. A Global, Multi-Resolution Approach to Regional Ocean Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Qiang

    2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this collaborative research project between Pennsylvania State University, Colorado State University and Florida State University, we mainly focused on developing multi-resolution algorithms which are suitable to regional ocean modeling. We developed hybrid implicit and explicit adaptive multirate time integration method to solve systems of time-dependent equations that present two signi#12;cantly di#11;erent scales. We studied the e#11;ects of spatial simplicial meshes on the stability and the conditioning of fully discrete approximations. We also studies adaptive #12;nite element method (AFEM) based upon the Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT) and superconvergent gradient recovery. Some of these techniques are now being used by geoscientists(such as those at LANL).

  12. Modeling Dynamics in the Central Regions of Disk Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaac Shlosman

    2004-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The central regions of disk galaxies are hosts to supermassive black holes whose masses show a tight correlation with the properties of surrounding stellar bulges. While the exact origin of this dependency is not clear, it can be related to the very basic properties of dark matter halos and the associated gas and stellar dynamics in the central kpc of host galaxies. In this review we discuss some of the recent developments in modeling the wide spectrum of dynamical processes which can be affiliated with the above phenomena, such as the structure of molecular tori in AGN, structure formation in triaxial halos, and dissipative and non-dissipative dynamics in nested bar systems, with a particular emphasis on decoupling of gaseous nuclear bars. We also briefly touch on the subject of fueling the nuclear starbursts and AGN.

  13. Modeling preferential water flow and solute transport in unsaturated soil using the active region model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, F.; Wang, K.; Zhang, R.; Liu, H.H.

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Preferential flow and solute transport are common processes in the unsaturated soil, in which distributions of soil water content and solute concentrations are often characterized as fractal patterns. An active region model (ARM) was recently proposed to describe the preferential flow and transport patterns. In this study, ARM governing equations were derived to model the preferential soil water flow and solute transport processes. To evaluate the ARM equations, dye infiltration experiments were conducted, in which distributions of soil water content and Cl{sup -} concentration were measured. Predicted results using the ARM and the mobile-immobile region model (MIM) were compared with the measured distributions of soil water content and Cl{sup -} concentration. Although both the ARM and the MIM are two-region models, they are fundamental different in terms of treatments of the flow region. The models were evaluated based on the modeling efficiency (ME). The MIM provided relatively poor prediction results of the preferential flow and transport with negative ME values or positive ME values less than 0.4. On the contrary, predicted distributions of soil water content and Cl- concentration using the ARM agreed reasonably well with the experimental data with ME values higher than 0.8. The results indicated that the ARM successfully captured the macroscopic behavior of preferential flow and solute transport in the unsaturated soil.

  14. Future regional climate change in the ten hydrologic regions of California: A climate modeling investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, Lisa C

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    snow accumulation (mm snow water equivalent) by region.Bell, J.L. , Jour. American Water Resources Assoc. , 591-CO, 1993. Department of Water Resources (DWR), California

  15. Regional Oxidant Model (ROM), Source code and test data (Version 2. 1). Model-Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) is a three-dimensional photochemical Eulerian grid model designed to simulate ambient concentrations of ozone and related species. ROM is a 3-layer model with a horizontal resolution of approximately 19 km; each grid cell has dimensions of 1/6 degree latitude by 1/4 degree longitude. The typical horizontal extent of the modeling domain is 1000 km. The model is designed to simulate hourly regional concentrations of ozone during largely stagnant summertime conditions that are associated with elevated smog episodes. The model is designed so that its preprocessors run on a VAX and the core model runs on an IBM mainframe. A typical 3-day simulation of the core model for the northeastern U.S. uses 9.5 hours of CPU on an IBM 3090. A total of 19 computer tapes comprise the release of the ROM (Version 2.1). Six of the tapes were generated on an IBM, and 13 tapes were generated on a VAX. The tapes contain source code, sample runstreams, and test data for a 3-day simulation. Potential users of the ROM should be aware that the modeling system is complex and requires extensive computer resources. The services of engineers, meteorologists, or computer scientists experienced in photochemical grid modeling are required.

  16. Regional Oxidant Model (ROM), (Source code only) (Version 2. 1). Model-Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) is a three-dimensional photochemical Eulerian grid model designed to simulate ambient concentrations of ozone and related species. ROM is a 3-layer model with a horizontal resolution of approximately 19 km; each grid cell has dimensions of 1/6 degree latitude by 1/4 degree longitude. The typical horizontal extent of the modeling domain is 1000 km. The model is designed to simulate hourly regional concentrations of ozone during largely stagnant summertime conditions that are associated with elevated smog episodes. The model is designed so that its preprocessors run on a VAX and the core model runs on an IBM mainframe. A typical 3-day simulation of the core model for the northeastern U.S. uses 9.5 hours of CPU on an IBM 3090. A total of 19 computer tapes comprise this release of the ROM (Version 2.1). Six of the tapes were generated on an IBM, and 13 tapes were generated on a VAX. The tapes contain source code, sample runstreams, and test data for a 3-day simulation. Potential users of the ROM should be aware that the modeling system is complex and requires extensive computer resources. The services of engineers, meteorologists, or computer scientists experienced in photochemical grid modeling are required.

  17. R i l P tf li M d lRegional Portfolio Model Software Redevelopment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R i l P tf li M d lRegional Portfolio Model Software Redevelopment Request for Proposals #12;II. Services Desired by the CouncilII. Services Desired by the Council Software redevelopment of the Council's Regional Software redevelopment of the Council s Regional Portfolio Model (RPM) Redeveloped

  18. AN ANALYTICAL MODEL OF THE LARGE NEUTRAL REGIONS DURING THE LATE STAGE OF REIONIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Yidong

    In this paper, we investigate the nature and distribution of large neutral regions during the late epoch of reionization. In the "bubble model" of reionization, the mass distribution of large ionized regions ("bubbles") ...

  19. On fast trust region methods for quadratic models with linear ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    employs conjugate gradients with termination at the trust region boundary. In particular, we ... An extension to the conjugate gradient method for searching round.

  20. A novel approach to modeling pH-sensitive regions within proteins 0 A novel approach to modeling pH-sensitive regions within proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    of a cell, is the next logical extension of genomics.5,6 Proteomic research has a myriad of applicationsA novel approach to modeling pH-sensitive regions within proteins 0 A novel approach to modeling p. A substantial literature review yielded no protein prediction algorithms capable of modeling p

  1. Regional dust model performance during SAMUM 2006 K. Haustein,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    established forecast model delivering daily products for North Africa, Europe, Middle East and Asia http

  2. Evaluation of Reconstructed Images of Regional Lung Changes Using a Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Andy

    Evaluation of Reconstructed Images of Regional Lung Changes Using a Model Robert P, Patterson1 A and Patterson 2004, Yang and Patterson 2010). In order to answer questions about regional lung changes, two regions were created in the posterior portion of the right lung where the resistivity can be independently

  3. Constructing transportable behavioural models for nonlinear electronic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David M. Walker; R. Brown; N. B. Tufillaro

    1998-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We use radial basis functions to model the input--output response of an electronic device. A new methodology for producing models that accuratly describe the response of the device over a wide range of operating points is introduced. A key to the success of the method is the ability to find a polynomial relationship between the model parameters and the operating points of the device.

  4. Wellbore Heat Transfer Model for Wax Deposition in Permafrost Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Xiaoting

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Producing waxy oil in arctic area may cause wax deposited on the well wall. Since wax deposition is strongly thermal related, accurate heat transfer model is necessary in predicting and preventing wax depostion. A mathematical model was derived...

  5. Development of Frameworks for Robust Regional Climate Modeling PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Moetasim Ashfaq

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    goals of climate modeling. Water supports the ecosystems as well as a wide range of human activities to improve region- al predictions of the hydrologic cycle to address climate change impacts, adaptationDevelopment of Frameworks for Robust Regional Climate Modeling PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Moetasim

  6. Space Mapping: Models, Sensitivities, and Trust-Regions Methods 1 ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    We consider also a di erent perspective of space mapping and apply it, ... built by composition of the space mapping and the coarse model is a regular function.

  7. MODELLING GROUNDWATER FLOW ON THE REGIONAL SCALE IN THE UPPER DANUBE CATCHMENT (GERMANY)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    MODELLING GROUNDWATER FLOW ON THE REGIONAL SCALE IN THE UPPER DANUBE CATCHMENT (GERMANY) Roland.barthel@iws.uni-stuttgart.de Abstract. A groundwater flow model for the Upper Danube catchment (A=77,000km2 at gauge Passau, Germany coupled models. Modelling of groundwater flow, using coupled deterministic and hydrological approaches

  8. Three papers on input-ouput [sic] energy and environmental accounting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Sonya (Sonya Y.)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The input-output model, a framework for national accounting and economic modeling, has been popular among regional economists for studying energy and emissions due to its focus on interindustry linkages. In a series of ...

  9. Convergence of trust-region methods based on probabilistic models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    the list of applications—including molecular geometry optimization, circuit design, ... A complex mechanism of sample set maintenance is ... shown that one can build such models, meeting a Taylor type accuracy with high probability,.

  10. Data-based Construction of Convex Region Surrogate (CRS) Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    University Arul Sundaramoorthy, Jose M. Pinto Praxair Inc., Business and Supply Chain Optimization R Model of an Industrial Process. Real process data drawn from a Praxair plant Set 1 0.900 0.062 0

  11. A validation of heat and carbon fluxes from highresolution land surface and regional models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Andrea, Fabio

    ) or regional climate models (RCMs) [Alessandri et al., 2007; Steiner et al., 2009]. [3., 2006; Alessandri et al., 2007; Jarlan et al., 2008; Steiner et al., 2009]. However, the SVAT models models do not account for the role of terrestrial vegetation in the carbon cycle variability [Alessandri

  12. Integrated modelling and assessment of regional groundwater resources in Germany and Benin, West Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    1 Integrated modelling and assessment of regional groundwater resources in Germany and Benin, West.J.S. SONNEVELD [1] Institute of Hydraulic Engineering, Universitaet Stuttgart, Germany (Roland Conservation University of Bonn, Germany [3] Institute of Landscape Planning and Ecology, University

  13. Resource Planning Model: An Integrated Resource Planning and Dispatch Tool for Regional Electric Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.; Drury, E.; Eurek, K.; Bodington, N.; Lopez, A.; Perry, A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report introduces a new capacity expansion model, the Resource Planning Model (RPM), with high spatial and temporal resolution that can be used for mid- and long-term scenario planning of regional power systems. Although RPM can be adapted to any geographic region, the report describes an initial version of the model adapted for the power system in Colorado. It presents examples of scenario results from the first version of the model, including an example of a 30%-by-2020 renewable electricity penetration scenario.

  14. 11.482J / 1.285J / ESD.193J Regional Socioeconomic Impact Analysis and Modeling, Fall 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polenske, Karen R.

    Reviews regional economic theories and models and provides students with experience in using alternative economic impact assessment models on microcomputers. Problem sets are oriented around infrastructure, housing, energy, ...

  15. 11.482J / 1.285J / ESD.193J Regional Socioeconomic Impact Analysis and Modeling, Fall 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polenske, Karen R.

    Reviews regional economic theories and models and provides students with experience in using alternative economic impact assessment models on microcomputers. Problem sets are oriented around infrastructure, housing, energy, ...

  16. Coupling of Integrated Biosphere Simulator to Regional Climate Model version 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Jonathan (Jonathan Mark)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented in this thesis is a description of the coupling of Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) to Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3), and an assessment of the coupled model (RegCM3-IBIS). RegCM3 is a 3-dimensional, ...

  17. An improved model of the lightning electromagnetic field interaction with the D-region ionosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    14 March 2012. [1] We present an improved time-domain model of the lightning electromagnetic pulse. Introduction [2] Lightning discharges produce both an electromagnetic pulse (EMP), due to the rapid lightningAn improved model of the lightning electromagnetic field interaction with the D-region ionosphere R

  18. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

  19. INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES AND INTERACTION TECHNIQUES Ken Hinckley, Microsoft Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Robert J.K.

    light emitting diodes), speakers, or tactile and force feedback devices (sometimes referred to as haptic

  20. Using input-output techniques to address economic and energy issues in Malaysia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and government(public) consumption. · Compute the increase in electricity and gas use if increase of: o 2 billion consumption effects Discuss assumptions about price and composition of final demand: #12;3 For electricity? Assume electricity intensity: · high energy intensity 1.4 · low energy intensity 0.4 Now calculate

  1. I/O: input/output : design strategies : an inquiry into thinking / making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Simon YooHyun

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a journey into the usefulness of physical computing, its implications in architectural design, and its present dangers.There has been much that has been promised in technology-laden future cities and much that is ...

  2. Fourteenth International Conference on Input-Output Techniques October 10 -15 2002, Montral, CANADA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steininger, Karl W.

    emission permits. Two new studies on CO2 reduction strategies for the European Union (Boehringer (2000 are leading to multilateral instead of unilateral CO2 reduction strategies. The early studies, however. An important issue is whether the electricity sector is included in an emissions trading system in addition

  3. Advanced methods for uncertainty quantification in tail regions of climate model predictions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safta, Cosmin; Debusschere, Bert J.; Najm, Habib N.; Sargsyan, Khachik

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional methods for uncertainty quantification are generally challenged in the 'tails' of probability distributions. This is specifically an issue for many climate observables since extensive sampling to obtain a reasonable accuracy in tail regions is especially costly in climate models. Moreover, the accuracy of spectral representations of uncertainty is weighted in favor of more probable ranges of the underlying basis variable, which, in conventional bases does not particularly target tail regions. Therefore, what is ideally desired is a methodology that requires only a limited number of full computational model evaluations while remaining accurate enough in the tail region. To develop such a methodology, we explore the use of surrogate models based on non-intrusive Polynomial Chaos expansions and Galerkin projection. We consider non-conventional and custom basis functions, orthogonal with respect to probability distributions that exhibit fat-tailed regions. We illustrate how the use of non-conventional basis functions, and surrogate model analysis, improves the accuracy of the spectral expansions in the tail regions. Finally, we also demonstrate these methodologies using precipitation data from CCSM simulations.

  4. Incorporating Stakeholder Decision Support Needs into an Integrated Regional Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, Jennie S.; Moss, Richard H.; Runci, Paul J.; Anderson, K. L.; Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A new modeling effort exploring the opportunities, constraints, and interactions between mitigation and adaptation at regional scale is utilizing stakeholder engagement in an innovative approach to guide model development and demonstration, including uncertainty characterization, to effectively inform regional decision making. This project, the integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM), employs structured stakeholder interactions and literature reviews to identify the most relevant adaptation and mitigation alternatives and decision criteria for each regional application of the framework. The information is used to identify important model capabilities and to provide a focus for numerical experiments. This paper presents the stakeholder research results from the first iRESM pilot region. The pilot region includes the Great Lakes Basin in the Midwest portion of the United States as well as other contiguous states. This geographic area (14 states in total) permits cohesive modeling of hydrologic systems while also providing gradients in climate, demography, land cover/land use, and energy supply and demand. The results from the stakeholder research indicate that iRESM should prioritize addressing adaptation alternatives in the water resources, urban infrastructure, and agriculture sectors, such as water conservation, expanded water quality monitoring, altered reservoir releases, lowered water intakes, urban infrastructure upgrades, increased electric power reserves in urban areas, and land use management/crop selection changes. Regarding mitigation alternatives, the stakeholder research shows a need for iRESM to focus on policies affecting the penetration of renewable energy technologies, and the costs and effectiveness of energy efficiency, bioenergy production, wind energy, and carbon capture and sequestration.

  5. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  6. Impact of transport model errors on the global and regional methane emissions estimated by inverse modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Locatelli, R.

    A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the impact of transport model errors on methane emissions estimated in an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, obtained from 10 different model ...

  7. A Multi-Model Assessment of Regional Climate Disparities Caused by Solar Geoengineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    1 A Multi-Model Assessment of Regional Climate Disparities Caused by Solar Geoengineering Normal University, Beijing, China. 9 School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University levels. G1 involves a reduction in solar irradiance to counteract the radiative forcing5 in abrupt4xCO2

  8. Polar-region distributions of Poynting flux: Global models compared with observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lotko, William

    submitted to J. Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 10 June 2007 #12;model. The location and extent- mosphere is the primary sink for electromagnetic power generated by the solar wind energization of auroral- and cusp-region plasmas, this variable energy transfer accounts for upwards of 60

  9. Time series analysis of regional climate model performance Jason P. Evans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    in Kansas, United States, including the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project, both regional and global, has become apparent. Predictions of the energy and water balance to evapotranspiration and fails to close the energy budget. All of the models overestimate runoff and evapotranspiration

  10. Regional regression models of watershed suspended-sediment discharge for the eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    : Sediment transport Regression Water quality Ungaged GAGES SPARROW s u m m a r y Estimates of mean annual Streamflow (GAGES) database. The resulting regional regression models summarized for major US water resources contaminants including pesticides, met- als, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) readily sorb

  11. Biophysical modeling of NO emissions from agricultural soils for use in regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Biophysical modeling of NO emissions from agricultural soils for use in regional chemistry-transport and12 crop management practices, along with the resolution of the climate and soil input maps.13 14 and agronomic factors, including cropping practices, soil characteristics and cli-17 mate. Crop management

  12. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a salt dome repository: a technical memorandum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kier, R.S.; Showalter, P.A.; Dettinger, M.D.

    1980-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes is a major environmental problem influencing further development of nuclear energy in this country. Salt domes in the Gulf Coast Basin are being investigated as repository sites. A major concern is geologic and hydrologic stability of candidate domes and potential transport of radionuclides by groundwater to the biosphere prior to their degradation to harmless levels of activity. This report conceptualizes a regional geohydrologic model for transport of radionuclides from a salt dome repository. The model considers transport pathways and the physical and chemical changes that would occur through time prior to the radionuclides reaching the biosphere. Necessary, but unknown inputs to the regional model involve entry and movement of fluids through the repository dome and across the dome-country rock interface and the effect on the dome and surrounding strata of heat generated by the radioactive wastes.

  13. RSL: A parallel Runtime System Library for regional atmospheric models with nesting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalakes, J.G.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RSL is a parallel runtime system library developed at Argonne National Laboratory that is tailored to regular-grid atmospheric models with mesh refinement in the form of two-way interacting nested grids. RSL provides high-level stencil and interdomain communication, irregular domain decomposition, automatic local/global index translation, distributed I/O, and dynamic load balancing. RSL was used with Fortran90 to parallelize a well-known and widely used regional weather model, the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale model.

  14. Two-dimensional modeling of apparent resistivity pseudosections in the Cerro Prieto region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vega, R.; Martinez, M.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a finite-difference program (Dey, 1976) for two-dimensional modeling of apparent resistivity pseudosections obtained by different measuring arrays, four apparent resistivity pseudosections obtained at Cerro Prieto with a Schlumberger array by CFE personnel were modeled (Razo, 1978). Using geologic (Puente and de la Pena, 1978) and lithologic (Diaz, et al., 1981) data from the geothermal region, models were obtained which show clearly that, for the actual resistivity present in the zone, the information contained in the measured pseudosections is primarily due to the near-surface structure and does not show either the presence of the geothermal reservoir or the granitic basement which underlies it.

  15. Wetland model in an earth systems modeling framework for regional environmental policy analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awadalla, Sirein Salah

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to investigate incorporating a wetland component into a land energy and water fluxes model, the Community Land Model (CLM). CLM is the land fluxes component of the Integrated Global Systems ...

  16. Perspective on Advances in Resonance-Region Nuclear Modeling and Opportunities for Future Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Michael E [ORNL; Larson, Nancy M [ORNL; Derrien, Herve [ORNL; Leal, Luiz C [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The advent of high-fidelity radiation-transport modeling capabilities, coupled with the need to analyze complex nuclear systems, has served to emphasize the importance of high-precision cross section data, including the associated covariance information. Due to the complex nature of resonance-region interactions, cross section data cannot be calculated directly from theory; rather, high-precision resonance-region cross section measurements must be made at facilities such as the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Geel Electron Linear Accelerator (GELINA), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). To extract accurate cross section data from these measurements, detailed nuclear modeling of the measured data is performed to parameterize the cross section behavior in the resonance range. The objective of this paper is to highlight recent advances in resonance-region nuclear modeling with particular emphasis on the covariance analysis capabilities. Opportunities for future research are identified in an effort to stimulate further advances in the state of the art nuclear modeling capabilities.

  17. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: One-dimensional soil thaw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Jeffrey M.

    Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport Freezing and thawing a b s t r a c t Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have of powerful simulators of cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport have emerged in recent years

  18. Exact solution of the van der Waals model in the critical region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adriano Barra; Antonio Moro

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Inspired by the theory of nonlinear conservation laws, we propose a novel approach, in the framework of statistical mechanics, that naturally extends the van der Waals model to the critical region. Starting from an effective microscopic description, we derive the general functional form of its mean field partition function under the assumption named Isochoric Weights Thermodynamic ansatz. The condition that outside the critical region the model reproduces, in the thermodynamic limit, the classical van der Waals equation of state allows to fix uniquely the partition function. We show that isothermal curves develop a classical viscous shock which provides the exact analytical description of the first order gas-liquid transition of simple fluids. The solution obtained holds for finite number of particles and, in the thermodynamic limit, automatically encodes the Maxwell equal areas rule.

  19. Temperature fluctuations in H II regions: t2 for the two-phase model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Zhang; B. Ercolano; X. -W. Liu

    2007-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims: We investigate temperature fluctuations in H II regions in terms of a two-phase model, which assumes that the nebular gas consists of a hot and a cold phase. Methods: We derive general formulae for T([O III), the [O III] forbidden line temperature, and T(H I), the hydrogen Balmer jump temperature, in terms of the temperatures of the hot and cold phases, T_h and T_c. Results: For large temperature differences, the values of t2 required to account for the observed difference between T([O III]) and T(H I) are much lower than those deduced using the classical formulae that assume random and small amplitude temperature fluctuations. One should therefore be cautious when using a two-phase model to account for empirically derived $t^2$ values. We present a correction of a recent work by Giammanco & Beckman, who use a two-phase model to estimate the ionization rate of H II regions by cosmicrays. We show that a very small amount of cold gas is sufficient to account for t2 values typically inferred for H II regions.

  20. A transmission/escape probabilities model for neutral particle transport in the outer regions of a diverted tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacey, W.M.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new computational model for neutral particle transport in the outer regions of a diverted tokamak plasma chamber is presented. The model is based on the calculation of transmission and escape probabilities using first-flight integral transport theory and the balancing of fluxes across the surfaces bounding the various regions. The geometrical complexity of the problem is included in precomputed probabilities which depend only on the mean free path of the region.

  1. Final Report on Hierarchical Coupled Modeling and Prediction of Regional Climate Change in the Atlantic Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saravanan, Ramalingam [Texas A& M University

    2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    During the course of this project, we have accomplished the following: a) Carried out studies of climate changes in the past using a hierarchy of intermediate coupled models (Chang et al., 2008; Wan et al 2009; Wen et al., 2010a,b) b) Completed the development of a Coupled Regional Climate Model (CRCM; Patricola et al., 2011a,b) c) Carried out studies testing hypotheses testing the origin of systematic errors in the CRCM (Patricola et al., 2011a,b) d) Carried out studies of the impact of air-sea interaction on hurricanes, in the context of barrier layer interactions (Balaguru et al)

  2. Modelling the chromosphere and transition region of Epsilon Eri (K2 V)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Sim; C. Jordan

    2005-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of ultraviolet line fluxes from Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectra of the K2-dwarf Epsilon Eri are reported. These are used to develop new emission measure distributions and semi-empirical atmospheric models for the chromosphere and lower transition region of the star. These models are the most detailed constructed to date for a main-sequence star other than the Sun. New ionisation balance calculations, which account for the effect of finite density on dielectronic recombination rates, are presented for carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and silicon. The results of these calculations are significantly different from the standard Arnaud & Rothenflug ion balance, particularly for alkali-like ions. The new atmospheric models are used to place constraints on possible First Ionisation Potential (FIP) related abundance variations in the lower atmosphere and to discuss limitations of single-component models for the interpretation of certain optically thick line fluxes.

  3. North American Carbon Program (NACP) Regional Interim Synthesis: Terrestrial Biospheric Model Intercomparision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Michalak, Anna [University of Michigan; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Baker, Ian [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Chen, Jing M. [University of Toronto; Davis, Kenneth [Pennsylvania State University; Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Liu, Shuguang [United States Geological Survey, Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS EROS); Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Neilson, Ronald [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Poulter, Ben [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Tian, Hanqin [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Tomelleri, Enrico [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Viovy, Nicolas [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be improved through direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to much larger terrestrial regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle science is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the years 2000-2005. Here, we compare the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare the 19 participating TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America. Thus, the RCIS focuses on model simulations available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies. The TBM flux estimates are compared and evaluated over different spatial (1{sup o} x 1{sup o} and spatially aggregated to different regions) and temporal (monthly and annually) scales. The range in model estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for North America is much narrower than estimates of productivity or respiration, with estimates of NEP varying between -0.7 and 2.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, while gross primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration vary between 12.2 and 32.9 PgC yr{sup -1} and 5.6 and 13.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, respectively. The range in estimates from the models appears to be driven by a combination of factors, including the representation of photosynthesis, the source and of environmental driver data and the temporal variability of those data, as well as whether nutrient limitation is considered in soil carbon decomposition. The disagreement in current estimates of carbon flux across North America, including whether North America is a net biospheric carbon source or sink, highlights the need for further analysis through the use of model runs following a common simulation protocol, in order to isolate the influences of model formulation, structure, and assumptions on flux estimates.

  4. Solar surface emerging flux regions: a comparative study of radiative MHD modeling and Hinode SOT observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. M. Cheung; M. Schuessler; T. D. Tarbell; A. M. Title

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from numerical modeling of emerging flux regions on the solar surface. The modeling was carried out by means of 3D radiative MHD simulations of the rise of buoyant magnetic flux tubes through the convection zone and into the photosphere. Due to the strong stratification of the convection zone, the rise results in a lateral expansion of the tube into a magnetic sheet, which acts as a reservoir for small-scale flux emergence events at the scale of granulation. The interaction of the convective downflows and the rising magnetic flux undulates it to form serpentine field lines emerging into the photosphere. Observational characteristics including the pattern of emerging flux regions, the cancellation of surface flux and associated high speed downflows, the convective collapse of photospheric flux tubes, the appearance of anomalous darkenings, the formation of bright points and the possible existence of transient kilogauss horizontal fields are discussed in the context of new observations from the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope. Implications for the local helioseismology of emerging flux regions are also discussed.

  5. Impact of Agricultural Practice on Regional Climate in a CoupledLand Surface Mesoscale Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, H.S.; Riley, W.J.; Torn, M.S.; He, Y.

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The land surface has been shown to form strong feedbacks with climate due to linkages between atmospheric conditions and terrestrial ecosystem exchanges of energy, momentum, water, and trace gases. Although often ignored in modeling studies, land management itself may form significant feedbacks. Because crops are harvested earlier under drier conditions, regional air temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture, for example, affect harvest timing, particularly of rain-fed crops. This removal of vegetation alters the land surface characteristics and may, in turn, affect regional climate. We applied a coupled climate(MM5) and land-surface (LSM1) model to examine the effects of early and late winter wheat harvest on regional climate in the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility in the Southern Great Plains, where winter wheat accounts for 20 percent of the land area. Within the winter wheat region, simulated 2 m air temperature was 1.3 C warmer in the Early Harvest scenario at mid-day averaged over the two weeks following harvest. Soils in the harvested area were drier and warmer in the top 10 cm and wetter in the 10-20 cm layer. Midday soils were 2.5 C warmer in the harvested area at mid-day averaged over the two weeks following harvest. Harvest also dramatically altered latent and sensible heat fluxes. Although differences between scenarios diminished once both scenarios were harvested, the short-term impacts of land management on climate were comparable to those from land cover change demonstrated in other studies.

  6. Regional groundwater flow model for C, K. L. and P reactor areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.P.

    2000-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi2 surrounding the C, K, L, and P reactor areas has been developed. The reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department. The model provides a quantitative understanding of groundwater flow on a regional scale within the near surface aquifers and deeper semi-confined to confined aquifers. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through Spring 1999. Model preprocessing is automated so that future updates and modifications can be performed quickly and efficiently. The CKLP regional reactor model can be used to guide characterization, perform scoping analyses of contaminant transport, and serve as a common base for subsequent finer-scale transport and remedial/feasibility models for each reactor area.

  7. Regional scale cropland carbon budgets: evaluating a geospatial agricultural modeling system using inventory data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Sahajpal, Ritvik; West, Tristram O.; Thomson, Allison M.; Xu, Min; Zhao, Kaiguang; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate quantification and clear understanding of regional scale cropland carbon (C) cycling is critical for designing effective policies and management practices that can contribute toward stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, extrapolating site-scale observations to regional scales represents a major challenge confronting the agricultural modeling community. This study introduces a novel geospatial agricultural modeling system (GAMS) exploring the integration of the mechanistic Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, spatially-resolved data, surveyed management data, and supercomputing functions for cropland C budgets estimates. This modeling system creates spatially-explicit modeling units at a spatial resolution consistent with remotely-sensed crop identification and assigns cropping systems to each of them by geo-referencing surveyed crop management information at the county or state level. A parallel computing algorithm was also developed to facilitate the computationally intensive model runs and output post-processing and visualization. We evaluated GAMS against National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) reported crop yields and inventory estimated county-scale cropland C budgets averaged over 2000–2008. We observed good overall agreement, with spatial correlation of 0.89, 0.90, 0.41, and 0.87, for crop yields, Net Primary Production (NPP), Soil Organic C (SOC) change, and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), respectively. However, we also detected notable differences in the magnitude of NPP and NEE, as well as in the spatial pattern of SOC change. By performing crop-specific annual comparisons, we discuss possible explanations for the discrepancies between GAMS and the inventory method, such as data requirements, representation of agroecosystem processes, completeness and accuracy of crop management data, and accuracy of crop area representation. Based on these analyses, we further discuss strategies to improve GAMS by updating input data and by designing more efficient parallel computing capability to quantitatively assess errors associated with the simulation of C budget components. The modularized design of the GAMS makes it flexible to be updated and adapted for different agricultural models so long as they require similar input data, and to be linked with socio-economic models to understand the effectiveness and implications of diverse C management practices and policies.

  8. Using Local and Regional Air Quality Modeling and Source Apportionment Tools to Evaluate Vehicles and Biogenic Emission Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kota, Sri H

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    and inventories of CO, NO_(x) and VOCs from on-road vehicles estimated by vehicle emission factor models and biogenic emissions of isoprene estimated by a popular biogenic emission model are evaluated using local and regional scale air quality modeling and source...

  9. MODELING SUPER-FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVES OBSERVED BY SDO IN ACTIVE REGION FUNNELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofman, L. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Liu, W.; Title, A.; Aschwanden, M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, quasi-periodic, rapidly propagating waves have been observed in extreme ultraviolet by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument in about 10 flare/coronal mass ejection (CME) events thus far. A typical example is the 2010 August 1 C3.2 flare/CME event that exhibited arc-shaped wave trains propagating in an active region (AR) magnetic funnel with {approx}5% intensity variations at speeds in the range of 1000-2000 km s{sup -1}. The fast temporal cadence and high sensitivity of AIA enabled the detection of these waves. We identify them as fast magnetosonic waves driven quasi-periodically at the base of the flaring region and develop a three-dimensional MHD model of the event. For the initial state we utilize the dipole magnetic field to model the AR and include gravitationally stratified density at coronal temperature. At the coronal base of the AR, we excite the fast magnetosonic wave by periodic velocity pulsations in the photospheric plane confined to a funnel of magnetic field lines. The excited fast magnetosonic waves have similar amplitude, wavelength, and propagation speeds as the observed wave trains. Based on the simulation results, we discuss the possible excitation mechanism of the waves, their dynamical properties, and the use of the observations for coronal MHD seismology.

  10. A nanoflare model for active region radiance: application of artificial neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Bazarghan; H. Safari; D. E. Innes; E. Karami; S. K. Solanki

    2008-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Context. Nanoflares are small impulsive bursts of energy that blend with and possibly make up much of the solar background emission. Determining their frequency and energy input is central to understanding the heating of the solar corona. One method is to extrapolate the energy frequency distribution of larger individually observed flares to lower energies. Only if the power law exponent is greater than 2, is it considered possible that nanoflares contribute significantly to the energy input. Aims. Time sequences of ultraviolet line radiances observed in the corona of an active region are modelled with the aim of determining the power law exponent of the nanoflare energy distribution. Methods. A simple nanoflare model based on three key parameters (the flare rate, the flare duration time, and the power law exponent of the flare energy frequency distribution) is used to simulate emission line radiances from the ions Fe XIX, Ca XIII, and Si iii, observed by SUMER in the corona of an active region as it rotates around the east limb of the Sun. Light curve pattern recognition by an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) scheme is used to determine the values. Results. The power law exponents, alpha 2.8, 2.8, and 2.6 for Fe XIX, Ca XIII, and Si iii respectively. Conclusions. The light curve simulations imply a power law exponent greater than the critical value of 2 for all ion species. This implies that if the energy of flare-like events is extrapolated to low energies, nanoflares could provide a significant contribution to the heating of active region coronae.

  11. A One-Dimensional (1-D) Three-Region Model for a Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Adsorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Andrew; Miller, David C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general one-dimensional (1-D), three-region model for a bubbling fluidized-bed adsorber with internal heat exchangers has been developed. The model can predict the hydrodynamics of the bed and provides axial profiles for all temperatures, concentrations, and velocities. The model is computationally fast and flexible and allows for any system of adsorption and desorption reactions to be modeled, making the model applicable to any adsorption process. The model has been implemented in both gPROMS and Aspen Custom Modeler, and the behavior of the model has been verified.

  12. On an improved sub-regional water resources management representation for integration into earth system models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voisin, Nathalie; Li, Hongyi; Ward, Duane L.; Huang, Maoyi; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Human influence on the hydrologic cycle includes regulation and storage, consumptive use and overall redistribution of water resources in space and time. Representing these processes is essential for applications of earth system models in hydrologic and climate predictions, as well as impact studies at regional to global scales. Emerging large-scale research reservoir models use generic operating rules that are flexible for coupling with earth system models. Those generic operating rules have been successful in reproducing the overall regulated flow at large basin scales. This study investigates the uncertainties of the reservoir models from different implementations of the generic operating rules using the complex multi-objective Columbia River Regulation System in northwestern United States as an example to understand their effects on not only regulated flow but also reservoir storage and fraction of the demand that is met. Numerical experiments are designed to test new generic operating rules that combine storage and releases targets for multi-purpose reservoirs and to compare the use of reservoir usage priorities, withdrawals vs. consumptive demand, as well as natural vs. regulated mean flow for calibrating operating rules. Overall the best performing implementation is the use of the combined priorities (flood control storage targets and irrigation release targets) operating rules calibrated with mean annual natural flow and mean monthly withdrawals. The challenge of not accounting for groundwater withdrawals, or on the contrary, assuming that all remaining demand is met through groundwater extractions, is discussed.

  13. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, Vol. 82, No. 6, pp. 1599--1628, 2004 1599 Regional Climate Modeling: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    , and development of regional earth system models. It is believed that with the demonstrated credibility of RCMs

  14. Theoretical modeling of propagation of magneto-acoustic waves in magnetic regions below sunspots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Khomenko; A. Kosovichev; M. Collados; K. Parchevsky; V. Olshevsky

    2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We use 2D numerical simulations and eikonal approximation, to study properties of MHD waves traveling below the solar surface through the magnetic structure of sunspots. We consider a series of magnetostatic models of sunspots of different magnetic field strengths, from 10 Mm below the photosphere to the low chromosphere. The purpose of these studies is to quantify the effect of the magnetic field on local helioseismology measurements by modeling waves excited by sub-photospheric sources. Time-distance propagation diagrams and wave travel times are calculated for models of various field strength and compared to the non-magnetic case. The results clearly indicate that the observed time-distance helioseismology signals in sunspot regions correspond to fast MHD waves. The slow MHD waves form a distinctly different pattern in the time-distance diagram, which has not been detected in observations. The numerical results are in good agreement with the solution in the short-wavelength (eikonal) approximation, providing its validation. The frequency dependence of the travel times is in a good qualitative agreement with observations.

  15. Nonlinear force-free models for the solar corona I. Two active regions with very different structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Regnier; E. R. Priest

    2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    With the development of new instrumentation providing measurements of solar photospheric vector magnetic fields, we need to develop our understanding of the effects of current density on coronal magnetic field configurations. The object is to understand the diverse and complex nature of coronal magnetic fields in active regions using a nonlinear force-free model. From the observed photospheric magnetic field we derive the photospheric current density for two active regions: one is a decaying active region with strong currents (AR8151), and the other is a newly emerged active region with weak currents (AR8210). We compare the three-dimensional structure of the magnetic fields for both active region when they are assumed to be either potential or nonlinear force-free. The latter is computed using a Grad-Rubin vector-potential-like numerical scheme. A quantitative comparison is performed in terms of the geometry, the connectivity of field lines, the magnetic energy and the magnetic helicity content. For the old decaying active region the connectivity and geometry of the nonlinear force-free model include strong twist and strong shear and are very different from the potential model. The twisted flux bundles store magnetic energy and magnetic helicity high in the corona (about 50 Mm). The newly emerged active region has a complex topology and the departure from a potential field is small, but the excess magnetic energy is stored in the low corona and is enough to trigger powerful flares.

  16. Regional climate effects of irrigation and urbanization in thewestern united states: a model intercomparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, M.A.; Kueppers, L.M.; Sloan, L.C.; Cavan, D.C.; Jin, J.; Kanamaru, H.; Miller, N.L.; Tyree, M.; Du, H.; Weare, B.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the western United States, more than 30,500 square miles has been converted to irrigated agriculture and urban areas. This study compares the climate responses of four regional climate models (RCMs) to these past land-use changes. The RCMs used two contrasting land cover distributions: potential natural vegetation, and modern land cover that includes agriculture and urban areas. Three of the RCMs represented irrigation by supplementing soil moisture, producing large decreases in August mean (-2.5 F to -5.6 F) and maximum (-5.2 F to -10.1 F) 2-meter temperatures where natural vegetation was converted to irrigated agriculture. Conversion to irrigated agriculture also resulted in large increases in relative humidity (9 percent 36 percent absolute change). Only one of the RCMs produced increases in summer minimum temperature. Converting natural vegetation to urban land cover produced modest but discernable climate effects in all models, with the magnitude of the effects dependent upon the preexisting vegetation type. Overall, the RCM results indicate that land use change impacts are most pronounced during the summer months, when surface heating is strongest and differences in surface moisture between irrigated land and natural vegetation are largest. The irrigation effect on summer maximum temperatures is comparable in magnitude (but opposite in sign) to predicted future temperature change due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations.

  17. USING A DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURE AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS IN AN ACTIVE REGION CORE TO TEST A STEADY HEATING MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Schmelz, Joan T. [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Saar, Steve H.; Kashyap, Vinay L., E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The frequency of heating events in the corona is an important constraint on the coronal heating mechanisms. Observations indicate that the intensities and velocities measured in active region cores are effectively steady, suggesting that heating events occur rapidly enough to keep high-temperature active region loops close to equilibrium. In this paper, we couple observations of active region (AR) 10955 made with the X-Ray Telescope and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode to test a simple steady heating model. First we calculate the differential emission measure (DEM) of the apex region of the loops in the active region core. We find the DEM to be broad and peaked around 3 MK. We then determine the densities in the corresponding footpoint regions. Using potential field extrapolations to approximate the loop lengths and the density-sensitive line ratios to infer the magnitude of the heating, we build a steady heating model for the active region core and find that we can match the general properties of the observed DEM for the temperature range of 6.3 < log T < 6.7. This model, for the first time, accounts for the base pressure, loop length, and distribution of apex temperatures of the core loops. We find that the density-sensitive spectral line intensities and the bulk of the hot emission in the active region core are consistent with steady heating. We also find, however, that the steady heating model cannot address the emission observed at lower temperatures. This emission may be due to foreground or background structures, or may indicate that the heating in the core is more complicated. Different heating scenarios must be tested to determine if they have the same level of agreement.

  18. A regional economic impact model for identifying the relationship between transportation investments and economic development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freyre, German Eleodoro

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Allocation of Project Investment Calculation for Efficiency Savings Calculation of Mobility Savings Calculation of Safety Savings FHWA-47 Form Program Structure Basic Procedures Regional Impacts by the Amount Invested in an Urban Interstate System... Regional Impacts by the Amount Invested in an Urban Primary System Regional Impacts by the Amount Invested in an Rural Interstate System Regional Impacts by the Amount Invested in an Rural Primary System 15 17 18 20 . 23 27 56 58 95 96 97...

  19. Environment and the Lifetime of Tropical Deep Convection in a Cloud-Permitting Regional Model Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By applying a cloud tracking algorithm to tropical convective systems simulated by a regional high resolution model, the study documents environmental conditions before and after convective systems are initiated over ocean and land by following them during their lifetime. The comparative roles of various environmental fields in affecting the lifetime of convection are also quantified. The statistics of lifetime, maximum area, propagation speed and direction of the simulated deep convection agrees well with geostationary satellite observations. Over ocean, convective systems enhance surface fluxes through the associated wind gusts as well as cooling and drying of the boundary layer. A significant relationship is found between the mean surface fluxes during their lifetime and the longevity of the systems which in turn is related to the initial intensity of the moist updraft and to a lesser extent upper level shear. Over land, on the other hand, convective activity suppresses surface fluxes through cloud cover and the lifetime of convection is related to the upper level shear during their lifetime and strength of the heat fluxes several hours before the initiation of convection. For systems of equal lifetime, those over land are significantly more intense than those over ocean especially during early stages of their lifetime.

  20. KINETIC MODELING OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN A SOLAR NULL-POINT RECONNECTION REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, G.; Haugbolle, T.; Nordlund, A., E-mail: gbaumann@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary focus of this paper is on the particle acceleration mechanism in solar coronal three-dimensional reconnection null-point regions. Starting from a potential field extrapolation of a Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) magnetogram taken on 2002 November 16, we first performed magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with horizontal motions observed by SOHO applied to the photospheric boundary of the computational box. After a build-up of electric current in the fan plane of the null point, a sub-section of the evolved MHD data was used as initial and boundary conditions for a kinetic particle-in-cell model of the plasma. We find that sub-relativistic electron acceleration is mainly driven by a systematic electric field in the current sheet. A non-thermal population of electrons with a power-law distribution in energy forms in the simulated pre-flare phase, featuring a power-law index of about -1.78. This work provides a first step toward bridging the gap between macroscopic scales on the order of hundreds of Mm and kinetic scales on the order of centimeter in the solar corona, and explains how to achieve such a cross-scale coupling by utilizing either physical modifications or (equivalent) modifications of the constants of nature. With their exceptionally high resolution-up to 135 billion particles and 3.5 billion grid cells of size 17.5 km-these simulations offer a new opportunity to study particle acceleration in solar-like settings.

  1. Exact solution of the van der Waals model in the critical region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adriano Barra; Antonio Moro

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The celebrated van der Waals model describes simple fluids in the thermodynamic limit and predicts the existence of a critical point associated to the gas-liquid phase transition. However the behaviour of critical isotherms according to the equation of state, where a gas-liquid phase transition occurs, significantly departs from experimental observations. The correct critical isotherms are heuristically re-established via the Maxwell equal areas rule. A long standing open problem in mean field theory is concerned with the analytic description of van der Waals isotherms for a finite size system that is consistent, in the thermodynamic limit, with the Maxwell prescription. Inspired by the theory of nonlinear conservation laws, we propose a novel mean field approach, based on statistical mechanics, that allows to calculate the van der Waals partition function for a system of large but finite number of particles $N$. Our partition function naturally extends to the whole space of thermodynamic variables, reproduces, in the thermodynamic limit $N\\to \\infty$, the classical results outside the critical region and automatically encodes Maxwell's prescription. We show that isothermal curves evolve in the space of thermodynamic variables like nonlinear breaking waves and the criticality is explained as the mechanism of formation of a classical hydrodynamic shock.

  2. ONE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING FOR TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT UPFLOW IN THE DIMMING REGION OBSERVED BY HINODE/EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imada, S.; Shimizu, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Hara, H.; Watanabe, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Murakami, I. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Harra, L. K. [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Zweibel, E. G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We previously found a temperature-dependent upflow in the dimming region following a coronal mass ejection observed by the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). In this paper, we reanalyzed the observations along with previous work on this event and provided boundary conditions for modeling. We found that the intensity in the dimming region dramatically drops within 30 minutes from the flare onset, and the dimming region reaches the equilibrium stage after {approx}1 hr. The temperature-dependent upflows were observed during the equilibrium stage by EIS. The cross-sectional area of the flux tube in the dimming region does not appear to expand significantly. From the observational constraints, we reconstructed the temperature-dependent upflow by using a new method that considers the mass and momentum conservation law and demonstrated the height variation of plasma conditions in the dimming region. We found that a super-radial expansion of the cross-sectional area is required to satisfy the mass conservation and momentum equations. There is a steep temperature and velocity gradient of around 7 Mm from the solar surface. This result may suggest that the strong heating occurred above 7 Mm from the solar surface in the dimming region. We also showed that the ionization equilibrium assumption in the dimming region is violated, especially in the higher temperature range.

  3. Statistical representation of clouds in a regional model and the impact on the diurnal cycle of convection during Tropical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre

    water static energy. Application of the parameterization in a regional model during a 30-day period of the Tropical Convection, Cirrus and Nitrogen Oxides (TROCCINOX) experiment over southern Brazil demonstrates of cloud mass at tropospheric inversions (e.g., trade wind inversion, melting level, tropo- pause

  4. Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part II: Imperfect Model Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Zhiyong

    Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part II In Part I of this two-part work, the feasibility of using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for mesoscale that using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the context of a perfect model (i.e., both the truth

  5. A MODEL FOR THE STRENGTH OF THE AS-DEPOSITED REGIONS OF LOW-ALLOY STEEL WELD METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    true average strain ~ true plastic strain in softer phase of a dual-phase steel ~I true plastic strain in harder phase of a dual-phase steel UTS true strain at ultimate tensile stress y true strain at yieldingCHAPTER 5 A MODEL FOR THE STRENGTH OF THE AS-DEPOSITED REGIONS OF LOW-ALLOY STEEL WELD METALS 5

  6. AN APPLICATION OF URBANSIM TO THE AUSTIN, TEXAS REGION: INTEGRATED-MODEL FORECASTS FOR THE YEAR 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    , as well as energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This work describes the modeling of year-2030 policies significantly impact the region's future land use patterns, traffic conditions, greenhouse gas (emitting over 6 billion metric tons of CO2-equivalents annually, and accounting for 22.2% of the world

  7. Sub-national TIMES model for analyzing regional future use of Biomass and Biofuels in France and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Sub-national TIMES model for analyzing regional future use of Biomass and Biofuels in France Introduction Renewable energy sources such as biomass and biofuels are increasingly being seen as important of biofuels on the final consumption of energy in transport should be 10%. The long-term target is to reduce

  8. Regional climate model data used within the SWURVE project 2: addressing uncertainty in regional climate model data Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(1), 10851096, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    .Ekstrom@uea.ac.uk Abstract To aid assessments of the impact of climate change on water related activities in the case study on the impacts of climate change on specific water management activities (Kilsby, 2007). Uncertainties linked, temperature, rainfall, Europe Introduction As climate model projections are often used in climate change

  9. Input-output analysis as a method of evaluation of the economic impact of water resources development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canion, Robert Larry

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acre Foot of Water Used, Watershed Study Area, 1958 4. 1 Interindustry Flows of Goods and Services, Dollar Values, by Sector of Origin and Destination, Watershed Study Area, 1958 4. 2 Technical Coefficients, Watershed Economy, Watershed Study Area...-Added per Acre Foot, by Sectors, Watershed Study Area, 1958 and 1963 39 45 46 56 58 60 64 65 70 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Among the basic resources essential to the develop- ment of other resources, as well as to life itself, is water. Being...

  10. Update to industrial drivers in the AEO2015 as a result of new input-output data

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I'26,282.1 26,672.1MonthFeet) Year Jan Feb Mar AprUpdate

  11. Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan - Appendix B: Input/Output Matrix

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartment ofEnergy 3 Fuel Cell2| Department ofA -Page 3

  12. Primordial 4He abundance: a determination based on the largest sample of HII regions with a methodology tested on model HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Izotov, Y I; Guseva, N G

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We verified the validity of the empirical method to derive the 4He abundance used in our previous papers by applying it to CLOUDY (v13.01) models. Using newly published HeI emissivities, for which we present convenient fits as well as the output CLOUDY case B hydrogen and HeI line intensities, we found that the empirical method is able to reproduce the input CLOUDY 4He abundance with an accuracy of better than 1%. The CLOUDY output data also allowed us to derive the non-recombination contribution to the intensities of the strongest Balmer hydrogen Halpha, Hbeta, Hgamma, and Hdelta emission lines and the ionisation correction factors for He. With these improvements we used our updated empirical method to derive the 4He abundances and to test corrections for several systematic effects in a sample of 1610 spectra of low-metallicity extragalactic HII regions, the largest sample used so far. From this sample we extracted a subsample of 111 HII regions with Hbeta equivalent width EW(Hbeta) > 150A, with excitation p...

  13. Aeroelastic Modeling of Offshore Turbines and Support Structures in Hurricane-Prone Regions (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damiani, R.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    US offshore wind turbines (OWTs) will likely have to contend with hurricanes and the associated loading conditions. Current industry standards do not account for these design load cases (DLCs), thus a new approach is required to guarantee that the OWTs achieve an appropriate level of reliability. In this study, a sequentially coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic modeling technique was used to address two design approaches: 1.) The ABS (American Bureau of Shipping) approach; and 2.) The Hazard Curve or API (American Petroleum Institute) approach. The former employs IEC partial load factors (PSFs) and 100-yr return-period (RP) metocean events. The latter allows setting PSFs and RP to a prescribed level of system reliability. The 500-yr RP robustness check (appearing in [2] and [3] upcoming editions) is a good indicator of the target reliability for L2 structures. CAE tools such as NREL's FAST and Bentley's' SACS (offshore analysis and design software) can be efficiently coupled to simulate system loads under hurricane DLCs. For this task, we augmented the latest FAST version (v. 8) to include tower aerodynamic drag that cannot be ignored in hurricane DLCs. In this project, a 6 MW turbine was simulated on a typical 4-legged jacket for a mid-Atlantic site. FAST-calculated tower base loads were fed to SACS at the interface level (transition piece); SACS added hydrodynamic and wind loads on the exposed substructure, and calculated mudline overturning moments, and member and joint utilization. Results show that CAE tools can be effectively used to compare design approaches for the design of OWTs in hurricane regions and to achieve a well-balanced design, where reliability levels and costs are optimized.

  14. Regional groundwater modeling of the saturated zone in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Iterative Performance Assessment, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahola, M.; Sagar, B. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of groundwater modeling of the saturated zone in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain are presented. Both a regional (200 {times} 200 km) and subregional (50 {times} 50 km) model were used in the analyses. Simulations were conducted to determine the impact of various disruptive that might take place over the life span of a proposed Yucca Mountain geologic conditions repository on the groundwater flow field, as well as changes in the water-table elevations. These conditions included increases in precipitation and groundwater recharge within the regional model, changes in permeability of existing hydrogeologic barriers, a:nd the vertical intrusion of volcanic dikes at various orientations through the saturated zone. Based on the regional analysis, the rise in the water-table under Yucca Mountain due to various postulated conditions ranged from only a few meters to 275 meters. Results of the subregional model analysis, which was used to simulate intrusive dikes approximately 4 kilometers in length in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, showed water-table rises ranging from a few meters to as much as 103 meters. Dikes oriented approximately north-south beneath Yucca Mountain produced the highest water-table rises. The conclusions drawn from this analysis are likely to change as more site-specific data become available and as the assumptions in the model are improved.

  15. Modeling regional transportation demand in China and the impacts of a national carbon constraint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kishimoto, Paul

    2015-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate and energy policy in China will have important and uneven impacts on the country’s regionally heterogeneous transport system. In order to simulate these impacts, transport sector detail is added to a multi-sector, ...

  16. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  17. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 3. Southern Solar Energy Center Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Southern Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK)

  18. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 1. Northeast Solar Energy Center Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Northeast Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK).

  19. Investigation of global and regional BWR instabilities with a four heated-channel Reduced Order Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazičre, Christophe

    transport) and a heat transfer model (describing heat transfer between the fuel and the coolant). All

  20. Investigating the Nexus of Climate, Energy, Water, and Land at Decision-Relevant Scales: The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraucunas, Ian P.; Clarke, Leon E.; Dirks, James A.; Hathaway, John E.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Huang, Maoyi; Jin, Chunlian; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Hongyi; Moss, Richard H.; Peterson, Marty J.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.; Thomson, Allison M.; Voisin, Nathalie; West, Tristram O.

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA) is an innovative modeling system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to simulate interactions among natural and human systems at scales relevant to regional decision making. PRIMA brings together state-of-the-art models of regional climate, hydrology, agriculture, socioeconomics, and energy systems using a flexible coupling approach. The platform can be customized to inform a variety of complex questions and decisions, such as the integrated evaluation of mitigation and adaptation options across a range of sectors. Research into stakeholder decision support needs underpins the platform's application to regional issues, including uncertainty characterization. Ongoing numerical experiments are yielding new insights into the interactions among human and natural systems on regional scales with an initial focus on the energy-land-water nexus in the upper U.S. Midwest. This paper focuses on PRIMA’s functional capabilities and describes some lessons learned to date about integrated regional modeling.

  1. Forest dynamics at regional scales: predictive models constrained with inventory data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lines, Emily

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    by scaling from key tree-level processes, but models typically have no climate dependency. In this thesis I demonstrate how large-scale national inventories combined with improvements in computational methods mean that models that incorporate the climate...

  2. Impact of Agricultural Practice on Regional Climate in a Coupled Land Surface Mesoscale Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooley, H.S.; Riley, W.J.; Torn, M.S.; He, Y.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    winter wheat belt on the mesoscale environment, Monthlygeneration Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5), NCAR,in a Coupled Land Surface Mesoscale Model H.S. Cooley Energy

  3. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    method known as life?cycle assessment  (LCA), which is a Input?Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO? LCA) model.  Input?Output Life?Cycle  Assessment (EIO?LCA) model (

  4. A Habitat-based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forcey, Greg, M.

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Most previous studies on collision impacts at wind facilities have taken place at the site-specific level and have only examined small-scale influences on mortality. In this study, we examine landscape-level influences using a hierarchical spatial model combined with existing datasets and life history knowledge for: Horned Lark, Red-eyed Vireo, Mallard, American Avocet, Golden Eagle, Whooping Crane, red bat, silver-haired bat, and hoary bat. These species were modeled in the central United States within Bird Conservation Regions 11, 17, 18, and 19. For the bird species, we modeled bird abundance from existing datasets as a function of habitat variables known to be preferred by each species to develop a relative abundance prediction for each species. For bats, there are no existing abundance datasets so we identified preferred habitat in the landscape for each species and assumed that greater amounts of preferred habitat would equate to greater abundance of bats. The abundance predictions for bird and bats were modeled with additional exposure factors known to influence collisions such as visibility, wind, temperature, precipitation, topography, and behavior to form a final mapped output of predicted collision risk within the study region. We reviewed published mortality studies from wind farms in our study region and collected data on reported mortality of our focal species to compare to our modeled predictions. We performed a sensitivity analysis evaluating model performance of 6 different scenarios where habitat and exposure factors were weighted differently. We compared the model performance in each scenario by evaluating observed data vs. our model predictions using spearmans rank correlations. Horned Lark collision risk was predicted to be highest in the northwestern and west-central portions of the study region with lower risk predicted elsewhere. Red-eyed Vireo collision risk was predicted to be the highest in the eastern portions of the study region and in the forested areas of the western portion; the lowest risk was predicted in the treeless portions of the northwest portion of the study area. Mallard collision risk was predicted to be highest in the eastern central portion of the prairie potholes and in Iowa which has a high density of pothole wetlands; lower risk was predicted in the more arid portions of the study area. Predicted collision risk for American Avocet was similar to Mallard and was highest in the prairie pothole region and lower elsewhere. Golden Eagle collision risk was predicted to be highest in the mountainous areas of the western portion of the study area and lowest in the eastern portion of the prairie potholes. Whooping Crane predicted collision risk was highest within the migration corridor that the birds follow through in the central portion of the study region; predicted collision risk was much lower elsewhere. Red bat collision risk was highly driven by large tracts of forest and river corridors which made up most of the areas of higher collision risk. Silver-haired bat and hoary bat predicted collision risk were nearly identical and driven largely by forest and river corridors as well as locations with warmer temperatures, and lower average wind speeds. Horned Lark collisions were mostly influenced by abundance and predictions showed a moderate correlation between observed and predicted mortality (r = 0.55). Red bat, silver-haired bat, and hoary bat predictions were much higher and shown a strong correlations with observed mortality with correlations of 0.85, 0.90, and 0.91 respectively. Red bat collisions were influenced primarily by habitat, while hoary bat and silver-haired bat collisions were influenced mainly by exposure variables. Stronger correlations between observed and predicted collision for bats than for Horned Larks can likely be attributed to stronger habitat associations and greater influences of weather on behavior for bats. Although the collision predictions cannot be compared among species, our model outputs provide a convenient and easy landscape-level tool to quick

  5. Combining remote sensing data and an inundation model to map tidal mudflat regions and improve flood predictions: A proof of concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ezer,Tal

    Combining remote sensing data and an inundation model to map tidal mudflat regions and improve mudflats. The remote sensing-based analysis provides for the first time a way to evaluate the flood., and H. Liu (2009), Combining remote sensing data and an inundation model to map tidal mudflat regions

  6. Forward Modeling of Active Region Coronal Emissions. II. Implications for Coronal Heating This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McTiernan, James M.

    Forward Modeling of Active Region Coronal Emissions. II. Implications for Coronal Heating of Contents and more related content is available Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience #12;FORWARD MODELING OF ACTIVE REGION CORONAL EMISSIONS. II. IMPLICATIONS FOR CORONAL HEATING L. L

  7. Polar-region distributions of Poynting flux: Global models compared with observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lotko, William

    from the Preprint submitted to J. Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 11 July 2008 #12;DMSP F13 by the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction (Kozyra et al., 1998; Lu et al., 1998; Knipp et al., 2004; Vichare, and collisionless energization of auroral- and cusp-region plasmas, this variable energy transfer accounts

  8. MODELING MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION CORONA USING NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELDS IN SPHERICAL GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y.; Ding, M. D. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Y.; Sun, X. D. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); DeRosa, M. L. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Wiegelmann, T., E-mail: guoyang@nju.edu.cn [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We test a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) optimization code in spherical geometry using an analytical solution from Low and Lou. Several tests are run, ranging from idealized cases where exact vector field data are provided on all boundaries, to cases where noisy vector data are provided on only the lower boundary (approximating the solar problem). Analytical tests also show that the NLFFF code in the spherical geometry performs better than that in the Cartesian one when the field of view of the bottom boundary is large, say, 20 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 20 Degree-Sign . Additionally, we apply the NLFFF model to an active region observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) both before and after an M8.7 flare. For each observation time, we initialize the models using potential field source surface (PFSS) extrapolations based on either a synoptic chart or a flux-dispersal model, and compare the resulting NLFFF models. The results show that NLFFF extrapolations using the flux-dispersal model as the boundary condition have slightly lower, therefore better, force-free, and divergence-free metrics, and contain larger free magnetic energy. By comparing the extrapolated magnetic field lines with the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO, we find that the NLFFF performs better than the PFSS not only for the core field of the flare productive region, but also for large EUV loops higher than 50 Mm.

  9. Deformed shell model results for neutrinoless double beta decay of nuclei in A=60-90 region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Sahu; V. K. B. Kota

    2015-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear transition matrix elements (NTME) for the neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{70}$Zn, $^{80}$Se and $^{82}$Se nuclei are calculated within the framework of the deformed shell model based on Hartree-Fock states. For $^{70}$Zn, jj44b interaction in $^{2}p_{3/2}$, $^{1}f_{5/2}$, $^{2}p_{1/2}$ and $^{1}g_{9/2}$ space with $^{56}$Ni as the core is employed. However, for $^{80}$Se and $^{82}$Se nuclei, a modified Kuo interaction with the above core and model space are employed. Most of our calculations in this region were performed with this effective interaction. However, jj44b interaction has been found to be better for $^{70}$Zn. The above model space was used in many recent shell model and interacting boson model calculations for nuclei in this region. After ensuring that DSM gives good description of the spectroscopic properties of low-lying levels in these three nuclei considered, the NTME are calculated. The deduced half-lives with these NTME, assuming neutrino mass is 1 eV, are $1.1 \\times 10^{26}$ yr, $2.3 \\times 10^{27}$ yr and $2.2 \\times 10^{24}$ yr for $^{70}$Zn, $^{80}$Se and $^{82}$Se, respectively.

  10. Transforming the representation of the boundary layer and low clouds for high-resolution regional climate modeling: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hsin-Yuan; Hall, Alex

    2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds in subtropical oceanic regions (e.g., Southeast Pacific) cover thousands of square kilometers and play a key role in regulating global climate (e.g., Klein and Hartmann, 1993). Numerical modeling is an essential tool to study these clouds in regional and global systems, but the current generation of climate and weather models has difficulties in representing them in a realistic way (e.g., Siebesma et al., 2004; Stevens et al., 2007; Teixeira et al., 2011). While numerical models resolve the large-scale flow, subgrid-scale parameterizations are needed to estimate small-scale properties (e.g. boundary layer turbulence and convection, clouds, radiation), which have significant influence on the resolved scale due to the complex nonlinear nature of the atmosphere. To represent the contribution of these fine-scale processes to the resolved scale, climate models use various parameterizations, which are the main pieces in the model that contribute to the low clouds dynamics and therefore are the major sources of errors or approximations in their representation. In this project, we aim to 1) improve our understanding of the physical processes in thermal circulation and cloud formation, 2) examine the performance and sensitivity of various parameterizations in the regional weather model (Weather Research and Forecasting model; WRF), and 3) develop, implement, and evaluate the advanced boundary layer parameterization in the regional model to better represent stratocumulus, shallow cumulus, and their transition. Thus, this project includes three major corresponding studies. We find that the mean diurnal cycle is sensitive to model domain in ways that reveal the existence of different contributions originating from the Southeast Pacific land-masses. The experiments suggest that diurnal variations in circulations and thermal structures over this region are influenced by convection over the Peruvian sector of the Andes cordillera, while the mostly dry mountain-breeze circulations force an additional component that results in semi-diurnal variations near the coast. A series of numerical tests, however, reveal sensitivity of the simulations to the choice of vertical grid, limiting the possibility of solid quantitative statements on the amplitudes and phases of the diurnal and semidiurnal components across the domain. According to our experiments, the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) boundary layer scheme and the WSM6 microphysics scheme is the combination of schemes that performs best. For that combination, mean cloud cover, liquid water path, and cloud depth are fairly wellsimulated, while mean cloud top height remains too low in comparison to observations. Both microphysics and boundary layer schemes contribute to the spread in liquid water path and cloud depth, although the microphysics contribution is slightly more prominent. Boundary layer schemes are the primary contributors to cloud top height, degree of adiabaticity, and cloud cover. Cloud top height is closely related to surface fluxes and boundary layer structure. Thus, our study infers that an appropriate tuning of cloud top height would likely improve the low-cloud representation in the model. Finally, we show that entrainment governs the degree of adiabaticity, while boundary layer decoupling is a control on cloud cover. In the intercomparison study using WRF single-column model experiments, most parameterizations show a poor agreement of the vertical boundary layer structure when compared with large-eddy simulation models. We also implement a new Total-Energy/Mass- Flux boundary layer scheme into the WRF model and evaluate its ability to simulate both stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds. Result comparisons against large-eddy simulation show that this advanced parameterization based on the new Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-Flux approach provides a better performance than other boundary layer parameterizations.

  11. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  12. Hadron Production Model Developments and Benchmarking in the 0.7 - 12 GeV Energy Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. V. Mokhov; K. K. Gudima; S. I. Striganov

    2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven by the needs of the intensity frontier projects with their Megawatt beams, e.g., ESS, FAIR and Project X, and their experiments, the event generators of the MARS15 code have been recently improved. After thorough analysis and benchmarking against data, including the newest ones by the HARP collaboration, both the exclusive and inclusive particle production models were further developed in the crucial for the above projects - but difficult from a theoretical standpoint - projectile energy region of 0.7 to 12 GeV. At these energies, modelling of prompt particle production in nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleon inelastic reactions is now based on a combination of phase-space and isobar models. Other reactions are still modeled in the framework of the Quark-Gluon String Model. Pion, kaon and strange particle production and propagation in nuclear media are improved. For the alternative inclusive mode, experimental data on large-angle (> 20 degrees) pion production in hadron-nucleus interactions are parameterized in a broad energy range using a two-source model. It is mixed-and-matched with the native MARS model that successfully describes low-angle pion production data. Predictions of both new models are - in most cases - in a good agreement with experimental data obtained at CERN, JINR, LANL, BNL and KEK.

  13. Simulations of Present and Future Climates in the Western United States with Four Nested Regional Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, Phil; Arritt, R.; Coquard, J.; Gutowski, William; Han, J.; Iorio, J.; Kim, Jongil; Leung, Lai R.; Roads, J.; Zeledon, E.

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze simulations of present and future climates in the western U.S. performed with four regional climate models (RCMs) nested within two global ocean-atmosphere climate models. Our primary goal is to assess the range of regional climate responses to increased greenhouse gases in available RCM simulations. The four RCMs used different geographical domains, different increased greenhouse gas scenarios for future-climate simulations, and (in some cases) different lateral boundary conditions. For simulations of the present climate, we compare RCM results to observations and to results of the GCM that provided lateral boundary conditions to the RCM. For future-climate (increased greenhouse gas) simulations, we compare RCM results to each other and to results of the driving GCMs. When results are spatially averaged over the western U.S., we find that the results of each RCM closely follow those of the driving GCM in the same region, in both present and future climates. This is true even though the study area is in some cases a small fraction of the RCM domain. Precipitation responses predicted by the RCMs are in many regions not statistically significant compared to interannual variability. Where the predicted precipitation responses are statistically significant, they are positive. The models agree that near-surface temperatures will increase, but do not agree on the spatial pattern of this increase. The four RCMs produce very different estimates of water content of snow in the present climate, and of the change in this water content in response to increased greenhouse gases.

  14. Deformation of layered rocks in the ramp regions of thrust faults: a study with rock models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, Judith Savaso

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and thrust belts for example, thrust faults commonly occur along specific stratigraphic horizons, and folding and faulting within thrust sheets often involves slip along bedding planes (e. g. , Rich, 1934; Douglas, 1950; Dahl str om, 1970; Price, 1981...). With the regional framework of many fold and thrust belts well estab- lished, the current emphasis of many studies has turned to defining the geometries, kinematics, and deformation mechanisms of individual thrust belt structures, and the intrinsic and extrinsic...

  15. Recent Advances in Regional Climate System Modeling and Climate Change Analyses of Extreme Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Norman L.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    California hydrology. J. Am. Water Resources Association 39,Land Surface and Ground Water Model for use in WatershedN.L. , 2003: California Water Resources Research, CEC Sept

  16. Review of Regional Locomotive Emission Modeling and the Constraints Posed by Activity Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gould, Gregory; Niemeier, Debbie A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accessed July 21, 2008. Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. LocomotiveBoard, Sacramento, 1991. Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. Report onemission model. Booz Allen Hamilton was hired to develop the

  17. Modeling the resuspension of radionuclides in Ukranian regions impacted by Chernobyl fallout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, S.K.; Thiessen, K.M.; Hoffman, F.O. [SENES Oak Ridge Inc., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl event, large amounts of radioactive materials were deposited in nearby areas. Concentrations of various radionuclides were measured in air and surface soil. To study the resuspension of radioactive particulate, three different exposure situations were developed on the basis of the collected data under the auspices of the international BIOMOVS II (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) project. Modelers were asked to predict seasonal air concentrations and resuspension factors at several locations at different distances from Chernobyl for six successive years following the accident. Measurements of radionuclide deposition on topsoil were provided for each site along with information on soil, vegetation, land use, surface roughness, meteorology, and climate. In this paper, the three exposure situations are described, along with the initial data set provided to the modelers; two modeling approaches used to make the endpoint predictions are also presented. After the model predictions were submitted, the measured air concentrations and resuspension factors were released to the modelers. Generally, the predictions were well within an order of magnitude of the measured values. Time-dependent trends in predictions and measurements were in good agreement with one of the models, which (a) explicitly accounted for loss processes in soil and (b) used calibration to improve its predictive capabilities. Reasons for variations between predictions and measurements, suggestions for the improvement of models, and conclusions from the model validation study are presented. 12 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Discrete-Time Block Models for Transmission Line Channels: Static and Doubly Selective Cases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galli, Stefano

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most methodologies for modeling Transmission Line (TL) based channels define the input-output relationship in the frequency domain (FD) and handle the TL resorting to a two-port network (2PN) formalism. These techniques have not yet been formally mapped into a discrete-time (DT) block model, which is useful to simulate and estimate the channel response as well as to design optimal precoding strategies. TL methods also fall short when they are applied to Time Varying (TV) systems, such as the power line channel. The objective of this paper is to establish if and how one can introduce a DT block model for the Power Line Channel. We prove that it is possible to use Lifting and Trailing Zeros (L&TZ) techniques to derive a DT block model that maps the TL-based input-output description directly in the time domain (TD) block channel model. More specifically, we find an interesting relationship between the elements of an ABCD matrix, defined in the FD, and filtering kernels that allow an elegant representation of...

  19. Integrated Canada-U.S. Power Sector Modeling with the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, A.; Eurek, K.; Mai, T.; Perry, A.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric power system in North America is linked between the United States and Canada. Canada has historically been a net exporter of electricity to the United States. The extent to which this remains true will depend on the future evolution of power markets, technology deployment, and policies. To evaluate these and related questions, we modify the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to include an explicit representation of the grid-connected power system in Canada to the continental United States. ReEDS is unique among long-term capacity expansion models for its high spatial resolution and statistical treatment of the impact of variable renewable generation on capacity planning and dispatch. These unique traits are extended to new Canadian regions. We present example scenario results using the fully integrated Canada-U.S. version of ReEDS to demonstrate model capabilities. The newly developed, integrated Canada-U.S. ReEDS model can be used to analyze the dynamics of electricity transfers and other grid services between the two countries under different scenarios.

  20. Agricultural Water Management xxx (2003) xxxxxx A GIS-based model to estimate the regionally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and landscape features that affect patterns in water available to plants, soil drainage, and aeration (Jaynes. Recent advances in GIS technology fa- cilitate the seamless integration of GIS and computer-based modeling. Multiple approaches exist to integrate GIS and hydrological models (Maidment, 1993; Abel et al

  1. Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Up-scaling from physically based numerical simulations at hillslope scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Melkamu; Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Fiori, Aldo; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall-runoff response, especially in steep forested regions. However; its contribution is poorly represented in current generation of land surface hydrological models (LSMs) and catchment-scale rainfall-runoff models. The lack of physical basis of common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global models. This paper is aimed at deriving physically based parameterizations of the storage-discharge relationship relating to subsurface flow. These parameterizations are derived through a two-step up-scaling procedure: firstly, through simulations with a physically based (Darcian) subsurface flow model for idealized three dimensional rectangular hillslopes, accounting for within-hillslope random heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties, and secondly, through subsequent up-scaling to the catchment scale by accounting for between-hillslope and within-catchment heterogeneity of topographic features (e.g., slope). These theoretical simulation results produced parameterizations of the storage-discharge relationship in terms of soil hydraulic properties, topographic slope and their heterogeneities, which were consistent with results of previous studies. Yet, regionalization of the resulting storage-discharge relations across 50 actual catchments in eastern United States, and a comparison of the regionalized results with equivalent empirical results obtained on the basis of analysis of observed streamflow recession curves, revealed a systematic inconsistency. It was found that the difference between the theoretical and empirically derived results could be explained, to first order, by climate in the form of climatic aridity index. This suggests a possible codependence of climate, soils, vegetation and topographic properties, and suggests that subsurface flow parameterization needed for ungauged locations must account for both the physics of flow in heterogeneous landscapes, and the co-dependence of soil and topographic properties with climate, including possibly the mediating role of vegetation.

  2. Final Technical Report for "Collaborative Research: Regional climate-change projections through next-generation empirical and dynamical models"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, A.W.; Ghil, M.; Kravtsov, K.; Smyth, P.J.

    2011-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was a continuation of previous work under DOE CCPP funding in which we developed a twin approach of non-homogeneous hidden Markov models (NHMMs) and coupled ocean-atmosphere (O-A) intermediate-complexity models (ICMs) to identify the potentially predictable modes of climate variability, and to investigate their impacts on the regional-scale. We have developed a family of latent-variable NHMMs to simulate historical records of daily rainfall, and used them to downscale seasonal predictions. We have also developed empirical mode reduction (EMR) models for gaining insight into the underlying dynamics in observational data and general circulation model (GCM) simulations. Using coupled O-A ICMs, we have identified a new mechanism of interdecadal climate variability, involving the midlatitude oceans mesoscale eddy field and nonlinear, persistent atmospheric response to the oceanic anomalies. A related decadal mode is also identified, associated with the oceans thermohaline circulation. The goal of the continuation was to build on these ICM results and NHMM/EMR model developments and software to strengthen two key pillars of support for the development and application of climate models for climate change projections on time scales of decades to centuries, namely: (a) dynamical and theoretical understanding of decadal-to-interdecadal oscillations and their predictability; and (b) an interface from climate models to applications, in order to inform societal adaptation strategies to climate change at the regional scale, including model calibration, correction, downscaling and, most importantly, assessment and interpretation of spread and uncertainties in multi-model ensembles. Our main results from the grant consist of extensive further development of the hidden Markov models for rainfall simulation and downscaling specifically within the non-stationary climate change context together with the development of parallelized software; application of NHMMs to downscaling of rainfall projections over India; identification and analysis of decadal climate signals in data and models; and, studies of climate variability in terms of the dynamics of atmospheric flow regimes. Each of these project components is elaborated on below, followed by a list of publications resulting from the grant.

  3. Final Technical Report for "Collaborative Research: Regional climate-change projections through next-generation empirical and dynamical models"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravtsov, S.; Robertson, A. W.; Ghil, M.; Smyth, P. J.

    2011-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was a continuation of previous work under DOE CCPP funding in which we developed a twin approach of non-homogeneous hidden Markov models (NHMMs) and coupled ocean-atmosphere (O-A) intermediate-complexity models (ICMs) to identify the potentially predictable modes of climate variability, and to investigate their impacts on the regional-scale. We have developed a family of latent-variable NHMMs to simulate historical records of daily rainfall, and used them to downscale seasonal predictions. We have also developed empirical mode reduction (EMR) models for gaining insight into the underlying dynamics in observational data and general circulation model (GCM) simulations. Using coupled O-A ICMs, we have identified a new mechanism of interdecadal climate variability, involving the midlatitude oceansâ?? mesoscale eddy field and nonlinear, persistent atmospheric response to the oceanic anomalies. A related decadal mode is also identified, associated with the oceansâ?? thermohaline circulation. The goal of the continuation was to build on these ICM results and NHMM/EMR model developments and software to strengthen two key pillars of support for the development and application of climate models for climate change projections on time scales of decades to centuries, namely: (a) dynamical and theoretical understanding of decadal-to-interdecadal oscillations and their predictability; and (b) an interface from climate models to applications, in order to inform societal adaptation strategies to climate change at the regional scale, including model calibration, correction, downscaling and, most importantly, assessment and interpretation of spread and uncertainties in multi-model ensembles. Our main results from the grant consist of extensive further development of the hidden Markov models for rainfall simulation and downscaling specifically within the non-stationary climate change context together with the development of parallelized software; application of NHMMs to downscaling of rainfall projections over India; identification and analysis of decadal climate signals in data and models; and, studies of climate variability in terms of the dynamics of atmospheric flow regimes. Each of these project components is elaborated on below, followed by a list of publications resulting from the grant.

  4. Predicting hurricane regional landfall rates: comparing local and basin-wide track model approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, T; Hall, Tim; Jewson, Stephen

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare two methods for making predictions of the climatological distribution of the number of hurricanes making landfall along short sections of the North American coastline. The first method uses local data, and the second method uses a basin-wide track model. Using cross-validation we show that the basin-wide track model gives better predictions for almost all parts of the coastline. This is the first time such a comparison has been made, and is the first rigourous justification for the use of basin-wide track models for predicting hurricane landfall rates and hurricane risk.

  5. NREL: Energy Analysis - Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency Visit | NationalWebmaster To contactK-12BSM(ATB)Regional

  6. New Theoretical Model of the Complex Edge Region of Fusion Plasmas Proves

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurTheBrookhavenMassachusetts Regions NationalScience (SC) New ParticleAccurate

  7. Characteristic Operator Functions for Quantum Input-Plant-Output Models & Coherent Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. E. Gough

    2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the characteristic operator as the generalization of the usual concept of a transfer function of linear input-plant-output systems to arbitrary quantum nonlinear Markovian input-output models. This is intended as a tool in the characterization of quantum feedback control systems that fits in with the general theory of networks. The definition exploits the linearity of noise differentials in both the plant Heisenberg equations of motion and the differential form of the input-output relations. Mathematically, the characteristic operator is a matrix of dimension equal to the number of outputs times the number of inputs (which must coincide), but with entries that are operators of the plant system. In this sense the characteristic operator retains details of the effective plant dynamical structure and is an essentially quantum object. We illustrate the relevance to model reduction and simplification by showing that the convergence of the characteristic operator in adiabatic elimination limit models requires the same conditions and assumptions appearing in the work on limit quantum stochastic differential theorems of Bouten and Silberfarb. This approach also shows in a natural way that the limit coefficients of the quantum stochastic differential equations in adiabatic elimination problems arise algebraically as Schur complements, and amounts to a model reduction where the fast degrees of freedom are decoupled from the slow ones, and eliminated.

  8. Dynamical Coupled-Channel Model of Meson Production Reactions in the Nucleon Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.-S. H. Lee; A. Matsuyama; T. Sato

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamical coupled-channel model is presented for investigating the nucleon resonances (N*) in the meson production reactions induced by pions and photons. Our objective is to extract the N* parameters and to investigate the meson production reaction mechanisms for mapping out the quark-gluon substructure of N* from the data. The model is based on an energy-independent Hamiltonian which is derived from a set of Lagrangians by using a unitary transformation method.

  9. Assessment of Uncertainties in the Response of the African Monsoon Precipitation to Land Use change simulated by a regional model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xue, Yongkang; Boone, Aaron; de Sales, Fernando; Neupane, Naresh; Huang, Maoyi; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Land use and land cover over Africa have changed substantially over the last sixty years and this change has been proposed to affect monsoon circulation and precipitation. This study examines the uncertainties on the effect of these changes on the African Monsoon system and Sahel precipitation using an ensemble of regional model simulations with different combinations of land surface and cumulus parameterization schemes. Although the magnitude of the response covers a broad range of values, most of the simulations show a decline in Sahel precipitation due to the expansion of pasture and croplands at the expense of trees and shrubs and an increase in surface air temperature.

  10. Modeling Complex Organic Molecules in dense regions: Eley-Rideal and complex induced reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruaud, M; Hickson, K M; Gratier, P; Hersant, F; Wakelam, V

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent observations have revealed the existence of Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) in cold dense cores and prestellar cores. The presence of these molecules in such cold conditions is not well understood and remains a matter of debate since the previously proposed "warm- up" scenario cannot explain these observations. In this article, we study the effect of Eley- Rideal and complex induced reaction mechanisms of gas-phase carbon atoms with the main ice components of dust grains on the formation of COMs in cold and dense regions. Based on recent experiments we use a low value for the chemical desorption efficiency (which was previously invoked to explain the observed COM abundances). We show that our introduced mechanisms are efficient enough to produce a large amount of complex organic molecules in the gas-phase at temperatures as low as 10K.

  11. Regional groundwater flow and tritium transport modeling and risk assessment of the underground test area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The groundwater flow system of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region was evaluated to estimate the highest potential current and near-term risk to the public and the environment from groundwater contamination downgradient of the underground nuclear testing areas. The highest, or greatest, potential risk is estimated by assuming that several unusually rapid transport pathways as well as public and environmental exposures all occur simultaneously. These conservative assumptions may cause risks to be significantly overestimated. However, such a deliberate, conservative approach ensures that public health and environmental risks are not underestimated and allows prioritization of future work to minimize potential risks. Historical underground nuclear testing activities, particularly detonations near or below the water table, have contaminated groundwater near testing locations with radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Tritium was selected as the contaminant of primary concern for this phase of the project because it is abundant, highly mobile, and represents the most significant contributor to the potential radiation dose to humans for the short term. It was also assumed that the predicted risk to human health and the environment from tritium exposure would reasonably represent the risk from other, less mobile radionuclides within the same time frame. Other contaminants will be investigated at a later date. Existing and newly collected hydrogeologic data were compiled for a large area of southern Nevada and California, encompassing the Nevada Test Site regional groundwater flow system. These data were used to develop numerical groundwater flow and tritium transport models for use in the prediction of tritium concentrations at hypothetical human and ecological receptor locations for a 200-year time frame. A numerical, steady-state regional groundwater flow model was developed to serve as the basis for the prediction of the movement of tritium from the underground testing areas on a regional scale. The groundwater flow model was used in conjunction with a particle-tracking code to define the pathlines followed by groundwater particles originating from 415 points associated with 253 nuclear test locations. Three of the most rapid pathlines were selected for transport simulations. These pathlines are associated with three nuclear test locations, each representing one of the three largest testing areas. These testing locations are: BOURBON on Yucca Flat, HOUSTON on Central Pahute Mesa, and TYBO on Western Pahute Mesa. One-dimensional stochastic tritium transport simulations were performed for the three pathlines using the Monte Carlo method with Latin hypercube sampling. For the BOURBON and TYBO pathlines, sources of tritium from other tests located along the same pathline were included in the simulations. Sensitivity analyses were also performed on the transport model to evaluate the uncertainties associated with the geologic model, the rates of groundwater flow, the tritium source, and the transport parameters. Tritium concentration predictions were found to be mostly sensitive to the regional geology in controlling the horizontal and vertical position of transport pathways. The simulated concentrations are also sensitive to matrix diffusion, an important mechanism governing the migration of tritium in fractured carbonate and volcanic rocks. Source term concentration uncertainty is most important near the test locations and decreases in importance as the travel distance increases. The uncertainty on groundwater flow rates is as important as that on matrix diffusion at downgradient locations. The risk assessment was performed to provide conservative and bounding estimates of the potential risks to human health and the environment from tritium in groundwater. Risk models were designed by coupling scenario-specific tritium intake with tritium dose models and cancer and genetic risk estimates using the Monte Carlo method. Estimated radiation doses received by individuals from chronic exposure to tritium, and the corre

  12. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockerill Consulting, Boone, NC)

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  13. Polar-region distributions of Poynting flux: Global models compared with observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lotko, William

    to J. Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 24 May 2007 #12;empirical model. Following synopsis-latitude ionosphere and ther- mosphere is the primary sink for electromagnetic power generated by the solar wind., 2006). Including Joule heat, mechanical work on the neutral gas, and collisionless energization

  14. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 51 (2007) 847869 Modeling obsolete computer stock under regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resources, Conservation and Recycling 51 (2007) 847­869 Modeling obsolete computer stock under and recycling systems using GIS, and demonstrate the potential economic benefits from diverting electronic buildings. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Computer recycling; Product inventory

  15. Modeling the Dynamics of Desakota Regions: Global - Local Nexus in the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Bing-Sheng

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the 1970s, Asia has experienced rapid urbanization processes, which are distinct from U.S. society, and the direction of Asian urbanization is more strongly affected by economic globalization. The desakota model, proposed by McGee and Ginsburg...

  16. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS): Development for Parallel Processing Computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirne, Walfredo

    on the mesoscale (horizontal scales from 2 km to 2000 km) for purposes ranging from operational weather forecasting and simulating convective clouds, mesoscale convective systems, cirrus clouds, and precipitating weather systems models that had a great deal of overlap, the CSU cloud/mesoscale mode (Tripoli and Cotton, 1982

  17. REGION-BASED ACTIVE SURFACE MODELLING AND ALPHA MATTING FOR UNSUPERVISED TUMOUR SEGMENTATION IN PET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jue

    hierarchical segmentation scheme consists of three steps, as shown in the system flow-chart in Fig. 2 the Poisson Gradient Vector Flow (PGVF) of Hsu et al. [2] for edge-based seg- mentation and the Markov Random segmentation model [6, 7] are used to obtain an energy function that can be minimized by convex optimization

  18. Conceptual design of a regional water quality screening model. [RFF; Reach; HANFORD; ARQUAL; SEAS; NASQUAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M J

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This water quality assessment methodology is intended to predict concentrations at future times and to estimate the impacts on water quality of energy-related activities (including industrial boilers). Estimates of impacts on water quality at future times are based on incremental changes in pollutant inputs to the body water. Important features of the model are: use of measured concentrations to account for existing conditions; consideration of incremental changes in pollutant loads; emphasis on the energy sector and industrial boilers; analysis restricted to streams only; no attempt to fully account for pollutant behavior; and flexible design, so that future improvements can be incorporated. The basic approach is very similar to the one used by Argonne's ARQUAL model but will allow more complex pollutant behavior and more flexibility in use. (PSB)

  19. Finite - difference modeling of the Yucca Mountain, Nevada Area: a study of the regional water table gradients based on hydraulic conductivity contrasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Timothy Ross

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    regionally corresponds with the northern limit of the Paleozoic carbonates, at the contact of the Eleana Formation, a Paleozoic aquitard. This study investigates, using finite difference modeling, the relationship between the steep hydraulic gradient...

  20. An integrated assessment modeling framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change: the MIT IGSM-CAM (version 1.0)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monier, Erwan

    This paper describes a computationally efficient framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model ...

  1. Investigation of Aerosol Indirect Effects using a Cumulus Microphysics Parameterization in a Regional Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Kyo-Sun; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder; Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Guang; Song, Xiaoliang

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A new Zhang and McFarlane (ZM) cumulus scheme includes a two-moment cloud microphysics parameterization for convective clouds. This allows aerosol effects to be investigated more comprehensively by linking aerosols with microphysical processes in both stratiform clouds that are explicitly resolved and convective clouds that are parameterized in climate models. This new scheme is implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which is coupled with the physics and aerosol packages from the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). A test case of July 2008 during the East Asian summer monsoon is selected to evaluate the performance of the new ZM scheme and to investigate aerosol effects on monsoon precipitation. The precipitation and radiative fluxes simulated by the new ZM scheme show a better agreement with observations compared to simulations with the original ZM scheme that does not include convective cloud microphysics and aerosol convective cloud interactions. Detailed analysis suggests that an increase in detrained cloud water and ice mass by the new ZM scheme is responsible for this improvement. To investigate precipitation response to increased anthropogenic aerosols, a sensitivity experiment is performed that mimics a clean environment by reducing the primary aerosols and anthropogenic emissions to 30% of that used in the control simulation of a polluted environment. The simulated surface precipitation is reduced by 9.8% from clean to polluted environment and the reduction is less significant when microphysics processes are excluded from the cumulus clouds. Ensemble experiments with ten members under each condition (i.e., clean and polluted) indicate similar response of the monsoon precipitation to increasing aerosols.

  2. First Structure Formation: I. Primordial Star Forming Regions in hierarchical models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Abel; Peter Anninos; Michael L. Norman; Yu Zhang

    1997-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the possibility of very early formation of primordial star clusters from high-\\sigma perturbations in cold dark matter dominated structure formation scenarios. For this we have developed a powerful 2-level hierarchical cosmological code with a realistic and robust treatment of multi-species primordial gas chemistry, paying special attention to the formation and destruction of hydrogen molecules, non-equilibrium ionization, and cooling processes. We performed 3-D simulations at small scales and at high redshifts and find that, analogous to simulations of large scale structure, a complex system of filaments, sheets, and spherical knots at the intersections of filaments form. On the mass scales covered by our simulations (5x10^5 - 1x10^9\\Ms) that collapse at redshifts z>25, we find that only at the spherical knots can enough H2 be formed (n_{H_2}/n_H > 5x10^-4) to cool the gas appreciably. Quantities such as the time dependence of the formation of H2 molecules, the final H2 fraction, and central densities from the simulations are compared to the theoretical predictions of Abel (1995) and Tegmark et al. (1997) and found to agree remarkably well. Comparing the 3-D results to an isobaric collapse model we further discuss the possible implications of the extensive merging of small structure that is inherent in hierarchical models. Typically only 5-8% percent of the total baryonic mass in the collapsing structures is found to cool significanlty. Assuming the Padoan (1995) model for star formation our results would predict the first stellar systems to be as small as ~30\\Ms. Some implications for primordial globular cluster formation scenarios are also discussed.

  3. Modeling Regional Air Quality Using the Near-Explicit Master Chemical Mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jingyi

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C. ................................................................................................................. 32 Figure 2-6 Pollutant rose for isopentane at C35C. Panels (a)-(c) are based on the data where the predicted wind direction and wind speed agree well with observations. Panels (d)-(f) are based on the remaining data. Units are ppb... during the entire episode. Model performance criteria and goals for particulate matter are based on the recommendations of Boylan and Russell (2006). MFB=2/N×?(Cp-Co)/(Cp+Co). Cp=predictions; Co=observations; N=number of data points. (b) Predicted...

  4. Dynamical Coupled-Channel Model of pi-N scattering in te W < 2 GeV Nucleon Resonane Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.S.H. Lee; B. Julia-diaz; A. Matsuyama; T. Sato

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a first step to analyze the electromagnetic meson production reactions in the nucleon resonance region, the parameters of the hadronic interactions of a dynamical coupled-channel model, developed in {\\it Physics Reports 439, 193 (2007)}, are determined by fitting the empirical $\\pi N$ elastic scattering amplitudes of SAID up to 2 GeV. The channels included in the calculations are $\\pi N$, $\\eta N$ and $\\pi\\pi N$ which has $\\pi\\Delta$, $\\rho N$, and $\\sigma N$ resonant components. The non-resonant meson-baryon interactions of the model are derived from a set of Lagrangians by using a unitary transformation method. One or two bare excited nucleon states in each of $S$, $P$, $D$, and $F$ partial waves are included to generate the resonant amplitudes in the fits. The predicted total cross sections of $\\pi N$ reactions and $\\pi N\\rightarrow \\eta N$ reactions are in good agreement with the data. Applications of the constructed model in analyzing the electromagnetic meson production data as well as the future developments are discussed.

  5. Gaseous Chemistry and Aerosol Mechanism Developments for Version 3.5.1 of the Online Regional Model, WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Lowe, Douglas; Utembe, Steve; Allan, James D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Hodnebrog, Oivind; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; McFiggans, Gordon

    2014-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We have made a number of developments in the regional coupled model WRF-Chem, with the aim of making the model more suitable for prediction of atmospheric composition and of interactions between air quality and weather. We have worked on the European domain, with a particular focus on making the model suitable for the study of night time chemistry and oxidation by the nitrate radical in the UK atmosphere. A reduced form of the Common Reactive Intermediates gas-phase chemical mechanism (CRIv2-R5) has been implemented to enable more explicit simulation of VOC degradation. N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry has been added to the existing sectional MOSAIC aerosol module, and coupled to both the CRIv2-R5 and existing CBM-Z gas phase scheme. Modifications have also been made to the sea-spray aerosol emission representation, allowing the inclusion of primary organic material in sea-spray aerosol. Driven by appropriate emissions, wind fields and chemical boundary conditions, implementation of the different developments is illustrated in order to demonstrate the impact that these changes have in the North-West European domain. These developments are now part of the freely available WRF-Chem distribution.

  6. A method for the assessment of site-specific economic impacts of commercial and industrial biomass energy facilities. A handbook and computer model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A handbook on ``A Method for the Assessment of Site-specific Econoomic Impacts of Industrial and Commercial Biomass Energy Facilities`` has been prepared by Resource Systems Group Inc. under contract to the Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP). The handbook includes a user-friendly Lotus 123 spreadsheet which calculates the economic impacts of biomass energy facilities. The analysis uses a hybrid approach, combining direct site-specific data provided by the user, with indirect impact multipliers from the US Forest Service IMPLAN input/output model for each state. Direct economic impacts are determined primarily from site-specific data and indirect impacts are determined from the IMPLAN multipliers. The economic impacts are given in terms of income, employment, and state and federal taxes generated directly by the specific facility and by the indirect economic activity associated with each project. A worksheet is provided which guides the user in identifying and entering the appropriate financial data on the plant to be evaluated. The WLAN multipliers for each state are included in a database within the program. The multipliers are applied automatically after the user has entered the site-specific data and the state in which the facility is located. Output from the analysis includes a summary of direct and indirect income, employment and taxes. Case studies of large and small wood energy facilities and an ethanol plant are provided as examples to demonstrate the method. Although the handbook and program are intended for use by those with no previous experience in economic impact analysis, suggestions are given for the more experienced user who may wish to modify the analysis techniques.

  7. Moisture Flux Convergence in Regional and Global Climate Models: Implications for Droughts in the Southwestern United States Under Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Salathe, E.; Dominguez, Francina; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The water cycle of the southwestern United States (SW) is dominated by winter storms that maintain a positive annual net precipitation. Analysis of the control and future climate from four pairs of regional and global climate models (RCMs and GCMs) shows that the RCMs simulate a higher fraction of transient eddy moisture fluxes because the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with flow over complex terrain are better resolved. Under global warming, this enables the RCMs to capture the response of transient eddies to increased atmospheric stability that allows more moisture to converge on the windward side of the mountains by blocking. As a result, RCMs simulate enhanced transient eddy moisture convergence in the SW compared to GCMs, although both robustly simulate drying due to enhanced moisture divergence by the divergent mean flow in a warmer climate. This enhanced convergence leads to reduced susceptibility to hydrological change in the RCMs compared to GCMs.

  8. The prediction of radiation-induced liver dysfunction using a local dose and regional venous perfusion model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao Yue; Platt, Joel F.; Francis, Isaac R; Balter, James M.; Pan, Charlie; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Haken, Randall K. ten; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0010 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0010 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0010 (United States)

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have shown that high dose conformal radiation combined with chemotherapy appears to prolong the survival of patients with unresectable intrahepatic cancers. The ability to safely deliver higher doses is primarily limited by the development of radiation-induced liver disease, characterized by venous occlusion. In this study, we investigated whether portal venous perfusion measured prior to the end of radiation therapy (RT) together with dose could predict liver venous perfusion dysfunction after treatment. Ten patients with unresectable intrahepatic cancer participated in an IRB-approved computer tomography (CT) perfusion study. Hepatic arterial and portal vein perfusion distributions were estimated by using dynamic contrast enhanced CT and the single compartmental model. Scans were obtained at four time points: prior to treatment, after 15 and 30 fractions of 1.5 Gy treatments, and one month following the completion of RT. Multivariant linear regression was used to determine covariances among the first three time point measurements plus dose for prediction of the post RT measurement. The reduction in the regional venous perfusion one month following RT was predicted by the local accumulated dose and the change in the regional venous perfusion after {approx}30 fractions (F=90.6,p<0.000 01). Each Gy produced an approximately 1.2% of reduction in the venous perfusion. This local dose and venous perfusion model has the potential to predict individual sensitivity to radiation. This is the first step toward developing a method to deliver higher and potentially more curative radiation doses to the patients who can safely receive these higher doses.

  9. Collaborative Research: Towards Advanced Understanding and Predictive Capability of Climate Change in the Arctic using a High-Resolution Regional Arctic Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lettenmaier, Dennis P

    2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Primary activities are reported in these areas: climate system component studies via one-way coupling experiments; development of the Regional Arctic Climate System Model (RACM); and physical feedback studies focusing on changes in Arctic sea ice using the fully coupled model.

  10. Deformed shell model results for neutrinoless double beta decay of nuclei in A=60-90 region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Sahu; V. K. B. Kota

    2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear transition matrix elements (NTME) for the neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{70}$Zn, $^{80}$Se and $^{82}$Se nuclei are calculated within the framework of the deformed shell model based on Hartree-Fock states. For $^{70}$Zn, jj44b interaction in $^{2}p_{3/2}$, $^{1}f_{5/2}$, $^{2}p_{1/2}$ and $^{1}g_{9/2}$ space with $^{56}$Ni as the core is employed. However, for $^{80}$Se and $^{82}$Se nuclei, a modified Kuo interaction with the above core and model space are employed. Most of our calculations in this region were performed with this effective interaction. However, jj44b interaction has been found to be better for $^{70}$Zn. After ensuring that DSM gives good description of the spectroscopic properties of low-lying levels in these three nuclei considered, the NTME are calculated. The deduced half-lives with these NTME, assuming neutrino mass is 1 eV, are $9.6 \\times 10^{25}$yr, $1.9 \\times 10^{27}$yr and $1.95 \\times 10^{24}$yr for $^{70}$Zn, $^{80}$Se and $^{82}$Se, respectively.

  11. Deformed shell model results for neutrinoless double beta decay of nuclei in A=60-90 region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahu, R

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear transition matrix elements (NTME) for the neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{70}$Zn, $^{80}$Se and $^{82}$Se nuclei are calculated within the framework of the deformed shell model based on Hartree-Fock states. For $^{70}$Zn, jj44b interaction in $^{2}p_{3/2}$, $^{1}f_{5/2}$, $^{2}p_{1/2}$ and $^{1}g_{9/2}$ space with $^{56}$Ni as the core is employed. However, for $^{80}$Se and $^{82}$Se nuclei, a modified Kuo interaction with the above core and model space are employed. Most of our calculations in this region were performed with this effective interaction. However, jj44b interaction has been found to be better for $^{70}$Zn. After ensuring that DSM gives good description of the spectroscopic properties of low-lying levels in these three nuclei considered, the NTME are calculated. The deduced half-lives with these NTME, assuming neutrino mass is 1 eV, are $9.6 \\times 10^{25}$yr, $1.9 \\times 10^{27}$yr and $1.95 \\times 10^{24}$yr for $^{70}$Zn, $^{80}$Se and $^{82}$Se, respectively.

  12. Force-free field modeling of twist and braiding-induced magnetic energy in an active-region corona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thalmann, J. K. [Institute of Physics/IGAM, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Tiwari, S. K.; Wiegelmann, T., E-mail: julia.thalmann@uni-graz.at [Max Plank Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theoretical concept that braided magnetic field lines in the solar corona may dissipate a sufficient amount of energy to account for the brightening observed in the active-region (AR) corona has only recently been substantiated by high-resolution observations. From the analysis of coronal images obtained with the High Resolution Coronal Imager, first observational evidence of the braiding of magnetic field lines was reported by Cirtain et al. (hereafter CG13). We present nonlinear force-free reconstructions of the associated coronal magnetic field based on Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager vector magnetograms. We deliver estimates of the free magnetic energy associated with a braided coronal structure. Our model results suggest (?100 times) more free energy at the braiding site than analytically estimated by CG13, strengthening the possibility of the AR corona being heated by field line braiding. We were able to appropriately assess the coronal free energy by using vector field measurements and we attribute the lower energy estimate of CG13 to the underestimated (by a factor of 10) azimuthal field strength. We also quantify the increase in the overall twist of a flare-related flux rope that was noted by CG13. From our models we find that the overall twist of the flux rope increased by about half a turn within 12 minutes. Unlike another method to which we compare our results, we evaluate the winding of the flux rope's constituent field lines around each other purely based on their modeled coronal three-dimensional field line geometry. To our knowledge, this is done for the first time here.

  13. Collaborative Research: Towards Advanced Understanding and Predictive Capability of Climate Change in the Arctic Using a High-Resolution Regional Arctic Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassano, John [Principal Investigator

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary research task completed for this project was the development of the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM). This involved coupling existing atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land models using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM) coupler (CPL7). RACM is based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model, the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean model, the CICE sea ice model, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land model. A secondary research task for this project was testing and evaluation of WRF for climate-scale simulations on the large pan-Arctic model domain used in RACM. This involved identification of a preferred set of model physical parameterizations for use in our coupled RACM simulations and documenting any atmospheric biases present in RACM.

  14. A three-dimensional numerical model of predevelopment conditions in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Agnese, F.A.; O'Brien, G.M.; Faunt, C.C.; Belcher, W.R.; San Juan, Carma

    2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early 1990's, two numerical models of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system were developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. In general, the two models were based on the same basic hydrogeologic data set. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy requested that the U.S. Geological Survey develop and maintain a ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region in support of U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of developing this ''second-generation'' regional model was to enhance the knowledge and understanding of the ground-water flow system as new information and tools are developed. The U.S. Geological Survey also was encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy to cooperate to the fullest extent with other Federal, State, and local entities in the region to take advantage of the benefits of their knowledge and expertise. The short-term objective of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project was to develop a steady-stat e representation of the predevelopment conditions of the ground-water flow system utilizing the two geologic interpretations used to develop the previous numerical models. The long-term objective of this project was to construct and calibrate a transient model that simulates the ground-water conditions of the study area over the historical record that utilizes a newly interpreted hydrogeologic conceptual model. This report describes the result of the predevelopment steady-state model construction and calibration.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Inter-basin Groundwater Flow into Northern Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Using the Death Valley Regional Flow System Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pohlmann Karl,Ye Ming

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models of groundwater flow for the Yucca Flat area of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) are under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for corrective action investigations of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit (CAU). One important aspect of these models is the quantity of inter-basin groundwater flow from regional systems to the north. This component of flow, together with its uncertainty, must be properly accounted for in the CAU flow models to provide a defensible regional framework for calculations of radionuclide transport that will support determinations of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine contaminant boundary. Because characterizing flow boundary conditions in northern Yucca Flat requires evaluation to a higher level of detail than the scale of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine CAU model can efficiently provide, a study more focused on this aspect of the model was required.

  16. Meticulously Detailed Eye Region Model and Its Application to Analysis... file:///D:/EndNotesData/Emotion-Converted.Data/PDF/TPAMI%20Publ... 1 of 17 2/24/2008 9:30 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    Meticulously Detailed Eye Region Model and Its Application to Analysis... file-8828/06/$20.00 © 2006 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society Meticulously Detailed Eye Region Model and Its of detailed analysis of eye region images in terms of the position of the iris, degree of eyelid opening

  17. Predictive Models for Regional Hepatic Function Based on 99mTc-IDA SPECT and Local Radiation Dose for Physiologic Adaptive Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hesheng, E-mail: hesheng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Frey, Kirk A. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: High-dose radiation therapy (RT) for intrahepatic cancer is limited by the development of liver injury. This study investigated whether regional hepatic function assessed before and during the course of RT using 99mTc-labeled iminodiacetic acid (IDA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could predict regional liver function reserve after RT. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients treated with RT for intrahepatic cancers underwent dynamic 99mTc-IDA SPECT scans before RT, during, and 1 month after completion of RT. Indocyanine green (ICG) tests, a measure of overall liver function, were performed within 1 day of each scan. Three-dimensional volumetric hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) images of the liver were estimated by deconvolution analysis. After coregistration of the CT/SPECT and the treatment planning CT, HEF dose–response functions during and after RT were generated. The volumetric mean of the HEFs in the whole liver was correlated with ICG clearance time. Three models, dose, priori, and adaptive models, were developed using multivariate linear regression to assess whether the regional HEFs measured before and during RT helped predict regional hepatic function after RT. Results: The mean of the volumetric liver HEFs was significantly correlated with ICG clearance half-life time (r=?0.80, P<.0001), for all time points. Linear correlations between local doses and regional HEFs 1 month after RT were significant in 12 patients. In the priori model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by the planned dose and regional HEF assessed before RT (R=0.71, P<.0001). In the adaptive model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by regional HEF reassessed during RT and the remaining planned local dose (R=0.83, P<.0001). Conclusions: 99mTc-IDA SPECT obtained during RT could be used to assess regional hepatic function and helped predict post-RT regional liver function reserve. This could support individualized adaptive radiation treatment strategies to maximize tumor control and minimize the risk of liver damage.

  18. Impacts of Large-scale Surface Modifications on Meteorological Conditions and Energy Use: A 10-Region Modeling Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taha, H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    104. Pielke, R, 1984: Mesoscale Meteorological Modeling . •the CSUMM, as any other mesoscale model, is typically runApplications International Mesoscale Model. SYSAPP- 921069,

  19. Downscaling Global Land Cover Projections from an Integrated Assessment Model for Use in Regional Analyses: Results and Evaluation for the US from 2005 to 2095

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Huang, Maoyi; Wolf, Julie; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Projections of land cover change generated from Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) and other economic-based models can be applied for analyses of environmental impacts at subregional and landscape scales. For those IAM and economic models that project land use at the sub-continental or regional scale, these projections must be downscaled and spatially distributed prior to use in climate or ecosystem models. Downscaling efforts to date have been conducted at the national extent with relatively high spatial resolution (30m) and at the global extent with relatively coarse spatial resolution (0.5 degree).

  20. Interindustry analysis of the economy of Northeast Texas emphasizing agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippke, Lawrence Arnold

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the regional economy of a 23-county area of Northeast Texas in 1967, and to estimate the direct and indirect effects on regional output, income, and employment resulting from changes in final demand in each sector. The input-output technique developed... by Wassily W. Leontier provided the basis for accomplishing the purpose and objectives of this study. Three models were developed and compared Model I was used to describe both the interdependence between sectors and the regional economy as it actually...

  1. Determining Greenland Ice Sheet sensitivity to regional climate change: one-way coupling of a 3-D thermo-mechanical ice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, Nicole-Jeanne

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model By Nicole-ice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model Copyrightice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model by Nicole-

  2. Modeling of BWR core meltdown accidents - for application in the MELRPI. MOD2 computer code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koh, B R; Kim, S H; Taleyarkhan, R P; Podowski, M Z; Lahey, Jr, R T

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes improvements and modifications made in the MELRPI computer code. A major difference between this new, updated version of the code, called MELRPI.MOD2, and the one reported previously, concerns the inclusion of a model for the BWR emergency core cooling systems (ECCS). This model and its computer implementation, the ECCRPI subroutine, account for various emergency injection modes, for both intact and rubblized geometries. Other changes to MELRPI deal with an improved model for canister wall oxidation, rubble bed modeling, and numerical integration of system equations. A complete documentation of the entire MELRPI.MOD2 code is also given, including an input guide, list of subroutines, sample input/output and program listing.

  3. The rapidly evolving field of decadal climate prediction, using initialized climate models to produce time-evolving predictions of regional climate, is producing new results for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and it is on those time scales of interest to water managers that decadal climate prediction is being appliedThe rapidly evolving field of decadal climate prediction, using initialized climate models to produce time-evolving predictions of regional climate, is producing new results for predictions

  4. 2D versus 1D ground-motion modelling for the Friuli region, north-eastern Italy1 W. Imperatori1, *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2D versus 1D ground-motion modelling for the Friuli region, north-eastern Italy1 2 W. Imperatori1 and CO2 Storage Security Division, BRGM, 3 avenue C. Guillemin, 450607 Orléans Cedex 2, France.8 9 affects ground motions, particularly in terms of peak ground velocity (PGV). The decay of PGV14

  5. QUANTIFICATION OF GLACIER CHANGES USING ICESAT ELEVATION DATA AND THE SRTM DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL IN THE WESTERN KARAKORAM HIMALAYA REGION Bibi S. Naz1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherkauer, Keith

    QUANTIFICATION OF GLACIER CHANGES USING ICESAT ELEVATION DATA AND THE SRTM DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL, 47907. Although notable rates of glacier retreat have been monitored across the Eastern Himalaya region in recent years, glacier changes in the Western Karakoram Himalaya are not well documented. Snowmelt from

  6. Simulating the connections of ENSO and the rainfall regime of East Africa and the upper Blue Nile region using a climate model of the Tropics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaroug, M. A. H.

    We simulate the observed statistical relationship between ENSO and the rainfall regime of the upper Blue Nile using the tropical-band version of the regional climate model RegCM4 (or Reg-TB). An ensemble of nine simulations ...

  7. Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part I: Perfect Model Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Zhiyong

    Tests of an Ensemble Kalman Filter for Mesoscale and Regional-Scale Data Assimilation. Part I the potential of using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for mesoscale and regional-scale data assimilation are assimilated. 1. Introduction The ensemble-based data assimilation method [en- semble Kalman filter (En

  8. Modeling the Summertime Climate of Southwest Asia: The Role of Land Surface Processes in Shaping the Climate of Semiarid Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcella, Marc P.

    Presented is a study on the role of land surface processes in determining the summertime climate over the semiarid region of southwest Asia. In this region, a warm surface air temperature bias of 3.5°C is simulated in the ...

  9. Surface energy partitioning over four dominant vegetation types across the United States in a coupled regional climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kueppers, Lara M.

    Slopes Model (PRISM) data) and to standard WRF model output. We found that WRF3-CLM3.5 can capture and Forecasting Model 3­Community Land Model 3.5 (WRF3-CLM3.5), by comparing model output to observations (Ameri simulation of downward solar radiation could reduce the energy flux and temperature biases. After adding

  10. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 2. Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region. (WHK)

  11. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lowe, Douglas; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Morgan, Will; Allan, James D.; Utembe, Steve; Ouyang, Bin; Aruffo, Eleonora; Le Breton, Michael; Zaveri, Rahul A.; di Carlo, Piero; et al

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a~modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations, run with a detailed volatile organic compound (VOC) gas-phase chemistry scheme and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) sectional aerosol scheme, were compared with a series of airborne gas and particulate measurements made over the UK in July 2010. Modelled mixing ratios of key gas-phase species were reasonably accurate (correlationsmore »with measurements of 0.7–0.9 for NO2 and O3). However modelled loadings of particulate species were less accurate (correlation with measurements for particulate sulfate and ammonium were between 0.0 and 0.6). Sulfate mass loadings were particularly low (modelled means of 0.5–0.7 ?g kg?1air, compared with measurements of 1.0–1.5 ?g kg?1air). Two flights from the campaign were used as test cases – one with low relative humidity (RH) (60–70%), the other with high RH (80–90%). N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry was found to not be important in the low-RH test case; but in the high-RH test case it had a strong effect and significantly improved the agreement between modelled and measured NO3 and N2O5. When the model failed to capture atmospheric RH correctly, the modelled NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios for these flights differed significantly from the measurements. This demonstrates that, for regional modelling which involves heterogeneous processes, it is essential to capture the ambient temperature and water vapour profiles. The night-time NO3 oxidation of VOCs across the whole region was found to be 100–300 times slower than the daytime OH oxidation of these compounds. The difference in contribution was less for alkenes (× 80) and comparable for dimethylsulfide (DMS). However the suppression of NO3 mixing ratios across the domain by N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry has only a very slight, negative, influence on this oxidative capacity. The influence on regional particulate nitrate mass loadings is stronger. Night-time N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry maintains the production of particulate nitrate within polluted regions: when this process is taken into consideration, the daytime peak (for the 95th percentile) of PM10 nitrate mass loadings remains around 5.6 ?g kg?1air, but the night-time minimum increases from 3.5 to 4.6 ?g kg?1air. The sustaining of higher particulate mass loadings through the night by this process improves model skill at matching measured aerosol nitrate diurnal cycles and will negatively impact on regional air quality, requiring this process to be included in regional models.« less

  12. Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes: identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Annual report, March 20, 1979-March 19, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial phase has been completed in the project to evaluate alternative fuels for highway transportation from synthetic crudes. Three refinery models were developed for Rocky Mountain, Mid-Continent and Great Lakes regions to make future product volumes and qualities forecast for 1995. Projected quantities of shale oil and coal oil syncrudes were introduced into the raw materials slate. Product slate was then varied from conventional products to evaluate maximum diesel fuel and broadcut fuel in all regions. Gasoline supplement options were evaluated in one region for 10% each of methanol, ethanol, MTBE or synthetic naphtha in the blends along with syncrude components. Compositions and qualities of the fuels were determined for the variation in constraints and conditions established for the study. Effects on raw materials, energy consumption and investment costs were reported. Results provide the basis to formulate fuels for laboratory and engine evaluation in future phases of the project.

  13. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: TOWARDS ADVANCED UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTIVE CAPABILITY OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC USING A HIGH-RESOLUTION REGIONAL ARCTIC CLIMATE SYSTEM MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutowski, William J.

    2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The motivation for this project was to advance the science of climate change and prediction in the Arctic region. Its primary goals were to (i) develop a state-of-the-art Regional Arctic Climate system Model (RACM) including high-resolution atmosphere, land, ocean, sea ice and land hydrology components and (ii) to perform extended numerical experiments using high performance computers to minimize uncertainties and fundamentally improve current predictions of climate change in the northern polar regions. These goals were realized first through evaluation studies of climate system components via one-way coupling experiments. Simulations were then used to examine the effects of advancements in climate component systems on their representation of main physics, time-mean fields and to understand variability signals at scales over many years. As such this research directly addressed some of the major science objectives of the BER Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) regarding the advancement of long-term climate prediction.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Regional Testing Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid Integration, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic Regional Testing Center (PV RTC), Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation...

  15. Modeling and Analysis of The Pressure Die Casting Using Response Surface Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kittur, Jayant K.; Herwadkar, T. V. [KLS Gogte Institute of Technology, Belgaum -590 008, Karnataka (India); Parappagoudar, M. B. [Chhatrapati Shivaji Institute of Technology, Durg (C.G)-491001 (India)

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure die casting is successfully used in the manufacture of Aluminum alloys components for automobile and many other industries. Die casting is a process involving many process parameters having complex relationship with the quality of the cast product. Though various process parameters have influence on the quality of die cast component, major influence is seen by the die casting machine parameters and their proper settings. In the present work, non-linear regression models have been developed for making predictions and analyzing the effect of die casting machine parameters on the performance characteristics of die casting process. Design of Experiments (DOE) with Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used to analyze the effect of effect of input parameters and their interaction on the response and further used to develop nonlinear input-output relationships. Die casting machine parameters, namely, fast shot velocity, slow shot to fast shot change over point, intensification pressure and holding time have been considered as the input variables. The quality characteristics of the cast product were determined by porosity, hardness and surface rough roughness (output/responses). Design of experiments has been used to plan the experiments and analyze the impact of variables on the quality of casting. On the other-hand Response Surface Methodology (Central Composite Design) is utilized to develop non-linear input-output relationships (regression models). The developed regression models have been tested for their statistical adequacy through ANOVA test. The practical usefulness of these models has been tested with some test cases. These models can be used to make the predictions about different quality characteristics, for the known set of die casting machine parameters, without conducting the experiments.

  16. USING THE UTAH ENERGY BALANCE SNOW MELT MODEL TO QUANTIFY SNOW AND GLACIER MELT IN THE HIMALAYAN REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    USING THE UTAH ENERGY BALANCE SNOW MELT MODEL TO QUANTIFY SNOW AND GLACIER MELT IN THE HIMALAYAN on a distributed version of the Utah Energy Balance (UEB) snowmelt model, referred to as UEBGrid, which was adapted: glacier and snow melt, Energy balance, model, remote sensing) INTRODUCTION Countries in Hindu Kush

  17. Marine air intrusion into the Adelie Land sector of East Antarctica: A study using the regional climate model (MAR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallée, Hubert

    , and often, precipitation in the coastal regions. Extratropical cyclones also advect cloud cover ahead of them as they track eastward. The presence of clouds greatly effects the reflected radiation of the atmosphere. In summer their main impact is to decrease the short wave radiation coming to Earth, while

  18. Modelling the Pan-Spectral Energy Distribution of Starburst Galaxies: II. Control of the \\HII Region Parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael A. Dopita; Joerg Fischera; Ralph S. Sutherland; Lisa J. Kewley; Richard J. Tuffs; Cristina C. Popescu; Wil van Breugel; Brent A. Groves; Claus Leitherer

    2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine, from a theoretical viewpoint, how the physical parameters of HII regions are controlled in both normal galaxies and in starburst environments. These parameters are the HII region luminosity function, the time-dependent size, the covering fraction of molecular clouds, the pressure in the ionized gas and the ionization parameter. The factors which control them are the initial mass function of the exciting stars, the cluster mass function, the metallicity and the mean pressure in the surrounding interstellar medium. We investigate the sensitivity of the H$\\alpha$ luminosity to the IMF, and find that this can translate to more than a factor two variation in derived star formation rates. The molecular cloud dissipation timescale is estimated from a case study of M17 to be $\\sim1$ Myr for this object. Based upon HII luminosity function fitting for nearby galaxies, we suggest that the \\HII region cluster mass function is fitted by a log-normal form peaking at $\\sim 100 M_{\\odot}$. The cluster mass function continues the stellar IMF to higher mass. The pressure in the HII regions is controlled by the mechanical luminosity flux from the central cluster. Since this is closely related to the ionizing photon flux, we show that the ionization parameter is not a free variable, and that the diffuse ionized medium may be composed of many large, faint and old HII regions. Finally, we derive theoretical probability distributions for the ionization parameter as a function of metallicity and compare these to those derived for SDSS galaxies.

  19. Final Technical Report for Collaborative Research: Regional climate-change projections through next-generation empirical and dynamical models, DE-FG02-07ER64429

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyth, Padhraic [University of California, Irvine

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report for a DOE-funded research project describing the outcome of research on non-homogeneous hidden Markov models (NHMMs) and coupled ocean-atmosphere (O-A) intermediate-complexity models (ICMs) to identify the potentially predictable modes of climate variability, and to investigate their impacts on the regional-scale. The main results consist of extensive development of the hidden Markov models for rainfall simulation and downscaling specifically within the non-stationary climate change context together with the development of parallelized software; application of NHMMs to downscaling of rainfall projections over India; identification and analysis of decadal climate signals in data and models; and, studies of climate variability in terms of the dynamics of atmospheric flow regimes.

  20. A Multi-Model Analysis of the Regional and Sectoral Roles of Bioenergy in Near- and Long-Term CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Wise, Marshall A.; Klein, David; McCollum, David; Tavoni, Massimo; van der Zwaan, Bob; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the near term and the longer term the contribution of bioenergy in different LIMITS scenarios as modeled by the participating models in the LIMITS project. With These scenarios have proven useful for exploring a range of outcomes for bioenergy use in response to both regionally diverse near term policies and the transition to a longer-term global mitigation policy and target. The use of several models has provided a source of heterogeneity in terms of incorporating uncertain assumptions about future socioeconomics and technology, as well as different paradigms for how the world may respond to policies. The results have also highlighted the heterogeneity and versatility of bioenergy itself, with different types of resources and applications in several energy sectors. In large part due to this versatility, the contribution of bioenergy to climate mitigation is a robust response across all models, despite their differences.

  1. Variable Density Flow Modeling for Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Sminchak

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arches Province in the Midwestern U.S. has been identified as a major area for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage applications because of the intersection of Mt. Simon sandstone reservoir thickness and permeability. To better understand large-scale CO{sub 2} storage infrastructure requirements in the Arches Province, variable density scoping level modeling was completed. Three main tasks were completed for the variable density modeling: Single-phase, variable density groundwater flow modeling; Scoping level multi-phase simulations; and Preliminary basin-scale multi-phase simulations. The variable density modeling task was successful in evaluating appropriate input data for the Arches Province numerical simulations. Data from the geocellular model developed earlier in the project were translated into preliminary numerical models. These models were calibrated to observed conditions in the Mt. Simon, suggesting a suitable geologic depiction of the system. The initial models were used to assess boundary conditions, calibrate to reservoir conditions, examine grid dimensions, evaluate upscaling items, and develop regional storage field scenarios. The task also provided practical information on items related to CO{sub 2} storage applications in the Arches Province such as pressure buildup estimates, well spacing limitations, and injection field arrangements. The Arches Simulation project is a three-year effort and part of the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE)/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) program on innovative and advanced technologies and protocols for monitoring/verification/accounting (MVA), simulation, and risk assessment of CO{sub 2} sequestration in geologic formations. The overall objective of the project is to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic CO{sub 2} storage infrastructure along the Arches Province of the Midwestern U.S.

  2. Incorporation of aqueous reaction kinetics and biodegradation into TOUGHREACT: Application of a multi-region model to hydrobiogeoChemical transport of denitrification and sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tianfu

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Region: quartz calcite gypsum goethite Hydro- Region: Na + ,minerals gypsum and goethite were assumed to be initiallyChem-Region, Fe generated from goethite dissolution and HS

  3. Chapter 8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E MARKOV PROCESSES. Given A in ... y = Ax, ?nd the principal Find the limit state of the Markov process modeled by the ... Open Leontief input—output model

  4. A high-fidelity harmonic drive model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preissner, C.; Royston, T. J.; Shu, D. (APS Engineering Support Division); ( MCS); (Univ. of Illinois)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a new model of the harmonic drive transmission is presented. The purpose of this work is to better understand the transmission hysteresis behavior while constructing a new type of comprehensive harmonic drive model. The four dominant aspects of harmonic drive behavior - nonlinear viscous friction, nonlinear stiffness, hysteresis, and kinematic error - are all included in the model. The harmonic drive is taken to be a black box, and a dynamometer is used to observe the input/output relations of the transmission. This phenomenological approach does not require any specific knowledge of the internal kinematics. In a novel application, the Maxwell resistive-capacitor hysteresis model is applied to the harmonic drive. In this model, sets of linear stiffness elements in series with Coulomb friction elements are arranged in parallel to capture the hysteresis behavior of the transmission. The causal hysteresis model is combined with nonlinear viscous friction and spectral kinematic error models to accurately represent the harmonic drive behavior. Empirical measurements are presented to quantify all four aspects of the transmission behavior. These measurements motivate the formulation of the complete model. Simulation results are then compared to additional measurements of the harmonic drive performance.

  5. Regional Radiological Security Partnership in Southeast Asia – Increasing the Sustainability of Security Systems at the Site-Level by Using a Model Facility Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Travis L.; Dickerson, Sarah; Ravenhill, Scott D.; Murray, Allan; Morris, Frederic A.; Herdes, Gregory A.

    2009-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2004, Australia, through the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), created the Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) project and partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to form the Southeast Asian Regional Radiological Security Partnership (RRSP). The intent of the RRSP is to cooperate with countries in Southeast Asia to improve the security of their radioactive sources. This Southeast Asian Partnership supports objectives to improve the security of high risk radioactive sources by raising awareness of the need and developing national programs to protect and control such materials, improve the security of such materials, and recover and condition the materials no longer in use. The RRSP has utilized many tools to meet those objectives including: provision of physical protection upgrades, awareness training, physical protection training, regulatory development, locating and recovering orphan sources, and most recently - development of model security procedures at a model facility. This paper discusses the benefits of establishing a model facility, the methods employed by the RRSP, and three of the expected outcomes of the Model Facility approach. The first expected outcome is to increase compliance with source security guidance materials and national regulations by adding context to those materials, and illustrating their impact on a facility. Second, the effectiveness of each of the tools above is increased by making them part of an integrated system. Third, the methods used to develop the model procedures establishes a sustainable process that can ultimately be transferred to all facilities beyond the model. Overall, the RRSP has utilized the Model Facility approach as an important tool to increase the security of radioactive sources, and to position facilities and countries for the long term secure management of those sources.

  6. Assessing the CAM5 Physics Suite in the WRF-Chem Model: Implementation, Resolution Sensitivity, and a First Evaluation for a Regional Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Gustafson, William I.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A suite of physical parameterizations (deep and shallow convection, turbulent boundary layer, aerosols, cloud microphysics, and cloud fraction) from the global climate model Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) has been implemented in the regional model Weather Research and Forecasting with chemistry (WRF-Chem). A downscaling modeling framework with consistent physics has also been established in which both global and regional simulations use the same emissions and surface fluxes. The WRF-Chem model with the CAM5 physics suite is run at multiple horizontal resolutions over a domain encompassing the northern Pacific Ocean, northeast Asia, and northwest North America for April 2008 when the ARCTAS, ARCPAC, and ISDAC field campaigns took place. These simulations are evaluated against field campaign measurements, satellite retrievals, and ground-based observations, and are compared with simulations that use a set of common WRF-Chem Parameterizations. This manuscript describes the implementation of the CAM5 physics suite in WRF-Chem provides an overview of the modeling framework and an initial evaluation of the simulated meteorology, clouds, and aerosols, and quantifies the resolution dependence of the cloud and aerosol parameterizations. We demonstrate that some of the CAM5 biases, such as high estimates of cloud susceptibility to aerosols and the underestimation of aerosol concentrations in the Arctic, can be reduced simply by increasing horizontal resolution. We also show that the CAM5 physics suite performs similarly to a set of parameterizations commonly used in WRF-Chem, but produces higher ice and liquid water condensate amounts and near-surface black carbon concentration. Further evaluations that use other mesoscale model parameterizations and perform other case studies are needed to infer whether one parameterization consistently produces results more consistent with observations.

  7. Ecosystem feedbacks to climate change in California: Development, testing, and analysis using a coupled regional atmosphere and land-surface model (WRF3-CLM3.5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subin, Z.M.; Riley, W.J.; Kueppers, L.M.; Jin, J.; Christianson, D.S.; Torn, M.S.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A regional atmosphere model [Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3 (WRF3)] and a land surface model [Community Land Model, version 3.5 (CLM3.5)] were coupled to study the interactions between the atmosphere and possible future California land-cover changes. The impact was evaluated on California's climate of changes in natural vegetation under climate change and of intentional afforestation. The ability of WRF3 to simulate California's climate was assessed by comparing simulations by WRF3-CLM3.5 and WRF3-Noah to observations from 1982 to 1991. Using WRF3-CLM3.5, the authors performed six 13-yr experiments using historical and future large-scale climate boundary conditions from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 2.1 (GFDL CM2.1). The land-cover scenarios included historical and future natural vegetation from the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System-Century 1 (MC1) dynamic vegetation model, in addition to a future 8-million-ha California afforestation scenario. Natural vegetation changes alone caused summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature changes of -0.7 to +1 C in regions without persistent snow cover, depending on the location and the type of vegetation change. Vegetation temperature changes were much larger than the 2-m air temperature changes because of the finescale spatial heterogeneity of the imposed vegetation change. Up to 30% of the magnitude of the summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature increase and 70% of the magnitude of the 1600 local time (LT) vegetation temperature increase projected under future climate change were attributable to the climate-driven shift in land cover. The authors projected that afforestation could cause local 0.2-1.2 C reductions in summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature and 2.0-3.7 C reductions in 1600 LT vegetation temperature for snow-free regions, primarily because of increased evapotranspiration. Because some of these temperature changes are of comparable magnitude to those projected under climate change this century, projections of climate and vegetation change in this region need to consider these climate-vegetation interactions.

  8. Statistical Modelling of the Relationship Between Main Development Region Sea Surface Temperature and Atlantic Basin Hurricane Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binter, R; Khare, S; Binter, Roman; Jewson, Stephen; Khare, Shree

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are building a hurricane number prediction scheme that relies, in part, on statistical modelling of the empirical relationship between Atlantic sea surface temperatures and Atlantic basin hurricane numbers. We test out a number of simple statistical models for this relationship, using data from 1900 to 2005 and data from 1950 to 2005, and for both all hurricane numbers and intense hurricane numbers.

  9. Preliminary geohydrologic conceptual model of the Los Medanos region near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for the purpose of performance assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinster, K.F. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a geohydrologic conceptual model of the northern Delaware Basin to be used in modeling three-dimensional, regional ground-water flow for assessing the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the Los Medanos region near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Geochemical and hydrological evidence indicates that flow is transient in the Rustler Formation and the Capitan aquifer in response to changing geologic, hydrologic, and climatic conditions. Before the Pleistocene, ground-water flow in the Rustler Formation was generally eastward, but uneven tilting of the Delaware Basin lowered the regional base level and formed fractures in the evaporitic sequence of rocks approximately parallel to the basin axis. Dissolution along the fractures, coupled with erosion, formed Nash Draw. Also, the drop in base level resulted in an increase in the carrying power of the Pecos River, which began incising the Capitan/aquifer near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Erosion and downcutting released hydraulic pressure that caused a reversal in Rustler ground-water flow direction near the WIPP. Flow in the Rustler west of the WIPP is toward Nash Draw and eventually toward Malaga Bend; flow south of the WIPP is toward Malaga Bend. 126 refs., 70 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Conceptual Model Summary Report Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual model was developed for the Arches Province that integrates geologic and hydrologic information on the Eau Claire and Mt. Simon formations into a geocellular model. The conceptual model describes the geologic setting, stratigraphy, geologic structures, hydrologic features, and distribution of key hydraulic parameters. The conceptual model is focused on the Mt. Simon sandstone and Eau Claire formations. The geocellular model depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array that may be imported into the numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, geotechnical test results, and reservoir tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional (3D) grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data were corrected in locations where reservoir tests have been performed in Mt. Simon injection wells. The final geocellular model covers an area of 600 km by 600 km centered on the Arches Province. The geocellular model includes a total of 24,500,000 cells representing estimated porosity and permeability distribution. CO{sub 2} injection scenarios were developed for on-site and regional injection fields at rates of 70 to 140 million metric tons per year.

  11. Impact of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on stratocumulus and precipitation in the Southeast Pacific: A regional modeling study using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Berg, Larry K.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Morrison, H.

    2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud-system resolving simulations with the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model are used to quantify the impacts of regional anthropogenic and oceanic emissions on changes in aerosol properties, cloud macro- and microphysics, and cloud radiative forcing over the Southeast Pacific (SEP) during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) (15 Oct–Nov 16, 2008). The effects of oceanic aerosols on cloud properties, precipitation, and the shortwave forcing counteract those of anthropogenic aerosols. Despite the relatively small changes in Na concentrations (2-12%) from regional oceanic emissions, their net effect (direct and indirect) on the surface shortwave forcing is opposite and comparable or even larger in magnitude compared to those of regional anthropogenic emissions over the SEP. Two distinct regions are identified in the VOCALS-REx domain. The near-coast polluted region is characterized with strong droplet activation suppression of small particles by sea-salt particles, the more important role of the first than the second indirect effect, low surface precipitation rate, and low aerosol-cloud interaction strength associated with anthropogenic emissions. The relatively clean remote region is characterized with large contributions of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN, number concentration denoted by NCCN) and droplet number concentrations (Nd) from non-local sources (lateral boundaries), a significant amount of surface precipitation, and high aerosol-cloud interactions under a scenario of five-fold increase in anthropogenic emissions. In the clean region, cloud properties have high sensitivity (e.g., 13% increase in cloud-top height and a 9% surface albedo increase) to the moderate increase in CCN concentration (?Nccn = 13 cm-3; 25%) produced by a five-fold increase in regional anthropogenic emissions. The increased anthropogenic aerosols reduce the precipitation amount over the relatively clean remote ocean. The reduction of precipitation (as a cloud water sink) more than doubles the wet scavenging timescale, resulting in an increased aerosol lifetime in the marine boundary layer. Therefore, the aerosol impacts on precipitation are amplified by the positive feedback of precipitation on aerosol. The positive feedback ultimately alters the cloud micro- and macro-properties, leading to strong aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. The higher sensitivity of clouds to anthropogenic aerosols over this region is also related to a 16% entrainment rate increase due to anthropogenic aerosols. The simulated aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions are stronger at night over the clean marine region, while during the day, solar heating results in more frequent decoupling, thinner clouds, reduced precipitation, and reduced sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. The simulated high sensitivity to the increased anthropogenic emissions over the clean region suggests that the perturbation of the clean marine environment with anthropogenic aerosols may have a larger effect on climate than that of already polluted marine environments.

  12. Evaluation of the accuracy of the EPA model for BOD5 prediction in various climatic regions of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutny, Jessica Leigh

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on evaluating the effectiveness of the EPA's first-order BOD? removal model for predicting BOD? reductions in residential constructed wetlands. Monthly grab sample data from nine constructed wetlands designed using the EPA BOD5...

  13. Statistical Modelling of the Relationship Between Main Development Region Sea Surface Temperature and \\emph{Landfalling} Atlantic Basin Hurricane Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binter, R; Khare, S; Binter, Roman; Jewson, Stephen; Khare, Shree

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are building a hurricane number prediction scheme that relies, in part, on statistical modelling of the empirical relationship between Atlantic sea surface temperatures and landfalling hurricane numbers. We test out a number of simple statistical models for that relationship, using data from 1900 to 2005 and data from 1950 to 2005, and for both all hurricane numbers and intense hurricane numbers. The results are very different from the corresponding analysis for basin hurricane numbers.

  14. Rutgers Regional Report # Regional Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    , population, income, and building permits over a 32-year period from 1969 to 2001 for the 31-county Tri counties of the Tri-State (Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York) Region have been divided for analytical the nation and the Tri-State Region. What has not been fully documented, however, is the apparent shift

  15. Eddy Fluxes and Sensitivity of the Water Cycle to Spatial Resolution in Idealized Regional Aquaplanet Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Gustafson, William I.; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-scale moisture budget analysis is used to identify the mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of the water cycle to spatial resolution using idealized regional aquaplanet simulations. In the higher resolution simulations, moisture transport by eddies fluxes dry the boundary layer enhancing evaporation and precipitation. This effect of eddies, which is underestimated by the physics parameterizations in the low-resolution simulations, is found to be responsible for the sensitivity of the water cycle both directly, and through its upscale effect, on the mean circulation. Correlations among moisture transport by eddies at adjacent ranges of scales provides the potential for reducing this sensitivity by representing the unresolved eddies by their marginally resolved counterparts.

  16. Determining Greenland Ice Sheet sensitivity to regional climate change: one-way coupling of a 3-D thermo-mechanical ice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, Nicole-Jeanne

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in running RCM’s over Greenland to produce high-qualityoutlet glaciers. For Greenland, this detail is specificallyCurrently, no coupled Greenland Ice Sheet model experiment

  17. Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

    2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this DOE project the improvements to parameterization of marine primary organic matter (POM) emissions, hygroscopic properties of marine POM, marine isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) emissions, surfactant effects, new cloud droplet activation parameterization have been implemented into Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0), with a seven mode aerosol module from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)���¢��������s Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). The effects of marine aerosols derived from sea spray and ocean emitted biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on microphysical properties of clouds were explored by conducting 10 year CAM5.0-MAM7 model simulations at a grid resolution 1.9�������°��������2.5�������° with 30 vertical layers. Model-predicted relationship between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of CCN in remote marine atmosphere was compared to data from the A-Train satellites (MODIS, CALIPSO, AMSR-E). Model simulations show that on average, primary and secondary organic aerosol emissions from the ocean can yield up to 20% increase in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) at 0.2% Supersaturation, and up to 5% increases in droplet number concentration of global maritime shallow clouds. Marine organics were treated as internally or externally mixed with sea salt. Changes associated with cloud properties reduced (absolute value) the model-predicted short wave cloud forcing from -1.35 Wm-2 to -0.25 Wm-2. By using different emission scenarios, and droplet activation parameterizations, this study suggests that addition of marine primary aerosols and biologically generated reactive gases makes an important difference in radiative forcing assessments. All baseline and sensitivity simulations for 2001 and 2050 using global-through-urban WRF/Chem (GU-WRF) were completed. The main objective of these simulations was to evaluate the capability of GU-WRF for an accurate representation of the global atmosphere by exploring the most accurate configuration of physics options in GWRF for global scale modeling in 2001 at a horizontal grid resolution of 1�������° x 1�������°. GU-WRF model output was evaluated using observational datasets from a variety of sources including surface based observations (NCDC and BSRN), model reanalysis (NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis and CMAP), and remotely-sensed data (TRMM) to evaluate the ability of GU-WRF to simulate atmospheric variables at the surface as well as aloft. Explicit treatment of nanoparticles produced from new particle formation in GU-WRF/Chem-MADRID was achieved by expanding particle size sections from 8 to 12 to cover particles with the size range of 1.16 nm to 11.6 �������µm. Simulations with two different nucleation parameterizations were conducted for August 2002 over a global domain at a 4�������º by 5�������º horizontal resolution. The results are evaluated against field measurement data from the 2002 Aerosol Nucleation and Real Time Characterization Experiment (ANARChE) in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as satellite and reanalysis data. We have also explored the relationship between ���¢��������clean marine���¢������� aerosol optical properties and ocean surface wind speed using remotely sensed data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the CALIPSO satellite and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on board the AQUA satellite. Detailed data analyses

  18. Model documentation: Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is a component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. This report documents the archived version of NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts used in support of the Annual Energy Outlook 1994, DOE/EIA-0383(94). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. It is intended to fulfill the legal obligation of the EIA to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). This report represents Volume 1 of a two-volume set. (Volume 2 will report on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.) Subsequent chapters of this report provide: (1) an overview of the NGTDM (Chapter 2); (2) a description of the interface between the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the NGTDM (Chapter 3); (3) an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM (Chapter 4); (4) the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module (Chapter 5); (5) the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module (Chapter 6); (6) the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module (Chapter 7); (7) the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module (Chapter 8); and (8) a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs (Chapter 9).

  19. New Semidefinite Programming Relaxations for the Linear Ordering ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Her model is based on the observation that linear orderings can be fully described by a series of cuts. .... [48] and input-output analysis [39]), sociology (

  20. A Comparative SWOT Analysis of the National Agricultural Extension Program Organization to Determine Best-Fit Program Model: A Case Study of the North West and South West Regions of Cameroon.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyambi, Gwendoline

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A COMPARATIVE SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PROGRAM ORGANIZATION TO DETERMINE BEST-FIT PROGRAM MODEL: A CASE STUDY OF THE NORTH WEST AND SOUTH WEST REGIONS OF CAMEROON A Dissertation by GWENDOLINE NA-AH NYAMBI... A Comparative SWOT Analysis of the National Agricultural Extension Program Organization to Determine Best-Fit Program Model: A Case Study of the North West and South West Regions of Cameroon Copyright 2012 Gwendoline Na-ah Nyambi A COMPARATIVE...

  1. User's guide for SAMMY: a computer model for multilevel r-matrix fits to neutron data using Bayes' equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, N. M.; Perey, F. G.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for determining the parameters of a model from experimental data based upon the utilization of Bayes' theorem. This method has several advantages over the least-squares method as it is commonly used; one important advantage is that the assumptions under which the parameter values have been determined are more clearly evident than in many results based upon least squares. Bayes' method has been used to develop a computer code which can be utilized to analyze neutron cross-section data by means of the R-matrix theory. The required formulae from the R-matrix theory are presented, and the computer implementation of both Bayes' equations and R-matrix theory is described. Details about the computer code and compelte input/output information are given.

  2. National and Regional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use inCost-Benefit Models and Evaluations of Water Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Diane C.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculating the benefits and costs of water conservation orefficiency programs requires knowing the marginal cost of the water andwastewater saved by those programs. Developing an accurate picture of thepotential cost savings from water conservation requires knowing the costof the last few units of water consumed or wastewater released, becausethose are the units that would be saved by increased water efficiency.This report describes the data we obtained on water and wastewater ratesand costs, data gaps we identified, and other issues related to using thedata to estimate the cost savings that might accrue from waterconservation programs. We identified three water and wastewater ratesources. Of these, we recommend using Raftelis Financial Corporation(RFC) because it: a) has the most comprehensive national coverage; and b)provides greatest detail on rates to calculate marginal rates. The figurebelow shows the regional variation in water rates for a range ofconsumption blocks. Figure 1A Marginal Rates of Water Blocks by Regionfrom RFC 2004Water and wastewater rates are rising faster than the rateof inflation. For example, from 1996 to 2004 the average water rateincreased 39.5 percent, average wastewater rate increased 37.8 percent,the CPI (All Urban) increased 20.1 percent, and the CPI (Water andSewerage Maintenance) increased 31.1 percent. On average, annualincreases were 4.3 percent for water and 4.1 percent for wastewater,compared to 2.3 percent for the All Urban CPI and 3.7 percent for the CPIfor water and sewerage maintenance. If trends in rates for water andwastewater rates continue, water-efficient products will become morevaluable and more cost-effective.

  3. USING STRUCTURAL EQUATIONS MODELLING TO UNRAVEL THE INFLUENCE OF LAND USE PATTERNS ON TRAVEL BEHAVIOR OF URBAN ADULT WORKERS OF PUGET SOUND REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Abreu e Silva, Joăo; Goulias, Konstadinos G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    behavior observation in the Puget Sound region: sampleHighway Administration and the Puget Sound Regional Council,OF URBAN ADULT WORKERS OF PUGET SOUND REGION Joăo de Abreu e

  4. Using Structural Equations Modelling to Unravel the Influence of Land Use Patterns on Travel Behavior of Urban Adult Workers of Puget Sound Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    e Silva, Joao de Abreu; Goulias, Konstadinos G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    behavior observation in the Puget Sound region: sampleHighway Administration and the Puget Sound Regional Council,OF URBAN ADULT WORKERS OF PUGET SOUND REGION Joăo de Abreu e

  5. Non-linear force-free field modeling of a solar active region around the time of a major flare and coronal mass ejection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Schrijver; M. L. DeRosa; T. Metcalf; G. Barnes; B. Lites; T. Tarbell; J. McTiernan; G. Valori; T. Wiegelmann; M. S. Wheatland; T. Amari; G. Aulanier; P. Demoulin; M. Fuhrmann; K. Kusano; S. Regnier; J. K. Thalmann

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are associated with rapid changes in field connectivity and powered by the partial dissipation of electrical currents in the solar atmosphere. A critical unanswered question is whether the currents involved are induced by the motion of pre-existing atmospheric magnetic flux subject to surface plasma flows, or whether these currents are associated with the emergence of flux from within the solar convective zone. We address this problem by applying state-of-the-art nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) modeling to the highest resolution and quality vector-magnetographic data observed by the recently launched Hinode satellite on NOAA Active Region 10930 around the time of a powerful X3.4 flare. We compute 14 NLFFF models with 4 different codes and a variety of boundary conditions. We find that the model fields differ markedly in geometry, energy content, and force-freeness. We discuss the relative merits of these models in a general critique of present abilities to model the coronal magnetic field based on surface vector field measurements. For our application in particular, we find a fair agreement of the best-fit model field with the observed coronal configuration, and argue (1) that strong electrical currents emerge together with magnetic flux preceding the flare, (2) that these currents are carried in an ensemble of thin strands, (3) that the global pattern of these currents and of field lines are compatible with a large-scale twisted flux rope topology, and (4) that the ~10^32 erg change in energy associated with the coronal electrical currents suffices to power the flare and its associated coronal mass ejection.

  6. Soil Carbon Change and Net Energy Associated with Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands: A Regional Modeling Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandaru, Varaprasad; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Link, Robert P.; Zhang, Xuesong; Post, W. M.

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of marginal lands (MLs) for biofuel production has been contemplated as a promising solution for meeting biofuel demands. However, there have been concerns with spatial location of MLs, their inherent biofuel potential, and possible environmental consequences with the cultivation of energy crops. Here, we developed a new quantitative approach that integrates high-resolution land cover and land productivity maps and uses conditional probability density functions for analyzing land use patterns as a function of land productivity to classify the agricultural lands. We subsequently applied this method to determine available productive croplands (P-CLs) and non-crop marginal lands (NC-MLs) in a nine-county Southern Michigan. Furthermore, Spatially Explicit Integrated Modeling Framework (SEIMF) using EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) was used to understand the net energy (NE) and soil organic carbon (SOC) implications of cultivating different annual and perennial production systems.

  7. Model testing using Chernobyl data: III. Atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides in Ukrainian regions impacted by Chernobyl fallout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garger, E.K. [Inst. of Radioecology, Kiev (Ukraine); Hoffman, F.O. [SENES Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States); Miller, C.W. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The {open_quotes}Resuspension{close_quotes} scenario is designed to test models for atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides from contaminated soils. Resuspension can be a secondary source of contamination after a release has stopped, as well as a source of contamination for people and areas not exposed to the original release. The test scenario describes three exposure situations: (1) locations within the highly contaminated 30-km zone at Chernobyl, where exposures to resuspended material are probably dominated by local processes; (2) an urban area (Kiev) outside the 30-km zone, where local processes include extensive vehicular traffic; and (3) a location 40 to 60 km west of the Chernobyl reactor, where upwind sources of contamination are important. Input data include characteristics of the {sup 137}Cs ground contamination around specific sites, climatological data for the sites, characteristics of the terrain and topography, and locations of the sampling sites. Predictions are requested for average air concentrations of {sup 137}Cs at specified locations due to resuspension of Chernobyl fallout and for specified resuspension factors and rates. Test data (field measurements) are available for all endpoints. 9 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Physical and chemical properties of the regional mixed layer of Mexico's Megapolis – Part II: Evaluation of measured and modeled trace gases and particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ochoa, Carlos; Baumgardner, Darrel; Grutter, M.; Allan, James D.; Fast, Jerome D.; Rappengluck, B.

    2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study extends the work of Baumgardner et al. (2009) in which measurements of trace gases and particles at a remote, high-altitude mountain site 60 km from Mexico City were analyzed with respect to the origin of air masses. In the current evaluation, the temperature, water vapor, ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), acyl peroxy nitrate (APN) and particle size distributions (PSDs) of the mass concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and organic mass (OM) were simulated with the WRF-Chem chemical transport model and compared with the measurements at the mountain site. The model prediction of the diurnal trends of the gases were well correlated with the measurements before the regional boundary layer reached the measurement site but underestimated the concentrations after that time. The differences are caused by an overly rapid growth of the boundary layer by the model with too much dilution. There also appears to be more O3 produced by photochemical production, downwind of the emission sources, than predicted by the model. The measured and modeled PSDs compare very well with respect to their general shape and diameter of the peak concentrations. The spectra are log normally distributed with most of the mass in the accumulation mode and the geometric diameter centered at 200 ±20 nm, with little observed or predicted change with respect to the origin of the air mass or the time when the RBL is above the Altzomoni research. Only the total mass changed with time and air mass origin. The invariability of the average diameter of the accumulation mode suggests that there is very little growth of the particles by condensation or coagulation after six hours of aging downwind of the major sources of anthropogenic emissions in Mexico’s Megapolis.

  9. Full-fuel-cycle approach to vehicle emissions modeling: A case study of gasoline in the southeastern region of the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, S.R.; Gupta, M. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Greening, L.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of full-fuel-cycle analysis as a scientific, economic, and policy tool for the evaluation of alternative sources of transportation energy has become increasingly widespread. However, consistent methods for performance of these types of analyses are only now becoming recognized and utilized. The work presented here provides a case study of full-fuel-cycle analysis methods applied to the evaluation of gasoline in the southeastern region of the United States. Results of the study demonstrate the significance of nonvehicle processes, such as fuel refining, in terms of energy expenditure and emissions production. Unique to this work is the application of the MOBILE5 mobile emissions model in the full-fuel-cycle analysis. Estimates of direct and indirect greenhouse gas production are also presented and discussed using the full-fuel-cycle analysis method.

  10. SIMULATION MODEL ANALYSIS OF THE MOST PROMISING GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION FORMATION CANDIDATES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION, USA, WITH FOCUS ON UNCERTAINTY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Will, Robert; Eisinger, Chris; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to report results of reservoir model simulation analyses for forecasting subsurface CO2 storage capacity estimation for the most promising formations in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. A particular emphasis of this project was to assess uncertainty of the simulation-based forecasts. Results illustrate how local-scale data, including well information, number of wells, and location of wells, affect storage capacity estimates and what degree of well density (number of wells over a fixed area) may be required to estimate capacity within a specified degree of confidence. A major outcome of this work was development of a new workflow of simulation analysis, accommodating the addition of “random pseudo wells” to represent virtual characterization wells.

  11. Documentation of the DRI Model of the US economy, December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) uses models of the US economy developed by Data Resources, Inc. (DRI) for conducting policy analyses, preparing forecasts for the Annual Energy Outlook, the Short-Term Energy Outlook, and related analyses in conjunction with EIA`s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and its other energy market models. Both the DRI Model of the US Economy and the DRI Personal Computer Input-Output Model (PC-IO){sup 2} were developed and are maintained by DRI as proprietary models. This report provides documentation, as required by EIA standards for the use of proprietary models; describes the theoretical basis, structure and functions of both DRI models; and contains brief descriptions of the models and their equations. Appendix A describes how the two large-scale models documented here are used to support the macroeconomic and interindustry modeling associated with the National Energy Modeling System. Appendix B is an article by Stephen McNees of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston on ``How Large are Economic Forecast Errors.`` This article assesses the forecast accuracy of a number of economic forecasting models (groups) and is attached as an independent assessment of the forecast accuracy of the DRI Model of the US Economy.

  12. Three-dimensional modeling of ionized gas. II. Spectral energy distributions of massive and very massive stars in stationary and time-dependent modeling of the ionization of metals in HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, J A; Hoffmann, T L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HII regions play a crucial role in the measurement of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium and provide fundamental data about element abundances that constrain models of galactic chemical evolution. Discrepancies that still exist between observed emission line strengths and those predicted by nebular models can be partly attributed to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the sources of ionizing radiation used in the models as well as simplifying assumptions made in nebular modeling. The influence of stellar metallicity on nebular line strength ratios, via its effect on the SEDs, is of similar importance as variations in the nebular metallicity. We have computed a grid of model atmosphere SEDs for massive and very massive O-type stars covering a range of metallicities from significantly subsolar (0.1 Zsun) to supersolar (2 Zsun). The SEDs have been computed using a state-of-the-art model atmosphere code that takes into account the attenuation of the ionizing flux by the spectral lines of ...

  13. BULGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES CYBERNETICS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES Volume 12, No 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borissova, Daniela

    · 2012 Algorithm for Multiple Model Adaptive Control Based on Input-Output Plant Model Tsonyo Slavov_slavov@tu-sofia.bg Abstract: An algorithm for multiple model adaptive control of a time-variant plant in the presence on the base of time invariant input/output models. The control signal is formed as weighting sum

  14. Developing regionalized models of lithospheric thickness and velocity structure across Eurasia and the Middle East from jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julia, J; Nyblade, A; Hansen, S; Rodgers, A; Matzel, E

    2009-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, we are developing models of lithospheric structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East by regionalizing 1D velocity models obtained by jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities. We expect the regionalized velocity models will improve our ability to predict travel-times for local and regional phases, such as Pg, Pn, Sn and Lg, as well as travel-times for body-waves at upper mantle triplication distances in both seismic and aseismic regions of Eurasia and the Middle East. We anticipate the models will help inform and strengthen ongoing and future efforts within the NNSA labs to develop 3D velocity models for Eurasia and the Middle East, and will assist in obtaining model-based predictions where no empirical data are available and for improving locations from sparse networks using kriging. The codes needed to conduct the joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), S-wave receiver functions (SRFs), and dispersion velocities have already been assembled as part of ongoing research on lithospheric structure in Africa. The methodology has been tested with synthetic 'data' and case studies have been investigated with data collected at an open broadband stations in South Africa. PRFs constrain the size and S-P travel-time of seismic discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle, SRFs constrain the size and P-S travel-time of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and dispersion velocities constrain average S-wave velocity within frequency-dependent depth-ranges. Preliminary results show that the combination yields integrated 1D velocity models local to the recording station, where the discontinuities constrained by the receiver functions are superimposed to a background velocity model constrained by the dispersion velocities. In our first year of this project we will (i) generate 1D velocity models for open broadband seismic stations in the western half of the study area (Eurasia and the Middle East) and (ii) identify well located seismic events with event-station paths isolated to individual tectonic provinces within the study area and collect broadband waveforms and source parameters for the selected events. The 1D models obtained from the joint inversion will then be combined with published geologic terrain maps to produce regionalized models for distinctive tectonic areas within the study area, and the models will be validated through full waveform modeling of well-located seismic events recorded at local and regional distances.

  15. Regional long-term production modeling from a single well test, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Brian; Kurihara, Masanori; White, Mark D.; Moridis, George J.; Wilson, Scott J.; Pooladi-Darvish, Mehran; Gaddipati, Manohar; Masuda, Yoshihiro; Collett, T. S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Narita, Hideo; Rose, Kelly K.; Boswell, Ray

    2011-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the results from the open-hole formation pressure response test in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert well) using Schlumberger’s Modular Dynamics Formation Tester (MDT) wireline tool, the International Methane Hydrate Reservoir Simulator Code Comparison project performed long-term reservoir simulations on three different model reservoirs. These descriptions were based on 1) the Mount Elbert gas hydrate accumulation as delineated by an extensive history-matching exercise, 2) an estimation of the hydrate accumulation near the Prudhoe Bay L-pad, and 3) a reservoir that would be down-dip of the Prudhoe Bay L-pad and therefore warmer and deeper. All of these simulations were based, in part, on the results of the MDT results from the Mount Elbert Well. The comparison group’s consensus value for the initial perme- ability of the hydrate-filled reservoir (k = 0.12 mD) and the permeability model based on the MDT history match were used as the basis for subsequent simulations on the three regional scenarios. The simulation results of the five different simulation codes, CMG STARS, HydrateResSim, MH-21 HYDRES, STOMP-HYD, and TOUGHţHYDRATE exhibit good qualitative agreement and the variability of potential methane production rates from gas hydrate reservoirs is illustrated. As expected, the pre- dicted methane production rate increased with increasing in situ reservoir temperature; however, a significant delay in the onset of rapid hydrate dissociation is observed for a cold, homogeneous reservoir and it is found to be repeatable. The inclusion of reservoir heterogeneity in the description of this cold reservoir is shown to eliminate this delayed production. Overall, simulations utilized detailed information collected across the Mount Elbert reservoir either obtained or determined from geophysical well logs, including thickness (37 ft), porosity (35%), hydrate saturation (65%), intrinsic permeability (1000 mD), pore water salinity (5 ppt), and formation temperature (3.3–3.9 ?C). This paper presents the approach and results of extrapolating regional forward production modeling from history-matching efforts on the results from a single well test.

  16. Realizing Torque Controllers for Underactuated Bipedal Walking Using the Ideal Model Resolved Motion Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cousineau, Eric Andrew

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    ), which is a simple method to convert ideal torque controllers to PD controllers to implement on hardware. Walking was first achieved using the proven method of the hybrid zero dynamics (HZD) reconstruction, followed by the Input-Output Feedback...

  17. Regional Portfolio Model Redevelopment Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Lost Opportunity Conservation 4. CO2 emission tracking 5. Dispatch of existing and new resources 6 futures) 11©2012 Navigant Consulting, Inc. E N E R G Y ­ Equilibrium electricity prices over time (able

  18. african region summary: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model (MRCM) in simulating the West African monsoon. The MRCM is built on the Regional Climate Model, ... Im, Eun-Soon 12 Regional Summary Gulf of Mexico Region Management...

  19. REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mays, Larry W.

    CHAPTER 3 REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND CAPACITY EXPANSION MODELS Messele Z. Ejeta California Department of Water Resources Sacramento, California Larry W. Mays Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona 3.1 INTRODUCTION Water supply planning on a regional scale

  20. Rigidity of a spherical capsule switches the localization of encapsulated particles between inner and peripheral regions under crowding condition: Simple model on cellular architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shew, Chwen-Yang, E-mail: chwenyang.shew@csi.cuny.edu; Kondo, Kenta [Department of Chemistry, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, 2800 Victory Boulevard, Staten Island, New York 10314 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, 2800 Victory Boulevard, Staten Island, New York 10314 (United States); Yoshikawa, Kenichi [Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan)] [Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the inhomogeneous interior of confined spherical cavities as capsules containing encapsulated binary hard sphere mixtures for different compositions and cavity wall rigidity. Such a greatly simplified model manifests the effects of macromolecular crowding arising from excluded volume interactions in a tiny cell or a cellular nucleus. By fixing the number of large particles, the level of crowding is adjusted by changing the amount of small hard spheres in the cavity. For a rigid cavity, large spheres tend to pack in liquid-like order apart from the surface to the center of the cavity as the crowding level is increased. Whereas, for a soft cavity, larger spheres tend to blend with small spheres in the peripheral region at near the boundary of the cavity, and are susceptible to be depleted from the interior of the cavity as the cavity becomes more crowded. These results may help future elucidation of the thermodynamic pathways to stabilize the inhomogeneous structure of mixtures confined in cavities, such as the derepression of genome materials around the interior rim of the nucleus in a cancerous cell.

  1. ImSET 3.1: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies Model Description and User's Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Michael J.; Livingston, Olga V.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2009-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This 3.1 version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the next generation of the previously-built ImSET model (ImSET 2.0) that was developed in 2005 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. In particular, a special-purpose version of the Benchmark National Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)–developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version features the use of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis 2002 national input-output table and the central processing code has been moved from the FORTRAN legacy operating environment to a modern C++ code. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act. While it does not include the ability to model certain dynamic features of markets for labor and other factors of production featured in the more complex models, for most purposes these excluded features are not critical. The analysis is credible as long as the assumption is made that relative prices in the economy would not be substantially affected by energy efficiency investments. In most cases, the expected scale of these investments is small enough that neither labor markets nor production cost relationships should seriously affect national prices as the investments are made. The exact timing of impacts on gross product, employment, and national wage income from energy efficiency investments is not well-enough understood that much special insight can be gained from the additional dynamic sophistication of a macroeconomic simulation model. Thus, we believe that this version of ImSET is a cost-effective solution to estimating the economic impacts of the development of energy-efficient technologies.

  2. Regional Summary Pacific Region Management Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , for the Eastern Pacific Ocean, and the Western and Central Pacific Fishery Commission, for the Western PacificRegional Summary Pacific Region Management Context The Pacific Region includes California, Oregon, and Washington. Federal fisheries in this region are managed by the Pacific Fishery Management Council (PFMC

  3. HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM IN PENNSYLVANIA HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM date ­ November 23, 2004 · Contract end date ­ March 31, 2006 #12;Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program in Pennsylvania Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program in Pennsylvania · Objectives ­ Capture

  4. Figure 9. Conceptual model for regionally divergent responses of the air-land fluxes to CO2 fertilization, which increases the water-use efficiency of photosynthesis. In dry regions where

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krakauer, Nir Y.

    parameterizations of these processes in models of Mediterranean- climate lands and obtaining a baseline for assessing changes. Acknowledgments NYK is supported by a NOAA Climate and Global Change postdoctoral.1 (2006). I. Y. Fung, S. C. Doney, K. Lindsay, J. John, Evolution of carbon sinks in a changing climate

  5. Modeling, Optimization and Power Efficiency Comparison of High-speed Inter-chip Electrical and Optical Interconnect Architectures in Nanometer CMOS Technologies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palaniappan, Arun

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Inter-chip input-output (I/O) communication bandwidth demand, which rapidly scaled with integrated circuit scaling, has leveraged equalization techniques to operate reliably on band-limited channels at additional power and ...

  6. 396 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING, VOL. 3, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1995 Two-Tone Suppression in a Cochlear Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Jont

    in the cat [23], [24] and are somewhat broader than those found in some mammals such as the chinchilla [25 at the base of the chinchilla cochlea. I. Input-output functions, tuning curves, and response phases," J

  7. Consistency Tests of Classical and Quantum Models for a Quantum Annealer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tameem Albash; Walter Vinci; Anurag Mishra; Paul A. Warburton; Daniel A. Lidar

    2015-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently the question of whether the D-Wave processors exhibit large-scale quantum behavior or can be described by a classical model has attracted significant interest. In this work we address this question by studying a 503 qubit D-Wave Two device in the "black box" model, i.e., by studying its input-output behavior. Our work generalizes an approach introduced in Boixo et al. [Nat. Commun. 4, 2067 (2013)], and uses groups of up to 20 qubits to realize a transverse Ising model evolution with a ground state degeneracy whose distribution acts as a sensitive probe that distinguishes classical and quantum models for the D-Wave device. Our findings rule out all classical models proposed to date for the device and provide evidence that an open system quantum dynamical description of the device that starts from a quantized energy level structure is well justified, even in the presence of relevant thermal excitations and a small value of the ratio of the single-qubit decoherence time to the annealing time.

  8. An alternative model for ultra-high pressure in the Svartberget Fe-Ti garnet-peridotite, Western Gneiss Region, Norway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, Torgeir Bjørge

    Gneiss Region, Norway JOHANNES C. VRIJMOED1,*, YURI Y. PODLADCHIKOV1 , TORGEIR B. ANDERSEN1 and EBBE H, Norway *Corresponding author, e-mail: j.c.vrijmoed@fys.uio.no 2 Aker Exploration AS, PO Box 580, Sentrum, 4003 Stavanger, Norway Abstract: The previously reported ``Fe-Ti type'' garnet-peridotite is located

  9. Beta relaxation in the shear mechanics of equilibrium viscous liquids: Phenomenology and network modeling of the alpha-beta merging region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bo Jakobsen; Kristine Niss; Claudio Maggi; Niels Boye Olsen; Tage Christensen; Jeppe C. Dyre

    2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The phenomenology of the beta relaxation process in the shear-mechanical response of glass-forming liquids is summarized and compared to that of the dielectric beta process. Furthermore, we discuss how to model the observations by means of standard viscoelastic modeling elements. Necessary physical requirements to such a model are outlined, and it is argued that physically relevant models must be additive in the shear compliance of the alpha and beta parts. A model based on these considerations is proposed and fitted to data for Polyisobutylene 680.

  10. Northwest Regional Technology Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northwest Regional Technology Center for Homeland Security The Northwest Regional Technology Center and deployment of technologies that are effective homeland security solutions for the region, and accelerate technology transfer to the national user community. Foster a collaborative spirit across agencies

  11. Optimal SCR Control Using Data-Driven Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Sun, Yannan; Lian, Jianming; Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Parker, Gordon

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an optimal control solution for the urea injection for a heavy-duty diesel (HDD) selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The approach taken here is useful beyond SCR and could be applied to any system where a control strategy is desired and input-output data is available. For example, the strategy could also be used for the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) system. In this paper, we identify and validate a one-step ahead Kalman state-space estimator for downstream NOx using the bench reactor data of an SCR core sample. The test data was acquired using a 2010 Cummins 6.7L ISB production engine with a 2010 Cummins production aftertreatment system. We used a surrogate HDD federal test procedure (FTP), developed at Michigan Technological University (MTU), which simulates the representative transients of the standard FTP cycle, but has less engine speed/load points. The identified state-space model is then used to develop a tunable cost function that simultaneously minimizes NOx emissions and urea usage. The cost function is quadratic and univariate, thus the minimum can be computed analytically. We show the performance of the closed-loop controller in using a reduced-order discrete SCR simulator developed at MTU. Our experiments with the surrogate HDD-FTP data show that the strategy developed in this paper can be used to identify performance bounds for urea dose controllers.

  12. Open-Loop Control Design via Parametrization Applied in a Two-Level Quantum System Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markku Nihtilä

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In the design of quantum computing devices of the future the basic element is the qubit. It is a two-level quantum system which may describe population transfer from one steady-state to another controlled by a coherent laser field. A four-dimensional real-variable differential equation model is constructed from the complex-valued two-level model describing the wave function of the system. The state transition matrix of the model is constructed via the Wei-Norman technique and Lie algebraic methodology. The idea of parametrization using flatness-based control, is applied to construct feasible input--output pairs of the model. This input drives the state of the system from the given initial state to the given final state in a finite time producing the corresponding output of the pair. The population transfer is obtained by nullifying part of the state vector via careful selection of the parameter functions. A preliminary simulation study completes the paper.

  13. A 4-D Climatology (1979-2009) of the Monthly Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Depth Distribution over the Mediterranean Region from a Comparative Evaluation and Blending of Remote Sensing and Model Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabat, P.; Somot, S.; Mallet, M.; Chiapello, I.; Morcrette, J. -J.; Solmon, F.; Szopa, S.; Dulac, F.; Collins, W.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lee, Y. H.; Naik, Vaishali; Nagashima, T.; Shindell, Drew; Skeie, R. B.

    2013-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the 1980s several spaceborne sensors have been used to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Mediterranean region. In parallel, AOD climatologies coming from different numerical model simulations are now also available, permitting to distinguish the contribution of several aerosol types to the total AOD. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of this unique multiyear database in terms of total AOD and of its apportionment by the five main aerosol types (soil dust, seasalt, sulfate, black and organic carbon). We use 9 different satellite-derived monthly AOD products: NOAA/AVHRR, SeaWiFS (2 products), TERRA/MISR, TERRA/MODIS, AQUA/MODIS, ENVISAT/MERIS, PARASOL/POLDER and MSG/SEVIRI, as well as 3 more historical datasets: NIMBUS7/CZCS, TOMS (onboard NIMBUS7 and Earth- Probe) and METEOSAT/MVIRI. Monthly model datasets include the aerosol climatology from Tegen et al. (1997), the climate-chemistry models LMDz-OR-INCA and RegCM-4, the multi-model mean coming from the ACCMIP exercise, and the reanalyses GEMS and MACC. Ground-based Level- 2 AERONET AOD observations from 47 stations around the basin are used here to evaluate the model and satellite data. The sensor MODIS (on AQUA and TERRA) has the best average AOD scores over this region, showing a relevant spatiotemporal variability and highlighting high dust loads over Northern Africa and the sea (spring and summer), and sulfate aerosols over continental Europe (summer). The comparison also shows limitations of certain datasets (especially MERIS and SeaWiFS standard products). Models reproduce the main patterns of the AOD variability over the basin. The MACC reanalysis is the closest to AERONET data, but appears to underestimate dust over Northern Africa, where RegCM-4 is found closer to MODIS thanks to its interactive scheme for dust emissions. The vertical dimension is also investigated using the CALIOP instrument. This study confirms differences of vertical distribution between dust aerosols showing a large vertical spread, and other continental and marine aerosols which are confined in the boundary layer. From this compilation, we propose a 4-D blended product from model and satellite data, consisting in monthly time series of 3-D aerosol distribution at a 50 km horizontal resolution over the Euro-Mediterranean marine and continental region for the 2003–2009 period. The product is based on the total AOD from AQUA/MODIS, apportioned into sulfates, black and organic carbon from the MACC reanalysis, and into dust and sea-salt aerosols from RegCM-4 simulations, which are distributed vertically based on CALIOP climatology.We extend the 2003–2009 reconstruction to the past up to 1979 using the 2003–2009 average and applying the decreasing trend in sulfate aerosols from LMDz-OR-INCA, whose AOD trends over Europe and the Mediterranean are median among the ACCMIP models. Finally optical properties of the different aerosol types in this region are proposed from Mie calculations so that this reconstruction can be included in regional climate models for aerosol radiative forcing and aerosolclimate studies.

  14. Essays on the Effect of Climate Change on Agriculture and Agricultural Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attavanich, Witsanu

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    climate change impacts on grain transportation flows, this study employs two modeling systems, a U.S. agricultural sector model and an international grain transportation model, with linked inputs/outputs. The main findings are that under climate change: 1...

  15. Modeling and identification of parallel nonlinear systems: Structural classification and parameter estimation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Biophysics Group M715)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural classification and parameter estimation (SCPE) methods are used for studying single-input single-output (SISO) parallel linear-nonlinear-linear (LNL), linear-nonlinear (LN), and nonlinear-linear (NL) system models from input-output (I-O) measurements. The uniqueness of the I-O mappings (see the definition of the I-O mapping in Section 3-A) of some model structures is discussed. The uniqueness of the I-O mappings (see the definition of the I-O mapping in Section 3-A) of some model structures is discussed. The uniqueness of I-O mappings of different models tells them in what conditions different model structures can be differentiated from one another. Parameter uniqueness of the I-O mapping of a given structural model is also discussed, which tells the authors in what conditions a given model's parameters can be uniquely estimated from I-O measurements. These methods are then generalized so that they can be used to study single-input multi-output (SIMO), multi-input single-output (MISO), as well as multi-input multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear system models. Parameter estimation of the two-input single-output nonlinear system model (denoted as the 2f-structure in 2 cited references), which was left unsolved previously, can now be obtained using the newly derived algorithms. Applications of SCPE methods for modeling visual cortical neurons, system fault detection, modeling and identification of communication networks, biological systems, and natural and artificial neural networks are also discussed. The feasibility of these methods is demonstrated using simulated examples. SCPE methods presented in this paper can be further developed to study more complicated block-structures models, and will therefore have future potential for modeling and identifying highly complex multi-input multi-output nonlinear systems.

  16. Aerosol Indirect Effect on the Grid-scale Clouds in the Two-way Coupled WRF-CMAQ: Model Description, Development, Evaluation and Regional Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Shaocai; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Wong, David; Gilliam, R.; Alapaty, Kiran; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This study implemented first, second and glaciations aerosol indirect effects (AIE) on resolved clouds in the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system by including parameterizations for both cloud drop and ice number concentrations on the basis of CMAQpredicted aerosol distributions and WRF meteorological conditions. The performance of the newly-developed WRF-CMAQ model, with alternate CAM and RRTMG radiation schemes, was evaluated with the observations from the CERES satellite and surface monitoring networks (AQS, IMPROVE, CASTNet, STN, and PRISM) over the continental U.S. (CONUS) (12-km resolution) and eastern Texas (4-km resolution) during August and September of 2006. The results at the AQS surface sites show that in August, the NMB values for PM2.5 over the eastern/western U.S (EUS/WUS) and western U.S. (WUS) are 5.3% (?0.1%) and 0.4% (-5.2%) for WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG), respectively. The evaluation of PM2.5 chemical composition reveals that in August, WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) consistently underestimated the observed SO4 2? by -23.0% (-27.7%), -12.5% (-18.9%) and -7.9% (-14.8%) over the EUS at the CASTNet, IMPROVE and STN sites, respectively. Both models (WRF-CMAQ/CAM, WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) overestimated the observed mean OC, EC and TC concentrations over the EUS in August at the IMPROVE sites. Both models generally underestimated the cloud field (SWCF) over the CONUS in August due to the fact that the AIE on the subgrid convective clouds was not considered when the model simulations were run at the 12 km resolution. This is in agreement with the fact that both models captured SWCF and LWCF very well for the 4-km simulation over the eastern Texas when all clouds were resolved by the finer domain. Both models generally overestimated the observed precipitation by more than 40% mainly because of significant overestimation in the southern part of the CONUS in August. The simulations of WRF-CMAQ/CAM and WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG show dramatic improvements for SWCF, LWCF, COD, cloud fractions and precipitation over the ocean relative to those of WRF default cases in August. The model performance in September is similar to that in August except for greater overestimation of PM2.5 due to the overestimations of SO4 2-, NH4 +, NO3 -, and TC over the EUS, less underestimation of clouds (SWCF) over the land areas due to about 10% lower SWCF values and less convective clouds in September.

  17. Reprinted in A S-T X from JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCHM E A fully nonlinear regional wave model for the Bight of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Russell L.

    of Abaco, Bahamas. It discusses this model's hybrid representation for nonlinear transfer and the numerical of the nonlinear-transfer computa- tion, and extends the hybrid representation to various #12;nite depths characteristic of the Abaco Bight. It also extends the previous discussion of truncations of the hybrid repre

  18. Sanders, J. E.; and Merguerian, Charles, 1995b, New York City region: Unique testing ground for flow models of Quaternary continental glaciers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merguerian, Charles

    for flow models of Quaternary continental glaciers. The Mesozoic red-bed fills of the Newark (NY for inferring the flow directions of the Quaternary continental glaciers. The most-recent glacier (Woodfordian that this glacier did not reach much of Long Island and thus did not deposit the Harbor Hill Moraine. The next

  19. SITN Regional Outreach Map

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Region States in Region Awardee(s) Location of Awardee(s) Contact(s) Northeast (Photovoltaics) CT * ME * MA * NH NY * RI * VT Hudson Valley Community College Troy, NY Richard...

  20. Ultracompact HII Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stan Kurtz; Jose Franco

    2001-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We review some recent observational results on the properties of ultracompact HII regions, in particular the presence of extended continuum emission surrounding ultracompact sources and the discovery of a new class of so-called ``Hypercompact'' HII regions. In addition, we discuss recent attempts to probe the density structure within UC HII regions using the technique of spectral index analysis.

  1. Uncertainty of solute flux estimation in ungauged small streams:potential implications for input-output nutrient mass balances Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9(6), 675684 (2005) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -output nutrient mass balances 675 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9(6), 675684 (2005) © EGU Uncertainty of stream nutrient retention/release under a wide spectrum of hydrological conditions. Providing good estimates of the mass balances for nutrients depends on precise hydrological monitoring and good chemical

  2. Identification of potential sources and source regions of fine ambient particles measured at Gosan background site in Korea using advanced hybrid receptor model combined with positive matrix factorization - article no. D22217

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.S.; Moon, K.J.; Kim, Y.J. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Inchon (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Air Quality Research

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The size- and time-resolved measurement of particulate trace elements was made using an eight-stage Davis Rotating Unit for Monitoring sampler and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence system from 29 March to 29 May in 2002 at Gosan, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in east Asia. A sa result, continuous 3-hour average concentrations were obtained for 19 elements including S, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Cl, Cu, Zn, Ti, K, Mn, Pb, Ni, V, Se, As, Rb, Cr, and Br. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to the size-resolved aerosol data sets in order to identify the possible sources and to estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass in each size range. Twelve sources were then resolved in the fine size range ( 0.07 to 1.15 {mu}m), including continental aerosol, biomass burning, coal combustion, oil heating furnace, residual oil-fired boiler, municipal incineration, nonferrous metal source, ferrous metal source, gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, copper smelter, and volcanic emission. A newly developed hybrid receptor model, concentration, retention time, and source emission weighted trajectory (CRSWT) was then applied to the source intensities derived from the PMF analysis by incorporating meteorological and source inventory information of the study region in order to suggest the regional information of long-range transported fine aerosol sources. The CRSWT model was able to resolve highly potential source areas and pathways for the fine ambient aerosol at the Gosan background site.

  3. Glaciation and saline-freshwater mixing as a possible cause of cave formation in the eastern midcontinent region of the United States: A conceptual model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panno, S.V. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (USA)); Bourcier, W.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a hypothesis for the formation of caves and associated karst features near the southern margins of the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian basins. Spatial and temporal relations among intracratonic basins, karstic terrain, and continental glaciation suggest that Pleistocene glaciation may have initiated the discharge of saline waters from the margins of these basins. Glaciation-induced discharge of saline waters could result from the consolidation of sediments due to the overlying pressure of glacial ice, and flushing of underlying aquifers as a result of bottom melting in recharge areas of basic aquifers. The upward migration of basin-derived saline waters into near-surface aquifers would result in the mixing of saline waters with infiltrating glacial meltwater and meteoric water. The development of a vertically restricted zone of mixing of saline and fresh water in limestone aquifers would result in the dissolution of limestone; this mechanism could be responsible for the formation, or at least the initiation of, some caves and associated karst features in the midcontinent region.

  4. Markov Modeling with Soft Aggregation for Safety and Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOPER,J. ARLIN

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The methodology in this report improves on some of the limitations of many conventional safety assessment and decision analysis methods. A top-down mathematical approach is developed for decomposing systems and for expressing imprecise individual metrics as possibilistic or fuzzy numbers. A ''Markov-like'' model is developed that facilitates combining (aggregating) inputs into overall metrics and decision aids, also portraying the inherent uncertainty. A major goal of Markov modeling is to help convey the top-down system perspective. One of the constituent methodologies allows metrics to be weighted according to significance of the attribute and aggregated nonlinearly as to contribution. This aggregation is performed using exponential combination of the metrics, since the accumulating effect of such factors responds less and less to additional factors. This is termed ''soft'' mathematical aggregation. Dependence among the contributing factors is accounted for by incorporating subjective metrics on ''overlap'' of the factors as well as by correspondingly reducing the overall contribution of these combinations to the overall aggregation. Decisions corresponding to the meaningfulness of the results are facilitated in several ways. First, the results are compared to a soft threshold provided by a sigmoid function. Second, information is provided on input ''Importance'' and ''Sensitivity,'' in order to know where to place emphasis on considering new controls that may be necessary. Third, trends in inputs and outputs are tracked in order to obtain significant information% including cyclic information for the decision process. A practical example from the air transportation industry is used to demonstrate application of the methodology. Illustrations are given for developing a structure (along with recommended inputs and weights) for air transportation oversight at three different levels, for developing and using cycle information, for developing Importance and Sensitivity measures for soil aggregation, for developing dependence methodology, for constructing early alert logic, for tracking trends, for relating the Markov model to other (e.g., Reason) models, for developing and demonstrating rudimentary laptop software, and for developing an input/output display methodology.

  5. A Hierarchical Evaluation of Regional Climate Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ringler, Todd; Collins, William D.; Taylor, Mark; Ashfaq, Moetasim

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tools for predicting the evolution of the climate system. Through decades of development, GCMs have demonstrated useful skill in simulating climate at continental to global scales. However, large uncertainties remain in projecting climate change at regional scales, which limit our ability to inform decisions on climate change adaptation and mitigation. To bridge this gap, different modeling approaches including nested regional climate models (RCMs), global stretch-grid models, and global high-resolution atmospheric models have been used to provide regional climate simulations (Leung et al. 2003). In previous efforts to evaluate these approaches, isolating their relative merits was not possible because factors such as dynamical frameworks, physics parameterizations, and model resolutions were not systematically constrained. With advances in high performance computing, it is now feasible to run coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs at horizontal resolution comparable to what RCMs use today. Global models with local refinement using unstructured grids have become available for modeling regional climate (e.g., Rauscher et al. 2012; Ringler et al. 2013). While they offer opportunities to improve climate simulations, significant efforts are needed to test their veracity for regional-scale climate simulations.

  6. Multi-epoch very long baseline interferometric observations of the nuclear starburst region of NGC 253: Improved modeling of the supernova and star formation rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rampadarath, H.; Morgan, J. S.; Tingay, S. J. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA (Australia); Lenc, E., E-mail: hayden.rampadarath@icrar.org [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of multi-epoch observations of the southern starburst galaxy, NGC 253, with the Australian Long Baseline Array at 2.3 GHz are presented. As with previous radio interferometric observations of this galaxy, no new sources were discovered. By combining the results of this survey with Very Large Array observations at higher frequencies from the literature, spectra were derived and a free-free absorption model was fitted of 20 known sources in NGC 253. The results were found to be consistent with previous studies. The supernova remnant, 5.48-43.3, was imaged with the highest sensitivity and resolution to date, revealing a two-lobed morphology. Comparisons with previous observations of similar resolution give an upper limit of 10{sup 4} km s{sup –1} for the expansion speed of this remnant. We derive a supernova rate of <0.2 yr{sup –1} for the inner 300 pc using a model that improves on previous methods by incorporating an improved radio supernova peak luminosity distribution and by making use of multi-wavelength radio data spanning 21 yr. A star formation rate of SFR(M ? 5 M {sub ?}) < 4.9 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1} was also estimated using the standard relation between supernova and star formation rates. Our improved estimates of supernova and star formation rates are consistent with studies at other wavelengths. The results of our study point to the possible existence of a small population of undetected supernova remnants, suggesting a low rate of radio supernova production in NGC 253.

  7. Modeling and frequency domain analysis of nonlinear compliant joints for a passive dynamic swimmer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbajal, Juan Pablo; Ziegler, Marc; Lang, Zi-Qiang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present the study of the mathematical model of a real life joint used in an underwater robotic fish. Fluid-structure interaction is utterly simplified and the motion of the joint is approximated by D\\"uffing's equation. We compare the quality of analytical harmonic solutions previously reported, with the input-output relation obtained via truncated Volterra series expansion. Comparisons show a trade-off between accuracy and flexibility of the methods. The methods are discussed in detail in order to facilitate reproduction of our results. The approach presented herein can be used to verify results in nonlinear resonance applications and in the design of bio-inspired compliant robots that exploit passive properties of their dynamics. We focus on the potential use of this type of joint for energy extraction from environmental sources, in this case a K\\'arm\\'an vortex street shed by an obstacle in a flow. Open challenges and questions are mentioned throughout the document.

  8. CDKN-CARICOM-A Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Regional...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CARICOM-A Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Regional Climate Change Resilience Framework Jump to: navigation, search Name CDKN-CARICOM-A Regional Implementation Plan for...

  9. CEMI Western Regional Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Please Join Assistant Secretary of Energy Dr. David Danielson for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative's Western Regional Summit. Register now for this free event.

  10. Large-scale shell model calculations for odd-odd nuclei and comparison to experimental studies of fission product nuclei in the /sup 132/Sn region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, S.M.; Henry, E.A.; Meyer, R.A.

    1985-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental spectroscopy data of fission products have been obtained using highly automated and rapid chemical separations followed by automated spectroscopy studies of isolated fission products. These data have established the presence of only a single level with spin-parity of 1/sup +/ below 1500 keV of excitation in Z = 51 /sup 132/Sb/sub 81/. This is in contrast to the results of our studies of /sup 130/Sb and /sup 134/I. For /sup 134/I, the N = 81 isotone with Z = 53, we can characterize three 1/sup +/ levels below 1200 keV. For /sup 130/Sb/sub 79/ that has a neutron pair less than /sup 132/Sb, we can identify two 1/sup +/ levels below 1100 keV. We can account for the additional levels using the LLNL shell-model code which is based on the Lanczos tridiagonalization algorithm using an uncoupled m-scheme basis and vector manipulations. The 1g/sub 7/2/, 2d/sub 5/2/, 2d/sub 3/2/, 1h/sub 11/2/, and 3s/sub 1/2/ orbitals are available to the valence protons and the 2d/sub 5/2/, 2d/sub 3/2/, 1h/sub 11/2/, and 3s/sub 1/2/ orbitals are available to the valence neutron holes. Analysis of the wavefunctions show the dominant role of three nucleon cluster configurations in producing the increased number of states at low energy. The absence of nucleon cluster configurations in the parent nucleus /sup 130/Sn is used to explain the reduction of approximately a factor of 20 in the Gamow-Teller beta strength to the low lying 1/sup +/ levels of /sup 130/Sb. 27 references.

  11. Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technolgical, and socioeconomic futures in a regional intergrated-assessment model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Zhou, Yuyu; Rice, Jennie S.; Patel, Pralit L.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Kyle, G. Page; Kim, Son H.; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving the energy efficiency of the building stock, commercial equipment and household appliances can have a major impact on energy use, carbon emissions, and building services. Subnational regions such as U.S. states wish to increase their energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions or adapt to climate change. Evaluating subnational policies to reduce energy use and emissions is difficult because of the uncertainties in socioeconomic factors, technology performance and cost, and energy and climate policies. Climate change may undercut such policies. Assessing these uncertainties can be a significant modeling and computation burden. As part of this uncertainty assessment, this paper demonstrates how a decision-focused sensitivity analysis strategy using fractional factorial methods can be applied to reveal the important drivers for detailed uncertainty analysis.

  12. Regional Analysis Briefs

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2028-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional Analysis Briefs (RABs) provide an overview of specific regions that play an important role in world energy markets, either directly or indirectly. These briefs cover areas that are currently major producers (Caspian Sea), have geopolitical importance (South China Sea), or may have future potential as producers or transit areas (East Africa, Eastern Mediterranean).

  13. A valuation of the economic and social contribution of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @forestry.gsi.gov.uk If you need this publication in an alternative format, for example in large print or in another language Advisor, Input-Output Modelling Branch of The Scottish Government; Caspian Richards and Michael Young

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: A Critical Review of Existing Literature and Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santero, Nicholas

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tools related to life- cycle assessment (LCA) applied toaccomplished using a life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach.EIO-LCA (Economic Input-Output Life-Cycle Assessment) model

  15. Unintended Impacts of Increased Truck Loads on Pavement Supply-chain Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Nakul; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) has also comeInput-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) Model. Greenanalysis-based life-cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) tool is used

  16. Unintended Impacts of Increased Truck Loads on Pavement Supply-Chain Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Nakul; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of  environmental life?cycle assessment (LCA) has also come Input? Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO?LCA) Model.  Green analysis?based life?cycle assessment  (EIO?LCA) tool is 

  17. Body Wave Tomography For Regional Scale Assessment Of Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    . () : GRC; p. () Related Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (8) Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009)...

  18. Econometrica Supplementary Material SUPPLEMENTAL TO "SHARP IDENTIFICATION REGIONS IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molchanov, Ilya

    Econometrica Supplementary Material SUPPLEMENTAL TO "SHARP IDENTIFICATION REGIONS IN MODELS also that by the positive homogeneity of the support function, our moment inequalities can be written

  19. Regional Districts (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Adjacent Water Control and Improvement Districts and Municipal Utility Districts can opt to form a Regional District to oversee water issues. Such districts may be created:(1) to purchase, own,...

  20. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also...

  1. BPACK -- A computer model package for boiler reburning/co-firing performance evaluations. User`s manual, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, K.T.; Li, B.; Payne, R.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual presents and describes a package of computer models uniquely developed for boiler thermal performance and emissions evaluations by the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The model package permits boiler heat transfer, fuels combustion, and pollutant emissions predictions related to a number of practical boiler operations such as fuel-switching, fuels co-firing, and reburning NO{sub x} reductions. The models are adaptable to most boiler/combustor designs and can handle burner fuels in solid, liquid, gaseous, and slurried forms. The models are also capable of performing predictions for combustion applications involving gaseous-fuel reburning, and co-firing of solid/gas, liquid/gas, gas/gas, slurry/gas fuels. The model package is conveniently named as BPACK (Boiler Package) and consists of six computer codes, of which three of them are main computational codes and the other three are input codes. The three main codes are: (a) a two-dimensional furnace heat-transfer and combustion code: (b) a detailed chemical-kinetics code; and (c) a boiler convective passage code. This user`s manual presents the computer model package in two volumes. Volume 1 describes in detail a number of topics which are of general users` interest, including the physical and chemical basis of the models, a complete description of the model applicability, options, input/output, and the default inputs. Volume 2 contains a detailed record of the worked examples to assist users in applying the models, and to illustrate the versatility of the codes.

  2. The F-path approach for pattern generation in microprocessor testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salinas, Jose?

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    very accurate fault model and circuit description. ' Input (output) test patterns are sets of bit strings with each bit corresponding to the value of an input (output) line. Values which each bit can take, depend on the fault model. Usually... approach all possible test patterns can be applied to each functional block (instead of the whole circuit). The smaller number of input lines for the functional blocks reduces the number of test vectors, while in general still retaining the same fault...

  3. The WAMME regional model intercomparison study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Physics, Universite Abdou Moumouni, Niamey, Niger L. M.2007) was run at the Universite Abdou Moumouni (UAM, Niamey,

  4. Regional climate models, spatial data and extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nychka, Douglas

    density function. f(y) = eg(y) or g(y) = log(f(y)) we are interested in the (simple) behavior of g when p from five clim forcings due to solar activity and volcanoes. Red shaded bands show the 5­95% range greenhouse gases ­ without Summary figure from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Fourth Assessement

  5. Regional climate models, spatial data and extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nychka, Douglas

    density function. f(y) = eg(y) or g(y) = log(f(y)) we are interested in the (simple) behavior of g when y bands show the 5­95% range for 19 simulations from five clim forcings due to solar activity Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Fourth Assessement Report. Used as evidence for attributing global

  6. The Regional Watershed Spreadsheet Model (RWSM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Metals Recycling 11) Auto Recycling 12) Old Industrial Areas 13) Power Plants Land Use Mean Concentration of watershed concentrations Output: *Land use specific runoff concentrations Optimization #12;3. Simple User of this plan... Hydro Sed Cu Hg PCB Se Diox PBDE OC Pest Hydro Sed Cu Hg PCB Se Diox PBDE OC PestStep 1 2 3 4 5

  7. Regional Dynamics Model (REDYN) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, searchRayreviewAl., 2005) | OpenRegan,Virginia

  8. FY08 LDRD Final Report Regional Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bader, D C; Chin, H; Caldwell, P M

    2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated, multi-model capability for regional climate change simulation is needed to perform original analyses to understand and prepare for the impacts of climate change on the time and space scales that are critical to California's future environmental quality and economic prosperity. Our intent was to develop a very high resolution regional simulation capability to address consequences of climate change in California to complement the global modeling capability that is supported by DOE at LLNL and other institutions to inform national and international energy policies. The California state government, through the California Energy Commission (CEC), institutionalized the State's climate change assessment process through its biennial climate change reports. The bases for these reports, however, are global climate change simulations for future scenarios designed to inform international policy negotiations, and are primarily focused on the global to continental scale impacts of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. These simulations do not meet the needs of California public and private officials who will make major decisions in the next decade that require an understanding of climate change in California for the next thirty to fifty years and its effects on energy use, water utilization, air quality, agriculture and natural ecosystems. With the additional development of regional dynamical climate modeling capability, LLNL will be able to design and execute global simulations specifically for scenarios important to the state, then use those results to drive regional simulations of the impacts of the simulated climate change for regions as small as individual cities or watersheds. Through this project, we systematically studied the strengths and weaknesses of downscaling global model results with a regional mesoscale model to guide others, particularly university researchers, who are using the technique based on models with less complete parameterizations or coarser spatial resolution. Further, LLNL has now built a capability in state-of-the-science mesoscale climate modeling that complements that which it has in global climate simulation, providing potential sponsors with an end-to-end simulation and analysis program.

  9. Stellar Populations in Circumnuclear Star Forming Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. I. Diaz; M. Alvarez-Alvarez; M. Castellanos

    2002-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study of the stellar populations and gas physical conditions in Circumnuclear Star Forming Regions (CNSFR) based on broad and narrow band photometry and spectrophotometric data, which have been analyzed with the use of evolutionary population synthesis and photoionization models. It is found that most CNSFR show composite stellar populations of slightly different ages. They seem to have the highest abundances in HII region-like objects, showing also N/O overabundances and S/O underabundances by a factor of about three. Also, CNSFR as a class, segregate from the disk HII region family, clustering around smaller $\\eta$' values, and thereforefore higher ionizing temperatures.

  10. The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

    1999-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as Federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997), and FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). Total impact represents both direct and indirect impacts (resending by business), including induced (resending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Profile of DOE Activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE Expenditure Patterns; (4) Measuring DOE/New Mexico's Economic Impact: (5) Technology Transfer within the Federal Labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) Glossary of Terms; and (7) Technical Appendix containing a description of the model.

  11. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  12. asian monsoon region: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model (MRCM) in simulating the West African monsoon. The MRCM is built on the Regional Climate Model, ... Im, Eun-Soon 53 Synoptic Preconditions for Extreme Flooding during the...

  13. Regionally compartmented groundwater flow on Mars Keith P. Harrison1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Keith

    the basis for such a test. Specifically, we use groundwater models to predict regions of cryosphere that groundwater flow was likely regionally compartmented. Furthermore, the consistent occurrence of modeled. Geophys. Res., 114, E04004, doi:10.1029/2008JE003300. 1. Introduction [2] Groundwater is thought to have

  14. Regional Report Issue Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regional Report Introduction The economy of the United States is more than three and one-half years accounting for both increasing shares of the economy and of recessionary employment losses. Manufacturing, driven by globalization and advancing information technology. Recoveries now produce jobs new

  15. Interpolation Theory for Structure-preserving Model Reduction Christopher A. Beattie and Serkan Gugercin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gugercin, Serkan

    rational Krylov-based methods as a special case. This new broader framework allows retention of special systems, whose simulation can make unmanageably large demands on computational resources, creating in a lower dimensional state space, yet having (insofar as is possible) the same input/output response

  16. LEADERSHIP HANDBOOK FOR REGIONAL COMMUNITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

    LEADERSHIP HANDBOOK FOR REGIONAL COMMUNITIES JOHNS HOPKINS ALUMNI ASSOCIATION & THE OFFICE OF ALUMNI RELATIONS #12;Leadership Handbook for Regional Chapters 2 CONTENTS Contents .......................................................................................................................9 Chapter Leadership

  17. Regional Competitions - EERE Commercialization Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Runner-up Teams The Six Regional Competitions The Massachusetts Institute of Technology logo. Northeast Region Lead: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, MA) This...

  18. Extended emission associated with young HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. P. Ellingsen; S. S. Shabala; S. E. Kurtz

    2004-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to make observations of a sample of eight young ultra-compact HII regions, selected on the basis that they have associated class II methanol maser emission. We have made observations sensitive to both compact and extended structures and find both to be present in most sources. The scale of the extended emission in our sample is in general less than that observed towards samples based on IRAS properties, or large single-dish flux densities. Our observations are consistent with a scenario where extended and compact radio continuum emission coexists within HII regions for a significant period of time. We suggest that these observations are consistent with a model where HII evolution takes place within hierarchically structured molecular clouds. This model is the subject of a companion paper (Shabala et al. 2005) and addresses both the association between compact and extended emission and UCHII region lifetime problem.

  19. Regional Transportation Coordination Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden Crescent Regional Planning Commission

    Committee for this study. ? Develop a coordination public transportation plan ? Identify resources required to develop the plan ? Provide policy guidance to lead the planning and coordination effort Golden Crescent Regional Transit 1... of Texas. This resource will be relied upon for further development of the Intermodal Transportation Terminal. ? FTA Section 5309 (Bus) Discretionary Support ? To assist in meeting the GCRPC?s capital replacement needs. This resource...

  20. african high-level regional: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model (MRCM) in simulating the West African monsoon. The MRCM is built on the Regional Climate Model, ... Im, Eun-Soon 6 FREEDOM TO INNOVATE BIOTECHNOLOGY IN AFRICAS...

  1. Mid-21st Century Changes to Surface Hydrology Over the Los Angeles Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Marla Ann

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    regional climate and hydrology modeling. Earth Interactions,Brutsaert, W. , 2005. Hydrology: An Introduction. New York:advanced land-surface/hydrology model with the Penn State/

  2. Model and Analytic Processes for Export License Assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Sandra E.; Whitney, Paul D.; Weimar, Mark R.; Wood, Thomas W.; Daly, Don S.; Brothers, Alan J.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Cook, Diane; Holder, Larry

    2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper represents the Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development (NA-22) Simulations, Algorithms and Modeling (SAM) Program's first effort to identify and frame analytical methods and tools to aid export control professionals in effectively predicting proliferation intent; a complex, multi-step and multi-agency process. The report focuses on analytical modeling methodologies that alone, or combined, may improve the proliferation export control license approval process. It is a follow-up to an earlier paper describing information sources and environments related to international nuclear technology transfer. This report describes the decision criteria used to evaluate modeling techniques and tools to determine which approaches will be investigated during the final 2 years of the project. The report also details the motivation for why new modeling techniques and tools are needed. The analytical modeling methodologies will enable analysts to evaluate the information environment for relevance to detecting proliferation intent, with specific focus on assessing risks associated with transferring dual-use technologies. Dual-use technologies can be used in both weapons and commercial enterprises. A decision-framework was developed to evaluate which of the different analytical modeling methodologies would be most appropriate conditional on the uniqueness of the approach, data availability, laboratory capabilities, relevance to NA-22 and Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (NA-24) research needs and the impact if successful. Modeling methodologies were divided into whether they could help micro-level assessments (e.g., help improve individual license assessments) or macro-level assessment. Macro-level assessment focuses on suppliers, technology, consumers, economies, and proliferation context. Macro-level assessment technologies scored higher in the area of uniqueness because less work has been done at the macro level. An approach to developing testable hypotheses for the macro-level assessment methodologies is provided. The outcome of this works suggests that we should develop a Bayes Net for micro-level analysis and continue to focus on Bayes Net, System Dynamics and Economic Input/Output models for assessing macro-level problems. Simultaneously, we need to develop metrics for assessing intent in export control, including the risks and consequences associated with all aspects of export control.

  3. Land conversion in Amazonia and Northern South America : influences on regional hydrology and ecosystem response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knox, Ryan Gary

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical model of the terrestrial biosphere (Ecosystem Demography Model) is compbined with an atmospheric model (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) to investigate how land conversion in the Amazon and ...

  4. Regional Energy Baseline 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ESL-TR-11-09-02 REGIONAL ENERGY BASELINE (1960 ~ 2009) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 To tal En erg y U se pe r C ap ita (M MB tu) Year Total Energy... Use per Capita (1960-2009) US SEEC 12-States TX Hyojin Kim Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Ph.D. Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. September 2011 ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University...

  5. Regional Energy Baseline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.

    ESL-TR-11-09-02 REGIONAL ENERGY BASELINE (1960 ~ 2009) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 To tal En erg y U se pe r C ap ita (M MB tu) Year Total Energy... Use per Capita (1960-2009) US SEEC 12-States TX Hyojin Kim Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Ph.D. Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. September 2011 ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University...

  6. Regional companies eye growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently Approved JustificationBio-Inspired PowerRegional companies eye

  7. Colorado Regional Faults

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  8. Innovative . Flexible . RegionalInnovative . Flexible . Regional Health Care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihadeh, Alan

    Executive Master in Innovative . Flexible . RegionalInnovative . Flexible . Regional Health Care Learning Outcomes Health Systems, Policy and Reform - Communicating with Policy Makers - Evidence - Human Resources Management - Data and Decision Making Executive Master in Health Care Leadership (EMHCL

  9. Southern Region Watershed Management Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coordinators and the organization, management and activities of the Southern Region Water Quality Planning1 Southern Region Watershed Management Project September 15, 2000 to September 14, 2005 Terminal responding to water quality and conservation issues with educational assistance, technology development

  10. A probabilistic production costing analysis of SO sub 2 emissions reduction strategies for Ohio: Emissions, cost, and employment tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heslin, J.S.; Hobbs, B.F. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach for state- and utility-level analysis of the cost and regional economic impacts of strategies for reducing utility SO{sub 2} emissions is summarized and applied to Ohio. The methodology is based upon probabilistic production costing and economic input-output analysis. It is an improvement over previous approaches because it: accurately models random outages of generating units, must-run constraints on unit output, and the distribution of power demands; and runs quickly on a microcomputer and yet considers the entire range of potential control strategies from a systems perspective. The input-output analysis considers not only the economic effects of utility fuel use and capital investment, but also those of increased electric rates. Two distinct strategies are found to be most attractive for Ohio. The first, more flexible one, consists of emissions dispatching (ED) alone to meet short run emissions reduction targets. A 75 percent reduction can then be achieved by the turn of the century by combining ED and fuel switching (FS) with flue gas desulfurization, limestone injection multistage burners, and physical coal cleaning at selected plants. The second is a scrubber-based strategy which includes ED. By the year 2000, energy conservation becomes a cost effective component of these strategies. In order to minimize compliance costs, acid rain legislation which facilitates emissions trading and places regional tonnage limits on emissions is desirable.

  11. Regional Portfolio Model ResultsRegional Portfolio Model Results Michael Schilmoeller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plans on the efficient frontier Interpreting a plan Issue Studies Carbon control and climate changeChanges in Assumptions and Data CO2 penalty likelihood distribution Conservation base case New programs and re on the efficient frontier Interpreting a plan Issue Studies Carbon control and climate change The economic effects

  12. Expand the Modeling Capabilities of DOE's EnergyPlus Building Energy Simulation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Shirey

    2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    EnergyPlus{trademark} is a new generation computer software analysis tool that has been developed, tested, and commercialized to support DOE's Building Technologies (BT) Program in terms of whole-building, component, and systems R&D (http://www.energyplus.gov). It is also being used to support evaluation and decision making of zero energy building (ZEB) energy efficiency and supply technologies during new building design and existing building retrofits. Version 1.0 of EnergyPlus was released in April 2001, followed by semiannual updated versions over the ensuing seven-year period. This report summarizes work performed by the University of Central Florida's Florida Solar Energy Center (UCF/FSEC) to expand the modeling capabilities of EnergyPlus. The project tasks involved implementing, testing, and documenting the following new features or enhancement of existing features: (1) A model for packaged terminal heat pumps; (2) A model for gas engine-driven heat pumps with waste heat recovery; (3) Proper modeling of window screens; (4) Integrating and streamlining EnergyPlus air flow modeling capabilities; (5) Comfort-based controls for cooling and heating systems; and (6) An improved model for microturbine power generation with heat recovery. UCF/FSEC located existing mathematical models or generated new model for these features and incorporated them into EnergyPlus. The existing or new models were (re)written using Fortran 90/95 programming language and were integrated within EnergyPlus in accordance with the EnergyPlus Programming Standard and Module Developer's Guide. Each model/feature was thoroughly tested and identified errors were repaired. Upon completion of each model implementation, the existing EnergyPlus documentation (e.g., Input Output Reference and Engineering Document) was updated with information describing the new or enhanced feature. Reference data sets were generated for several of the features to aid program users in selecting proper model inputs. An example input data file, suitable for distribution to EnergyPlus users, was created for each new or improved feature to illustrate the input requirements for the model.

  13. Regional Summary Pacific Management Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Bocaccio, Pacific ocean perch, cowcod, and darkblotched and widow rockfish are currently in rebuildingRegional Summary Pacific Management Context The Pacific Region includes California, Oregon, and Washington. Federal fisheries in this region are managed by the Pacific Fishery Management Council (PFMC

  14. 6, 1332313366, 2006 Regional pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 13323­13366, 2006 Regional pollution potentials of major population centers M. G. Lawrence a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Regional pollution potentials. Lawrence (lawrence@mpch-mainz.mpg.de) 13323 #12;ACPD 6, 13323­13366, 2006 Regional pollution potentials

  15. Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courtney Lane

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant period, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to address them, wind and wildlife materials and sample model ordinances. Video and presentations from each in-person meeting and webinar recordings are also available on the site. At the end of the two-year period, PennFuture has accomplished its goal of giving a unified voice and presence to wind energy advocates in the Mid-Atlantic region. We educated a broad range of stakeholders on the benefits of wind energy and gave them the tools to help make a difference in their states. We grew a database of over 500 contacts and hope to continue the discussion and work around the importance of wind energy in the region.

  16. Representing Topological Relationships between Complex Regions by F-Histograms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsakis, Pascal

    Representing Topological Relationships between Complex Regions by F-Histograms Lukasz Wawrzyniak between two regions in terms of the thirteen Allen relations. An index to measure the complexity Work in the modeling of topological relationships often relies on an extension into the spatial domain

  17. CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS FOR THE SAN FRANCISCO REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS FOR THE SAN FRANCISCO REGION A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012042 Prepared for: California possible changes in regional climate over California. To accomplish this, the model simulations were

  18. Quasar H II Regions During Cosmic Reionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcelo A. Alvarez; Tom Abel

    2007-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmic reionization progresses as HII regions form around sources of ionizing radiation. Their average size grows continuously until they percolate and complete reionization. We demonstrate how this typical growth can be calculated around the largest, biased sources of UV emission, such as quasars, by further developing an analytical model based on the excursion set formalism. This approach allows us to calculate the sizes and growth of the HII regions created by the progenitors of any dark matter halo of given mass and redshift with a minimum of free parameters. Statistical variations in the size of these pre-existing HII regions are an additional source of uncertainty in the determination of very high redshift quasar properties from their observed HII region sizes. We use this model to demonstrate that the transmission gaps seen in very high redshift quasars can be understood from the radiation of only their progenitors and associated clustered small galaxies. The fit sets a lower limit on the redshift of overlap at z = 5.8 +/- 0.1. This interpretation makes the transmission gaps independent of the age of the quasars observed. If this interpretation were correct it would raise the prospects of using radio interferometers currently under construction to detect the epoch of reionization.

  19. Understanding Regional Economic Growth in IndiaUnderstanding Regional Economic Growth in India Understanding Regional Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding Regional Economic Growth in IndiaUnderstanding Regional Economic Growth in India Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India* Jeffrey D. Sachs Director The Earth Institute at Columbia_ramiah@yahoo.co.uk Asian Economic Papers 1:3 © 2002 The Earth Institute at Columbia University and the Massachusetts

  20. Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with anisotropy and flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, G. R., E-mail: graham.dennis@anu.edu.au; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes pressure anisotropy and general plasma flows. This anisotropic extension to our previous isotropic model is motivated by Sun and Finn's model of relaxed anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic equilibria. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our anisotropic extension of MRxMHD reduces to anisotropic ideal MHD with flow. The continuously nested flux surface limit of our MRxMHD model is the first variational principle for anisotropic plasma equilibria with general flow fields.

  1. s rsrt r t rs Pstr5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Model Target MetaModel Matching MetaModel Source Model Target Model MTBE Engine links Transformation rulesModel Matching MetaModel Source Model Target Model MTBE Engine Transformation rules Matching Engine conformsTo input/outputIcons: http://cathycreatif.free.fr/ http://www.mecaniqueindustrielle.com/ Simple MTBE

  2. Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s Disease Mouse Model . Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of...

  3. NEAR THE BOUNDARY OF THE HELIOSPHERE: A FLOW TRANSITION REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opher, M. [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA (United States); Drake, J. F. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Velli, M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Decker, R. B. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD (United States); Toth, G., E-mail: mopher@bu.edu [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since April of 2010, Voyager 1 has been immersed in a region of near zero radial flows, where the solar wind seems to have stopped. The existence of this region contradicts current models that predict that the radial flows will go to zero only at the heliopause. These models, however, do not include the sector region (or include it in a kinematic fashion), where the solar magnetic field periodically reverses polarity. Here we show that the presence of the sector region in the heliosheath, where reconnection occurs, fundamentally alters the flows, giving rise to a Flow Transition Region (FTR), where the flow abruptly turns and the radial velocity becomes near zero or negative. We estimate, based on a simulation, that at the Voyager 1 location, the thickness of the FTR is around 7-11 AU.

  4. Coordinated Regional Public Transportation Plan: Heart of Texas Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heart of Texas Council of Governments

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coordinated Regional Public Transportation Plan Heart of Texas Region Bosque, Falls, Freestone, Hill, Limestone & McLennan Counties December 1, 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements... of Texas Council of Governments (HOTCOG) and the McLennan County Youth Collaboration (MCYC) ---21 Central Texas Senior Ministries (CTSM), Hill County Transit (HCT) and Scott and White (S&W) Medical Facilities...

  5. SEADS 3.0 Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roop, Joseph M.; Anderson, David A.; Schultz, Robert W.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    SEADS 3.0, the Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System, is a revision and upgrading of SEADS–PC, a software package designed for the analysis of policy that could be described by modifying final demands of consumer, businesses, or governments (Roop, et al., 1995). If a question can be formulated so that implications can be translated into changes in final demands for goods and services, then SEADS 3.0 provides a quick and easy tool to assess preliminary impacts. And SEADS 3.0 should be considered just that: a quick and easy way to get preliminary results. Often a thorough answer, even to such a simple question as, “What would be the effect on U. S. energy use and employment if the Federal Government doubled R&D expenditures?” requires a more sophisticated analytical framework than the input-output structure embedded in SEADS 3.0. This tool uses a static, input-output model to assess the impacts of changes in final demands on first industry output, then employment and energy use. The employment and energy impacts are derived by multiplying the industry outputs (derived from the changed final demands) by industry-specific energy and employment coefficients. The tool also allows for the specification of regional or state employment impacts, though this option is not available for energy impacts.

  6. Regional Energy Efficiency Programs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Programs Regional Energy Efficiency Programs This presentation covers regional industrial energy efficiency programs in the Midwest, Southeast, and Southwest. Regional Energy...

  7. PITTSBURGH REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    AND COMMUNITIES PITTSBURGH, PA. | AUGUST 2013 #12;PRETA AIR: HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS 32 PITTSBURGH REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS ANALYSIS REPORT PRETA AIR: HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (HAPs)/AIR TOXICS PREPARED BY AUTHORSPITTSBURGH REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS ANALYSIS (PRETA) REPORT PRETA AIR: HAZARDOUS AIR

  8. 1, 497531, 2004 Regional hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    BGD 1, 497­531, 2004 Regional hydrology controls stream microbial biofilms T. J. Battin et al hydrology controls stream microbial biofilms: evidence from a glacial catchment T. J. Battin1, , A. Wille2@pflaphy.pph.univie.ac.at) 497 #12;BGD 1, 497­531, 2004 Regional hydrology controls stream microbial biofilms T. J. Battin et al

  9. Presentation of Regional SDSN Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garulli, Andrea

    ;Conference topics: Pollution in the Mediterranean sea Climate change Improving the management Energy#12;Presentation of UN SDSN and MED SDSN Regional SDSN Center for the Mediterranean Region #12;UN for the Mediterranean Basin Why a Mediterranean Network? Shared history Shared environment Shared future MED

  10. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Mai, T.; Mowers, M.; Uriarte, C.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.; Martinez, A.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a deterministic optimization model of the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States into the future. The model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, is designed to analyze the critical energy issues in the electric sector, especially with respect to potential energy policies, such as clean energy and renewable energy standards or carbon restrictions. ReEDS provides a detailed treatment of electricity-generating and electrical storage technologies and specifically addresses a variety of issues related to renewable energy technologies, including accessibility and cost of transmission, regional quality of renewable resources, seasonal and diurnal generation profiles, variability of wind and solar power, and the influence of variability on the reliability of the electrical grid. ReEDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit statistical treatment of the variability in wind and solar output over time, and consideration of ancillary services' requirements and costs.

  11. The Project The Southern Region Water Quality Regional Coordination Project is designed to promote regional collaboration,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Project The Southern Region Water Quality Regional Coordination Project is designed to promote to protect and restore water resources. Effective approaches for watershed management, pollution prevention to the research, extension and education resources available through the Land Grant University System

  12. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Midwest Regional Summit...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Midwest Regional Summit: Lightweighting Breakout Session Summary Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Midwest Regional Summit: Lightweighting...

  13. Regional Public Coordination Transportation Plan Texoma Region #22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texoma Council of Governments

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in conjunction with TxDOT to increase public awareness of the project. As an integral part of this project, each of the 24 regions studying public transportation in their area was charged with assessing Barriers, Constraints and Best Practices in public... Sherman TAPS TAPS TAPS operates in seven (7) counties, with three (3) of the counties in the Texoma Region. TAPS services include demand response, commuter bus services and special services. Square Miles Population ?00 Rider Trips ?05 Clay 1...

  14. U.S. Regional Demand Forecasts Using NEMS and GIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Jesse A.; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a multi-sector, integrated model of the U.S. energy system put out by the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration. NEMS is used to produce the annual 20-year forecast of U.S. energy use aggregated to the nine-region census division level. The research objective was to disaggregate this regional energy forecast to the county level for select forecast years, for use in a more detailed and accurate regional analysis of energy usage across the U.S. The process of disaggregation using a geographic information system (GIS) was researched and a model was created utilizing available population forecasts and climate zone data. The model's primary purpose was to generate an energy demand forecast with greater spatial resolution than what is currently produced by NEMS, and to produce a flexible model that can be used repeatedly as an add-on to NEMS in which detailed analysis can be executed exogenously with results fed back into the NEMS data flow. The methods developed were then applied to the study data to obtain residential and commercial electricity demand forecasts. The model was subjected to comparative and statistical testing to assess predictive accuracy. Forecasts using this model were robust and accurate in slow-growing, temperate regions such as the Midwest and Mountain regions. Interestingly, however, the model performed with less accuracy in the Pacific and Northwest regions of the country where population growth was more active. In the future more refined methods will be necessary to improve the accuracy of these forecasts. The disaggregation method was written into a flexible tool within the ArcGIS environment which enables the user to output the results in five year intervals over the period 2000-2025. In addition, the outputs of this tool were used to develop a time-series simulation showing the temporal changes in electricity forecasts in terms of absolute, per capita, and density of demand.

  15. Pacific Islands Region News Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pacific Islands Region News Release Contact: Wende Goo FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE 808-721-4098 May 27 of these unique twins by contributing more than 100 hours of work to construct a holding pen for the young seal

  16. Council's Regional Hydropower Potential Scoping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Council's Regional Hydropower Potential Scoping Study Generating Resources Advisory Committee 11 to determine potential, and draw conclusions Determine if realistic, reasonable assumption for hydropower at existing non-powered dams, and upgrades at existing hydropower facilities #12;Questions Asked Can

  17. Anomalous Emission from HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Dickinson

    2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Spinning dust appears to be the best explanation for the anomalous emission that has been observed at $\\sim 10-60$ GHz. One of the best examples of spinning dust comes from a HII region in the Perseus molecular cloud. Observations of other HII regions also show tentative evidence for excess emission at frequencies $\\sim 30$ GHz, although at lower emissivity levels. A new detection of excess emission at 31 GHz in the HII region RCW175 has been made. The most plausible explanation again comes from spinning dust. HII regions are a good place to look for spinning dust as long as accurate radio data spanning the $\\sim 5-100$ GHz range is available.

  18. RAFT Regional Algal Feedstock Testbed

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3B—Integration of Supply Chains III: Algal Biofuels Strategy RAFT Regional Algal Feedstock Testbed Kimberly Ogden, Professor, University of Arizona, Engineering Technical Lead, National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

  19. Regional 166 Direct Loan (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Ohio Development Services Agency's (ODSA) Regional 166 Direct Loan provides low-interest loans to businesses creating new jobs or preserving existing employment opportunities in the State of Ohio.

  20. Residential mobility and location choice: a nested logit model with sampling of alternatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Brian H.; Waddell, Paul

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    empirical results from the Puget Sound region. Environ.residences from the central Puget Sound region. It usesapplication in the Central Puget Sound region The NL model

  1. Understanding Spatial and Spectral Morphologies of Ultracompact H II Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Thomas; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; /Amer. Museum Natural Hist. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.; Banerjee, Robi; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, Ralf S.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.

    2010-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial morphology, spectral characteristics, and time variability of ultracompact H II regions provide strong constraints on the process of massive star formation. We have performed simulations of the gravitational collapse of rotating molecular cloud cores, including treatments of the propagation of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. We here present synthetic radio continuum observations of H II regions from our collapse simulations, to investigate how well they agree with observation, and what we can learn about how massive star formation proceeds. We find that intermittent shielding by dense filaments in the gravitationally unstable accretion flow around the massive star leads to highly variable H II regions that do not grow monotonically, but rather flicker, growing and shrinking repeatedly. This behavior appears able to resolve the well-known lifetime problem. We find that multiple ionizing sources generally form, resulting in groups of ultracompact H II regions, consistent with observations. We confirm that our model reproduces the qualitative H II region morphologies found in surveys, with generally consistent relative frequencies. We also find that simulated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from our model are consistent with the range of observed H II region SEDs, including both regions showing a normal transition from optically thick to optically thin emission, and those with intermediate spectral slopes. In our models, anomalous slopes are solely produced by inhomogeneities in the H II region, with no contribution from dust emission at millimeter or submillimeter wavelengths. We conclude that many observed characteristics of ultracompact H II regions appear consistent with massive star formation in fast, gravitationally unstable, accretion flows.

  2. UNDERSTANDING SPATIAL AND SPECTRAL MORPHOLOGIES OF ULTRACOMPACT H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, New York 10024-5192 (United States); Dullemond, Cornelis P., E-mail: thomas.peters@ita.uni-heidelberg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial morphology, spectral characteristics, and time variability of ultracompact (UC) H II regions provide strong constraints on the process of massive star formation. We have performed simulations of the gravitational collapse of rotating molecular cloud cores, including treatments of the propagation of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. We here present synthetic radio continuum observations of H II regions from our collapse simulations, to investigate how well they agree with observation, and what we can learn about how massive star formation proceeds. We find that intermittent shielding by dense filaments in the gravitationally unstable accretion flow around the massive star leads to highly variable H II regions that do not grow monotonically, but rather flicker, growing and shrinking repeatedly. This behavior appears to be able to resolve the well-known lifetime problem. We find that multiple ionizing sources generally form, resulting in groups of UC H II regions, consistent with observations. We confirm that our model reproduces the qualitative H II region morphologies found in surveys, with generally consistent relative frequencies. We also find that simulated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from our model are consistent with the range of observed H II region SEDs, including both regions showing a normal transition from optically thick to optically thin emission, and those with intermediate spectral slopes. In our models, anomalous slopes are solely produced by inhomogeneities in the H II region, with no contribution from dust emission at millimeter or submillimeter wavelengths. We conclude that many observed characteristics of UC H II regions appear consistent with massive star formation in fast, gravitationally unstable, accretion flows.

  3. Evolution of HII regions in hierarchically structured molecular clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanislav Shabala; Simon Ellingsen; Stan Kurtz; Larry Forbes

    2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present observations of the H91$\\alpha$ recombination line emission towards a sample of nine HII regions associated with 6.7-GHz methanol masers, and report arcsecond-scale emission around compact cores. We derive physical parameters for our sources, and find that although simple hydrostatic models of region evolution reproduce the observed region sizes, they significantly underestimate emission measures. We argue that these findings are consistent with young source ages in our sample, and can be explained by existence of density gradients in the ionised gas.

  4. Estimating electric current densities in solar active regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheatland, M S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric currents in solar active regions are thought to provide the energy released via magnetic reconnection in solar flares. Vertical electric current densities $J_z$ at the photosphere may be estimated from vector magnetogram data, subject to substantial uncertainties. The values provide boundary conditions for nonlinear force- free modelling of active region magnetic fields. A method is presented for estimating values of $J_z$ taking into account uncertainties in vector magnetogram field values, and minimizing $J_z^2$ across the active region. The method is demonstrated using the boundary values of the field for a force-free twisted bipole, with the addition of noise at randomly chosen locations.

  5. A Thermodynamic Model for Predicting Mineral Reactivity in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: I. Phase Behavior of Carbon Dioxide - Water - Chloride Salt Systems Across the H2O-Rich to the CO2-Rich Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, Ronald D.; Wang, Zheming; Anderko, Andre; Wang, Peiming; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase equilibria in mixtures containing carbon dioxide, water, and chloride salts have been investigated using a combination of solubility measurements and thermodynamic modeling. The solubility of water in the CO2-rich phase of ternary mixtures of CO2, H2O and NaCl or CaCl2 was determined, using near infrared spectroscopy, at 90 atm and 40 to 100 °C. These measurements fill a gap in the experimental database for CO2 water salt systems, for which phase composition data have been available only for the H2O-rich phases. A thermodynamic model for CO2 water salt systems has been constructed on the basis of the previously developed Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte (MSE) framework, which is capable of modeling aqueous solutions over broad ranges of temperature and pressure, is valid to high electrolyte concentrations, treats mixed-phase systems (with both scCO2 and water present) and can predict the thermodynamic properties of dry and partially water-saturated supercritical CO2 over broad ranges of temperature and pressure. Within the MSE framework the standard-state properties are calculated from the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state whereas the excess Gibbs energy includes a long-range electrostatic interaction term expressed by a Pitzer-Debye-Hückel equation, a virial coefficient-type term for interactions between ions and a short-range term for interactions involving neutral molecules. The parameters of the MSE model have been evaluated using literature data for both the H2O-rich and CO2-rich phases in the CO2 - H2O binary and for the H2O-rich phase in the CO2 - H2O - NaCl / KCl / CaCl2 / MgCl2 ternary and multicompontent systems. The model accurately represents the properties of these systems at temperatures from 0°C to 300 °C and pressures up to ~4000 atm. Further, the solubilities of H2O in CO2-rich phases that are predicted by the model are in agreement with the new measurements for the CO2 - H2O - NaCl and CO2 - H2O - CaCl2 systems. Thus, the model can be used to predict the effect of various salts on the water content and water activity in CO2-rich phases on the basis of parameters determined from the properties of aqueous systems. Given the importance of water activity in CO2-rich phases for mineral reactivity, the model can be used as a foundation for predicting mineral transformations across the entire CO2/H2O composition range from aqueous solution to anhydrous scCO2. An example application using the model is presented which involves the transformation of forsterite to nesquehonite as a function of temperature and water content in the CO2-rich phase.

  6. Physically Based Global Downscaling: Regional Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steven J.; Shippert, Timothy R.; Fox, Jared

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The climate simulated by a global atmosphere/land model with a physically-based subgrid orography scheme is evaluated in ten selected regions. Climate variables simulated for each of multiple elevation classes within each grid cell are mapped according the high-resolution distribution of surface elevation in each region. Comparison of the simulated annual mean climate with gridded observations leads to the following conclusions. At low to moderate elevations the downscaling scheme correctly simulates increasing precipitation, decreasing temperature, and increasing snow with increasing elevation within regions smaller than 100 km. At high elevations the downscaling scheme correctly simulates a decrease in precipitation with increasing elevation. Too little precipitation is simulated on the windward side of mountain ranges and too much precipitation is simulated on the lee side. The simulated sensitivity of surface air temperature to surface elevation is too strong, particularly in valleys influenced by drainage circulations. Observations show little evidence of a “snow shadow”, so the neglect of the subgrid rainshadow does not produce an unrealistic simulation of the snow distribution. Summertime snow area, which is a proxy for land ice, is much larger than observed. Summertime snow water equivalent is far less than the observed thickness of glaciers because a 1 m upper bound on snow water is applied to the simulations and because snow transport by slides is neglected. The 1 m upper bound on snow water equivalent also causes an underestimate of seasonal snow water during late winter, compared with gridded station measurements. Potential solutions to these problems are discussed.

  7. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates National Grid Northeast Utilities PA Office of Consumer Advocates Pacific Gas & Electric Corporation Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission PJM Interconnection The Electricity Consumers Resource Council U.S. Department of Energy US Department of the Interior Van Ness Feldman Western Interstate Energy Board Wind on the Wires Wisconsin Public Service Commission Xcel Energy

  8. Regional

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-SettingHead5 IdleRegardingIndustrial Technologies|3

  9. Southeast Texas Region Regional Public Transportation Coordination Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southeast Texas Regional Planning Commission

    Providers Public transportation in the southeast Texas region includes primarily demand- response service, with two localities managing fixed-route systems. Table 2 identifies the transportation providers within the region. The major transportation... citywide bus services with eleven local routes. PAT operates from 6:15am to 6:15pm five days a week. Annual ridership for BMT totaled 671,420 fixed route and 22,155 demand response trips in 2005, while PAT ridership reached 116,632 fixed route and 20...

  10. Interpreting Helioseismic Structure Inversion Results of Solar Active Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chia-Hsien Lin; Sarbani Basu; Linghuai Li

    2008-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Helioseismic techniques such as ring-diagram analysis have often been used to determine the subsurface structural differences between solar active and quiet regions. Results obtained by inverting the frequency differences between the regions are usually interpreted as the sound-speed differences between them. These in turn are used as a measure of temperature and magnetic-field strength differences between the two regions. In this paper we first show that the "sound-speed" difference obtained from inversions is actually a combination of sound-speed difference and a magnetic component. Hence, the inversion result is not directly related to the thermal structure. Next, using solar models that include magnetic fields, we develop a formulation to use the inversion results to infer the differences in the magnetic and thermal structures between active and quiet regions. We then apply our technique to existing structure inversion results for different pairs of active and quiet regions. We find that the effect of magnetic fields is strongest in a shallow region above 0.985R_sun and that the strengths of magnetic-field effects at the surface and in the deeper (r < 0.98R_sun) layers are inversely related, i.e., the stronger the surface magnetic field the smaller the magnetic effects in the deeper layers, and vice versa. We also find that the magnetic effects in the deeper layers are the strongest in the quiet regions, consistent with the fact that these are basically regions with weakest magnetic fields at the surface. Because the quiet regions were selected to precede or follow their companion active regions, the results could have implications about the evolution of magnetic fields under active regions.

  11. Quantification of the impact of climate uncertainty on regional air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, K.-J.

    Uncertainties in calculated impacts of climate forecasts on future regional air quality are investigated using downscaled MM5 meteorological fields from the NASA GISS and MIT IGSM global models and the CMAQ model in 2050 ...

  12. Regions for Select Spot Prices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently Approved JustificationBio-Inspired PowerRegional companiesRegions

  13. EE Regional Technology Roadmap Includes comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EE Regional Technology Roadmap Includes comparison against 6th Power Plan (Update cyclically Data Clearinghouse BPA/RTF NEEA/Regional Programs Group Update Regional EE Technology Roadmap Lighting

  14. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  15. Panhandle Region Transportation Coordination Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panhandle Regional Transportation Advisory Group

    drivers; shared office staff with PCS Schedule for out of county trips Amarillo MWF Notes on Service Provided Medicaid to Amarillo M-F; school trips M-F; Hereford Satellite Center; some trips to Hereford Senior Center and nursing homes Table 2............................................................................................................................ 2-5 Health and Human Services Organizations ................................................................................. 2-9 History of Regional Coordination of Public Transportation .................................................... 2...

  16. TESTING TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION IN SIX H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirienzo, William J.; Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Brogan, Crystal; Friesen, Rachel K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Cyganowski, Claudia J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Churchwell, Ed, E-mail: dirienzo@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated six H II regions with infrared, bright rimmed bubble or cometary morphology, in search of quantitative evidence for triggered star formation, both collect and collapse and radiatively driven implosion (RDI). We identified and classified 458 young stellar objects (YSOs) in and around the H II regions. YSOs were determined by fitting a collection of radiative transfer model spectral energy distributions to infrared photometry for a large sample of point sources. We determined areas where there exist enhanced populations of relatively unevolved YSOs on the bright rims of these regions, suggesting that star formation has been triggered there. We further investigated the physical properties of the regions by using radio continuum emission as a proxy for ionizing flux powering the H II regions, and {sup 13}CO (1-0) observations to measure masses and gravitational stability of molecular clumps. We used an analytical model of collect and collapse triggered star formation, as well as a simulation of RDI, and thus we compare the observed properties of the molecular gas with those predicted in the triggering scenarios. Notably, those regions in our sample that show evidence of cometary, or 'blister', morphology are more likely to show evidence of triggering.

  17. Regional Systems Development for Geothermal Energy Resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Regional Systems Development for Geothermal Energy Resources Pacific Region (California and Hawaii)....

  18. Clean Cities Regional Support & Petroleum Displacement Awards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regional Support & Petroleum Displacement Awards Clean Cities Regional Support & Petroleum Displacement Awards 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual...

  19. Texas State Planning Region 3 Report of Regional Transportation Coordination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nortex Regional Planning Commission

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the 24 regions studying public transportation in their area was charged with assessing Barriers, Constraints and Best Practices in public transportation. This Coordination Committee addressed this issue with enthusiasm, generating significant topics...DOT requirement that all vehicles be ADA compliant, Medicaid restrictions and Insurance as significant barriers to public transportation. Best practices included sharing of information regarding this project through publication in rural newspapers, inter...

  20. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Faulds, James E.

    - The resulting along?fault and fault?to?fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault?to?fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson?Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin are shown on Figure 3. For faults within the Great Basin proper, we applied a normal faulting stress regime, where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax), which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin). Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin, we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46. These values are consistent with stress magnitude data at both Dixie Valley (Hickman et al., 2000) and Yucca Mountain (Stock et al., 1985). For faults within the Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone, we applied a strike?slip faulting stress, where shmax > sv > shmin. Upon visual inspection of limited stress magnitude data from the Walker Lane and Eastern California Shear zone, we chose values such that SHmin/SHmax = .46 and Shmin/Sv= .527 representative of the region. Results: The results of our slip and dilation tendency analysis are shown in Figures 4 (dilation tendency), 5 (slip tendency) and 6 (slip tendency + dilation tendency). Shmin varies from northwest to east?west trending throughout much of the Great Basin. As such, north? to northeast?striking faults have the highest tendency to slip and to dilate, depending on the local trend of shmin. These results provide a first order filter on faults and fault systems in the Great Basin, affording focusing of local?scale exploration efforts for blind or hidden geothermal resources.

  1. Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Judd, Chaeli; Engel-Cox, Jill A.; Gulbransen, Thomas; Anderson, Michael G.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Guzy, Michael; hardin, danny; Estes, Maury

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative (GoMRC), a year-long project funded by NASA. The GoMRC project was organized around end user outreach activities, a science applications team, and a team for information technology (IT) development. Key outcomes are summarized below for each of these areas. End User Outreach ? Successfully engaged federal and state end users in project planning and feedback ? With end user input, defined needs and system functional requirements ? Conducted demonstration to End User Advisory Committee on July 9, 2007 and presented at Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) meeting of Habitat Identification committee ? Conducted significant engagement of other end user groups, such as the National Estuary Programs (NEP), in the Fall of 2007 ? Established partnership with SERVIR and Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS) programs and initiated plan to extend HABs monitoring and prediction capabilities to the southern Gulf. ? Established a science and technology working group with Mexican institutions centered in the State of Veracruz. Key team members include the Federal Commission for the Protection Against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS), the Ecological Institute (INECOL) a unit of the National Council for science and technology (CONACYT), the Veracruz Aquarium (NOAA’s first international Coastal Ecology Learning Center) and the State of Veracruz. The Mexican Navy (critical to coastal studies in the Southern Gulf) and other national and regional entities have also been engaged. ? Training on use of SERVIR portal planned for Fall 2007 in Veracruz, Mexico Science Applications ? Worked with regional scientists to produce conceptual models of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) ecosystems ? Built a logical framework and tool for ontological modeling of SAV and HABs ? Created online guidance for SAV restoration planning ? Created model runs which link potential future land use trends, runoff and SAV viability ? Analyzed SAV cover change at five other bays in the Gulf of Mexico to demonstrate extensibility of the analytical tools ? Initiated development of a conceptual model for understanding the causes and effects of HABs in the Gulf of Mexico IT Tool Development ? Established a website with the GoMRC web-based tools at www.gomrc.org ? Completed development of an ArcGIS-based decision support tool for SAV restoration prioritization decisions, and demonstrated its use in Mobile Bay ? Developed a web-based application, called Conceptual Model Explorer (CME), that enables non-GIS users to employ the prioritization model for SAV restoration ? Created CME tool enabling scientists to view existing, and create new, ecosystem conceptual models which can be used to document cause-effect relationships within coastal ecosystems, and offer guidance on management solutions. ? Adapted the science-driven advanced web search engine, Noesis, to focus on an initial set of coastal and marine resource issues, including SAV and HABs ? Incorporated map visualization tools with initial data layers related to coastal wetlands and SAVs

  2. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  3. Developing a Regional Recovery Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Clark, Rebecca; Kelly, Heather; Sheline, Jim; Tietje, Grant; Williamson, Mark; Woodcock, Jody

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract A biological attack would present an unprecedented challenge for local, state, and federal agencies; the military; the private sector; and individuals on many fronts ranging from vaccination and treatment to prioritization of cleanup actions to waste disposal. To prepare the Seattle region to recover from a biological attack, the Seattle Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) partners collaborated with military and federal agencies to develop a Regional Recovery Framework for a Biological Attack in the Seattle Urban Area. The goal was to reduce the time and resources required to recover and restore wide urban areas, military installations, and other critical infrastructure following a biological incident by providing a coordinated systems approach. Based on discussions in small workshops, tabletop exercises, and interviews with emergency response agency staff, the partners identified concepts of operation for various areas to address critical issues the region will face as recovery progresses. Key to this recovery is the recovery of the economy. Although the Framework is specific to a catastrophic, wide-area biological attack using anthrax, it was designed to be flexible and scalable so it could also serve as the recovery framework for an all-hazards approach. The Framework also served to coalesce policy questions that must be addressed for long-term recovery. These questions cover such areas as safety and health, security, financial management, waste management, legal issues, and economic development.

  4. Recovery of Dynamic PET Regions via Simultaneous Segmentation and Deconvolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Möller, Torsten

    Recovery of Dynamic PET Regions via Simultaneous Segmentation and Deconvolution Benjamin Smith1 and deconvolution of dynamic PET images. By incorporating the PSF of the imaging system into our segmentation model effect. We show improved segmentation results, and outperform two state-of-the-art dynamic PET

  5. WORKING PAPER N 2013 24 Regional Policy Evaluation: Interactive Fixed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    s. Keywords: Policy evaluation, Linear factor models, Synthetic controls, Economic geographyWORKING PAPER N° 2013 ­ 24 Regional Policy Evaluation: Interactive Fixed Effects and Synthetic Controls Laurent Gobillon Thierry Magnac JEL Codes: C21, C23, H53, J64, R11 Keywords: Policy evaluation

  6. Fuzzy Rough Positive Region based Nearest Neighbour Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gent, Universiteit

    of the main subjects in machine learning and pattern recognition, with applications in fields like spam theory to improve the FNN classifier. Fuzzy rough set theory was designed to model imperfect knowledgeFuzzy Rough Positive Region based Nearest Neighbour Classification Nele Verbiest, Chris Cornelis

  7. How Do I Use Renewable Energy in My Region?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL can asses renewable energy resource information and integrate it with data using geographic information systems (GIS) and interface the data with key analytical models. Planners and energy developers use these integrated resource assessments to make decisions about the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, and risks of developing projects in specific locations and for regional planning.

  8. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region...

  9. West Central Texas Regional Transportation Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West Central Texas Council of Governments

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WEST CENTRAL TEXAS REGIONAL REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION FINAL REPORT NOVEMBER 2006 West Central Texas Regional Transit Coordination Plan Final Report and Executive Summary November 2006 A&R Consulting The Goodman... Workshops 177 Appendix C - Public Meetings 183 West Central Texas Regional Transit Coordination Plan Final Report and Executive Summary November 2006 A&R Consulting The Goodman Corporation November 2006 3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...

  10. Manual on Conditional Reliability, Daily Time Step, Flood Control, and Salinity Features of WRAP (Draft)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurbs, Ralph

    files describing the hydrology and the water management facilities and practices for the river basin or region of concern along with other related information. The programs are connected through input/output files. Certain programs create files... ......................................................................................................... 245 LIST OF FIGURES 2.1 System Schematic for the Example ................................................................................. 22 3.1 Stream Flow Hydrograph and Water Management Targets...

  11. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: A Global View Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: A Global View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Planning, Technologies and Agricultural Services. Conde Peńalver. 84. 28006 Madrid. Spain. 3 Degree in Law) for the Navarre region (Comunidad Foral de Navarra), drafted from its Input-Output Tables (IOT) . The objective of forestry resources as a source of energy. 1 An abbreviated version of this paper was presented

  12. Will Economic Restructuring in China Reduce Trade-Embodied CO2 Emissions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Tianyu

    We calculate CO2 emissions embodied in China’s net exports using a multi-regional input-output database. We find that the majority of China’s export-embodied CO2 is associated with production of machinery and equipment ...

  13. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Slip and dilation tendency on the Great Basin fault surfaces (from the USGS Quaternary Fault Database) were calculated using 3DStress (software produced by Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by the measured ambient stress field. - Values range from a maximum of 1 (a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions) to zero (a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate). - Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the Great Basin. As dip is unknown for many faults in the USGS Quaternary Fault Database, we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum slip and dilation tendency. - The resulting along?fault and fault?to?fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault?to?fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson?Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin are shown on Figure 3. For faults within the Great Basin proper, we applied a normal faulting stress regime, where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax), which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin). Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin, we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46. These values are consistent with stress magnitude data at both Dixie Valley (Hickman et al., 2000) and Yucca Mountain (Stock et al., 1985). For faults within the Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone, we applied a strike?slip faulting stress, where shmax > sv > shmin. Upon visual inspection of limited stress magnitude data from the Walker Lane and Eastern California Shear zone, we chose values such that SHmin/SHmax = .46 and Shmin/Sv= .527 representative of the region. Results: The results of our slip and dilation tendency analysis are shown in Figures 4 (dilation tendency), 5 (slip tendency) and 6 (slip tendency + dilation tendency). Shmin varies from northwest to east?west trending throughout much of the Great Basin. As such, north? to northeast?striking faults have the highest tendency to slip and to dilate, depending on the local trend of shmin. These results provide a first order filter on faults and fault systems in the Great Basin, affording focusing of local?scale exploration efforts for blind or hidden geothermal resources.

  14. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomasi, C.; Wagener, R.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Lupi, A.; Ritter, C.; Smirnov, A.; O Neill, N. T.; Stone, R. S.; Holben, B. N.; Nyeki, S.; Wehrli, C.; Stohl, A.; Mazzola, M.; Lanconelli, C.; Vitale, V.; Stebel, K.; Aaltonen, V.; de Leeuw, G.; Rodriguez, E.; Herber, A. B.; Radionov, V. F.; Zielinski, T.; Petelski, T.; Sakerin, S. M.; Kabanov, D. M.; Xue, Y.; Mei, L.; Istomina, L.; Wagener, R.; McArthur, B.; Sobolewski, P. S.; Kivi, R.; Courcoux, Y.; Larouche, P.; Broccardo, S.; Piketh, S. J.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ĺngström's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i) a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ĺlesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surface–atmosphere system over polar regions.

  15. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomasi, C.; Wagener, R.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Lupi, A.; Ritter, C.; Smirnov, A.; O Neill, N. T.; Stone, R. S.; Holben, B. N.; Nyeki, S.; et al

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ĺngström's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i)more »a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ĺlesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surface–atmosphere system over polar regions.« less

  16. Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blair, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photovoltaics renewable energy renewable energy certificate Regional Energy Deployment System model Renewable Energy and Efficiency

  17. Geothermal Regions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to libraryOpen EnergyInformation|Regions

  18. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  19. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nonproliferation and Arms Control Analysis Dept.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  20. Spectrophotometry of massive star forming regions with GTC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Castellanos; A. I. Diaz; E. Terlevich

    2002-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In these latest years, the detection of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in Giant HII Regions (GHRs) has yielded several questions about our current understanding of massive stars evolution and hot expanding atmospheres, the age of the ionizing populations and their impact onto the physical properties of GHRs. Here, we present spectrophotometric observations of 4 extragalactic GHRs which show WR features in their spectra. Our goal is to reproduce simultaneously the observed WR properties and the emission line spectra with the help of current evolutionary synthesis models. Finally, we address the main advantages that GTC will provide to our better understanding of massive star forming regions.

  1. Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook for 2013 (AEO2013) along with the modeled curve Outlook with No Federal CO2 Regulatory Cost 70 Annual CO2 Emission from Power System 30 40 50 60 Million25 GHG Emission Outlook with a Federal CO2 Regulatory Cost 70 Annual CO2 Emission from Power System

  2. PREDICTIVE MODELS: FROM THE SITE TO THE REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PRODUCTION animals ESTABLISH- MENT GROWTH MORTALITY SEED DISPERSAL SOIL STRUCTURE WHC INF-C rainfall Plant processes Soil processes Drivers geomor- phology wind litter DECOMPNavail (I,j) ECOTONE (plants) SOILWAT (vertical water) tRIBS (horizontal water) [Vivoni; ASU] WEMO (wind) [Okin; UCLA] #12;#12;#12;(a) Landforms

  3. Improvement of snowpack simulations in a regional climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that intensifies the solar radiation absorption on the landulate and predict the solar radiation budget at the sur-SW # the downward solar radiation, LWNET the net longwave

  4. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    systems References D. D. Blackwell, K. W. Wisian, M. C. Richards, Mark Leidig, Richard Smith, Jason McKenna (2003) Geothermal Resource Analysis And Structure Of Basin And Range...

  5. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Nw Basin & Range Region (Blackwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    systems References D. D. Blackwell, K. W. Wisian, M. C. Richards, Mark Leidig, Richard Smith, Jason McKenna (2003) Geothermal Resource Analysis And Structure Of Basin And Range...

  6. Cryostat Modeling for the Superconducting Interaction Region Magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinabro, David

    is expensive ($10,000/Watt/year) [1], and a calculated heat load on the system is usually performed in order load analysis of the of the cooling system is necessary to predict which heat loading parameters most greatly affect the system, and how changing the heat loads changes cooling system performance

  7. Zooming in: From global to regional climate models | Argonne Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship ProgramBiomass and Biofuels Biomass and| Blandine

  8. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville,Missoula, Montana: EnergyAnalysis of EnergySimulations2010) |

  9. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville,Missoula, Montana: EnergyAnalysis of EnergySimulations2010)

  10. NREL: Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) Model - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration NRELCost of6 JulyDevelopment

  11. NREL: Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) Model - Webmaster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration NRELCost of6 JulyDevelopmentReEDS Unique

  12. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Yellowstone Region (Laney, 2005) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville,Missoula, Montana: EnergyAnalysis ofDecker, 1983)(Roberts,(Laney,|

  13. Enhancing regional security agreements through cooperative monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes that strengthening regional capabilities for formulating and implementing arms control and confidence-building measures is a tangible method of enhancing regional security. It discusses the importance of developing a regional infrastructure for arms control and confidence building and elucidates the role of technology in facilitating regional arms control and confidence-building agreements. In addition, it identifies numerous applications for regional cooperative monitoring in the areas of arms control, resource management, international commerce and disaster response. The Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, whose aim is to help individual countries and regions acquire the tools they need to develop their own solutions to regional problems, is discussed briefly. The paper ends with recommendations for establishing regional cooperative monitoring centers.

  14. REALIZATION OF THE REGIONAL ADVANTAGEOUS AGRICULTURAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    REALIZATION OF THE REGIONAL ADVANTAGEOUS AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES ANALYSIS SYSTEM Kaimeng Sun Institute of Agricultural Information, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing,P. R. China 100081 Abstract: In this paper, a system for analyzing the strategic adjustment of regional agricultural

  15. DC High School Science Bowl Regionals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This event is the Washington, D.C. High School Regional competition for the US National Science Bowl. The regional competition is run by the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity, and the...

  16. Regional Revolving Loan Trust Fund (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Regional Revolving Loan Trust Fund Program, coordinated by the Empire State Development program, is operated in six regions by nonprofit organizations and provides working capital loans (up to ...

  17. A. E. K. Ris Ris-M-GHZ Title and authors)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the PWR power plant model PWR-PLASIM described in Risø Report No. 318. It should serve as a users guide for both the operator, who runs the model, and the experienced simulation en- gineer, who modifies power grid »t 9. File input-output routines t* 10. Reference* ·»> Appendices: A. Digital prograa

  18. System Identification: Time Varying and Nonlinear Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majji, Manoranjan

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . In the process, we generalize the classical time invariant input output AutoRegressive model with an eXogenous input (ARX) models to the time varying case and realize an asymptotically stable observer as a byproduct of the calculations. It is further found...

  19. Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Shutthanandan, V.; Hu, Jian Z.; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The interfacial region between graphene and an imidazolium based ionic liquid is studied using spectroscopic analysis and computational modelling. This combined approach reveals that the molecular level structure of the interfacial region is significantly influenced by functional group defects on the graphene surface.The combined experimental and computational study reveals that the molecular structure at interfacial region between graphene and imidazolium based ionic liquid is defined by the hydroxyl functional groups on the graphene surface

  20. Radiation levels in the SSC interaction regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groom, D.E. [ed.

    1988-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation environment in a typical SSC detector has been evaluated using the best available particle production models coupled with Monte Carlo simulations of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades. The problems studied include direct charged particle dose, dose inside a calorimeter from the cascades produced by incident photons and hadrons, the flux of neutrons and photons backscattered from the calorimeter into a central cavity, and neutron flux in the calorimeter. The luminosity lifetime at the SSC is dominated by collision losses in the interaction regions, where the luminosity is equivalent to losing an entire full-energy proton beam into the apparatus every six days. The result of an average p-p collision can be described quite simply. The mean charged multiplicity is about 110, and the particles are distributed nearly uniformly in pseudorapidity ({eta}) over all the angles of interest. The transverse momentum distribution is independent of angle, and for our purposes may be written as p{perpendicular}exp(-p{perpendicular}/{beta}). The mean value of p{perpendicular} may be as high as 0.6 GeV/c. Most of the radiation is produced by the very abundant low-p{perpendicular} particles. The dose or neutron fluence produced by individual particles in this energy region are simulated over a wide variety of conditions, and several measurements serve to confirm the simulation results. In general, the response (a dose, fluence, the number of backscattered neutrons, etc.) for an incident particle of momentum p can be parameterized in the form Np{sup {alpha}}, where 0.5 < {alpha}< 1.0. The authors believe most of their results to be accurate to within a factor of two or three, sufficiently precise to serve as the basis for detailed designs.

  1. Wide Area Security Region Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; Guo, Xinxin; Gronquist, James; Du, Pengwei; Nguyen, Tony B.; Burns, J. W.

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report develops innovative and efficient methodologies and practical procedures to determine the wide-area security region of a power system, which take into consideration all types of system constraints including thermal, voltage, voltage stability, transient and potentially oscillatory stability limits in the system. The approach expands the idea of transmission system nomograms to a multidimensional case, involving multiple system limits and parameters such as transmission path constraints, zonal generation or load, etc., considered concurrently. The security region boundary is represented using its piecewise approximation with the help of linear inequalities (so called hyperplanes) in a multi-dimensional space, consisting of system parameters that are critical for security analyses. The goal of this approximation is to find a minimum set of hyperplanes that describe the boundary with a given accuracy. Methodologies are also developed to use the security hyperplanes, pre-calculated offline, to determine system security margins in real-time system operations, to identify weak elements in the system, and to calculate key contributing factors and sensitivities to determine the best system controls in real time and to assist in developing remedial actions and transmission system enhancements offline . A prototype program that automates the simulation procedures used to build the set of security hyperplanes has also been developed. The program makes it convenient to update the set of security hyperplanes necessitated by changes in system configurations. A prototype operational tool that uses the security hyperplanes to assess security margins and to calculate optimal control directions in real time has been built to demonstrate the project success. Numerical simulations have been conducted using the full-size Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system model, and they clearly demonstrated the feasibility and the effectiveness of the developed technology. Recommendations for the future work have also been formulated.

  2. 6, 1092910958, 2006 Regional scale CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 10929­10958, 2006 Regional scale CO2 flux estimation using radon A. I. Hirsch Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions On using radon-222 and CO2 to calculate regional-scale CO2 fluxes A. I (Adam.Hirsch@noaa.gov) 10929 #12;ACPD 6, 10929­10958, 2006 Regional scale CO2 flux estimation using

  3. Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everest, Graham R

    Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective A report prepared for East of England #12;Low Carbon Innovation Centre Report for EEDA Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective 20/04/2009 ii Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective A report prepared for East

  4. Segmentation into fuzzy regions using topographic distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philipp-Foliguet, Sylvie

    recognition from fuzzy regions. Keywords: Segmentation, Fuzzy region, Watershed, Color image, TopographicSegmentation into fuzzy regions using topographic distance SYLVIE PHILIPP­FOLIGUET 1 MARCELO@dcc.ufmg.br, arnaldo@dcc.ufmg.br 3 Supported by CAPES. Abstract. This paper exposes an algorithm that leads to a fuzzy

  5. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  6. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities: (1) the demilitarization of the Sinai region between Israel and Egypt in the 1970s; (2) the 1991 quadripartite agreement for monitoring nuclear facilities among Brazil, Argentina, The Argentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency; and (3) a bilateral Open Skies agreement between Hungary and Romania in 1991. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations.Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  7. Global Famine after a Regional Nuclear War1 , Alan Robock1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    as global, food insecurity.34 35 36 Keywords: regional nuclear war, nuclear winter, agriculture impacts, China, DSSAT, agricultural37 modeling, famine38 #12;3 1. Introduction39 The potential for nuclear war1 Global Famine after a Regional Nuclear War1 2 3 Lili Xia1 , Alan Robock1 , Michael Mills2

  8. Global Famine after a Regional Nuclear War1 , Alan Robock1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Keywords: regional nuclear war, nuclear winter, agriculture impacts, China, DSSAT, agricultural40 modeling1 Global Famine after a Regional Nuclear War1 2 3 Lili Xia1 , Alan Robock1 , Michael Mills2 of Nuclear War, Somerville, Massachusetts, USA10 11 Submitted to Earth's Future12 13 November, 201414 15 16

  9. Tropical drought regions in global warming and El Nin~o teleconnections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, Chia

    warming, and the drought regions are particularly likely to have substantial human impacts. [3] VariationsTropical drought regions in global warming and El Nin~o teleconnections J. D. Neelin Department; accepted 19 November 2003; published 24 December 2003. [1] Climate model global warming simulations predict

  10. Fossil mammals resolve regional patterns of Eurasian climate change over 20 million years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jernvall, Jukka

    Fossil mammals resolve regional patterns of Eurasian climate change over 20 million years Mikael Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia and 7 Department of Geography, Beijing University proxy that can be used to constrain the regional details of vegetation and climate models. Keywords

  11. THE IMPACT OF NEW IONIZING FLUXES ON ISO OBSERVATIONS OF HII REGIONS AND STARBURSTS \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaerer, Daniel

    1 THE IMPACT OF NEW IONIZING FLUXES ON ISO OBSERVATIONS OF HII REGIONS AND STARBURSTS \\Lambda on the IR lines are shown. First comparisons of our starburst models with IR­diagnostics and the ISO observations of Genzel et al. (1998) are also presented. Key words: HII regions, galaxies: starburst, ISO. 1

  12. Principal UncertaintiesPrincipal Uncertainties Their Representation in the Regional Portfolio ModelTheir Representation in the Regional Portfolio Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% #12;Page 5 9 Wholesale Electricity PricesWholesale Electricity

  13. Securing non-volatile memory regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

  14. Fueling Gas to the Central Region of Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiichi Wada

    2003-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Supplying gas to the galactic central regions is one of key ingredients for AGN activity. I will review various fueling mechanisms for a R ~ 1 kpc region, determined mainly by numerical simulations over the last decade. I will also comment on the bars-within-bars mechanism. Observations suggest that the stellar bar is not a sufficient condition for gas fueling. Moreover, considering the various factors for the onset of gas accretion, stellar bars would not even be a necessary condition. I introduce recent progress obtained through our two- and three-dimensional, high resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the ISM in the central 0.1--1 kpc region of galaxies. Possible structure of the obscuring molecular tori around AGNs is also shown. The nuclear starburst is an important factor in determining the structure of the molecular tori and the mass accretion rate to the nucleus. It is natural that the ISM in the central 100 pc region is a highly inhomogeneous and turbulent structure. As a result, gas accretion to the central parsec region should be time dependent and stochastic. The conventional picture of gas fueling and the AGN unified model may be modified in many respects.

  15. Stop on Top: SUSY Parameter Regions, Fine-Tuning Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Durmus Ali

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze common supersymmetric models in order to determine in what parameter regions with what amount of fine-tuning they are capable of accomodating the LHC-allowed top-stop degeneracy window. The stops must be light enough to enable Higgs naturalness yet heavy enough to induce a 125 GeV Higgs boson mass. These two constraints require the two stops to have a large mass splitting. We find that, compared to the usual neutralino-LSP CMSSM, the NUHM and gravitino-LSP CMSSM models possess relatively wide regions in which the light stop weighs close to the top quark. The fine-tuning involved lies in 10^3-10^4 range.

  16. Preliminary assessment of regional dispersivity of the Hanford basalts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaVenue, Arthur Marsh

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . ACKNONLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the members of my graduate research committee, Dr. Patrick Domenico, Dr. Earl Hoskins, and Dr. James Russell for their corvaents and discussions during this study. I am thankful to Rockwell International-Hanford Operations... level nuclear waste repository, it is essential that the dispersivities be determined in order to aid in modelling studies that will be needed to characterize the site. GENERAL PHYSICAL NATURE OF HANFORD SITE Regional Setting The United States...

  17. Possible existence of wormholes in the central regions of halos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farook Rahaman; P. Salucci; P. K. F. Kuhfittig; Saibal Ray; Mosiur Rahaman

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An earlier study [Rahaman et al. (2014) & Kuhfittig (2014)] has demonstrated the possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of the galactic halo, based on the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile. This paper uses the Universal Rotation Curve (URC) dark matter model to obtain analogous results for the central parts of the halo. This result is an important compliment to the earlier result, thereby confirming the possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies.

  18. High temperature superconductivity in metallic region near Mott transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian De Cao

    2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The spin-singlet superconductivity without phonons is examined in consideration of correlations on an extended Hubbard model. It is shown that the superconductivity requires not only the total correlation should be strong enough but also the density of state around Fermi energy should be large enough, which shows that the high temperature superconductivity could only be found in the metallic region near the Mott metal insulator transition (MIT). Other properties of superconductors are also discussed on these conclusions.

  19. Montana Regions | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurTheBrookhavenMassachusetts Regions National ScienceModeling of

  20. Northwest Regional Technology Center, March 2013 Page 1 of 2 Around The Region In Homeland Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to homeland security in the region, and this issue highlights Puget Sound Regional Blue Force Tracking Puget Sound Regional Blue Force Tracking Initiative The Puget Sound Regional Blue Force Tracking (BFTS the Puget Sound Area Maritime Security Committee Area of Responsibility. As part of the Initiative

  1. Emitting gas regions in Mrk 493: An extensive Fe II line emission region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. C. Popovic; A. Smirnova; D. Ilic; A. Moiseev; J. Kovacevic; V. Afanasiev

    2007-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed 3D spectroscopic observations of Mrk 493 in order to investigate the Fe II emitting region and their possible connection with the Hydrogen emitting region. We found that there is a strong Fe II emission in an extensive region ~ 4" x 4" around Sy 1 nucleus. The Fe II line width indicates that these lines are originated in an intermediate line region.

  2. Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi and Yan Feng Climate Research Section Environmental Science Division Argonne National Laboratory #12;Outline Atmospheric Aerosols and gas phase heterogeneous reactions Regional Scales and Atmospheric Aerosols Regional Scale Aerosols: Ganges Valley Aerosol

  3. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Multi-Year Research, Development...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    B: InputOutput Matrix Fuel Cell Technologies Office Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan - Appendix B: InputOutput Matrix Appendix B: InputOutput Matrix...

  4. EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION AND HEATING OF TWO ACTIVE REGION CORES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, Durgesh [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Klimchuk, James A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mason, Helen E., E-mail: durgesh@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode, we have studied the coronal plasma in the core of two active regions. Concentrating on the area between opposite polarity moss, we found emission measure distributions having an approximate power-law form EM{proportional_to}T{sup 2.4} from log T = 5.5 up to a peak at log T = 6.55. We show that the observations compare very favorably with a simple model of nanoflare-heated loop strands. They also appear to be consistent with more sophisticated nanoflare models. However, in the absence of additional constraints, steady heating is also a viable explanation.

  5. Low-energy proton capture reactions in the mass region 55-60

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Saumi; Gangopadhyay, G; Bhattacharyya, Abhijit

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low energy proton capture reactions in the mass 55-60 region are studied in a microscopic optical model. Nuclear density profile is calculated using the relativistic mean field theory. The DDM3Y interaction is folded with the theoretical density to obtain the proton-nucleus optical potential. A definite set of normalization parameters has been obtained for the concerned mass region by comparing with all available experimental data in this mass region. These parameters have been used to obtain proton capture rates for astrophysically important reactions in this mass region.

  6. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Gulf of Mexico Region (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flores, F.; Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Gulf of Mexico region.

  7. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Great Lakes Region (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts identified by the study for the Great Lakes region.

  8. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Mid-Atlantic Region (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.; Flores, F.; Zammit, D.; Kraemer, M.; Miles, J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Mid-Atlantic region.

  9. Low-energy proton capture reactions in the mass region 55-60

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saumi Dutta; Dipti Chakraborty; G. Gangopadhyay; Abhijit Bhattacharyya

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low energy proton capture reactions in the mass 55-60 region are studied in a microscopic optical model. Nuclear density profile is calculated using the relativistic mean field theory. The DDM3Y interaction is folded with the theoretical density to obtain the proton-nucleus optical potential. A definite set of normalization parameters has been obtained for the concerned mass region by comparing with all available experimental data in this mass region. These parameters have been used to obtain proton capture rates for astrophysically important reactions in this mass region.

  10. Quality-of-Service and Error Control Techniques for Network-on-Chip Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatha, Karam S.

    sensitive to noise sources such as power supply noise, crosstalk, radiation induced effects, that are likely accurate power and performance models of the two architec- ture enhancements for a 4x4 mesh based No and Design Aids B.4.3 [Input/Output and Data Communications]: Interconnec- tions - - Topology General Terms

  11. Lecture 24: Parallel Algorithms I Topics: sort and matrix algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasubramonian, Rajeev

    1 Lecture 24: Parallel Algorithms I · Topics: sort and matrix algorithms #12;2 Processor Model a single clock (asynchronous designs will require minor modifications) · At each clock, processors receive input output #12;4 Control at Each Processor · Each processor stores the minimum number it has seen

  12. The Center for Control, Dynamical Systems, and Computation University of California at Santa Barbara

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akhmedov, Azer

    and control theory with applications to biological networks, power systems, communication networksThe Center for Control, Dynamical Systems, and Computation University of California at Santa with appropriate input-output properties as abstractions of their detailed models. The component - level task

  13. The Role and Use of Water in Agriculture in the Western Balkans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and understand the interaction between agriculture and the other sectors, an environmental input-output model sectors (other mining, food and beverages, and energy production). It is confirmed that the agriculturalThe Role and Use of Water in Agriculture in the Western Balkans: The Case of Macedonia Jordan

  14. A Tale of Two Levels: Diversification of Business Groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huh, Dong Wook

    2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    operating in related industries. Relying on the insights from the input-output model, I propose the idea that business groups are more likely to enter industries that have linkages to multiple other industries than to follow the relatedness criterion. I test...

  15. Kozo Yamazaki -1 IMPACT OF PLASMA, MAGNET AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Kozo Yamazaki - 5 System Analysis Flow ChartSystem Analysis Flow Chart INPUT OUTPUT Plasma Design Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna, Austria Seventh International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology max= #12;Kozo Yamazaki - 8 + + + Reactor Power Flow #12;Kozo Yamazaki - 9 Cost Analysis Models

  16. Synchronous Machine Parameter Estimation Using Orthogonal Series Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as analysis of linear time invariant and time varying systems, model reduction; optimal control and system an alternative to estimate armature circuit parameters of large utility generators using real time operating data and currents measurements) and/or synthetic input-output data. This allows writing a set of linear algebraic

  17. MATH 100 Introduction to the Profession Linear Equations in MATLAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fasshauer, Greg

    's input-output model in economics, electric circuit problems, the steady-state analysis of a systemMATH 100 ­ Introduction to the Profession Linear Equations in MATLAB Greg Fasshauer Department;Chapter 5 of Experiments with MATLAB Where do systems of linear equations come up? fasshauer@iit.edu MATH

  18. Enforcement Policy Statement: Regional Standards Enforcement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    42 U.S.C. 6291-6309, which set forth amended energy conservation standards for central air conditioners and heat pumps, including regional standards in certain States....

  19. BPA Regional Science Bowl Begins Jan. 31

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional-Science-Bowl-Begins-Jan-31 Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects &...

  20. Regional Analysis And Characterization Of Fractured Aquifers...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Regional Analysis And Characterization Of Fractured Aquifers In The Virginia Blue Ridge And Piedmont Provinces Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  1. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Validation Phase ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Validation Phase Core Storage R&D Storage Infrastructure Strategic Program Support NATCARBAtlas Program Plan Project Portfolio...

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Vermont Photovoltaic Regional Test...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Regional Test Center (RTC). The RTC will enable research on integrating solar panels into the statewide smart grid and help reduce the cost of solar power. The...

  3. Regional Districts, Commissions, and Authorities (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation establishes a number of regional districts, commissions, and authorities with the power to implement regulations and development plans for protected park and recreational areas.

  4. Regional geophysics, Cenozoic tectonics and geologic resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geophysics, Cenozoic tectonics and geologic resources of the Basin and Range Province and adjoining regions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  5. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report covers the states that largely fall into the Southeastern Reliability Corporation (SERC) region: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee.

  6. Northwest Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Regional CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  7. 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Northwest Region Workshop, held in Seattle July 15, 2011.

  8. Pacific Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Regional CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  9. Regional Resource Centers for Innovation Brochure (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wogsland, J.

    2000-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure describes OIT's Regional Resource Centers for Innovation (RCIs), which provide the Innovation and Invention program grantees and other small business energy innovators commercialization assistance.

  10. Northeast Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Regional CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  11. The metallicity of circumnuclear star forming regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. I. Diaz; E. Terlevich; M. Castellanos; G. F. Hagele

    2006-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a spectrophotometric study of circumnuclear star forming regions (CNSFR) in the early type spiral galaxies: NGC 2903, NGC 3351 and NGC 3504, all of them of over solar metallicity according to standard empirical calibrations. A detailed determination of their abundances is made after careful subtraction of the very prominent underlying stellar absorption. It is found that most regions show the highest abundances in HII region-like objects. The relative N/O and S/O abundances are discussed. In is also shown that CNSFR, as a class, segregate from the disk HII region family, clustering around smaller ``softness parameter" -- \\eta' -- values, and therefore higher ionizing temperatures.

  12. The metallicity of circumnuclear star forming regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Díaz, A I; Castellanos, M; Hägele, G F

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a spectrophotometric study of circumnuclear star forming regions (CNSFR) in the early type spiral galaxies: NGC 2903, NGC 3351 and NGC 3504, all of them of over solar metallicity according to standard empirical calibrations. A detailed determination of their abundances is made after careful subtraction of the very prominent underlying stellar absorption. It is found that most regions show the highest abundances in HII region-like objects. The relative N/O and S/O abundances are discussed. In is also shown that CNSFR, as a class, segregate from the disk HII region family, clustering around smaller ``softness parameter" -- \\eta' -- values, and therefore higher ionizing temperatures.

  13. Western Regional Emergency Medicine Student Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel A; Fernandez, Jorge

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Regional Emergency Medicine Student Symposium DanielFernandez, MD Keck School of Medicine of the University ofDepartment of Emergency Medicine, Los Angles, CA The Western

  14. Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales Ruth Doherty, Massimo Vieno, Ian Mac) EMEP2009 (less complex) Observations Modelling regional air pollution #12;Nested regions: 50 to 5 to 1 km2 O3 concentration (ppb) NO2 concentration (µg m-3) #12;Modelling Urban air pollution Regional

  15. Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Tammy M.

    We use regional air quality modeling to evaluate the impact of model resolution on uncertainty associated with the human health benefits resulting from proposed air quality regulations. Using a regional photochemical model ...

  16. Descriptive and Critical Review of Multiregional Econometric Models of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Amy L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Regional­ National Econometric Model of I taly . " PapersI m pact of the Regional Econometric Model on the Pol i cyG l ickman , N. J . "An Econometric Model of the P h i ladel

  17. anemia mga1 region: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Plants Websites Summary: 652013 1 Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium Regional GHG Emissions - Outlook June 4, 2013...

  18. Hydrogen demand, production, and cost by region to 2050.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; Moore, J.; Shadis, W.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering, Inc.

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an analysis of potential hydrogen (H{sub 2}) demand, production, and cost by region to 2050. The analysis was conducted to (1) address the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) request for regional H{sub 2} cost estimates that will be input to its energy modeling system and (2) identify key regional issues associated with the use of H{sub 2} that need further study. Hydrogen costs may vary substantially by region. Many feedstocks may be used to produce H{sub 2}, and the use of these feedstocks is likely to vary by region. For the same feedstock, regional variation exists in capital and energy costs. Furthermore, delivery costs are likely to vary by region: some regions are more rural than others, and so delivery costs will be higher. However, to date, efforts to comprehensively and consistently estimate future H{sub 2} costs have not yet assessed regional variation in these costs. To develop the regional cost estimates and identify regional issues requiring further study, we developed a H{sub 2} demand scenario (called 'Go Your Own Way' [GYOW]) that reflects fuel cell vehicle (FCV) market success to 2050 and allocated H{sub 2} demand by region and within regions by metropolitan versus non-metropolitan areas. Because we lacked regional resource supply curves to develop our H{sub 2} production estimates, we instead developed regional H{sub 2} production estimates by feedstock by (1) evaluating region-specific resource availability for centralized production of H{sub 2} and (2) estimating the amount of FCV travel in the nonmetropolitan areas of each region that might need to be served by distributed production of H{sub 2}. Using a comprehensive H{sub 2} cost analysis developed by SFA Pacific, Inc., as a starting point, we then developed cost estimates for each H{sub 2} production and delivery method by region and over time (SFA Pacific, Inc. 2002). We assumed technological improvements over time to 2050 and regional variation in energy and capital costs. Although we estimate substantial reductions in H{sub 2} costs over time, our cost estimates are generally higher than the cost goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) hydrogen program. The result of our analysis, in particular, demonstrates that there may be substantial variation in H{sub 2} costs between regions: as much as $2.04/gallon gasoline equivalent (GGE) by the time FCVs make up one-half of all light-vehicle sales in the GYOW scenario (2035-2040) and $1.85/GGE by 2050 (excluding Alaska). Given the assumptions we have made, our analysis also shows that there could be as much as a $4.82/GGE difference in H{sub 2} cost between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas by 2050 (national average). Our national average cost estimate by 2050 is $3.68/GGE, but the average H{sub 2} cost in metropolitan areas in that year is $2.55/GGE and that in non-metropolitan areas is $7.37/GGE. For these estimates, we assume that the use of natural gas to produce H{sub 2} is phased out. This phase-out reflects the desire of DOE's Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (OHFCIT) to eliminate reliance on natural gas for H{sub 2} production. We conducted a sensitivity run in which we allowed natural gas to continue to be used through 2050 for distributed production of H{sub 2} to see what effect changing that assumption had on costs. In effect, natural gas is used for 66% of all distributed production of H{sub 2} in this run. The national average cost is reduced to $3.10/GGE, and the cost in non-metropolitan areas is reduced from $7.37/GGE to $4.90, thereby reducing the difference between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas to $2.35/GGE. Although the cost difference is reduced, it is still substantial. Regional differences are similarly reduced, but they also remain substantial. We also conducted a sensitivity run in which we cut in half our estimate of the cost of distributed production of H{sub 2} from electrolysis (our highest-cost production method). In this run, our national average cost estimate is reduced even further, to

  19. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  20. Millimeter-wave circuits and pulse compression radar baseband/analog signal processing blocks in silicon processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parlak, Mehmet; Parlak, Mehmet

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solid) and simulated (dashed) conversion loss versus LO power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Measured (solid) and simulated (dashed) input-output powerMeasured (solid) and simulated (dashed) input-output power