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Sample records for regional analysis source

  1. Regional Analysis Briefs

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2028-01-01

    Regional Analysis Briefs (RABs) provide an overview of specific regions that play an important role in world energy markets, either directly or indirectly. These briefs cover areas that are currently major producers (Caspian Sea), have geopolitical importance (South China Sea), or may have future potential as producers or transit areas (East Africa, Eastern Mediterranean).

  2. Scenario Evaluation and Regionalization Analysis (SERA) Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scenario Evaluation and Regionalization Analysis (SERA) Model (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Objectives Determine optimal regional infrastructure development patterns for hydrogen and other transportation fuels, given resource availability and technology cost estimates. Geospatially and temporally resolve the expansion of production, transmission, and distribution infrastructure components. Identify and characterize niche markets and synergies related to refueling station placement and

  3. Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Comparison of building energy use before and after ...

  4. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Faulds, James E.

    - The resulting along?fault and fault?to?fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault?to?fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson?Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin are shown on Figure 3. For faults within the Great Basin proper, we applied a normal faulting stress regime, where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax), which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin). Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin, we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46. These values are consistent with stress magnitude data at both Dixie Valley (Hickman et al., 2000) and Yucca Mountain (Stock et al., 1985). For faults within the Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone, we applied a strike?slip faulting stress, where shmax > sv > shmin. Upon visual inspection of limited stress magnitude data from the Walker Lane and Eastern California Shear zone, we chose values such that SHmin/SHmax = .46 and Shmin/Sv= .527 representative of the region. Results: The results of our slip and dilation tendency analysis are shown in Figures 4 (dilation tendency), 5 (slip tendency) and 6 (slip tendency + dilation tendency). Shmin varies from northwest to east?west trending throughout much of the Great Basin. As such, north? to northeast?striking faults have the highest tendency to slip and to dilate, depending on the local trend of shmin. These results provide a first order filter on faults and fault systems in the Great Basin, affording focusing of local?scale exploration efforts for blind or hidden geothermal resources.

  5. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30

    - The resulting along?fault and fault?to?fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault?to?fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson?Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin are shown on Figure 3. For faults within the Great Basin proper, we applied a normal faulting stress regime, where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax), which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin). Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin, we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46. These values are consistent with stress magnitude data at both Dixie Valley (Hickman et al., 2000) and Yucca Mountain (Stock et al., 1985). For faults within the Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone, we applied a strike?slip faulting stress, where shmax > sv > shmin. Upon visual inspection of limited stress magnitude data from the Walker Lane and Eastern California Shear zone, we chose values such that SHmin/SHmax = .46 and Shmin/Sv= .527 representative of the region. Results: The results of our slip and dilation tendency analysis are shown in Figures 4 (dilation tendency), 5 (slip tendency) and 6 (slip tendency + dilation tendency). Shmin varies from northwest to east?west trending throughout much of the Great Basin. As such, north? to northeast?striking faults have the highest tendency to slip and to dilate, depending on the local trend of shmin. These results provide a first order filter on faults and fault systems in the Great Basin, affording focusing of local?scale exploration efforts for blind or hidden geothermal resources.

  6. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology You are accessing a document from the Department of...

  7. Isotopic Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date...

  8. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Sturchio, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Yellowstone Region (Sturchio, Et Al., 1990) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Yellowstone Region...

  9. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Valles Caldera Geothermal Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Region (1990) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Valles Caldera Geothermal Region (1990)...

  10. Electric System Decision Making in Other Regions: A Preliminary Analysis

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Prepared for Western Interstate Energy Board Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation | Department of Energy System Decision Making in Other Regions: A Preliminary Analysis Prepared for Western Interstate Energy Board Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation Electric System Decision Making in Other Regions: A Preliminary Analysis Prepared for Western Interstate Energy Board Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation The nation's electricity system is regional in nature,

  11. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources

  12. Southeast European Regional Electricity Market Analysis | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Laboratory Partner United States Agency for International Development, Montgomery Watson Harza Sector Energy Topics Market analysis, Background analysis Website...

  13. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; et al

    2015-02-18

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly valuesmore » from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning, and anthropogenic sources from Europe; South, East, and Central Asia; and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.« less

  14. SHIELDING ANALYSIS FOR PORTABLE GAUGING COMBINATION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. TOMPKINS; L. LEONARD; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    Radioisotopic decay has been used as a source of photons and neutrons for industrial gauging operations since the late 1950s. Early portable moisture/density gauging equipment used Americium (Am)-241/Beryllium (Be)/Cesium (Cs)-137 combination sources to supply the required nuclear energy for gauging. Combination sources typically contained 0.040 Ci of Am-241 and 0.010 Ci of CS-137 in the same source capsule. Most of these sources were manufactured approximately 30 years ago. Collection, transportation, and storage of these sources once removed from their original device represent a shielding problem with distinct gamma and neutron components. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project is planning to use a multi-function drum (MFD) for the collection, shipping, and storage of AmBe sources, as well as the eventual waste package for disposal. The MFD is an approved TRU waste container design for DOE TRU waste known as the 12 inch Pipe Component Overpack. As the name indicates, this drum is based on a 12 inch ID stainless steel weldment approximately 25 inch in internal length. The existing drum design allows for addition of shielding within the pipe component up to the 110 kg maximum pay load weight. The 12 inch pipe component is packaged inside a 55-gallon drum, with the balance of the interior space filled with fiberboard dunnage. This packaging geometry is similar to the design of a DOT 6M, Type B shipping container.

  15. LED intense headband light source for fingerprint analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    2005-03-08

    A portable, lightweight and high-intensity light source for detecting and analyzing fingerprints during field investigation. On-site field analysis requires long hours of mobile analysis. In one embodiment, the present invention comprises a plurality of light emitting diodes; a power source; and a personal attachment means; wherein the light emitting diodes are powered by the power source, and wherein the power source and the light emitting diodes are attached to the personal attachment means to produce a personal light source for on-site analysis of latent fingerprints. The present invention is available for other applications as well.

  16. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report covers the states that largely fall into the Southeastern Reliability Corporation (SERC) region: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee.

  17. Regional Analysis And Characterization Of Fractured Aquifers...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    become an important source of basic data that can be used to help characterize the nature and extent of hydraulic conductivity in fractured rocks. We plan to continue to...

  18. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping

  19. Ground Source Heat Pump System Data Analysis | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ground Source Heat Pump System Data Analysis Ground Source Heat Pump System Data Analysis Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon emrgtech16_liu_040313.pdf More Documents & Publications Three new/under-utilized ground loop designs being evaluated for their ground loop cost reduction potential<br /> Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Advanced Ground Source Heat Pump Technology for Very-Low-Energy Buildings Oak Ridge City Center

  20. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Snake River Plain Region ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Compound and Elemental Analysis At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home...

  1. Isotopic Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  2. Isotopic Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  3. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geochemical...

  4. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geochemical...

  5. Isotopic Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  6. Isotopic Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Sturchio, Et Al., 1990...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  7. Isotopic Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Goff & Janik, 2002)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration...

  8. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Goff ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Goff & Janik, 2002)...

  9. Isotopic Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region (Cole, 1983...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cole, 1983) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region (Cole, 1983) Exploration Activity...

  10. Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization & Analysis (SERA) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    analysis model that determines the optimal production and delivery scenarios for hydrogen, given resource availability and technology cost. Given annual H2 demands on a...

  11. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaren, Joyce

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  12. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  13. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Energy Sources; Column: Consumption Potential;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Nonswitchable Minimum and Maximum Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Energy Sources; Column: Consumption Potential; Unit: Physical Units. Actual Minimum Maximum Energy Sources Consumption Consumption(a) Consumption(b) Total United States Electricity Receipts(c) (million kilowatthour 745,247 727,194 770,790 Natural Gas (billion cubic feet) 5,064 4,331 5,298 Distillate Fuel Oil (thousand barrels) 22 20 82 Residual Fuel Oil (thousand barrels) 13 9 46 Coal (thousand short

  14. Industrial applications of accelerator-based infrared sources: Analysis using infrared microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bantignies, J.L.; Fuchs, G.; Wilhelm, C.; Carr, G.L.; Dumas, P.

    1997-09-01

    Infrared Microspectroscopy, using a globar source, is now widely employed in the industrial environment, for the analysis of various materials. Since synchrotron radiation is a much brighter source, an enhancement of an order of magnitude in lateral resolution can be achieved. Thus, the combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful tool enabling sample regions only few microns size to be studied. This opens up the potential for analyzing small particles. Some examples for hair, bitumen and polymer are presented.

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Source Term Attribution Analysis |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy (WIPP) Source Term Attribution Analysis Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Source Term Attribution Analysis This document was used to determine facts and conditions during the Department of Energy Accident Investigation Board's investigation into the radiological release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Additional documents referenced and listed in the Phase 2 Radiological Release Event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on February 14, 2014, report in

  16. Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Comparison of building energy use before and after GSHP retrofit (result from the case study for one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demo projects) Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Comparison of building energy use before and after GSHP retrofit (result from the case study for one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demo projects) Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Images

  17. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Energy Sources; Column: Consumption Potential;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table 10.1 Nonswitchable Minimum and Maximum Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Energy Sources; Column: Consumption Potential; Unit: Physical Units. Actual Minimum Maximum Energy Sources Consumption Consumption(a) Consumption(b) Total United States Electricity Receipts(c) (million kilowatthour 854,102 826,077 889,281 Natural Gas (billion cubic feet) 5,357 4,442 5,649 Distillate Fuel Oil (thousand barrels) 22,139 19,251 101,340 Residual Fuel Oil (thousand barrels) 39,925

  18. "Table A37. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," " Census Division, and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" " "," "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," ","RSE" " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural"," ","

  19. Table A26. Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,,,,,"Natural",,,"Coke" " ","Total","Electricity","Residual","Distillate","Gas(c)"," ","Coal","and Breeze","Other(d)","RSE" "

  20. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 977,338 40 22 5,357 21

  1. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 5.8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Demand Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,335 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 84 133 23 2,119 8 547

  2. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million Other(e) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION

  3. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Other(e) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 2,850 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fue -- 41 133 23 2,119 8 547 -- Conventional Boiler Use 41 71 17

  4. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    August 2009 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2006 Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0

  5. "Table A28. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region" " and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" " "," "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," ","RSE" " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural"," "," ","Coke","

  6. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-02-18

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning, and anthropogenic sources from Europe; South, East, and Central Asia; and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.

  7. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  8. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this project undertaken by GLBRC (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center) Area 4 (Sustainability) modelers is to develop a national capability to model feedstock supply, ethanol production, and biogeochemical impacts of cellulosic biofuels. The results of this project contribute to sustainability goals of the GLBRC; i.e. to contribute to developing a sustainable bioenergy economy: one that is profitable to farmers and refiners, acceptable to society, and environmentally sound. A sustainable bioenergy economy will also contribute, in a fundamental way, to meeting national objectives on energy security and climate mitigation. The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a spatially explicit national geodatabase for conducting biofuel simulation studies; (2) model biomass productivity and associated environmental impacts of annual cellulosic feedstocks; (3) simulate production of perennial biomass feedstocks grown on marginal lands; and (4) locate possible sites for the establishment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. To address the first objective, we developed SENGBEM (Spatially Explicit National Geodatabase for Biofuel and Environmental Modeling), a 60-m resolution geodatabase of the conterminous USA containing data on: (1) climate, (2) soils, (3) topography, (4) hydrography, (5) land cover/ land use (LCLU), and (6) ancillary data (e.g., road networks, federal and state lands, national and state parks, etc.). A unique feature of SENGBEM is its 2008-2010 crop rotation data, a crucially important component for simulating productivity and biogeochemical cycles as well as land-use changes associated with biofuel cropping. We used the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) model to simulate biomass productivity and environmental impacts of annual and perennial cellulosic feedstocks across much of the USA on both croplands and marginal lands. We used data from LTER and eddy-covariance experiments within the study region to test the performance of EPIC and, when necessary, improve its parameterization. We investigated three scenarios. In the first, we simulated a historical (current) baseline scenario composed mainly of corn-, soybean-, and wheat-based rotations as grown existing croplands east of the Rocky Mountains in 30 states. In the second scenario, we simulated a modified baseline in which we harvested corn and wheat residues to supply feedstocks to potential cellulosic ethanol biorefineries distributed within the study area. In the third scenario, we simulated the productivity of perennial cropping systems such as switchgrass or perennial mixtures grown on either marginal or Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands. In all cases we evaluated the environmental impacts (e.g., soil carbon changes, soil erosion, nitrate leaching, etc.) associated with the practices. In summary, we have reported on the development of a spatially explicit national geodatabase to conduct biofuel simulation studies and provided initial simulation results on the potential of annual and perennial cropping systems to serve as feedstocks for the production of cellulosic ethanol. To accomplish this, we have employed sophisticated spatial analysis methods in combination with the process-based biogeochemical model EPIC. This work provided the opportunity to test the hypothesis that marginal lands can serve as sources of cellulosic feedstocks and thus contribute to avoid potential conflicts between bioenergy and food production systems. This work, we believe, opens the door for further analysis on the characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks as major contributors to the development of a sustainable bioenergy economy.

  9. IMPULSIVE ACCELERATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. I. STATISTICS AND CORONAL MASS EJECTION SOURCE REGION CHARACTERISTICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bein, B. M.; Berkebile-Stoiser, S.; Veronig, A. M.; Temmer, M.; Muhr, N.; Kienreich, I.; Utz, D.

    2011-09-10

    We use high time cadence images acquired by the STEREO EUVI and COR instruments to study the evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from their initiation through impulsive acceleration to the propagation phase. For a set of 95 CMEs we derived detailed height, velocity, and acceleration profiles and statistically analyzed characteristic CME parameters: peak acceleration, peak velocity, acceleration duration, initiation height, height at peak velocity, height at peak acceleration, and size of the CME source region. The CME peak accelerations we derived range from 20 to 6800 m s{sup -2} and are inversely correlated with the acceleration duration and the height at peak acceleration. Seventy-four percent of the events reach their peak acceleration at heights below 0.5 R{sub sun}. CMEs that originate from compact sources low in the corona are more impulsive and reach higher peak accelerations at smaller heights. These findings can be explained by the Lorentz force, which drives the CME accelerations and decreases with height and CME size.

  10. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    This project had three major objectives. The first objective was to develop a fossil fuel combustion source inventory (NO/sub x/, SO/sub x/, and hydrocarbon emissions) that would be relatively easy to use and update for analyzing the impact of combustion emissions on acid deposition in the eastern United States. The second objective of the project was to use the inventory data as a basis for selection of a number of areas that, by virtue of their importance in the acid rain issue, could be further studied to assess the impact of local and intraregional combustion sources. The third objective was to conduct an analysis of wet deposition monitoring data in the areas under study, along with pertinent physical characteristics, meteorological conditions, and emission patterns of these areas, to investigate probable relationships between local and intraregional combustion sources and the deposition of acidic material. The combustion source emissions inventory has been developed for the eastern United States. It characterizes all important area sources and point sources on a county-by-county basis. Its design provides flexibility and simplicity and makes it uniquely useful in overall analysis of emission patterns in the eastern United States. Three regions with basically different emission patterns have been identified and characterized. The statistical analysis of wet deposition monitoring data in conjunction with emission patterns, wind direction, and topography has produced consistent results for each study area and has demonstrated that the wet deposition in each area reflects the characteristics of the localized area around the monitoring sites (typically 50 to 150 miles). 8 references, 28 figures, 39 tables.

  11. Cuttings Analysis At U.S. South Region (Smith & Dees, 1982) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    U.S. South Region (Smith & Dees, 1982) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At U.S. South Region (Smith & Dees,...

  12. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  13. Regional price targets appropriate for advanced coal extraction. [Forecasting to 1985 and 2000; USA; Regional analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terasawa, K.L.; Whipple, D.W.

    1980-12-01

    The object of the study is to provide a methodology for predicting coal prices in regional markets for the target time frames 1985 and 2000 that could subsequently be used to guide the development of an advanced coal extraction system. The model constructed for the study is a supply and demand model that focuses on underground mining, since the advanced technology is expected to be developed for these reserves by the target years. The supply side of the model is based on coal reserve data generated by Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. (EEA). Given this data and the cost of operating a mine (data from US Department of Energy and Bureau of Mines), the Minimum Acceptable Selling Price (MASP) is obtained. The MASP is defined as the smallest price that would induce the producer to bring the mine into production, and is sensitive to the current technology and to assumptions concerning miner productivity. Based on this information, market supply curves can then be generated. On the demand side of the model, demand by region is calculated based on an EEA methodology that emphasizes demand by electric utilities and demand by industry. The demand and supply curves are then used to obtain the price targets. This last step is accomplished by allocating the demands among the suppliers so that the combined cost of producing and transporting coal is minimized.

  14. SOURCE?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SEEDplatform@ee.doe.gov. WHAT IS 0PEN SOURCE? Open source means that the base software code is publically available so that anyone has the ability to access and contribute to the code OPEN SOURCE BENEFITS * Platform is flexible and adaptable * Developers can create proprietary platform add- ons while still maintaining an inter-operable system * A national brand and standard is created * Local jurisdiction officials can have input on the direction and maintanence of the core code * The code base

  15. Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokkappa, P; Lange, D; Nelson, K; Wheeler, R

    2009-10-05

    A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial source frequencies, but leave the task of estimating these frequencies for future work. Modeling of nuisance source populations is only useful if it helps in understanding detector system performance in real operational environments. Examples of previous studies in which nuisance source models played a key role are briefly discussed. These include screening of in-bound urban traffic and monitoring of shipping containers in transit to U.S. ports.

  16. Analysis Of Factors Affecting Natural Source Slf Electromagnetic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Super Low Frequency (SLF) electromagnetic exploration was performed by using a nature source SLF electromagnetic detector at two geothermal wells in Peking University. The...

  17. Helicon Plasma Source Configuration Analysis by Means of Density Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angrilli, F.; Barber, G.C.; Carter, M.D.; Goulding, R.H.; Maggiora, R.; Pavarin, D.; Sparks, D.O.

    1999-11-13

    Initial results have been obtained from operation of a helicon plasma source built to conduct optimization studies for space propulsion applications. The source features an easily reconfigurable antenna to test different geometries. Operating with He as the source gas, peak densities >= 1.6X10{sup 19} m{sup -3} have been achieved. Radial and axial plasma profiles have been obtained using a microwave interferometer that can be scanned axially and a Langmuir probe. The source will be used to investigate operation at high magnetic field, frequency, and input power.

  18. Analysis of Solar Two Heliostat Tracking Error Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S.A.; Stone, K.W.

    1999-01-28

    This paper explores the geometrical errors that reduce heliostat tracking accuracy at Solar Two. The basic heliostat control architecture is described. Then, the three dominant error sources are described and their effect on heliostat tracking is visually illustrated. The strategy currently used to minimize, but not truly correct, these error sources is also shown. Finally, a novel approach to minimizing error is presented.

  19. Catalog of Data Analysis Software | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Areas of Interest Imaging Spectroscopy Scattering General Catalog of Data Analysis Software Development of software for visualization, analysis, reduction and simulation of x-ray...

  20. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume V - Transport Parameter and Source Term Data Documentation Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    Volume V of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the transport parameter and source term data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  1. Scoping Analysis of Source Term and Functional Containment Attenuation Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pete Lowry

    2012-10-01

    In order to meet future regulatory requirements, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project must fully establish and validate the mechanistic modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) source term. This is not possible at this stage in the project, as significant uncertainties in the final design remain unresolved. In the interim, however, there is a need to establish an approximate characterization of the source term. The NGNP team developed a simplified parametric model to establish mechanistic source term estimates for a set of proposed HTGR configurations.

  2. Scoping Analysis of Source Term and Functional Containment Attenuation Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pete Lowry

    2012-02-01

    In order to meet future regulatory requirements, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project must fully establish and validate the mechanistic modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) source term. This is not possible at this stage in the project, as significant uncertainties in the final design remain unresolved. In the interim, however, there is a need to establish an approximate characterization of the source term. The NGNP team developed a simplified parametric model to establish mechanistic source term estimates for a set of proposed HTGR configurations.

  3. Scoping Analysis of Source Term and Functional Containment Attenuation Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pete Lowry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet future regulatory requirements, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project must fully establish and validate the mechanistic modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) source term. This is not possible at this stage in the project, as significant uncertainties in the final design remain unresolved. In the interim, however, there is a need to establish an approximate characterization of the source term. The NGNP team developed a simplified parametric model to establish mechanistic source term estimates for a set of proposed HTGR configurations.

  4. Electric Transmission Network: A Multi-Region Analysis, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of the existing transmission network to respond efficiently to increased trade over four reliability regions in the northeastern United States.

  5. Isotopic Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ratios and active transtensional deformation indicates a deformation-enhanced permeability and that mantle fluids can penetrate the ductile lithosphere, even in regions where...

  6. Isotopic Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ratios and active transtensional deformation indicates a deformation-enhanced permeability and that mantle fluids can penetrate the ductile lithosphere, even in regions where...

  7. Isotopic Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region (Kennedy ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ratios and active transtensional deformation indicates a deformation-enhanced permeability and that mantle fluids can penetrate the ductile lithosphere, even in regions where...

  8. Isotopic Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Kennedy & Van Soest...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ratios and active transtensional deformation indicates a deformation-enhanced permeability and that mantle fluids can penetrate the ductile lithosphere, even in regions where...

  9. Isotopic Analysis At Cascades Region (Kennedy & Van Soest, 2007...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ratios and active transtensional deformation indicates a deformation-enhanced permeability and that mantle fluids can penetrate the ductile lithosphere, even in regions where...

  10. Regional Body-Wave Attenuation Using a Coda Source Normalization Method: Application to MEDNET Records of Earthquakes in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, W R; Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Scognamiglio, L

    2007-02-01

    We develop a new methodology to determine apparent attenuation for the regional seismic phases Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg using coda-derived source spectra. The local-to-regional coda methodology (Mayeda, 1993; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Mayeda et al., 2003) is a very stable way to obtain source spectra from sparse networks using as few as one station, even if direct waves are clipped. We develop a two-step process to isolate the frequency-dependent Q. First, we correct the observed direct wave amplitudes for an assumed geometrical spreading. Next, an apparent Q, combining path and site attenuation, is determined from the difference between the spreading-corrected amplitude and the independently determined source spectra derived from the coda methodology. We apply the technique to 50 earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 4.0 in central Italy as recorded by MEDNET broadband stations around the Mediterranean at local-to-regional distances. This is an ideal test region due to its high attenuation, complex propagation, and availability of many moderate sized earthquakes. We find that a power law attenuation of the form Q(f) = Q{sub 0}f{sup Y} fit all the phases quite well over the 0.5 to 8 Hz band. At most stations, the measured apparent Q values are quite repeatable from event to event. Finding the attenuation function in this manner guarantees a close match between inferred source spectra from direct waves and coda techniques. This is important if coda and direct wave amplitudes are to produce consistent seismic results.

  11. "Table A33. Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region, Census Division,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region, Census Division," " and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,,,,,"Natural",,,"Coke" " ","Total","Electricity","Residual","Distillate","Gas(c)"," ","Coal","and Breeze","Other(d)","RSE" "

  12. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local SO? and O? levels of the Mexico megacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almanza, V. H.; Molina, Luisa T.; Li, Guohui; Fast, Jerome D.; Sosa, G.

    2014-08-22

    The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emissions sources on both global and regional scale, and at the same time their outflow emissions can exert an important impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO? peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite T1 and ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the north region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during MILAGRO campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back trajectories analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 10 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 h. The estimated emission rate is noticeably high, about 2 kgs-. This finding suggests the possibility of "overlooked"emission sources in this region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the State of Hidalgo and in the State of Mexico, and we found that they can contribute in the NE region of the basin (about 15 41.7%), at the suburban supersite T1 (41.23%) and at some monitoring stations their contribution can be even higher than from the Tula Industrial Complex. The contribution of Tula Industrial Complex to regional ozone levels is estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA (1 ppb to 4 ppb) and slightly higher at the suburban T1 (6 ppb) and rural T2 (5 ppb) supersites. However, the contribution could be 20 as high as 10 ppb in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of State of Hidalgo. In addition, a first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to regional ozone levels is presented. Emission rates are estimated with a CFD combustion model. Results suggest that up to 30% of the total regional ozone from TIC could be related to flaring activities. 25 Finally, the influence in SO? levels from technological changes in the existing refinery is briefly discussed. These changes are due to the upcoming construction of a new refinery in Tula. The combination of emission reductions in the power plant, the refinery and in local sources in the MCMA could result in higher reductions on the average SO? 26580 Discussion Paper | Discussion Paper | Discussion Paper | Discussion Paper | concentration. Reductions in external sources tend to affect more the northern part of the basin (-16.35% to -45.58%), whilst reductions of urban sources in the megacity tend to diminish SO? levels substantially in the central, southwest, and southeast regions (-30.71% to -49.75%).

  13. Large-Scale Transport Model Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis: Distributed Sources in Complex Hydrogeologic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sig Drellack, Lance Prothro

    2007-12-01

    The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is in the process of assessing and developing regulatory decision options based on modeling predictions of contaminant transport from underground testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The UGTA Project is attempting to develop an effective modeling strategy that addresses and quantifies multiple components of uncertainty including natural variability, parameter uncertainty, conceptual/model uncertainty, and decision uncertainty in translating model results into regulatory requirements. The modeling task presents multiple unique challenges to the hydrological sciences as a result of the complex fractured and faulted hydrostratigraphy, the distributed locations of sources, the suite of reactive and non-reactive radionuclides, and uncertainty in conceptual models. Characterization of the hydrogeologic system is difficult and expensive because of deep groundwater in the arid desert setting and the large spatial setting of the NTS. Therefore, conceptual model uncertainty is partially addressed through the development of multiple alternative conceptual models of the hydrostratigraphic framework and multiple alternative models of recharge and discharge. Uncertainty in boundary conditions is assessed through development of alternative groundwater fluxes through multiple simulations using the regional groundwater flow model. Calibration of alternative models to heads and measured or inferred fluxes has not proven to provide clear measures of model quality. Therefore, model screening by comparison to independently-derived natural geochemical mixing targets through cluster analysis has also been invoked to evaluate differences between alternative conceptual models. Advancing multiple alternative flow models, sensitivity of transport predictions to parameter uncertainty is assessed through Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations are challenged by the distributed sources in each of the Corrective Action Units, by complex mass transfer processes, and by the size and complexity of the field-scale flow models. An efficient methodology utilizing particle tracking results and convolution integrals provides in situ concentrations appropriate for Monte Carlo analysis. Uncertainty in source releases and transport parameters including effective porosity, fracture apertures and spacing, matrix diffusion coefficients, sorption coefficients, and colloid load and mobility are considered. With the distributions of input uncertainties and output plume volumes, global analysis methods including stepwise regression, contingency table analysis, and classification tree analysis are used to develop sensitivity rankings of parameter uncertainties for each model considered, thus assisting a variety of decisions.

  14. Core Analysis At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Core Analysis At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  15. Sensitive glow discharge ion source for aerosol and gas analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2007-08-14

    A high sensitivity glow discharge ion source system for analyzing particles includes an aerodynamic lens having a plurality of constrictions for receiving an aerosol including at least one analyte particle in a carrier gas and focusing the analyte particles into a collimated particle beam. A separator separates the carrier gas from the analyte particle beam, wherein the analyte particle beam or vapors derived from the analyte particle beam are selectively transmitted out of from the separator. A glow discharge ionization source includes a discharge chamber having an entrance orifice for receiving the analyte particle beam or analyte vapors, and a target electrode and discharge electrode therein. An electric field applied between the target electrode and discharge electrode generates an analyte ion stream from the analyte vapors, which is directed out of the discharge chamber through an exit orifice, such as to a mass spectrometer. High analyte sensitivity is obtained by pumping the discharge chamber exclusively through the exit orifice and the entrance orifice.

  16. Trace Element Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    diagnostic lithogeochemical tool for geothermal exploration, the analysis of lithium and other elements in tufa deposits could serve as exploration guides for hot spring...

  17. Trace Element Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    diagnostic lithogeochemical tool for geothermal exploration, the analysis of lithium and other elements in tufa deposits could serve as exploration guides for hot spring...

  18. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    diagnostic lithogeochemical tool for geothermal exploration, the analysis of lithium and other elements in tufa deposits could serve as exploration guides for hot spring...

  19. Trace Element Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    diagnostic lithogeochemical tool for geothermal exploration, the analysis of lithium and other elements in tufa deposits could serve as exploration guides for hot spring...

  20. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    diagnostic lithogeochemical tool for geothermal exploration, the analysis of lithium and other elements in tufa deposits could serve as exploration guides for hot spring...

  1. Trace Element Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    diagnostic lithogeochemical tool for geothermal exploration, the analysis of lithium and other elements in tufa deposits could serve as exploration guides for hot spring...

  2. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coke and Shipments Net Residual Distillate Natural LPG and Coal Breeze of Energy Sources NAICS Total(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Gas(e) NGL(f) (million (million Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) (billion cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) (trillion Btu) Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.9 1 1.2 1.8 1 1.6 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.4 311 Food 1,123 67,521 2 3 567 1 8 * 89 0 311221 Wet

  3. Analysis of pumping-induced unsaturated regions beneath aperennial river

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, G.W.; Jasperse, J.; Seymour, D.; Constantz, J.; Zhou, Q.

    2007-05-15

    The presence of an unsaturated region beneath a streambedduring groundwater pumping near streams reduces the pumping capacity whenit reaches the well screens, changes flow paths, and alters the types ofbiological transformations in the streambed sediments. Athree-dimensional, multi-phase flow model of two horizontal collectorwells along the Russian River near Forestville, California was developedto investigate the impact of varying the ratio of the aquifer tostreambed permeability on (1) the formation of an unsaturated regionbeneath the stream, (2) the pumping capacity, (3) stream-water fluxesthrough the streambed, and (4) stream-water travel times to the collectorwells. The aquifer to streambed permeability ratio at which theunsaturated region was initially observed ranged from 10 to 100. The sizeof the unsaturated region beneath the streambed increased as the aquiferto streambed permeability ratio increased. The simulations also indicatedthat for a particular aquifer permeability, decreasing the streambedpermeability by only a factor of 2-3 from the permeability wheredesaturation initially occurred resulted in reducing the pumpingcapacity. In some cases, the stream-water fluxes increased as thestreambed permeability decreased. However, the stream water residencetimes increased and the fraction of stream water that reached that thewells decreased as the streambed permeability decreased, indicating thata higher streambed flux does not necessarily correlate to greaterrecharge of stream water around the wells.

  4. X-ray source assembly having enhanced output stability, and fluid stream analysis applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radley, Ian (Glenmont, NY); Bievenue, Thomas J. (Delmar, NY); Burdett, John H. (Charlton, NY); Gallagher, Brian W. (Guilderland, NY); Shakshober, Stuart M. (Hudson, NY); Chen, Zewu (Schenectady, NY); Moore, Michael D. (Alplaus, NY)

    2008-06-08

    An x-ray source assembly and method of operation are provided having enhanced output stability. The assembly includes an anode having a source spot upon which electrons impinge and a control system for controlling position of the anode source spot relative to an output structure. The control system can maintain the anode source spot location relative to the output structure notwithstanding a change in one or more operating conditions of the x-ray source assembly. One aspect of the disclosed invention is most amenable to the analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels.

  5. X-ray source assembly having enhanced output stability, and fluid stream analysis applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radley, Ian; Bievenue, Thomas J.; Burdett Jr., John H.; Gallagher, Brian W.; Shakshober, Stuart M.; Chen, Zewu; Moore, Michael D.

    2007-04-24

    An x-ray source assembly (2700) and method of operation are provided having enhanced output stability. The assembly includes an anode (2125) having a source spot upon which electrons (2120) impinge and a control system (2715/2720) for controlling position of the anode source spot relative to an output structure. The control system can maintain the anode source spot location relative to the output structure (2710) notwithstanding a change in one or more operating conditions of the x-ray source assembly. One aspect of the disclosed invention is most amenable to the analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels.

  6. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE OUTFLOW FROM SOURCE I IN THE ORION-KL REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Menten, Karl M.; Curiel, Salvador

    2012-07-20

    In this Letter, we present sensitive millimeter SiO (J = 5-4; {nu} = 0) line observations of the outflow arising from the enigmatic object Orion Source I made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). The observations reveal that at scales of a few thousand AU, the outflow has a marked 'butterfly' morphology along a northeast-southwest axis. However, contrary to what is found in the SiO and H{sub 2}O maser observations at scales of tens of AU, the blueshifted radial velocities of the moving gas are found to the northwest, while the redshifted velocities are in the southeast. The ALMA observations are complemented with SiO (J = 8-7; {nu} = 0) maps (with a similar spatial resolution) obtained with the Submillimeter Array. These observations also show a similar morphology and velocity structure in this outflow. We discuss some possibilities to explain these differences at small and large scales across the flow.

  7. Inhomogeneities of plasma density and electric field as sources of electrostatic turbulence in the auroral region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilyasov, Askar A.; Chernyshov, Alexander A. Mogilevsky, Mikhail M.; Golovchanskaya, Irina V. Kozelov, Boris V.

    2015-03-15

    Inhomogeneities of plasma density and non-uniform electric fields are compared as possible sources of a sort of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves that can be identified with broadband extremely low frequency electrostatic turbulence in the topside auroral ionosphere. Such waves are excited by inhomogeneous energy-density-driven instability. To gain a deeper insight in generation of these waves, computational modeling is performed with various plasma parameters. It is demonstrated that inhomogeneities of plasma density can give rise to this instability even in the absence of electric fields. By using both satellite-observed and model spatial distributions of plasma density and electric field in our modeling, we show that specific details of the spatial distributions are of minor importance for the wave generation. The solutions of the nonlocal inhomogeneous energy-density-driven dispersion relation are investigated for various ion-to-electron temperature ratios and directions of wave propagation. The relevance of the solutions to the observed spectra of broadband extremely low frequency emissions is shown.

  8. Quantifying sources of black carbon in Western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Y.; Doherty, S. J.; Dang, C.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-05-04

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source-receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over Western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over the Northwest USA andmore » West Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.« less

  9. Quantifying sources of black carbon in Western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Yun; Doherty, Sarah J.; Dang, Cheng; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Fu, Qiang

    2015-11-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source-receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over Western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over the Northwest USA and West Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.

  10. Hybrid Technique in SCALE for Fission Source Convergence Applied to Used Nuclear Fuel Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M; Peplow, Douglas E.; Bekar, Kursat B; Celik, Cihangir; Scaglione, John M; Ilas, Dan; Wagner, John C

    2013-01-01

    The new hybrid SOURCE ConveRgence accelERator (SOURCERER) sequence in SCALE deterministically computes a fission distribution and uses it as the starting source in a Monte Carlo eigenvalue criticality calculation. In addition to taking the guesswork out of defining an appropriate, problem-dependent starting source, the more accurate starting source provided by the deterministic calculation decreases the probability of producing inaccurate tally estimates associated with undersampling problems caused by inadequate source convergence. Furthermore, SOURCERER can increase the efficiency of the overall simulation by decreasing the number of cycles that has to be skipped before the keff accumulation. SOURCERER was applied to a representative example for a used nuclear fuel cask utilized at the Maine Yankee storage site {Scaglione and Ilas}. Because of the time constraints of the Used Fuel Research, Development, and Demonstration project, it was found that using more than 30,000 neutrons per cycle will lead to inaccurate Monte Carlo calculation of keff due to the inevitable decrease in the number of skipped and active cycles used with this problem. For a fixed uncertainty objective and by using 30,000 neutron per cycle, the use of SOURCERER increased the efficiency of the keff calculation by 60%compared to a Monte Carlo calculation that used a starting source distributed uniformly in fissionable regions, even with the inclusion of the extra computational time required by the deterministic calculation. Additionally, the use of SOURCERER increased the reliability of keff calculation using any number of skipped cycles below 350.

  11. Quantifying sources of black carbon in western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Y.; Doherty, S. J.; Dang, C.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-11-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source–receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over northwestern USA and westernmore » Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.« less

  12. Design and Analysis of a Region-Wide Remotely Controllable Electrical Lock-Out System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olama, Mohammed M; Allgood, Glenn O; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Howlader, Mostofa; Kisner, Roger A; Ewing, Paul D; McIntyre, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    Electric utilities have a main responsibility to protect the lives and safety of their workers when they are working on low-, medium-, and high-voltage power lines and distribution circuits. With the anticipated widespread deployment of smart grids, a secure and highly reliable means of maintaining isolation of customer-owned distributed generation (DG) from the affected distribution circuits during maintenance is necessary to provide a fully de-energized work area, ensure utility personnel safety, and prevent hazards that can lead to accidents such as accidental electrocution from unanticipated power sources. Some circuits are serviced while energized (live line work) while others are de-energized for maintenance. For servicing de-energized circuits and equipment, lock-out tag-out (LOTO) programs provide a verifiable procedure for ensuring that circuit breakers are locked in the off state and tagged to indicate that status to operational personnel so that the lines will be checked for voltage to verify they are de-energized. The de-energized area is isolated from any energized sources, which traditionally are the substations. This procedure works well when all power sources and their interconnections are known armed with this knowledge, utility personnel can determine the appropriate circuits to de-energize for isolating the target line or equipment. However, with customer-owned DG tied into the grid, the risk of inadvertently reenergizing a circuit increases because circuit connections may not be adequately documented and are not under the direct control of the local utility. Thus, the active device may not be properly de-energized or isolated from the work area. Further, a remote means of de-energizing and locking out energized devices provides an opportunity for greatly reduced safety risk to utility personnel compared to manual operations. In this paper, we present a remotely controllable LOTO system that allows individual workers to determine the configuration and status of electrical system circuits and permit them to lock out customer-owned DG devices for safety purposes using a highly secure and ultra-reliable radio signal. The system consists of: (1) individual personal lockout devices, (2) lockout communications and logic module at circuit breakers, which are located at all DG devices, and (3) a database and configuration control process located at the utility operations center. The lockout system is a close permissive, i.e., loss of control power or communications will cause the circuit breaker to open. Once the DG device is tripped open, a visual means will provide confirmation of a loss of voltage and current that verifies the disconnected status of the DG. Further the utility personnel will be able to place their own lock electronically on the system to ensure a lockout functionally. The proposed LOTO system provides enhanced worker safety and protection against unintended energized lines when DG is present. The main approaches and challenges encountered through designing the proposed region-wide LOTO system are discussed in this paper. These approaches include: (1) evaluating the reliability of the proposed approach under N-modular redundancy with voter/spares configurations and (2) conducting a system level risk assessment study using the failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) technique to identify and rank failure modes by probability of occurrence, probability of detection, and severity of consequences. This ranking allows a cost benefits analysis to be conducted such that dollars and efforts will be applied to the failures that provide greatest incremental gains in system capability (resilience, survivability, security, reliability, availability, etc.) per dollar spent whether capital, operations, or investment. Several simulation scenarios and their results are presented to demonstrate the viability of these approaches.

  13. Municipal solid waste source-separated collection in China: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tai Jun; Zhang Weiqian; Che Yue; Feng Di

    2011-08-15

    A pilot program focusing on municipal solid waste (MSW) source-separated collection was launched in eight major cities throughout China in 2000. Detailed investigations were carried out and a comprehensive system was constructed to evaluate the effects of the eight-year implementation in those cities. This paper provides an overview of different methods of collection, transportation, and treatment of MSW in the eight cities; as well as making a comparative analysis of MSW source-separated collection in China. Information about the quantity and composition of MSW shows that the characteristics of MSW are similar, which are low calorific value, high moisture content and high proportion of organisms. Differences which exist among the eight cities in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) are presented in this paper. Only Beijing and Shanghai demonstrated a relatively effective result in the implementation of MSW source-separated collection. While the six remaining cities result in poor performance. Considering the current status of MSWM, source-separated collection should be a key priority. Thus, a wider range of cities should participate in this program instead of merely the eight pilot cities. It is evident that an integrated MSWM system is urgently needed. Kitchen waste and recyclables are encouraged to be separated at the source. Stakeholders involved play an important role in MSWM, thus their responsibilities should be clearly identified. Improvement in legislation, coordination mechanisms and public education are problematic issues that need to be addressed.

  14. BIPOLAR MAGNETIC REGIONS ON THE SUN: GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF THE SOHO/MDI DATA SET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenflo, J. O.; Kosovichev, A. G. E-mail: AKosovichev@solar.stanford.edu

    2012-02-01

    The magnetic flux that is generated by dynamo processes inside the Sun emerges in the form of bipolar magnetic regions. The properties of these directly observable signatures of the dynamo can be extracted from full-disk solar magnetograms. The most homogeneous, high-quality synoptic data set of solar magnetograms has been obtained with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft during 1995-2011. We have developed an IDL program that has, when applied to the 73,838 magnetograms of the MDI data set, automatically identified 160,079 bipolar magnetic regions that span a range of scale sizes across nearly four orders of magnitude. The properties of each region have been extracted and statistically analyzed, in particular with respect to the polarity orientations of the bipolar regions, including their tilt-angle distributions and their violations of Hale's polarity law. The latitude variation of the average tilt angles (with respect to the E-W direction), which is known as Joy's law, is found to closely follow the relation 32.{sup 0}1 Multiplication-Sign sin (latitude). There is no indication of a dependence on region size that one may expect if the tilts were produced by the Coriolis force during the buoyant rise of flux loops from the tachocline region. A few percent of all regions have orientations that violate Hale's polarity law. We show explicit examples, from different phases of the solar cycle, where well-defined medium-size bipolar regions with opposite polarity orientations occur side by side in the same latitude zone in the same magnetogram. Such oppositely oriented large bipolar regions cannot be part of the same toroidal flux system, but different flux systems must coexist at any given time in the same latitude zones. These examples are incompatible with the paradigm of coherent, subsurface toroidal flux ropes as the source of sunspots, and instead show that fluctuations must play a major role at all scales for the turbulent dynamo. To confirm the profound role of fluctuations at large scales, we show explicit examples in which large bipolar regions differ from the average Joy's law orientation by an amount between 90 Degree-Sign and 100 Degree-Sign . We see no observational support for a separation of scales or a division between a global and a local dynamo, since also the smallest scales in our sample retain a non-random component that significantly contributes to the accumulated emergence of a north-south dipole moment that will lead to the replacement of the old global poloidal field with a new one that has the opposite orientation.

  15. Evaluation of tools for renewable energy policy analysis: The ten federal region model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engle, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 establishes a program to support development of renewable energy technologies including a production incentive to public power utilities. Because there is a wide range of possible policy actions that could be taken to increase electric market share for renewables, modeling tools are needed to help make informed decisions regarding future policy. Previous energy modeling tools did not contain the region or infrastructure focus necessary to examine renewable technologies. As a result, the Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) supported the development of tools for renewable energy policy analysis. Three models were developed: The Renewable Energy Penetration (REP) model, which is a spreadsheet model for determining first-order estimates of policy effects for each of the ten federal regions; the Ten Federal Region Model (TFRM), which employs utility capacity expansion and dispatching decision; and the Region Electric Policy Analysis Model (REPAM), which was constructed to allow detailed insight into interactions between policy and technology within an individual region. These Models were developed to provide a suite of fast, personal-computer based policy analysis tools; as one moves from the REP model to the TFRM to the REPAM the level of detail (and complexity) increases. In 1993 a panel was formed to identify model strengths, weaknesses (including any potential biases) and to suggest potential improvements. The panel met in January 1994 to discuss model simulations and to deliberate regarding evaluation outcomes. This report is largely a result of this meeting. This report is organized as follows. It provides a description of the TFRM and summarizes the panel`s findings. Individual chapters examine various aspects of the model: demand and load, capacity expansion, dispatching and production costing, reliability, renewables, storage, financial and regulatory concerns, and environmental effects.

  16. Statistical analysis of multipole components in the magnetic field of the RHIC arc regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beebe-Wang,J.; Jain, A.

    2009-05-04

    The existence of multipolar components in the dipole and quadrupole magnets is one of the factors limiting the beam stability in the RHIC operations. Therefore, the statistical properties of the non-linear fields are crucial for understanding the beam behavior and for achieving the superior performance in RHIC. In an earlier work [1], the field quality analysis of the RHIC interaction regions (IR) was presented. Furthermore, a procedure for developing non-linear IR models constructed from measured multipolar data of RHIC IR magnets was described. However, the field quality in the regions outside of the RHIC IR had not yet been addressed. In this paper, we present the statistical analysis of multipolar components in the magnetic fields of the RHIC arc regions. The emphasis is on the lower order components, especially the sextupole in the arc dipole and the 12-pole in the quadrupole magnets, since they are shown to have the strongest effects on the beam stability. Finally, the inclusion of the measured multipolar components data of RHIC arc regions and their statistical properties into tracking models is discussed.

  17. Accelerating Data Acquisition, Reduction, and Analysis at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Stuart I; Kohl, James Arthur; Granroth, Garrett E; Miller, Ross G; Doucet, Mathieu; Stansberry, Dale V; Proffen, Thomas E; Taylor, Russell J; Dillow, David

    2014-01-01

    ORNL operates the world's brightest neutron source, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Funded by the US DOE Office of Basic Energy Science, this national user facility hosts hundreds of scientists from around the world, providing a platform to enable break-through research in materials science, sustainable energy, and basic science. While the SNS provides scientists with advanced experimental instruments, the deluge of data generated from these instruments represents both a big data challenge and a big data opportunity. For example, instruments at the SNS can now generate multiple millions of neutron events per second providing unprecedented experiment fidelity but leaving the user with a dataset that cannot be processed and analyzed in a timely fashion using legacy techniques. To address this big data challenge, ORNL has developed a near real-time streaming data reduction and analysis infrastructure. The Accelerating Data Acquisition, Reduction, and Analysis (ADARA) system provides a live streaming data infrastructure based on a high-performance publish subscribe system, in situ data reduction, visualization, and analysis tools, and integration with a high-performance computing and data storage infrastructure. ADARA allows users of the SNS instruments to analyze their experiment as it is run and make changes to the experiment in real-time and visualize the results of these changes. In this paper we describe ADARA, provide a high-level architectural overview of the system, and present a set of use-cases and real-world demonstrations of the technology.

  18. Energy Sources and Systems Analysis: 40 South Lincoln Redevelopment District (Full Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the results of a case study to analyze district energy systems for their potential use in a project that involves redeveloping 270 units of existing public housing, along with other nearby sites. When complete, the redevelopment project will encompass more than 900 mixed-income residential units, commercial and retail properties, and open space. The analysis estimated the hourly heating, cooling, domestic hot water, and electric loads required by the community; investigated potential district system technologies to meet those needs; and researched available fuel sources to power such systems.

  19. Energy Sources and Systems Analysis: 40 South Lincoln Redevelopment District (Short Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the a brief overview of the results of a case study to analyze district energy systems for their potential use in a project that involves redeveloping 270 units of existing public housing, along with other nearby sites. When complete, the redevelopment project will encompass more than 900 mixed-income residential units, commercial and retail properties, and open space. The analysis estimated the hourly heating, cooling, domestic hot water, and electric loads required by the community; investigated potential district system technologies to meet those needs; and researched available fuel sources to power such systems. A full report of this case study is also available.

  20. Numerical analysis of the plasma-produced region in a plasma spraying system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, T.; Sakata, N.; Kato, S.; Nagayama, T.; Fujita, K.

    1999-07-01

    For this study, the Arcjet Plasmodynamic Analysis Code (APAC) developed by Fujita has been significantly modified in order to investigate the physical phenomena of the plasma-produced region in a plasma spraying system. For self-consistent determination of the heating process of working gas, plasma flow, which contains complicated physical phenomena, is obtained by interconnecting flow field analysis with electric field analysis. The main conclusions obtained are summarized as follows: (1) Discharge voltage decreased with discharge current significantly. On the other hand, it increases slightly with hydrogen flow rate. (2) Current density distribution governs physical phenomena in plasma flow. (3) Temperature and velocity distribution at the nozzle exit depend on the discharge current.

  1. Housing Archetype Analysis for Home Energy-Efficient Retrofit in the Great Lakes Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S. K.; Mrozowski, T.; Harrell-Seyburn, A.; Ehrlich, N.; Hembroff, L.; Bieburn, B.; Mazor, M.; McIntyre, A.; Mutton, C.; Parsons, G.; Syal, M. G.; Wilkinson, R.

    2014-09-01

    This project report details activities and results of the 'Market Characterization' project undertaken by the Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) team targeted toward the DOE goal of achieving 30%-50% reduction in existing building energy use. CEER consists of members from the Dow Chemical Company, Michigan State University, Ferris State University and Habitat for Humanity Kent County. The purpose of this market characterization project was to identify housing archetypes which are dominant within Great Lakes region and therefore offer significant potential for energy-efficient retrofit research and implementation due to the substantial number of homes possessing similar characteristics. Understanding the characteristics of housing groups referred to as 'archetypes' by vintage, style, and construction characteristics can allow research teams to focus their retrofit research and develop prescriptive solutions for those structure types which are prevalent and offer high potential uptake within a region or market. Key research activities included; literature review, statistical analysis of national and regional data of the American Housing Survey (AHS) collected by the U.S. Census Bureau, analysis of Michigan specific data, development of a housing taxonomy of architectural styles, case studies of two local markets (i.e., Ann Arbor and Grand Rapids in Michigan) and development of a suggested framework (or process) for characterizing local markets. In order to gain a high level perspective, national and regional data from the U.S. Census Bureau was analyzed using cross tabulations, multiple regression models, and logistic regression to characterize the housing stock and determine dominant house types using 21 variables.

  2. Ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  3. Source Contribution Analysis of Surface Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Northeastern Asia by Source-receptor Relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Kajino, Mizuo; Sato, Keiichi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi; Ueda, Hiromasa; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-11-01

    We analyzed the sourceereceptor relationships for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in northeastern Asia using an aerosol chemical transport model. The model successfully simulated the observed concentrations. In Beijing (China) benzo[a]pyren (BaP) concentrations are due to emissions from its own domain. In Noto, Oki and Tsushima (Japan), transboundary transport from northern China (>40N, 40-60%) and central China (30-40N, 10-40%) largely influences BaP concentrations from winter to spring, whereas the relative contribution from central China is dominant (90%) in Hedo. In the summer, the contribution from Japanese domestic sources increases (40-80%) at the 4 sites. Contributions from Japan and Russia are additional source of BaP over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in summer. The contribution rates for the concentrations from each domain are different among PAH species depending on their particulate phase oxidation rates. Reaction with O3 on particulate surfaces may be an important component of the PAH oxidation processes.

  4. Rapid detection of regionally clustered germ-line BRCA1 mutations by multiplex heteroduplex analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gayther, S.A.; Harrington, P.; Russell, P.

    1996-03-01

    Germ-line mutations of the BRCA1 gene are responsible for a substantial proportion of families with multiple cases of early-onset breast and/or ovarian cancer. Since the isolation of BRCA1 last year, >65 distinct mutations scattered throughout the coding region have been detected, making analysis of the gene time consuming and technically challenging. We have developed a multiplex heteroduplex analysis that is designed to analyze one-quarter of the coding sequence in a single-step screening procedure and that will detect {approximately}50% of all BRCA1 mutations so far reported in breast/ovarian cancer families. We have used this technique to analyze BRCA1 in 162 families with a history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and identified 12 distinct mutations in 35 families. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Low frequency azimuthal stability of the ionization region of the Hall thruster discharge. I. Local analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escobar, D.; Ahedo, E.

    2014-04-15

    Results based on a local linear stability analysis of the Hall thruster discharge are presented. A one-dimensional azimuthal framework is used including three species: neutrals, singly charged ions, and electrons. A simplified linear model is developed with the aim of deriving analytical expressions to characterize the stability of the ionization region. The results from the local analysis presented here indicate the existence of an instability that gives rise to an azimuthal oscillation in the +E??B direction with a long wavelength. According to the model, the instability seems to appear only in regions where the ionization and the electric field make it possible to have positive gradients of plasma density and ion velocity at the same time. A more complex model is also solved numerically to validate the analytical results. Additionally, parametric variations are carried out with respect to the main parameters of the model to identify the trends of the instability. As the temperature increases and the neutral-to-plasma density ratio decreases, the growth rate of the instability decreases down to a limit where azimuthal perturbations are no longer unstable.

  6. Sources of black carbon aerosols in South Asia and surrounding regions during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Nair, V. S.; Pfister, G. G.; Suresh Babu, S.; Satheesh, S. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Carmichael, G. R.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2015-05-19

    This study examines differences in the surface black carbon (BC) aerosol loading between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) and identifies dominant sources of BC in South Asia and surrounding regions during March–May 2006 (Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget, ICARB) period. A total of 13 BC tracers are introduced in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry to address these objectives. The model reproduced the temporal and spatial variability of BC distribution observed over the AS and the BoB during the ICARB ship cruise and captured spatial variability at the inlandmore » sites. In general, the model underestimates the observed BC mass concentrations. However, the model–observation discrepancy in this study is smaller compared to previous studies. Model results show that ICARB measurements were fairly well representative of the AS and the BoB during the pre-monsoon season. Elevated BC mass concentrations in the BoB are due to 5 times stronger influence of anthropogenic emissions on the BoB compared to the AS. Biomass burning in Burma also affects the BoB much more strongly than the AS. Results show that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, respectively, accounted for 60 and 37% of the average ± standard deviation (representing spatial and temporal variability) BC mass concentration (1341 ± 2353 ng m-3) in South Asia. BC emissions from residential (61%) and industrial (23%) sectors are the major anthropogenic sources, except in the Himalayas where vehicular emissions dominate. We find that regional-scale transport of anthropogenic emissions contributes up to 25% of BC mass concentrations in western and eastern India, suggesting that surface BC mass concentrations cannot be linked directly to the local emissions in different regions of South Asia.« less

  7. Sources of black carbon aerosols in South Asia and surrounding regions during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Nair, V. S.; Pfister, G. G.; Suresh Babu, S.; Satheesh, S. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Carmichael, G. R.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2015-05-19

    This study examines differences in the surface black carbon (BC) aerosol loading between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) and identifies dominant sources of BC in South Asia and surrounding regions during MarchMay 2006 (Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget, ICARB) period. A total of 13 BC tracers are introduced in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry to address these objectives. The model reproduced the temporal and spatial variability of BC distribution observed over the AS and the BoB during the ICARB ship cruise and captured spatial variability at the inland sites. In general, the model underestimates the observed BC mass concentrations. However, the modelobservation discrepancy in this study is smaller compared to previous studies. Model results show that ICARB measurements were fairly well representative of the AS and the BoB during the pre-monsoon season. Elevated BC mass concentrations in the BoB are due to 5 times stronger influence of anthropogenic emissions on the BoB compared to the AS. Biomass burning in Burma also affects the BoB much more strongly than the AS. Results show that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, respectively, accounted for 60 and 37% of the average standard deviation (representing spatial and temporal variability) BC mass concentration (1341 2353 ng m-3) in South Asia. BC emissions from residential (61%) and industrial (23%) sectors are the major anthropogenic sources, except in the Himalayas where vehicular emissions dominate. We find that regional-scale transport of anthropogenic emissions contributes up to 25% of BC mass concentrations in western and eastern India, suggesting that surface BC mass concentrations cannot be linked directly to the local emissions in different regions of South Asia.

  8. A Ten Step Protocol and Plan for CCS Site Characterization, Based on an Analysis of the Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-15

    This report expresses a Ten-Step Protocol for CO2 Storage Site Characterization, the final outcome of an extensive Site Characterization analysis of the Rocky Mountain region, USA. These ten steps include: (1) regional assessment and data gathering; (2) identification and analysis of appropriate local sites for characterization; (3) public engagement; (4) geologic and geophysical analysis of local site(s); (5) stratigraphic well drilling and coring; (6) core analysis and interpretation with other data; (7) database assembly and static model development; (8) storage capacity assessment; (9) simulation and uncertainty assessment; (10) risk assessment. While the results detailed here are primarily germane to the Rocky Mountain region, the intent of this protocol is to be portable or generally applicable for CO2 storage site characterization.

  9. Analysis on fuel breeding capability of FBR core region based on minor actinide recycling doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Permana, Sidik; Novitrian,; Waris, Abdul; Ismail; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Masaki

    2014-09-30

    Nuclear fuel breeding based on the capability of fuel conversion capability can be achieved by conversion ratio of some fertile materials into fissile materials during nuclear reaction processes such as main fissile materials of U-233, U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 and for fertile materials of Th-232, U-238, and Pu-240 as well as Pu-238. Minor actinide (MA) loading option which consists of neptunium, americium and curium will gives some additional contribution from converted MA into plutonium such as conversion Np-237 into Pu-238 and it's produced Pu-238 converts to Pu-239 via neutron capture. Increasing composition of Pu-238 can be used to produce fissile material of Pu-239 as additional contribution. Trans-uranium (TRU) fuel (Mixed fuel loading of MOX (U-Pu) and MA composition) and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel compositions are analyzed for comparative analysis in order to show the effect of MA to the plutonium productions in core in term of reactor criticality condition and fuel breeding capability. In the present study, neptunium (Np) nuclide is used as a representative of MAin trans-uranium (TRU) fuel composition as Np-MOX fuel type. It was loaded into the core region gives significant contribution to reduce the excess reactivity in comparing to mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and in the same time it contributes to increase nuclear fuel breeding capability of the reactor. Neptunium fuel loading scheme in FBR core region gives significant production of Pu-238 as fertile material to absorp neutrons for reducing excess reactivity and additional contribution for fuel breeding.

  10. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  11. A Preliminary Analysis of the Economics of Using Distributed Energy as a Source of Reactive Power Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Fangxing; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom; King, Thomas F

    2006-04-01

    A major blackout affecting 50 million people in the Northeast United States, where insufficient reactive power supply was an issue, and an increased number of filings made to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission by generators for reactive power has led to a closer look at reactive power supply and compensation. The Northeastern Massachusetts region is one such area where there is an insufficiency in reactive power compensation. Distributed energy due to its close proximity to loads seems to be a viable option for solving any present or future reactive power shortage problems. Industry experts believe that supplying reactive power from synchronized distributed energy sources can be 2 to 3 times more effective than providing reactive support in bulk from longer distances at the transmission or generation level. Several technology options are available to supply reactive power from distributed energy sources such as small generators, synchronous condensers, fuel cells or microturbines. In addition, simple payback analysis indicates that investments in DG to provide reactive power can be recouped in less than 5 years when capacity payments for providing reactive power are larger than $5,000/kVAR and the DG capital and installation costs are lower than $30/kVAR. However, the current institutional arrangements for reactive power compensation present a significant barrier to wider adoption of distributed energy as a source of reactive power. Furthermore, there is a significant difference between how generators and transmission owners/providers are compensated for reactive power supplied. The situation for distributed energy sources is even more difficult, as there are no arrangements to compensate independent DE owners interested in supplying reactive power to the grid other than those for very large IPPs. There are comparable functionality barriers as well, as these smaller devices do not have the control and communications requirements necessary for automatic operation in response to local or system operators. There are no known distributed energy asset owners currently receiving compensation for reactive power supply or capability. However, there are some cases where small generators on the generation and transmission side of electricity supply have been tested and have installed the capability to be dispatched for reactive power support. Several concerns need to be met for distributed energy to become widely integrated as a reactive power resource. The overall costs of retrofitting distributed energy devices to absorb or produce reactive power need to be reduced. There needs to be a mechanism in place for ISOs/RTOs to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where distributed energy resides. Novel compensation methods should be introduced to encourage the dispatch of dynamic resources close to areas with critical voltage issues. The next phase of this research will investigate in detail how different options of reactive power producing DE can compare both economically and functionally with shunt capacitor banks. Shunt capacitor banks, which are typically used for compensating reactive power consumption of loads on distribution systems, are very commonly used because they are very cost effective in terms of capital costs. However, capacitor banks can require extensive maintenance especially due to their exposure to lightning at the top of utility poles. Also, it can be problematic to find failed capacitor banks and their maintenance can be expensive, requiring crews and bucket trucks which often requires total replacement. Another shortcoming of capacitor banks is the fact that they usually have one size at a location (typically sized as 300, 600, 900 or 1200kVAr) and thus don't have variable range as do reactive power producing DE, and cannot respond to dynamic reactive power needs. Additional future work is to find a detailed methodology to identify the hidden benefit of DE for providing reactive power and the best way to allocate the benefit among customers, utilities, transmission companies or RTOs.

  12. Analysis of Off-Nuclear X-Ray Sources in Galaxy NGC 4945 (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A majority of sources were closely fit by both absorbed power law and absorbed bremsstrahlung models, with a significantly poorer chisup 2dof for the absorbed blackbody model, ...

  13. Statistical analysis of content of Cs-137 in soils in Bansko-Razlog region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobilarov, R. G.

    2014-11-18

    Statistical analysis of the data set consisting of the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in soils in BanskoRazlog region is carried out in order to establish the dependence of the deposition and the migration of {sup 137}Cs on the soil type. The descriptive statistics and the test of normality show that the data set have not normal distribution. Positively skewed distribution and possible outlying values of the activity of {sup 137}Cs in soils were observed. After reduction of the effects of outliers, the data set is divided into two parts, depending on the soil type. Test of normality of the two new data sets shows that they have a normal distribution. Ordinary kriging technique is used to characterize the spatial distribution of the activity of {sup 137}Cs over an area covering 40 km{sup 2} (whole Razlog valley). The result (a map of the spatial distribution of the activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs) can be used as a reference point for future studies on the assessment of radiological risk to the population and the erosion of soils in the study area.

  14. Comparative Analysis Of {sup 226}Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J. [Nuclear and Technological Institute/Department of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2008-08-07

    The transfer of {sup 226}Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeirica uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, {sup 226}Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1)

  15. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Final progress report, 1 March 1991--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, F.T.

    1994-04-01

    The objectives of this grant proposal include (1) development of a chromosome microdissection and PCR-mediated microcloning technology, (2) application of this microtechnology to the construction of region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. During this grant period, the authors have successfully developed this microtechnology and have applied it to the construction of microdissection libraries for the following chromosome regions: a whole chromosome 21 (21E), 2 region-specific libraries for the long arm of chromosome 2, 2q35-q37 (2Q1) and 2q33-q35 (2Q2), and 4 region-specific libraries for the entire short arm of chromosome 2, 2p23-p25 (2P1), 2p21-p23 (2P2), 2p14-p16 (wP3) and 2p11-p13 (2P4). In addition, 20--40 unique sequence microclones have been isolated and characterized for genomic studies. These region-specific libraries and the single-copy microclones from the library have been used as valuable resources for (1) isolating microsatellite probes in linkage analysis to further refine the disease locus; (2) isolating corresponding clones with large inserts, e.g. YAC, BAC, P1, cosmid and phage, to facilitate construction of contigs for high resolution physical mapping; and (3) isolating region-specific cDNA clones for use as candidate genes. These libraries are being deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for general distribution.

  16. Effects of two Asian sand dusts transported from the dust source regions of Inner Mongolia and northeast China on murine lung eosinophilia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Miao; Ichinose, Takamichi; Song, Yuan; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Arashidani, Keiichi; Yoshida, Seiichi; Liu, Boying; Nishikawa, Masataka; Takano, Hirohisa; and others

    2013-11-01

    The quality and quantity of toxic materials adsorbed onto Asian sand dust (ASD) are different based on dust source regions and passage routes. The aggravating effects of two ASDs (ASD1 and ASD2) transported from the source regions of Inner Mongolia and northeast China on lung eosinophilia were compared to clarify the role of toxic materials in ASD. The ASDs contained different amounts of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and ?-glucan (ASD1 < ASD2) and SiO{sub 2} (ASD1 > ASD2). CD-1 mice were instilled intratracheally with ASD1, ASD2 and/or ovalbumin (OVA) four times at 2-week intervals. ASD1 and ASD2 enhanced eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the submucosa of the airway, with goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium. ASD1 and ASD2 synergistically increased OVA-induced eosinophil-relevant cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13 (ASD1 < ASD2) and chemokine eotaxin (ASD1 > ASD2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. ASD2 aggravating effects on lung eosinophilia were greater than ASD1. The role of LPS and ?-glucan in ASD2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators was assessed using in vitro bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from wild type, Toll-like receptor 2-deficient (TLR2 ?/?), TLR4 ?/?, and MyD88 ?/? mice (on Balb/c background). ASD2-stimulated TLR2 ?/? BMDMs enhanced IL-6, IL-12, TNF-?, MCP-1 and MIP-1? secretion compared with ASD2-stimulated TLR4 ?/? BMDMs. Protein expression from ASD2-stimulated MyD88 ?/? BMDM were very low or undetectable. The in vitro results indicate that lung eosinophilia caused by ASD is TLR4 dependent. Therefore, the aggravation of OVA-related lung eosinophilia by ASD may be dependent on toxic substances derived from microbes, such as LPS, rather than SiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: Asian sand dust (ASD) from the deserts of China causes serious respiratory problems. The aggravating effects of two ASDs on lung eosinophilia were compared. The ASDs contained different LPS and ?-glucan (ASD1 < ASD2) and SiO{sub 2} (ASD1 > ASD2). The ASD2 aggravating effects on lung eosinophilia were greater than ASD1. The aggravation of lung eosinophilia may be dependent on LPS in ASD, rather than SiO{sub 2}.

  17. Isotopic Analysis At U.S. West Region (Welhan, Et Al., 1988)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the fluids, suggesting that both heat and helium in a geothermal reservoir are derived from a shallow magmatic source. The rapid lateral decrease in 3He away from such...

  18. Molecular marker analysis as a guide to the sources of fine organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R.; Hildemann, L.M.; Mazurek, M.A.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1992-07-01

    The molecular composition of fine particulate (D{sub p} {ge} 2 {mu}m) organic aerosol emissions from the most important sources in the Los Angeles area has been determined. Likewise, ambient concentration patterns for more than 80 single organic compounds have been measured at four urban sites (West Los Angeles, Downtown Los Angeles, Pasadena, and Rubidoux) and at one remote offshore site (San Nicolas Island). It has been found that cholesterol serves as a marker compound for emissions from charbroilers and other meat cooking operations. Vehicular exhaust being emitted from diesel and gasoline powered engines can be traced in the Los Angeles atmosphere using fossil petroleum marker compounds such as steranes and pentacyclic triterpanes (e.g., hopanes). Biogenic fine particle emission sources such as plant fragments abraded from leaf surfaces by wind and weather can be traced in the urban atmosphere. Using distinct and specific source organic tracers or assemblages of organic compounds characteristic for the sources considered it is possible to estimate the influence of different source types at any urban site where atmospheric data are available.

  19. Molecular marker analysis as a guide to the sources of fine organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R. ); Hildemann, L.M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Mazurek, M.A. ); Simoneit, B.R.T. Environmental Geochemistry Group)

    1992-07-01

    The molecular composition of fine particulate (D[sub p] [ge] 2 [mu]m) organic aerosol emissions from the most important sources in the Los Angeles area has been determined. Likewise, ambient concentration patterns for more than 80 single organic compounds have been measured at four urban sites (West Los Angeles, Downtown Los Angeles, Pasadena, and Rubidoux) and at one remote offshore site (San Nicolas Island). It has been found that cholesterol serves as a marker compound for emissions from charbroilers and other meat cooking operations. Vehicular exhaust being emitted from diesel and gasoline powered engines can be traced in the Los Angeles atmosphere using fossil petroleum marker compounds such as steranes and pentacyclic triterpanes (e.g., hopanes). Biogenic fine particle emission sources such as plant fragments abraded from leaf surfaces by wind and weather can be traced in the urban atmosphere. Using distinct and specific source organic tracers or assemblages of organic compounds characteristic for the sources considered it is possible to estimate the influence of different source types at any urban site where atmospheric data are available.

  20. Light Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Light Source Data and Analysis Framework at NERSC Jack Deslippe, Shane Canon, Eli Dart, Abdelilah Essiari, Alexander Hexemer, Dula Parkinson, Simon Patton, Craig Tull + Many More The ALS Data Needs September 21, 2010 - NIST (MD) Light source data volumes are growing many times faster than Moore's law. ● Light source luminosity ● Detector resolution & rep-rates ● Sample automation BES user facilities serve 10,000 scientists and engineers every year. Mostly composed of many small

  1. Carbonaceous aerosols recorded in a southeastern Tibetan glacier: analysis of temporal variations and model estimates of sources and radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, B.; Cao, J.; Tie, X.; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhao, Shuyu; Wu, Guangjian; Zhao, Huabiao; Joswiak, Daniel R.; Li, Jiule; Xie, Ying

    2015-02-02

    High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 19562006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of BC and OC with higher respective concentrations but a lower OC / BC ratio in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC sourcereceptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia has the largest contribution to the present-day (19962005) mean BC deposition at the ice-core drilling site during the non-monsoon season (October to May) (81%) and all year round (74%), followed by East Asia (14% to the non-monsoon mean and 21% to the annual mean). The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from the late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia (as the primary contributor to annual mean BC deposition). Moreover, the increasing trend of the OC / BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and/or biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC and OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing potential influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting and the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that more attention to OC is merited because of its non-negligible light absorption and the recent rapid increases evident in the ice-core record.

  2. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-12-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kT detonation in the National Capital Region. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at one exemplary point. For most Washington, DC neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  3. Carbonaceous aerosols recorded in a southeastern Tibetan glacier: analysis of temporal variations and model estimates of sources and radiative forcing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, B.; Cao, J.; Tie, X.; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhao, Shuyu; Wu, Guangjian; et al

    2015-02-02

    High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 1956–2006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of BC and OC with higher respective concentrations but a lower OC / BC ratio in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC source–receptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia hasmore » the largest contribution to the present-day (1996–2005) mean BC deposition at the ice-core drilling site during the non-monsoon season (October to May) (81%) and all year round (74%), followed by East Asia (14% to the non-monsoon mean and 21% to the annual mean). The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from the late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia (as the primary contributor to annual mean BC deposition). Moreover, the increasing trend of the OC / BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and/or biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC and OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing potential influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting and the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that more attention to OC is merited because of its non-negligible light absorption and the recent rapid increases evident in the ice-core record.« less

  4. Causal Analysis of the Inadvertent Contact with an Uncontrolled Electrical Hazardous Energy Source (120 Volts AC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. James; Dennis E. Raunig; Sean S. Cunningham

    2014-10-01

    On September 25, 2013, a Health Physics Technician (HPT) was performing preparations to support a pneumatic transfer from the HFEF Decon Cell to the Room 130 Glovebox in HFEF, per HFEF OI 3165 section 3.5, Field Preparations. This activity involves an HPT setting up and climbing a portable ladder to remove the 14-C meter probe from above ball valve HBV-7. The HPT source checks the meter and probe and then replaces the probe above HBV-7, which is located above Hood ID# 130 HP. At approximately 13:20, while reaching past the HBV-7 valve position indicator switches in an attempt to place the 14-C meter probe in the desired location, the HPTs left forearm came in contact with one of the three sets of exposed terminals on the valve position indication switches for HBV 7. This resulted in the HPT receiving an electrical shock from a 120 Volt AC source. Upon moving the arm, following the electrical shock, the HPT noticed two exposed electrical connections on a switch. The HPT then notified the HFEF HPT Supervisor, who in turn notified the MFC Radiological Controls Manager and HFEF Operations Manager of the situation. Work was stopped in the area and the hazard was roped off and posted to prevent access to the hazard. The HPT was escorted by the HPT Supervisor to the MFC Dispensary and then preceded to CFA medical for further evaluation. The individual was evaluated and released without any medical restrictions. Causal Factor (Root Cause) A3B3C01/A5B2C08: - Knowledge based error/Attention was given to wrong issues - Written Communication content LTA, Incomplete/situation not covered The Causal Factor (root cause) was attention being given to the wrong issues during the creation, reviews, verifications, and actual performance of HFEF OI-3165, which covers the need to perform the weekly source check and ensure placement of the probe prior to performing a rabbit transfer. This resulted in the hazard not being identified and mitigated in the procedure. Work activities with in HFEF-OI-3165 placed the HPT in proximity of an unmitigated hazard directly resulting in this event. Contributing Factor A3B3C04/A4B5C04: - Knowledge Based Error, LTA Review Based on Assumption That Process Will Not Change - Change Management LTA, Risks/consequences associated with change not adequately reviewed/assessed Prior to the pneumatic system being out of service, the probe and meter were not being source checked together. The source check issue was identified and addressed during the period of time when the system was out of service. The corrective actions for this issue resulted in the requirement that a meter and probe be source checked together as it is intended to be used. This changed the activity and required an HPT to weekly, when in use, remove and install the probe from above HBV-7 to meet the requirement of LRD 15001 Part 5 Article 551.5. Risks and consequences associated with this change were not adequately reviewed or assessed. Failure to identify the hazard associated with this change directly contributed to this event.

  5. Cost analysis for compliance with EPA's regional NOx emissions reductions for fossil-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.; Mann, A.; Ward, J.; Ramezan, M.

    1999-07-01

    To achieve a more stringent ambient-air ozone standard promulgated in 1997, the U.S. EPA has established summer NOx emissions limits for fossil-fired electric power generating units in the Ozone Transport Rulemaking region, consisting of 22 eastern and midwestern states and the District of Columbia. These jurisdictions are required to submit State Implementation Plans by September 1999 in response to EPA's rule, with compliance required by 2007. There are 1757 affected units in this region. In the present study, projected state-by-state growth rates for power production are used to estimate power production and NOx emissions by unit in the year 2007. NOx emissions reductions expected by January 1, 2000 due to Title IV compliance are estimated, leaving a substantial balance of emissions reductions to be achieved by post-combustion NOx control. Cost estimates are developed for achieving these remaining reductions.

  6. Housing Archetype Analysis for Home Energy-Efficient Retrofit in the Great Lakes Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S. -K.; Mrozowski, T.; Harrell-Seyburn, A.; Ehrlich, N.; Hembroff, L.; Lieburn, B.; Mazor, M.; McIntyre, A.; Mutton, C.; Parsons, G.; Syal, M. G.; Wilkinson, R.

    2014-09-01

    This project report details activities and results of the "Market Characterization" project undertaken by the Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) team targeted toward the DOE goal of achieving 30%-50% reduction in existing building energy use. CEER consists of members from the Dow Chemical Company, Michigan State University, Ferris State University, and Habitat for Humanity Kent County. The purpose of this market characterization project was to identify housing archetypes which are dominant within the Great Lakes region and therefore offer significant potential for energy-efficient retrofit research and implementation due to the substantial number of homes possessing similar characteristics. Understanding the characteristics of housing groups referred to as "archetypes" by vintage, style, and construction characteristics can allow research teams to focus their retrofit research and develop prescriptive solutions for those structure types which are prevalent and offer high potential uptake within a region or market.

  7. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume II, appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    This document contains 2 appendices. The first documents the methodologies used to calculate production, unit energy consumption, fuel type and emission estimates for 16 industries and 35 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired industrial combustion processes, located in 26 states (and the District of Columbia) east of the Mississippi River. As discussed in the text of this report, a U.S. total of 16 industries and 45 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired combustion processes were identified by an elimination type method that was developed based on evaluation of fuel use in industrial SIC codes 20-39 to identify pollutant sources contributing to acid rain. The final population included only plants that have direct-fired fuel consumption greater than or equal to 100 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/yr of equivalent energy consumption. The goal for this analysis was to provide at least a 1980 base year for the data. This was achieved for all of the industries and in fact, 1981 data were used for a number of the industries evaluated. The second contains an analysis of all consumption of major fossil fuels to: (1) identify all fuel usage categories, and (2) identify the kinds of combustion equipment used within each category. This analysis provides a frame of reference for the balance of the study and permits using an energy accounting methodology to quantify the degree to which the inventoried sources in individual consuming sectors are complete and representative of the total population for the sector.

  8. Source Term Analysis for the WIPP Release Quantity 5-28-14

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Source T erm A nalysis f or t he W IPP R elease Q uantity Jeff W hicker, M att G riffin, C hristine B ullock, M ichael M cNaughton, W illiam E isele ( Bill), M urray M oore The c alculations b elow p rovide a n i nitial r ough o rder o f m agnitude e stimate o f t he a irborne r elease quantity i n P anel 7 , R oom 7 , a t t he W IPP s ite s tarting a bout F ebruary 1 4, 2 014. F urther, w e p rovide a n initial a ssessment o f t he p ossibility f or l eakage f rom m ore t han o ne d rum u sing

  9. Quantitative analysis of directional spontaneous emission spectra from light sources in photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikolaev, Ivan S.; Lodahl, Peter; Vos, Willem L.

    2005-05-15

    We have performed angle-resolved measurements of spontaneous-emission spectra from laser dyes and quantum dots in opal and inverse opal photonic crystals. Pronounced directional dependencies of the emission spectra are observed: angular ranges of strongly reduced emission adjoin with angular ranges of enhanced emission. It appears that emission from embedded light sources is affected both by the periodicity and by the structural imperfections of the crystals: the photons are Bragg diffracted by lattice planes and scattered by unavoidable structural disorder. Using a model comprising diffuse light transport and photonic band structure, we quantitatively explain the directional emission spectra. This work provides detailed understanding of the transport of spontaneously emitted light in real photonic crystals, which is essential in the interpretation of quantum optics in photonic-band-gap crystals and for applications wherein directional emission and total emission power are controlled.

  10. Shielding analysis and design of the KIPT experimental neutron source facility of Ukraine.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Z.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Naberezhnev, D.; Duo, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-10-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the conceptual design development of an experimental neutron source facility based on the use of an electron accelerator driven subcritical (ADS) facility [1]. The facility uses the existing electron accelerators of KIPT in Ukraine. The neutron source of the sub-critical assembly is generated from the interaction of 100 KW electron beam with a natural uranium target. The electron beam has a uniform spatial distribution and the electron energy in the range of 100 to 200 MeV, [2]. The main functions of the facility are the production of medical isotopes and the support of the Ukraine nuclear power industry. Reactor physics experiments and material performance characterization will also be carried out. The subcritical assembly is driven by neutrons generated by the electron beam interactions with the target material. A fraction of these neutrons has an energy above 50 MeV generated through the photo nuclear interactions. This neutron fraction is very small and it has an insignificant contribution to the subcritical assembly performance. However, these high energy neutrons are difficult to shield and they can be slowed down only through the inelastic scattering with heavy isotopes. Therefore the shielding design of this facility is more challenging relative to fission reactors. To attenuate these high energy neutrons, heavy metals (tungsten, iron, etc.) should be used. To reduce the construction cost, heavy concrete with 4.8 g/cm{sup 3} density is selected as a shielding material. The iron weight fraction in this concrete is about 0.6. The shape and thickness of the heavy concrete shield are defined to reduce the biological dose equivalent outside the shield to an acceptable level during operation. At the same time, special attention was give to reduce the total shield mass to reduce the construction cost. The shield design is configured to maintain the biological dose equivalent during operation {le} 0.5 mrem/h inside the subcritical hall, which is five times less than the allowable dose for working forty hours per week for 50 weeks per year. This study analyzed and designed the thickness and the shape of the radial and top shields of the neutron source based on the biological dose equivalent requirements inside the subcritical hall during operation. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX is selected because of its capabilities for transporting electrons, photons, and neutrons. Mesh based weight windows variance reduction technique is utilized to estimate the biological dose outside the shield with good statistics. A significant effort dedicated to the accurate prediction of the biological dose equivalent outside the shield boundary as a function of the shield thickness without geometrical approximations or material homogenization. The building wall was designed with ordinary concrete to reduce the biological dose equivalent to the public with a safety factor in the range of 5 to 20.

  11. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Hua; Wang, Yungang

    2013-07-01

    The adoption of geothermal energy in space conditioning of buildings through utilizing ground source heat pump (GSHP, also known as geothermal heat pump) has increased rapidly during the past several decades. However, the impacts of the GSHP utilization on the efficiency of heat pumps and soil temperature distribution remained unclear and needs further investigation. This paper presents a novel model to calculate the soil temperature distribution and the coefficient of performance (COP) of GSHP. Different scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of different factors on the GSHP performance, including heat balance, daily running mode, and spacing between boreholes. Our results show that GSHP is suitable for buildings with balanced cooling and heating loads. It can keep soil temperature at a relatively constant level for more than 10 years. Long boreholes, additional space between boreholes, intermittent running mode will improve the performance of GSHP, but large initial investment is required. The improper design will make the COP of GSHP even lower than traditional heat pumps. Professional design and maintenance technologies are greatly needed in order to promote this promising technology in the developing world.

  12. The analysis of climate variability at local and regional scales in the global warming context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mares, I.; Mares, C.

    1996-12-31

    The time series of the seasonal and annual temperatures and precipitation amounts from two stations with observations for more than 100 years and from one mountain station (data since 1928), in Romania have been analyzed. For the entire territory of Romania, 33 stations have also been studied using EOF components, for the 1950--1993 period. In order to find climate change-points, nonparametric tests Pettitt and Mann-Kendall have been used. Quantification of the significant change-points was made estimating the signal-to-noise ratio. Some of the change-points in the temperature and precipitation fields could be associated with the changes in the geopotential field at 500hPa, represented by EOFs and blocking index calculated for the Atlantic-European region. The comparison with other results obtained from the European stations or from the entire Northern Hemisphere shows several common points, but also some differences in the climate jumps, reflecting the local peculiarities.

  13. Sources of Technical Variability in Quantitative LC-MS Proteomics: Human Brain Tissue Sample Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piehowski, Paul D.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Orton, Daniel J.; Xie, Fang; Moore, Ronald J.; Ramirez Restrepo, Manuel; Engel, Anzhelika; Lieberman, Andrew P.; Albin, Roger L.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Myers, Amanda J.

    2013-05-03

    To design a robust quantitative proteomics study, an understanding of both the inherent heterogeneity of the biological samples being studied as well as the technical variability of the proteomics methods and platform is needed. Additionally, accurately identifying the technical steps associated with the largest variability would provide valuable information for the improvement and design of future processing pipelines. We present an experimental strategy that allows for a detailed examination of the variability of the quantitative LC-MS proteomics measurements. By replicating analyses at different stages of processing, various technical components can be estimated and their individual contribution to technical variability can be dissected. This design can be easily adapted to other quantitative proteomics pipelines. Herein, we applied this methodology to our label-free workflow for the processing of human brain tissue. For this application, the pipeline was divided into four critical components: Tissue dissection and homogenization (extraction), protein denaturation followed by trypsin digestion and SPE clean-up (digestion), short-term run-to-run instrumental response fluctuation (instrumental variance), and long-term drift of the quantitative response of the LC-MS/MS platform over the 2 week period of continuous analysis (instrumental stability). From this analysis, we found the following contributions to variability: extraction (72%) >> instrumental variance (16%) > instrumental stability (8.4%) > digestion (3.1%). Furthermore, the stability of the platform and its suitability for discovery proteomics studies is demonstrated.

  14. Open | SpeedShop: An Open Source Infrastructure for Parallel Performance Analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schulz, Martin; Galarowicz, Jim; Maghrak, Don; Hachfeld, William; Montoya, David; Cranford, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decades a large number of performance tools has been developed to analyze and optimize high performance applications. Their acceptance by end users, however, has been slow: each tool alone is often limited in scope and comes with widely varying interfaces and workflow constraints, requiring different changes in the often complex build and execution infrastructure of the target application. We started the Open | SpeedShop project about 3 years ago to overcome these limitations and provide efficient, easy to apply, and integrated performance analysis for parallel systems. Open | SpeedShop has two different faces: it provides an interoperable tool set covering themore » most common analysis steps as well as a comprehensive plugin infrastructure for building new tools. In both cases, the tools can be deployed to large scale parallel applications using DPCL/Dyninst for distributed binary instrumentation. Further, all tools developed within or on top of Open | SpeedShop are accessible through multiple fully equivalent interfaces including an easy-to-use GUI as well as an interactive command line interface reducing the usage threshold for those tools.« less

  15. Neutron lifetimes behavior analysis considering the two-region kinetic model in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonnelli, Eduardo; Diniz, Ricardo

    2014-11-11

    This is a complementary work about the behavior analysis of the neutron lifetimes that was developed in the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor facility. The macroscopic neutron noise technique was experimentally employed using pulse mode detectors for two stages of control rods insertion, where a total of twenty levels of subcriticality have been carried out. It was also considered that the neutron reflector density was treated as an additional group of delayed neutrons, being a sophisticated approach in the two-region kinetic theoretical model.

  16. Regional analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons and meteorology of the rural southeast United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagerman, L.M.

    1996-11-01

    Measurements of non-methane hydrocarbons, as well as ozone, meteorological and trace gas data, were made at four rural sites located within the southeastern United States as a part of the Southern Oxidants Study. Fifty-six C2-C10 hydrocarbons were collected from 1200-1300 local time, once every six days from September 1992 through October 1993. The measurements were made in an effort to enhance the understanding of the behavior and trends of ozone and other photochemical oxidants in this region. The light molecular weight alkanes (ethane, propane, n-butane, iso-butane), ethene and acetylene display a seasonal variation with a winter maximum and summer minimum. Isoprene was virtually non-existent during the winter at all sites, and averaged from 9.8 ppbC (Yorkville, GA) to 21.15 ppbC (Centreville, AL) during the summer. The terpene concentration was greatest in the summer with averages ranging between 3.19 ppbC (Centreville, AL) to 6.38 ppbC (Oak Grove, MS), but was also emitted during the winter months, with a range of 1.25 to 1.9 ppbC for all sites. Propylene-equivalent concentrations were calculated to account for differences in reaction rates between the hydroxyl radical and individual hydrocarbons, and to thereby estimate their relative contribution to ozone, especially in regards to the highly reactive biogenic compounds such as isoprene. It was calculated that biogenics represent at least 65% of the total non-methane hydrocarbon sum at these four sites during the summer season when considering propylene-equivalent concentrations. An ozone episode which occurred from July 20 to July 24 1993 was used as an example to show ozone profiles at each of the sites, and to show the effect of synoptic meteorology on high ozone by examining NOAA daily weather maps and climatic data.

  17. Mechanical Design and Analysis of a 200 MHz, Bolt-together RFQ forthe Accelerator Driven Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virostek, Steve; Hoff, Matt; Li, Derun; Staples, John; Wells,Russell

    2007-06-20

    A high-yield neutron source to screen sea-land cargocontainers for shielded Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) has been designedat LBNL [1,2]. The Accelerator-Driven Neutron Source (ADNS) uses theD(d,n)3He reaction to create a forward directed neutron beam. Keycomponents are a high-current radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ)accelerator and a high-power target capable of producing a neutron fluxof>107 n/(cm2 cdot s) at a distance of 2.5 m. The mechanical designand analysis of the four-module, bolt-together RFQ will be presentedhere. Operating at 200 MHz, the 5.1 m long RFQ will accelerate a 40 mAdeuteron beam to 6 MeV. At a 5 percent duty factor, the time-average d+beam current on target is 1.5 mA. Each of the 1.27 m long RFQ moduleswill consist of four solid OFHC copper vanes. A specially designed 3-DO-ring will provide vacuum sealing between both the vanes and themodules. RF connections are made with canted coil spring contacts. Aseries of 60 water-cooled pi-mode rods provides quadrupole modestabilization. A set of 80 evenly spaced fixed slug tuners is used forfinal frequency adjustment and local field perturbationcorrection.

  18. Geothermal direct heat use: market potential/penetration analysis for Federal Region IX (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, W.; Tang, K.

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential for geothermal direct heat use in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada (Federal Region IX). The analysis for each state was performed by a different team, located in that state. For each state, the study team was asked to: (1) define the resource, based on the latest available data; (2) assess the potential market growth for geothermal energy; and (3) estimate the market penetration, projected to 2020. Each of the four states of interest in this study is unique in its own way. Rather than impose the same assumptions as to growth rates, capture rates, etc. on all of the study teams, each team was asked to use the most appropriate set of assumptions for its state. The results, therefore, should reflect the currently accepted views within each state. The four state reports comprise the main portion of this document. A brief regional overview section was prepared by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, following completion of the state reports.

  19. Improved ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-05-04

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

  20. Investigating the Nexus of Climate, Energy, Water, and Land at Decision-Relevant Scales: The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraucunas, Ian P.; Clarke, Leon E.; Dirks, James A.; Hathaway, John E.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Huang, Maoyi; Jin, Chunlian; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C.W.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Hongyi; Moss, Richard H.; Peterson, Marty J.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.; Thomson, Allison M.; Voisin, Nathalie; West, Tristram O.

    2015-04-01

    The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA) is an innovative modeling system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to simulate interactions among natural and human systems at scales relevant to regional decision making. PRIMA brings together state-of-the-art models of regional climate, hydrology, agriculture, socioeconomics, and energy systems using a flexible coupling approach. The platform can be customized to inform a variety of complex questions and decisions, such as the integrated evaluation of mitigation and adaptation options across a range of sectors. Research into stakeholder decision support needs underpins the platform's application to regional issues, including uncertainty characterization. Ongoing numerical experiments are yielding new insights into the interactions among human and natural systems on regional scales with an initial focus on the energy-land-water nexus in the upper U.S. Midwest. This paper focuses on PRIMA’s functional capabilities and describes some lessons learned to date about integrated regional modeling.

  1. Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region (Finn & Morgan, 2002) Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Goff & Janik, 2002) Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Hurwitz, Et Al.,...

  2. Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Analysis Home/Tag:Analysis - Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation pumping, (d) drinking water, and (e) wastewater. Aggregate electricity use across these sectors (f) is also mapped. Permalink Gallery Sandians Recognized in Environmental Science & Technology's Best Paper Competition Analysis, Capabilities,

  3. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  4. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SECOND SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolan, P. L.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Belfiore, A.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Bignami, G. F. E-mail: Gino.Tosti@pg.infn.it E-mail: tburnett@u.washington.edu; and others

    2012-04-01

    We present the second catalog of high-energy {gamma}-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely {gamma}-ray-producing source classes.

  5. Regional Analysis of Building Distributed Energy Costs and CO2 Abatement: A U.S. - China Comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendes, Goncalo; Feng, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Steinbach, Jan; Lai, Judy; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Ding, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng

    2014-04-09

    The following paper conducts a regional analysis of the U.S. and Chinese buildings? potential for adopting Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The expected economics of DER in 2020-2025 is modeled for a commercial and a multi-family residential building in different climate zones. The optimal building energy economic performance is calculated using the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER CAM) which minimizes building energy costs for a typical reference year of operation. Several DER such as combined heat and power (CHP) units, photovoltaics, and battery storage are considered. The results indicate DER have economic and environmental competitiveness potential, especially for commercial buildings in hot and cold climates of both countries. In the U.S., the average expected energy cost savings in commercial buildings from DER CAM?s suggested investments is 17percent, while in Chinese buildings is 12percent. The electricity tariffs structure and prices along with the cost of natural gas, represent important factors in determining adoption of DER, more so than climate. High energy pricing spark spreads lead to increased economic attractiveness of DER. The average emissions reduction in commercial buildings is 19percent in the U.S. as a result of significant investments in PV, whereas in China, it is 20percent and driven by investments in CHP. Keywords: Building Modeling and Simulation, Distributed Energy Resources (DER), Energy Efficiency, Combined Heat and Power (CHP), CO2 emissions 1. Introduction The transition from a centralized and fossil-based energy paradigm towards the decentralization of energy supply and distribution has been a major subject of research over the past two decades. Various concerns have brought the traditional model into question; namely its environmental footprint, its structural inflexibility and inefficiency, and more recently, its inability to maintain acceptable reliability of supply. Under such a troubled setting, distributed energy resources (DER) comprising of small, modular, electrical renewable or fossil-based electricity generation units placed at or near the point of energy consumption, has gained much attention as a viable alternative or addition to the current energy system. In 2010, China consumed about 30percent of its primary energy in the buildings sector, leading the country to pay great attention to DER development and its applications in buildings. During the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP), China has implemented 371 renewable energy building demonstration projects, and 210 photovoltaics (PV) building integration projects. At the end of the 12th FYP, China is targeting renewable energy to provide 10percent of total building energy, and to save 30 metric tons of CO2 equivalents (mtce) of energy with building integrated renewables. China is also planning to implement one thousand natural gas-based distributed cogeneration demonstration projects with energy utilization rates over 70percent in the 12th FYP. All these policy targets require significant DER systems development for building applications. China?s fast urbanization makes building energy efficiency a crucial economic issue; however, only limited studies have been done that examine how to design and select suitable building energy technologies in its different regions. In the U.S., buildings consumed 40percent of the total primary energy in 2010 [1] and it is estimated that about 14 billion m2 of floor space of the existing building stock will be remodeled over the next 30 years. Most building?s renovation work has been on building envelope, lighting and HVAC systems. Although interest has emerged, less attention is being paid to DER for buildings. This context has created opportunities for research, development and progressive deployment of DER, due to its potential to combine the production of power and heat (CHP) near the point of consumption and delivering multiple benefits to customers, such as cost

  6. Radiation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the relativistic electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target.

  7. Exergy Analysis of a Two-Stage Ground Source Heat Pump with a Vertical Bore for Residential Space Conditioning under Simulated Occupancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2015-01-01

    This twelve-month field study analyzes the performance of a 7.56W (2.16- ton) water-to-air-ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) to satisfy domestic space conditioning loads in a 253 m2 house in a mixed-humid climate in the United States. The practical feasibility of using the ground as a source of renewable energy is clearly demonstrated. Better than 75% of the energy needed for space heating was extracted from the ground. The average monthly electricity consumption for space conditioning was only 40 kWh at summer and winter thermostat set points of 24.4oC and 21.7oC, respectively. The WA-GSHP shared the same 94.5 m vertical bore ground loop with a separate water-to-water ground-source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for meeting domestic hot water needs in the same house. Sources of systemic irreversibility, the main cause of lost work are identified using Exergy and energy analysis. Quantifying the sources of Exergy and energy losses is essential for further systemic improvements. The research findings suggest that the WA-GSHPs are a practical and viable technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources.

  8. Source Terms for HFIR Beam Tube Shielding Analyses, and a Complete Shielding Analysis of the HB-3 Tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucholz, J.A.

    2000-07-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is in the midst of a massive upgrade program to enhance experimental facilities. The reactor presently has four horizontal experimental beam tubes, all of which will be replaced or redesigned. The HB-2 beam tube will be enlarged to support more guide tubes, while the HB-4 beam tube will soon include a cold neutron source.

  9. Comparison of physical properties of quiet and active regions through the analysis of magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar photosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Criscuoli, S.

    2013-11-20

    Recent observations have shown that the photometric and dynamic properties of granulation and small-scale magnetic features depend on the amount of magnetic flux of the region they are embedded in. We analyze results from numerical hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulations characterized by different amounts of average magnetic flux and find qualitatively the same differences as those reported from observations. We show that these different physical properties result from the inhibition of convection induced by the presence of the magnetic field, which changes the temperature stratification of both quiet and magnetic regions. Our results are relevant for solar irradiance variations studies, as such differences are still not properly taken into account in irradiance reconstruction models.

  10. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shott, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  11. Regional analysis of rhythmic bedding in the Fort Hays limestone member, Niobrara Formation (Upper Cretaceous), US western interior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laferriere, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a regional stratigraphic investigation of the rhythmically bedded Fort Hays limestone member of Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico indicate at least two levels of cyclicity. Regional development of these cycles strongly supports the hypothesis that they are climatic in origin. Departures from simple cyclical patterns resulted from sedimentary effects of Late Cretaceous orogenic activity, erosional events associated with eustatic sea level changes, diagenetic modification, and possibly from interference between orbital parameters having different periodicities. The vulnerability of Milankovitch-type cyclicity to overprinting by tectono-sedimentologic effects makes units such as the Fort Hays useful as indicators of subtle tectonic activity. Regional thickness changes in groups of shale-limestone couplets were identified, correlated, and mapped in the subsurface using geophysical well log information in order to locate subtle structural elements that influenced Fort Hays sedimentation. In the Denver-Julesburg Basin of Colorado and western Kansas, thinning of the section between Fort Hays marker horizons occurs dominantly along northeastwardly trending belts that resulted apparently from Late Cretaceous reactivation of the Transcontinental Arch. Isotopic and petrographic analyses were conducted on pelagic (carbonate matrix) and benthic (inoceramid bivalve) constituents of selected shale/limestone couplets. These data suggest that there was little difference in temperature or salinity between times of terrigenous detrital input and times of nearly pure carbonate deposition. Isotopic information from matrix samples suggests a westward decrease in salinity of surface water in the Western Interior Sea. Isotopic data from largely unaltered inoceramid bivalves indicate bottom-water conditions of near-normal marine salinity.

  12. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  13. Data, exergy, and energy analysis of a vertical-bore, ground-source heat pump to for domestic water heating under simulated occupancy conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is provided to support the view that greater than two-thirds of energy required to produce domestic hot water may be extracted from the ground which serves as renewable energy resource. The case refers to a 345 m2 research house located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 36.01 N 84.26 W in a mixed-humid climate with HDD of 2218 C-days (3993 F-days) and CDD of 723 C-days (1301 F-days). The house is operated under simulated occupancy conditions in which the hot water use protocol is based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition (Hendron 2008; Hendron and Engebrecht 2010) which captures the water consumption lifestyles of the average family in the United States. The 5.275 (1.5-ton) water-to-water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) shared the same vertical bore with a 7.56 KW water-to-air ground source heat pump for space conditioning the same house. Energy and exergy analysis of data collected continuously over a twelve month period provide performance metrics and sources of inherent systemic inefficiencies. Data and analyses are vital to better understand how WW-GSHPs may be further improved to enable the ground to be used as a renewable energy resource.

  14. A Multi-Model Analysis of the Regional and Sectoral Roles of Bioenergy in Near- and Long-Term CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Wise, Marshall A.; Klein, David; McCollum, David; Tavoni, Massimo; van der Zwaan, Bob; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2013-11-01

    We study the near term and the longer term the contribution of bioenergy in different LIMITS scenarios as modeled by the participating models in the LIMITS project. With These scenarios have proven useful for exploring a range of outcomes for bioenergy use in response to both regionally diverse near term policies and the transition to a longer-term global mitigation policy and target. The use of several models has provided a source of heterogeneity in terms of incorporating uncertain assumptions about future socioeconomics and technology, as well as different paradigms for how the world may respond to policies. The results have also highlighted the heterogeneity and versatility of bioenergy itself, with different types of resources and applications in several energy sectors. In large part due to this versatility, the contribution of bioenergy to climate mitigation is a robust response across all models, despite their differences.

  15. Characterization of a hybrid target multi-keV x-ray source by a multi-parameter statistical analysis of titanium K-shell emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primout, M.; Babonneau, D.; Jacquet, L.; Gilleron, F.; Peyrusse, O.; Fournier, K. B.; Marrs, R.; May, M. J.; Heeter, R. F.; Wallace, R. J.

    2015-11-10

    We studied the titanium K-shell emission spectra from multi-keV x-ray source experiments with hybrid targets on the OMEGA laser facility. Using the collisional-radiative TRANSPEC code, dedicated to K-shell spectroscopy, we reproduced the main features of the detailed spectra measured with the time-resolved MSPEC spectrometer. We developed a general method to infer the Ne, Te and Ti characteristics of the target plasma from the spectral analysis (ratio of integrated Lyman-α to Helium-α in-band emission and the peak amplitude of individual line ratios) of the multi-keV x-ray emission. Finally, these thermodynamic conditions are compared to those calculated independently by the radiation-hydrodynamics transport code FCI2.

  16. Characterization of a hybrid target multi-keV x-ray source by a multi-parameter statistical analysis of titanium K-shell emission

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Primout, M.; Babonneau, D.; Jacquet, L.; Gilleron, F.; Peyrusse, O.; Fournier, K. B.; Marrs, R.; May, M. J.; Heeter, R. F.; Wallace, R. J.

    2015-11-10

    We studied the titanium K-shell emission spectra from multi-keV x-ray source experiments with hybrid targets on the OMEGA laser facility. Using the collisional-radiative TRANSPEC code, dedicated to K-shell spectroscopy, we reproduced the main features of the detailed spectra measured with the time-resolved MSPEC spectrometer. We developed a general method to infer the Ne, Te and Ti characteristics of the target plasma from the spectral analysis (ratio of integrated Lyman-α to Helium-α in-band emission and the peak amplitude of individual line ratios) of the multi-keV x-ray emission. Finally, these thermodynamic conditions are compared to those calculated independently by the radiation-hydrodynamics transportmore » code FCI2.« less

  17. Herschel observations of extraordinary sources: Analysis of the HIFI 1.2 THz wide spectral survey toward orion KL. I. method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crockett, Nathan R.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Neill, Justin L.; Favre, Ccile; Schilke, Peter; Lis, Dariusz C.; Emprechtinger, Martin; Phillips, Thomas G.; Bell, Tom A.; Cernicharo, Jos; Esplugues, Gisela B.; Blake, Geoffrey; Kleshcheva, Maria; Gupta, Harshal; Pearson, John; Lord, Steven; Marcelino, Nuria; McGuire, Brett A.; Plume, Rene; Van der Tak, Floris; and others

    2014-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a broadband spectral line survey of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL), one of the most chemically rich regions in the Galaxy, using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This survey spans a frequency range from 480 to 1907 GHz at a resolution of 1.1 MHz. These observations thus encompass the largest spectral coverage ever obtained toward this high-mass star-forming region in the submillimeter with high spectral resolution and include frequencies >1 THz, where the Earth's atmosphere prevents observations from the ground. In all, we detect emission from 39 molecules (79 isotopologues). Combining this data set with ground-based millimeter spectroscopy obtained with the IRAM 30 m telescope, we model the molecular emission from the millimeter to the far-IR using the XCLASS program, which assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Several molecules are also modeled with the MADEX non-LTE code. Because of the wide frequency coverage, our models are constrained by transitions over an unprecedented range in excitation energy. A reduced ?{sup 2} analysis indicates that models for most species reproduce the observed emission well. In particular, most complex organics are well fit by LTE implying gas densities are high (>10{sup 6} cm{sup 3}) and excitation temperatures and column densities are well constrained. Molecular abundances are computed using H{sub 2} column densities also derived from the HIFI survey. The distribution of rotation temperatures, T {sub rot}, for molecules detected toward the hot core is significantly wider than the compact ridge, plateau, and extended ridge T {sub rot} distributions, indicating the hot core has the most complex thermal structure.

  18. SIMULATION MODEL ANALYSIS OF THE MOST PROMISING GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION FORMATION CANDIDATES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION, USA, WITH FOCUS ON UNCERTAINTY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Will, Robert; Eisinger, Chris; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to report results of reservoir model simulation analyses for forecasting subsurface CO2 storage capacity estimation for the most promising formations in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. A particular emphasis of this project was to assess uncertainty of the simulation-based forecasts. Results illustrate how local-scale data, including well information, number of wells, and location of wells, affect storage capacity estimates and what degree of well density (number of wells over a fixed area) may be required to estimate capacity within a specified degree of confidence. A major outcome of this work was development of a new workflow of simulation analysis, accommodating the addition of random pseudo wells to represent virtual characterization wells.

  19. High current ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805); Galvin, James E. (2 Commodore Dr. #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1990-01-01

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  20. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong X. Tao; Yimin Zhu

    2012-04-26

    It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher initial costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches. From scientific and technical point of view, the potential for wide applications of GSHP especially HGSHP in hot and humid climate is significant, especially towards building zero energy homes where the combined energy efficient GSHP and abundant solar energy production in hot climate can be an optimal solution. To address these challenges, this report presents gathering and analyzing data on the costs and benefits of GSHP/HGSHP systems utilized in southern states using a representative sample of building applications. The report outlines the detailed analysis to conclude that the application of GSHP in Florida (and hot and humid climate in general) shows a good potential.

  1. Supplemental analysis of accident sequences and source terms for waste treatment and storage operations and related facilities for the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S.; Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Kohout, E.; Mishima, J.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents supplemental information for the document Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities for Waste Generated by US Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. Additional technical support information is supplied concerning treatment of transuranic waste by incineration and considering the Alternative Organic Treatment option for low-level mixed waste. The latest respirable airborne release fraction values published by the US Department of Energy for use in accident analysis have been used and are included as Appendix D, where respirable airborne release fraction is defined as the fraction of material exposed to accident stresses that could become airborne as a result of the accident. A set of dominant waste treatment processes and accident scenarios was selected for a screening-process analysis. A subset of results (release source terms) from this analysis is presented.

  2. Regional Energy Planning

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regional Energy Planning Alaska Native Village Energy Development Workshop April 29, 2014 Affordable and Stable Energy for Alaskans  Maintain consistency with State energy policy and goals  Provide vetting process to incorporate renewables, fossil fuels  Provide statewide perspective while balancing Railbelt infrastructure development  Engage communities in providing sustainable energy futures 2 Energy Sources Vary 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Wind Hydroelectric

  3. Analysis of structure and deformation behavior of AISI 316L tensile specimens from the second operational target module at the Spallation Neutron Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gussev, Maxim N.; McClintock, David A.; Garner, Frank

    2015-08-05

    In an earlier publication, tensile testing was performed on specimens removed from the first two operational targets of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). There were several anomalous features in the results. First, some specimens had very large elongations (up to 57%) while others had significantly smaller values. Second, there was a larger than the usual amount of data scatter in the elongation results. Third, the stress-strain diagrams of nominally similar specimens spanned a wide range of behavior ranging from expected irradiation-induced hardening to varying levels of force drop after yield point and indirect signs of "traveling deformation wave" behavior associatedmore »with strain-induced martensite formation. To investigate the cause(s) of such variable tensile behavior, several specimens from Target 2, spanning the range of observed tensile behavior, were chosen for detailed microstructural examination using electron backscattering analysis (EBSD). It was also shown that the steel employed in the construction of the target contained an unexpected bimodal grain size distribution, containing very large out-of-specification grains surrounded by necklaces of grains of within-specification sizes. The large grains were frequently comparable to the width of the gauge section of the tensile specimen. Moreover, the propensity to form martensite during deformation was shown to be accelerated by radiation but also to be very sensitive to the relative orientation of the grains with respect to the tensile axis. Specimens having large grains in the gauge that were most favorably oriented for production of martensite strongly exhibited the traveling deformation wave phenomenon, while those specimens with less favorably oriented grains had lesser or no degree of the wave effect, thereby accounting for the larger than expected data scatter.« less

  4. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shott, Gregory J.

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream (BCLALADOEOSRP, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream consists of sealed sources that are no longer needed. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream required a special analysis because cobalt-60 (60Co), strontium-90 (90Sr), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeded the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources in a SLB trench. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. However, the activity concentration of 226Ra listed on the waste profile sheet significantly exceeds the action level. Approval of the waste profile sheet could potentially allow the disposal of high activity 226Ra sources. To ensure that the generator does not include large 226Ra sources in this waste stream without additional evaluation, a control is need on the maximum 226Ra inventory. A limit based on the generator’s estimate of the total 226Ra inventory is recommended. The waste stream is recommended for approval with the control that the total 226Ra inventory disposed shall not exceed 5.5E10 Bq (1.5 Ci).

  5. The W40 region in the gould belt: An embedded cluster and H II region at the junction of filaments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Samal, M. R.; Pirogov, L.

    2013-12-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the W40 star-forming region using infrared (IR) observations in the UKIRT JHK bands, Spitzer Infrared Array Camera bands, and Herschel PACS bands, 2.12 ?m H{sub 2} narrowband imaging, and radio continuum observations from GMRT (610 and 1280 MHz), in a field of view (FoV) of ?34' 40'. Archival Spitzer observations in conjunction with near-IR observations are used to identify 1162 Class II/III and 40 Class I sources in the FoV. The nearest-neighbor stellar surface density analysis shows that the majority of these young stellar objects (YSOs) constitute the embedded cluster centered on the high-mass source IRS 1A South. Some YSOs, predominantly the younger population, are distributed along and trace the filamentary structures at lower stellar surface density. The cluster radius is measured to be 0.44 pcmatching well with the extent of radio emissionwith a peak density of 650 pc{sup 2}. The JHK data are used to map the extinction in the region, which is subsequently used to compute the cloud mass126 M {sub ?} and 71 M {sub ?} for the central cluster and the northern IRS 5 region, respectively. H{sub 2} narrowband imaging shows significant emission, which prominently resembles fluorescent emission arising at the borders of dense regions. Radio continuum analysis shows that this region has a blister morphology, with the radio peak coinciding with a protostellar source. Free-free emission spectral energy distribution analysis is used to obtain physical parameters of the overall photoionized region and the IRS 5 sub-region. This multiwavelength scenario is suggestive of star formation having resulted from the merging of multiple filaments to form a hub. Star formation seems to have taken place in two successive epochs, with the first epoch traced by the central cluster and the high-mass star(s)followed by a second epoch that is spreading into the filaments as uncovered by the Class I sources and even younger protostellar sources along the filaments. The IRS 5 H II region displays indications of swept-up material that has possibly led to the formation of protostars.

  6. Regional Projections of Climate on Decadal Time Scales: High resolution

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    global predictions and regionally resolved source response studies (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Regional Projections of Climate on Decadal Time Scales: High resolution global predictions and regionally resolved source response studies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Regional Projections of Climate on Decadal Time Scales: High resolution global predictions and regionally resolved source response studies Authors: Tribbia, Joe [1] ; Zhang, Minghua [2] + Show Author

  7. Enhanced sensitivity and specificity of thallium-201 imaging for the detection of regional ischemic coronary disease by combining SPECT with bull's eye analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasabali, B.; Woodard, M.L.; Bekerman, C.; Pinsky, S.; Blend, M.J. (Michael Reese Hospital and Medical Center, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the combination of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and quantitative bull's eye analysis (QBA) TI-201 cardiac stress imaging may improve the detection of myocardial ischemia over that achieved with planar (PLN) imaging. This study will evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of SPECT and QBA in the detection of disease in the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX), and right coronary artery. Ninety-nine patients who underwent both TI-201 stress imaging and coronary arteriography were evaluated retrospectively. Of the 99, 62 had PLN imaging and 37 were evaluated with SPECT; 23 of these 37 had QBA. The overall sensitivity and specificity were as follows: PLN, 94% and 50%; SPECT, 90% and 67%; QBA, 100% and 20%; and SPECT with QBA, 92% and 72%, respectively. The regional sensitivity and specificity of PLN for individual coronary arteries were as follows: RCA, 78% and 74%; LAD, 89% and 60%; LCX, 50% and 89%, respectively. For SPECT, the results were: RCA, 86% and 93%; LAD, 85% and 88%; and LCX, 60% and 88%. For QBA alone, the results were: RCA, 100% and 75%; LAD, 88% and 53%; and LCX, 100% and 89%. The results for QBA with SPECT were: RCA, 100% and 94%; LAD, 88% and 80%; and LCX, 67% and 95%. Thus, SPECT interpreted on conjunction with QBA showed higher sensitivity for evaluation of ischemia in the RCA and LCX arteries and higher specificity in the detection of LAD and RCA disease than did PLN TI-201 imaging. Because of the low specificity of QBA (20%), caution is advised in the interpretation of QBA alone without reviewing SPECT images.

  8. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis of Biorefinery Siting Based on Cellulosic Feedstock Grown on Marginal Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this project undertaken by GLBRC (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center) Area 4 (Sustainability) modelers is to develop a national capability to model feedstock supply, ethanol production, and biogeochemical impacts of cellulosic biofuels. The results of this project contribute to sustainability goals of the GLBRC; i.e. to contribute to developing a sustainable bioenergy economy: one that is profitable to farmers and refiners, acceptable to society, and environmentally sound. A sustainable bioenergy economy will also contribute, in a fundamental way, to meeting national objectives on energy security and climate mitigation. The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a spatially explicit national geodatabase for conducting biofuel simulation studies and (4) locate possible sites for the establishment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. To address the first objective, we developed SENGBEM (Spatially Explicit National Geodatabase for Biofuel and Environmental Modeling), a 60-m resolution geodatabase of the conterminous USA containing data on: (1) climate, (2) soils, (3) topography, (4) hydrography, (5) land cover/ land use (LCLU), and (6) ancillary data (e.g., road networks, federal and state lands, national and state parks, etc.). A unique feature of SENGBEM is its 2008-2010 crop rotation data, a crucially important component for simulating productivity and biogeochemical cycles as well as land-use changes associated with biofuel cropping. ARRA support for this project and to the PNNL Joint Global Change Research Institute enabled us to create an advanced computing infrastructure to execute millions of simulations, conduct post-processing calculations, store input and output data, and visualize results. These computing resources included two components installed at the Research Data Center of the University of Maryland. The first resource was 'deltac': an 8-core Linux server, dedicated to county-level and state-level simulations and PostgreSQL database hosting. The second resource was the DOE-JGCRI 'Evergreen' cluster, capable of executing millions of simulations in relatively short periods. ARRA funding also supported a PhD student from UMD who worked on creating the geodatabases and executing some of the simulations in this study. Using a physically based classification of marginal lands, we simulated production of cellulosic feedstocks from perennial mixtures grown on these lands in the US Midwest. Marginal lands in the western states of the US Midwest appear to have significant potential to supply feedstocks to a cellulosic biofuel industry. Similar results were obtained with simulations of N-fertilized perennial mixtures. A detailed spatial analysis allowed for the identification of possible locations for the establishment of 34 cellulosic ethanol biorefineries with an annual production capacity of 5.6 billion gallons. In summary, we have reported on the development of a spatially explicit national geodatabase to conduct biofuel simulation studies and provided simulation results on the potential of perennial cropping systems to serve as feedstocks for the production of cellulosic ethanol. To accomplish this, we have employed sophisticated spatial analysis methods in combination with the process-based biogeochemical model EPIC. The results of this study will be submitted to the USDOE Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework as a way to contribute to the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry. This work provided the opportunity to test the hypothesis that marginal lands can serve as sources of cellulosic feedstocks and thus contribute to avoid potential conflicts between bioenergy and food production systems. This work, we believe, opens the door for further analysis on the characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks as major contributors to the development of a sustainable bioenergy economy.

  9. Reduction of Risk in Exploration and Prospect Generation through a Multidisciplinary Basin-Analysis Program in the South-Central Mid-Continent Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, S.; Barker, C.; Fite, J.; George, S.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.; Jordan, J., Szpakiewicz, M.; Person, M.; Reeves, T.K.; Safley, E.; Swenson, J.B.; Volk, L.; and Erickson, R.

    1999-04-02

    This report will discuss a series of regional studies that were undertaken within the South-Central Mid-Continent region of the U.S. Coverage is also provided about a series of innovative techniques that were used for this assessment.

  10. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  11. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson

    2006-03-31

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed its Phase I program in December 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership Phase I project was to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Many other goals were accomplished on the way to this objective, including (1) analysis of CO{sub 2} storage options in the region, including characterization of storage capacities and transportation options, (2) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} sources, (3) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies employed in the region, (4) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region, (5) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, and (6) assessing and initiating public knowledge and acceptance of possible sequestration approaches. Results of the Southwest Partnership's Phase I evaluation suggested that the most convenient and practical ''first opportunities'' for sequestration would lie along existing CO{sub 2} pipelines in the region. Action plans for six Phase II validation tests in the region were developed, with a portfolio that includes four geologic pilot tests distributed among Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. The Partnership will also conduct a regional terrestrial sequestration pilot program focusing on improved terrestrial MMV methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region. The sixth and final validation test consists of a local-scale terrestrial pilot involving restoration of riparian lands for sequestration purposes. The validation test will use desalinated waters produced from one of the geologic pilot tests. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state government agencies and universities, five major electric utility companies, seven oil, gas and coal companies, three federal agencies, the Navajo Nation, several NGOs, and the Western Governors Association. This group is continuing its work in the Phase II Validation Program, slated to conclude in 2009.

  12. CAPITAL REGION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    t 09/20/07 15:28 FAX 301 903 4656 CAPITAL REGION 0 j002 SDOE F 1325.8 (8-89) EFG (0790) Energy United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE. September 18, 2007 Audit Report No.: OAS-L-07-23 REPLY TO: IG-34 (A07TG036) SUBJECT: Evaluation of "The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Cyber Security Program-2007" TO: Chairman, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The purpose of this report is to inform you of the results o Four evaluation of the Federal Energy Regulatory

  13. Play Fairway Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Play Fairway Analysis Play Fairway Analysis Energy Department investments in adapting play fairway analysis to geothermal exploration could yield a potential 30 gigawatts of additional power from energy hidden deep in the Earth. In this poster, the University of Nevada at Reno illustrates the discovery of blind geothermal systems in the Great Basin Region, which spans 5 western states. source: James Faulds, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Energy Department investments in adapting play fairway

  14. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the Peoples Republic of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  15. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Gather and analyze independently the available technical, cost, financial incentive data on installed GSHP/HGSHP applications in residential, commercial and schools in hot and humid climate regions, and develop a calibrated baseline and performance period model of new construction and retrofitted buildings in conjunction with the energy simulation program.

  16. Improved negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  17. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  18. Contaminant Sources are Known

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources are Known Historical contaminant sources from liquid discharges and solid waste management units are known. August 1, 2013 Contaminant source map LANL contaminant...

  19. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Midwest Region

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Midwest Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Midwest Region Overview | Domestic Gas | Canadian Imports | Regional Pipeline Companies & Links Overview Twenty-six interstate and at least eight intrastate natural gas pipeline companies operate within the Midwest Region (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin). The principal sources of natural gas supply for the

  20. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 3: Appendixes C-H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the Appendices for the Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment and Storage Facilities for Waste Generated by the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. The main report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  1. Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis Home/Analysis - Structures of the zwitterionic coatings synthesized for this study. Permalink Gallery Investigations on Anti-biofouling Zwitterionic Coatings for MHK Is Now in Press Analysis, Capabilities, Energy, News, News & Events, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Water Power Investigations on Anti-biofouling Zwitterionic Coatings for MHK Is Now in Press Sandia's Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Advanced Materials program has a new publication on the antifouling efficacy

  2. Radiation source with shaped emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2003-05-13

    Employing a source of radiation, such as an electric discharge source, that is equipped with a capillary region configured into some predetermined shape, such as an arc or slit, can significantly improve the amount of flux delivered to the lithographic wafers while maintaining high efficiency. The source is particularly suited for photolithography systems that employs a ringfield camera. The invention permits the condenser which delivers critical illumination to the reticle to be simplified from five or more reflective elements to a total of three or four reflective elements thereby increasing condenser efficiency. It maximizes the flux delivered and maintains a high coupling efficiency. This architecture couples EUV radiation from the discharge source into a ring field lithography camera.

  3. Investigating CXOU J163802.6471358: A new pulsar wind nebula in the norma region?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakobsen, Simone J.; Watson, Darach; Tomsick, John A.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2014-06-01

    We present the first analysis of the extended source CXOU J163802.6471358, which was discovered serendipitously during the Chandra X-ray survey of the Norma region of the Galactic spiral arms. The X-ray source exhibits a cometary appearance with a point source and an extended tail region. The complete source spectrum is fitted well with an absorbed power law model and jointly fitting the Chandra spectrum of the full source with one obtained from an archived XMM-Newton observation results in best fit parameters N {sub H} =1.5{sub ?0.5}{sup +0.7}10{sup 23} cm{sup ?2} and ?=1.1{sub ?0.6}{sup +0.7} (90% confidence uncertainties). The unabsorbed luminosity of the full source is then L{sub X}?4.810{sup 33}d{sub 10}{sup 2} erg s{sup 1} with d {sub 10} = d/10 kpc, where a distance of 10 kpc is a lower bound inferred from the large column density. The radio counterpart found for the source using data from the Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey epoch-2 shows an elongated tail offset from the X-ray emission. No infrared counterpart was found. The results are consistent with the source being a previously unknown pulsar driving a bow shock through the ambient medium.

  4. Using an Explicit Emission Tagging Method in Global Modeling of Source-Receptor Relationships for Black Carbon in the Arctic: Variations, Sources and Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Singh, Balwinder; Zhang, Rudong; Ma, Po-Lun; Qian, Yun; Ghan, Steven J.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2014-11-27

    We introduce an explicit emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model to quantify source-region-resolved characteristics of black carbon (BC), focusing on the Arctic. Explicit tagging of BC source regions without perturbing the emissions makes it straightforward to establish source-receptor relationships and transport pathways, providing a physically consistent and computationally efficient approach to produce a detailed characterization of the destiny of regional BC emissions and the potential for mitigation actions. Our analysis shows that the contributions of major source regions to the global BC burden are not proportional to the respective emissions due to strong region-dependent removal rates and lifetimes, while the contributions to BC direct radiative forcing show a near-linear dependence on their respective contributions to the burden. Distant sources contribute to BC in remote regions mostly in the mid- and upper troposphere, having much less impact on lower-level concentrations (and deposition) than on burden. Arctic BC concentrations, deposition and source contributions all have strong seasonal variations. Eastern Asia contributes the most to the wintertime Arctic burden. Northern Europe emissions are more important to both surface concentration and deposition in winter than in summer. The largest contribution to Arctic BC in the summer is from Northern Asia. Although local emissions contribute less than 10% to the annual mean BC burden and deposition within the Arctic, the per-emission efficiency is much higher than for major non-Arctic sources. The interannual variability (1996-2005) due to meteorology is small in annual mean BC burden and radiative forcing but is significant in yearly seasonal means over the Arctic. When a slow aging treatment of BC is introduced, the increase of BC lifetime and burden is source-dependent. Global BC forcing-per-burden efficiency also increases primarily due to changes in BC vertical distributions. The relative contribution from major non-Arctic sources to the Arctic BC burden increases only slightly, although the contribution of Arctic local sources is reduced by a factor of 2 due to the slow aging treatment.

  5. Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

  6. Problems with packaged sources in foreign countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeyta, Cristy L; Matzke, James L; Zarling, John; Tompkin, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP), which is administered by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), removes excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential threat to national security, public health, and safety. In total, GTRI/OSRP has been able to recover more than 25,000 excess and unwanted sealed sources from over 825 sites. In addition to transuranic sources, the GTRI/OSRP mission now includes recovery of beta/gamma emitting sources, which are of concern to both the U.S. government and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper provides a synopsis of cooperative efforts in foreign countries to remove excess and unwanted sealed sources by discussing three topical areas: (1) The Regional Partnership with the International Atomic Energy Agency; (2) Challenges in repatriating sealed sources; and (3) Options for repatriating sealed sources.

  7. Ecosystem feedbacks to climate change in California: Development, testing, and analysis using a coupled regional atmosphere and land-surface model (WRF3-CLM3.5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subin, Z.M.; Riley, W.J.; Kueppers, L.M.; Jin, J.; Christianson, D.S.; Torn, M.S.

    2010-11-01

    A regional atmosphere model [Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3 (WRF3)] and a land surface model [Community Land Model, version 3.5 (CLM3.5)] were coupled to study the interactions between the atmosphere and possible future California land-cover changes. The impact was evaluated on California's climate of changes in natural vegetation under climate change and of intentional afforestation. The ability of WRF3 to simulate California's climate was assessed by comparing simulations by WRF3-CLM3.5 and WRF3-Noah to observations from 1982 to 1991. Using WRF3-CLM3.5, the authors performed six 13-yr experiments using historical and future large-scale climate boundary conditions from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 2.1 (GFDL CM2.1). The land-cover scenarios included historical and future natural vegetation from the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System-Century 1 (MC1) dynamic vegetation model, in addition to a future 8-million-ha California afforestation scenario. Natural vegetation changes alone caused summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature changes of -0.7 to +1 C in regions without persistent snow cover, depending on the location and the type of vegetation change. Vegetation temperature changes were much larger than the 2-m air temperature changes because of the finescale spatial heterogeneity of the imposed vegetation change. Up to 30% of the magnitude of the summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature increase and 70% of the magnitude of the 1600 local time (LT) vegetation temperature increase projected under future climate change were attributable to the climate-driven shift in land cover. The authors projected that afforestation could cause local 0.2-1.2 C reductions in summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature and 2.0-3.7 C reductions in 1600 LT vegetation temperature for snow-free regions, primarily because of increased evapotranspiration. Because some of these temperature changes are of comparable magnitude to those projected under climate change this century, projections of climate and vegetation change in this region need to consider these climate-vegetation interactions.

  8. Improved Characterization and Monitoring of Electromagnetic Sources -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Characterization and Monitoring of Electromagnetic Sources Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary LLNL's technology is useful in fields such as power systems engineering, security monitoring, and vehicle tracking to identify, locate and monitor a particular source of

  9. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  10. State and Regional Energy Risk Assessment Initiative | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mission Energy Infrastructure Modeling and Analysis State and Regional Energy Risk Assessment Initiative State and Regional Energy Risk Assessment Initiative The Office of...

  11. Contaminant Sources are Known

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contaminant Sources are Known Contaminant Sources are Known Historical contaminant sources from liquid discharges and solid waste management units are known. August 1, 2013 Contaminant source map LANL contaminant source map RELATED IMAGES http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3789/9631743884_4caeb970f9_t.jpg Enlarge

  12. Analysis of Cloud-resolving Simulations of a Tropical Mesoscale Convective System Observed during TWP-ICE: Vertical Fluxes and Draft Properties in Convective and Stratiform Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.; Rio, Catherine; Fridlind, Ann; Ackerman, Andrew; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Pauluis, Olivier; Varble, Adam; Fan, Jiwen

    2012-10-02

    We analyze three cloud-resolving model simulations of a strong convective event observed during the TWP-ICE campaign, differing in dynamical core, microphysical scheme or both. Based on simulated and observed radar reflectivity, simulations roughly reproduce observed convective and stratiform precipitating areas. To identify the characteristics of convective and stratiform drafts that are difficult to observe but relevant to climate model parameterization, independent vertical wind speed thresholds are calculated to capture 90% of total convective and stratiform updraft and downdraft mass fluxes. Convective updrafts are fairly consistent across simulations (likely owing to fixed large-scale forcings and surface conditions), except that hydrometeor loadings differ substantially. Convective downdraft and stratiform updraft and downdraft mass fluxes vary notably below the melting level, but share similar vertically uniform draft velocities despite differing hydrometeor loadings. All identified convective and stratiform downdrafts contain precipitation below ~10 km and nearly all updrafts are cloudy above the melting level. Cold pool properties diverge substantially in a manner that is consistent with convective downdraft mass flux differences below the melting level. Despite differences in hydrometeor loadings and cold pool properties, convective updraft and downdraft mass fluxes are linearly correlated with convective area, the ratio of ice in downdrafts to that in updrafts is ~0.5 independent of species, and the ratio of downdraft to updraft mass flux is ~0.5-0.6, which may represent a minimum evaporation efficiency under moist conditions. Hydrometeor loading in stratiform regions is found to be a fraction of hydrometeor loading in convective regions that ranges from ~10% (graupel) to ~90% (cloud ice). These findings may lead to improved convection parameterizations.

  13. An uncertainty analysis of the hydrogen source term for a station blackout accident in Sequoyah using MELCOR 1.8.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Wagner, Kenneth Charles

    2014-03-01

    A methodology for using the MELCOR code with the Latin Hypercube Sampling method was developed to estimate uncertainty in various predicted quantities such as hydrogen generation or release of fission products under severe accident conditions. In this case, the emphasis was on estimating the range of hydrogen sources in station blackout conditions in the Sequoyah Ice Condenser plant, taking into account uncertainties in the modeled physics known to affect hydrogen generation. The method uses user-specified likelihood distributions for uncertain model parameters, which may include uncertainties of a stochastic nature, to produce a collection of code calculations, or realizations, characterizing the range of possible outcomes. Forty MELCOR code realizations of Sequoyah were conducted that included 10 uncertain parameters, producing a range of in-vessel hydrogen quantities. The range of total hydrogen produced was approximately 583kg 131kg. Sensitivity analyses revealed expected trends with respected to the parameters of greatest importance, however, considerable scatter in results when plotted against any of the uncertain parameters was observed, with no parameter manifesting dominant effects on hydrogen generation. It is concluded that, with respect to the physics parameters investigated, in order to further reduce predicted hydrogen uncertainty, it would be necessary to reduce all physics parameter uncertainties similarly, bearing in mind that some parameters are inherently uncertain within a range. It is suspected that some residual uncertainty associated with modeling complex, coupled and synergistic phenomena, is an inherent aspect of complex systems and cannot be reduced to point value estimates. The probabilistic analyses such as the one demonstrated in this work are important to properly characterize response of complex systems such as severe accident progression in nuclear power plants.

  14. Furnace Standard Analysis Discussion Document

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Standard * Using field intelligence and thoughtful analysis - assess and quantify the effects a regional or national condensing standard for natural gas furnaces could have on energy efficiency and environmental objectives.  Provide insight on the potential impact limiting customer choices for heating systems could have on overall energy usage, cost, and carbon emissions outcomes.  Provide all data, models and sources of information to DOE and other stakeholders, to gain their confidence

  15. Economic Analysis of Photovoltaics Versus Traditional Energy Sources: Where are We Now and Where Might We be in the Near Future?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodhouse, M.; James, T.; Margolis, R.; Feldman, D.; Merkel, T.; Goodrich, A.

    2011-01-01

    A precipitous drop in the price of the crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules typically employed for residential applications has recently been observed: The typical sales price for modules was around $4/W{sub P DC} in 2008 but could easily approach $1.50/W W{sub P DC} by the end of this year. As module price declines continue, and as gains are also realized in balance-of-system costs, the economics of PV systems for power generation become increasingly competitive. In this presentation, we will examine whether solar will reach grid parity in the United States if monocrystalline silicon modules achieve an optimistic-case scenario in efficiency and cost. The analysis suggests that PV systems are already economically viable in select markets, but further cost reductions and efficiency improvements above and beyond the monocrystalline optimistic-case scenarios are necessary in order to be competitive against incumbent electricity production in most markets across the United States.

  16. Economic Analysis of Photovoltaics Versus Traditional Energy Sources: Where Are We Now and Where Might We Be in the Near Future?; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodhouse, M.; James, T.; Margolis, R.; Feldman, D.; Merkel, T.; Goodrich, A.

    2011-07-01

    A precipitous drop in the price of the crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules typically employed for residential applications has recently been observed: The typical sales price for modules was around $4/WP DC in 2008 but could easily approach $1.50/W WP DC by the end of this year. As module price declines continue, and as gains are also realized in balance-of-system costs, the economics of PV systems for power generation become increasingly competitive. In this presentation, we will examine whether solar will reach grid parity in the United States if monocrystalline silicon modules achieve an optimistic-case scenario in efficiency and cost. The analysis suggests that PV systems are already economically viable in select markets, but further cost reductions and efficiency improvements above and beyond the monocrystalline optimistic-case scenarios are necessary in order to be competitive against incumbent electricity production in most markets across the United States.

  17. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson

    2006-04-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of April 1, 2005-September 30, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. While Phase 2 planning is well under way, the content of this report focuses exclusively on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period. Progress during this period was focused in the three areas: geological carbon storage capacity in New Mexico, terrestrial sequestration capacity for the project area, and the Integrated Assessment Model efforts. The geologic storage capacity of New Mexico was analyzed and Blanco Mesaverde (which extends into Colorado) and Basin Dakota Pools were chosen as top two choices for the further analysis for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the system dynamics model preliminary analysis. Terrestrial sequestration capacity analysis showed that the four states analyzed thus far (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) have relatively limited potential to sequester carbon in terrestrial systems, mainly due to the aridity of these areas, but the large land area offered could make up for the limited capacity per hectare. Best opportunities were thought to be in eastern Colorado/New Mexico. The Integrated Assessment team expanded the initial test case model to include all New Mexico sinks and sources in a new, revised prototype model in 2005. The allocation mechanism, or ''String of Pearls'' concept, utilizes potential pipeline routes as the links between all combinations of the source to various sinks. This technique lays the groundwork for future, additional ''String of Pearls'' analyses throughout the SW Partnership and other regions as well.

  18. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolytes for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids.

  19. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-01-03

    Electrolytes are disclosed for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids. 7 figures.

  20. Properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the northwest photon dominated region of NGC 7023. II. Traditional PAH analysis using k-means as a visualization tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2014-11-10

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer-IRS spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is analyzed using the 'traditional' approach in which the PAH bands and plateaus between 5.2-19.5 ?m are isolated by subtracting the underlying continuum and removing H{sub 2} emission lines. The spectra are organized into seven spectroscopic bins by using k-means clustering. Each cluster corresponds to, and reveals, a morphological zone within NGC 7023. The zones self-organize parallel to the well-defined PDR front that coincides with an increase in intensity of the H{sub 2} emission lines. PAH band profiles and integrated strengths are measured, classified, and mapped. The morphological zones revealed by the k-means clustering provides deeper insight into the conditions that drive variations in band strength ratios and evolution of the PAH population that otherwise would be lost. For example, certain band-band relations are bifurcated, revealing two limiting cases; one associated with the PDR, the other with the diffuse medium. Traditionally, PAH band strength ratios are used to gain insight into the properties of the emitting PAH population, i.e., charge, size, structure, and composition. Insights inferred from this work are compared and contrasted to those from Boersma et al. (first paper in this series), where the PAH emission in NGC 7023 is decomposed exclusively using the PAH spectra and tools made available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database.

  1. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS SOURCES IN NEARBY GALAXIES NGC 4395, NGC 4736, AND NGC 4258

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akyuz, A.; Avdan, H.; Kayaci, S.; Ozel, M. E.; Sonbas, E.; Balman, S.

    2013-03-15

    We present the results of a study of non-nuclear discrete sources in a sample of three nearby spiral galaxies (NGC 4395, NGC 4736, and NGC 4258) based on XMM-Newton archival data supplemented with Chandra data for spectral and timing analyses. A total of 75 X-ray sources have been detected within the D{sub 25} regions of the target galaxies. The large collecting area of XMM-Newton makes the statistics sufficient to obtain spectral fitting for 16 (about 20%) of these sources. Compiling the extensive archival exposures available, we were able to obtain the detailed spectral shapes of diverse classes of point sources. We have also studied temporal properties of these luminous sources. Eleven of them are found to show short-term (less than 80 ks) variation while eight of them show long-term variation within factors of {approx}2-5 during a time interval of {approx}2-12 years. Timing analysis provides strong evidence that most of these sources are accreting X-ray binary systems. One source that has properties different from others was suspected to be a supernova remnant, and our follow-up optical observation confirmed this. Our results indicate that sources within the three nearby galaxies are showing a variety of source populations, including several ultraluminous X-ray sources, X-ray binaries, transients together with a super soft source, and a background active galactic nucleus candidate.

  2. Economic Analysis of Photovoltaics versus Traditional Energy Sources: Where are We Now and Where Might We Be in the Near Future? (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodhouse, M.; Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Margolis, R.; Feldman, D.; Markel, T.

    2011-07-01

    A precipitous drop in the price of the crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules typically employed for residential applications has recently been observed: The typical sales price for modules was around $4/WP DC in 2008 but could easily approach $1.50/W WP DC by the end of this year. As module price declines continue, and as gains are also realized in balance-of-system costs, the economics of PV systems for power generation become increasingly competitive. In this presentation, we will examine whether solar will reach grid parity in the United States if monocrystalline silicon modules achieve an optimistic-case scenario in efficiency and cost. The analysis suggests that PV systems are already economically viable in select markets, but further cost reductions and efficiency improvements above and beyond the monocrystalline optimistic-case scenarios are necessary in order to be competitive against incumbent electricity production in most markets across the United States. In this presentation we also provide an initial overview of cost considerations for electric vehicle charging with PV.

  3. MAGNETIC FIELDS OF AN ACTIVE REGION FILAMENT FROM FULL STOKES ANALYSIS OF Si I 1082.7 nm AND He I 1083.0 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Z.; Liu, Y.

    2012-04-20

    Vector magnetic fields of an active region filament in the photosphere and upper chromosphere are obtained from spectro-polarimetric observations recorded with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP II) at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. We apply Milne-Eddington inversions on full Stokes vectors of the photospheric Si I 1082.7 nm and the upper chromospheric He I triplet at 1083.0 nm to obtain the magnetic field vector and velocity maps in two atmosphere layers. We find that (1) a complete filament was already present in H{alpha} at the beginning of the TIP II data acquisition. Only a partially formed one, composed of multiple small threads, was present in He I. (2) The AR filament comprises two sections. One shows strong magnetic field intensities, about 600-800 G in the upper chromosphere and 800-1000 G in the photosphere. The other exhibits only comparatively weak magnetic field strengths in both layers. (3) The Stokes V signal is indicative of a dip in the magnetic field strength close to the chromospheric PIL. (4) In the chromosphere, consistent upflows are found along the PIL flanked by downflows. (5) The transversal magnetic field is nearly parallel to the PIL in the photosphere and inclined by 20 Degree-Sign -30 Degree-Sign in the chromosphere. (6) The chromospheric magnetic field around the filament is found to be in normal configuration, while the photospheric field presents a concave magnetic topology. The observations are consistent with the emergence of a flux rope with a subsequent formation of a filament.

  4. Infrared light sources with semimetal electron injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM); Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    An infrared light source is disclosed that comprises a layered semiconductor active region having a semimetal region and at least one quantum-well layer. The semimetal region, formed at an interface between a GaAsSb or GalnSb layer and an InAsSb layer, provides electrons and holes to the quantum-well layer to generate infrared light at a predetermined wavelength in the range of 2-6 .mu.m. Embodiments of the invention can be formed as electrically-activated light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers, and as optically-pumped lasers. Since the active region is unipolar, multiple active regions can be stacked to form a broadband or multiple-wavelength infrared light source.

  5. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources. Case study of Murmansk

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Evans, M.; Kholod, N.; Malyshev, V.; Tretyakova, S.; Gusev, E.; Yu, S.; Barinov, A.

    2015-07-27

    Black carbon (BC) is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in the Murmansk Region and Murmansk City, the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle. In this study we developed a detailed inventory of diesel sources including on-road vehicles, off-road transport (mining, locomotives, construction and agriculture), ships and diesel generators. For on-road transport, we conducted several surveys tomore » understand the vehicle fleet and driving patterns, and, for all sources, we also relied on publicly available local data sets and analysis. We calculated that BC emissions in the Murmansk Region were 0.40 Gg in 2012. The mining industry is the largest source of BC emissions in the region, emitting 69 % of all BC emissions because of its large diesel consumption and absence of emissions controls. On-road vehicles are the second largest source, emitting about 13 % of emissions. Old heavy duty trucks are the major source of emissions. Emission controls on new vehicles limit total emissions from on-road transportation. Vehicle traffic and fleet surveys show that many of the older cars on the registry are lightly or never used. We also estimated that total BC emissions from diesel sources in Russia were 50.8 Gg in 2010, and on-road transport contributed 49 % of diesel BC emissions. Agricultural machinery is also a significant source Russia-wide, in part because of the lack of controls on off-road vehicles.« less

  6. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources. Case study of Murmansk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, M.; Kholod, N.; Malyshev, V.; Tretyakova, S.; Gusev, E.; Yu, S.; Barinov, A.

    2015-07-27

    Black carbon (BC) is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in the Murmansk Region and Murmansk City, the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle. In this study we developed a detailed inventory of diesel sources including on-road vehicles, off-road transport (mining, locomotives, construction and agriculture), ships and diesel generators. For on-road transport, we conducted several surveys to understand the vehicle fleet and driving patterns, and, for all sources, we also relied on publicly available local data sets and analysis. We calculated that BC emissions in the Murmansk Region were 0.40 Gg in 2012. The mining industry is the largest source of BC emissions in the region, emitting 69 % of all BC emissions because of its large diesel consumption and absence of emissions controls. On-road vehicles are the second largest source, emitting about 13 % of emissions. Old heavy duty trucks are the major source of emissions. Emission controls on new vehicles limit total emissions from on-road transportation. Vehicle traffic and fleet surveys show that many of the older cars on the registry are lightly or never used. We also estimated that total BC emissions from diesel sources in Russia were 50.8 Gg in 2010, and on-road transport contributed 49 % of diesel BC emissions. Agricultural machinery is also a significant source Russia-wide, in part because of the lack of controls on off-road vehicles.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW MID-INFRARED ULTRAFAST LASER SOURCES FOR COMPACT COHERENT X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling Backus

    2012-05-14

    In this project, we proposed to develop laser based mid-infrared lasers as a potentially robust and reliable source of ultrafast pulses in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, and to apply this light source to generating bright, coherent, femtosecond-to-attosecond x-ray beams.

  8. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 1: Sections 1-9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. The methodology is in compliance with the most recent guidance from DOE. It considers the spectrum of accident sequences that could occur in activities covered by the WM PEIS and uses a graded approach emphasizing the risk-dominant scenarios to facilitate discrimination among the various WM PEIS alternatives. Although it allows reasonable estimates of the risk impacts associated with each alternative, the main goal of the accident analysis methodology is to allow reliable estimates of the relative risks among the alternatives. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  9. Regional Education Partners

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Education Partners Regional Education Partners One of the Laboratory's STEM education objectives is centered on strengthening the future workforce of Northern New Mexico...

  10. SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

    2005-09-30

    The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

  11. Optimizing laser produced plasmas for efficient extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray light sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Photon sources produced by laser beams with moderate laser intensities, up to 10{sup 14?}W/cm{sup 2}, are being developed for many industrial applications. The performance requirements for high volume manufacture devices necessitate extensive experimental research supported by theoretical plasma analysis and modeling predictions. We simulated laser produced plasma sources currently being developed for several applications such as extreme ultraviolet lithography using 13.5%??1% nm bandwidth, possibly beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography using 6. nm wavelengths, and water-window microscopy utilizing 2.48?nm (La-?) and 2.88?nm (He-?) emission. We comprehensively modeled plasma evolution from solid/liquid tin, gadolinium, and nitrogen targets as three promising materials for the above described sources, respectively. Results of our analysis for plasma characteristics during the entire course of plasma evolution showed the dependence of source conversion efficiency (CE), i.e., laser energy to photons at the desired wavelength, on plasma electron density gradient. Our results showed that utilizing laser intensities which produce hotter plasma than the optimum emission temperatures allows increasing CE for all considered sources that, however, restricted by the reabsorption processes around the main emission region and this restriction is especially actual for the 6.?nm sources.

  12. Ground Source Heat Pump System Data Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Industrial, ClimateMaster, Dow Chemical, Gate Precast, and the Congress for the New Urbanism 15 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Next Steps and Future Plans Next ...

  13. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  14. DC source assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  15. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  16. Multi-source ion funnel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tang, Keqi; Belov, Mikhail B.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-12-27

    A method for introducing ions generated in a region of relatively high pressure into a region of relatively low pressure by providing at least two electrospray ion sources, providing at least two capillary inlets configured to direct ions generated by the electrospray sources into and through each of the capillary inlets, providing at least two sets of primary elements having apertures, each set of elements having a receiving end and an emitting end, the primary sets of elements configured to receive a ions from the capillary inlets at the receiving ends, and providing a secondary set of elements having apertures having a receiving end and an emitting end, the secondary set of elements configured to receive said ions from the emitting end of the primary sets of elements and emit said ions from said emitting end of the secondary set of elements. The method may further include the step of providing at least one jet disturber positioned within at least one of the sets of primary elements, providing a voltage, such as a dc voltage, in the jet disturber, thereby adjusting the transmission of ions through at least one of the sets of primary elements.

  17. Microwave ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  18. Analysis of Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources Analysis of Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources Project objectives: Techno-economic analysis of the potential of low-temperature (90-150°C) geothermal sources. Perform process optimizations and economic analyses of processes that can utilize low-temperature geothermal fluids. Develop a regionalized model of the utilization of low-temperature geothermal resources. PDF icon

  19. Open Source Software

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Source Software Open Source Software All open source software available through the Laboratory is listed below. Contact thumbnail of Kathleen McDonald Head of Intellectual Property, Business Development Executive Kathleen McDonald Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (505) 667-5844 Email For more information regarding how to access software from Los Alamos, contact the Software Team. brulilo, Version 0.x brulilo is a Python package for building and evolving thermonuclear reaction

  20. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  1. Renewable energy generation sources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy generation sources have begun to generate significant amounts of power for the national electricity grid. With the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL), Sandia and its industry ...

  2. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION - SEE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (FAR) 2.101 AND 3.104 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 (enter date here, centered revised template...

  3. Overview | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    APS Overview: Introduction APS Systems Map LINAC Booster Synchrotron Storage Ring Insertion Devices Experiment Hall LOMs & Beamlines Overview of the APS The Advanced Photon Source...

  4. Heat Source Lire,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A uniquely capable source of power is the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) - ... The new RTG, called a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), is ...

  5. Beamlines | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamlines Beamlines Home Beamlines Directory Research Techniques Sectors Directory Status and Schedule Safety and Training Beamlines The Advanced Photon Source consists of 34...

  6. Regional Education Partners

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Education Partners Regional Education Partners One of the Laboratory's STEM education objectives is centered on strengthening the future workforce of Northern New Mexico and LANL through effective partnerships with regional secondary and higher education organizations, businesses and industry. Contact Executive Office Director Kathy Keith Community Relations & Partnerships (505) 665-4400 Email Regional Partners Charlie McMillan talking with Rick Ulibarri and Dr. Fries, President of

  7. Hierarchical probabilistic regionalization of volcanism for Sengan region, Japan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balasingam, Pirahas; Park, Jinyong; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Kulatilake, Pinnaduwa H. S. W.

    2005-03-01

    A 1 km square regular grid system created on the Universal Transverse Mercator zone 54 projected coordinate system is used to work with volcanism related data for Sengan region. The following geologic variables were determined as the most important for identifying volcanism: geothermal gradient, groundwater temperature, heat discharge, groundwater pH value, presence of volcanic rocks and presence of hydrothermal alteration. Data available for each of these important geologic variables were used to perform directional variogram modeling and kriging to estimate geologic variable vectors at each of the 23949 centers of the chosen 1 km cell grid system. Cluster analysis was performed on the 23949 complete variable vectors to classify each center of 1 km cell into one of five different statistically homogeneous groups with respect to potential volcanism spanning from lowest possible volcanism to highest possible volcanism with increasing group number. A discriminant analysis incorporating Bayes theorem was performed to construct maps showing the probability of group membership for each of the volcanism groups. The said maps showed good comparisons with the recorded locations of volcanism within the Sengan region. No volcanic data were found to exist in the group 1 region. The high probability areas within group 1 have the chance of being the no volcanism region. Entropy of classification is calculated to assess the uncertainty of the allocation process of each 1 km cell center location based on the calculated probabilities. The recorded volcanism data are also plotted on the entropy map to examine the uncertainty level of the estimations at the locations where volcanism exists. The volcanic data cell locations that are in the high volcanism regions (groups 4 and 5) showed relatively low mapping estimation uncertainty. On the other hand, the volcanic data cell locations that are in the low volcanism region (group 2) showed relatively high mapping estimation uncertainty. The volcanic data cell locations that are in the medium volcanism region (group 3) showed relatively moderate mapping estimation uncertainty. Areas of high uncertainty provide locations where additional site characterization resources can be spent most effectively. The new data collected can be added to the existing database to perform future regionalized mapping and reduce the uncertainty level of the existing estimations.

  8. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  9. Radioisotopic heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  10. Wintertime meteorology of the Grand Canyon region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    The Grand Canyon region of the American Southwest is an interesting region meteorologically, but because of its isolated location, the lack of major population centers in the region, and the high cost of meteorological field experiments, it has historically received little observational attention. In recent years, however, attention has been directed to episodes of visibility degradation in many of the US National parks, and two recent field studies focused on this visibility problem have greatly increased the meteorological data available for the Grand Canyon region. The most recent and comprehensive of these studies is the Navajo Generating Station Winter Visibility Study of 1989--90. This study investigated the sources of visibility degradation in Grand Canyon National Park and the meteorological mechanisms leading to low visibility episodes. In this paper we present analyses of this rich data set to gain a better understanding of the key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon region.

  11. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  12. Photonic crystal light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Bur, James A. (Corrales, NM)

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  13. Anomaly metrics to differentiate threat sources from benign sources in primary vehicle screening.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Israel Dov; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2011-09-01

    Discrimination of benign sources from threat sources at Port of Entries (POE) is of a great importance in efficient screening of cargo and vehicles using Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM). Currently RPM's ability to distinguish these radiological sources is seriously hampered by the energy resolution of the deployed RPMs. As naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are ubiquitous in commerce, false alarms are problematic as they require additional resources in secondary inspection in addition to impacts on commerce. To increase the sensitivity of such detection systems without increasing false alarm rates, alarm metrics need to incorporate the ability to distinguish benign and threat sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering technique were implemented in the present study. Such techniques were investigated for their potential to lower false alarm rates and/or increase sensitivity to weaker threat sources without loss of specificity. Results of the investigation demonstrated improved sensitivity and specificity in discriminating benign sources from threat sources.

  14. SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    812 Supplement Analysis 1 October 2013 SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS for the FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT for NECO (FORMERLY HAXTUN) WIND ENERGY PROJECT LOGAN AND PHILLIPS COUNTIES, COLORADO U. S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Golden Field Office and U.S. Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration Rocky Mountain Customer Service Region OCTOBER 2013 DOE/EA-1812/SA-1 DOE/EA-1812 Supplement Analysis 2 October 2013 SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS for the FINAL

  15. Source Selection | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Source Selection Source Selection Source Selection/Source Selection Boards Source Evaluation Board (SEB) Monthly Status Reporting Requirement (pdf) Source Evaluation Board (SEB) Secretariat and Knowledge Manager - Acquisition Guide Chapter 1.4 (pdf) Acquisition Planning - Acquisition Guide Chapter 7.1 (pdf) Source Selection Practices - Acquisition Guide Chapter 15.1 (pdf) Headquarters Business Clearance Process - Acquisition Guide Chapter 71.1 Templates Source Selection Board Lessons Learned

  16. Tunable terahertz radiation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boulaevskii, Lev; Feldmann, David M; Jia, Quanxi; Koshelev, Alexei; Moody, Nathan A

    2014-01-21

    Terahertz radiation source and method of producing terahertz radiation, said source comprising a junction stack, said junction stack comprising a crystalline material comprising a plurality of self-synchronized intrinsic Josephson junctions; an electrically conductive material in contact with two opposing sides of said crystalline material; and a substrate layer disposed upon at least a portion of both the crystalline material and the electrically-conductive material, wherein the crystalline material has a c-axis which is parallel to the substrate layer, and wherein the source emits at least 1 mW of power.

  17. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-07-15

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  18. Regional Economic Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Economic Development Regional Economic Development Supporting companies in every stage of development through access to technology, technical assistance or investment Questions Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation Regional Programs (505) 665-9090 New Mexico Small Business Assistance Email Venture Acceleration Fund Email DisrupTECH Email SBIR/STTR Email FCI facilitates commercialization in New Mexico to accelerate and enhance our efforts to convert federal and state research

  19. Western Regional Partnership Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Regional Partnership Overview June 2013 Briefing Overview  WRP Background  Importance of Region  WRP Tribal Relations Committee  WRP Energy Committee WRP Region's Uniqueness  5 states stretching from the Great Plains to the Pacific Ocean  Diverse terrain ranging from desert valleys to forested mountains  Significant State Trust Landholdings  Approximately 188 Federally recognized Tribes  Significant amounts of Federally managed land  According to GSA 2004 study, WRP

  20. AEMC Northeast Regional Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department's Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative will host a Northeast Regional Summit to showcase the achievements in American Energy & Manufacturing through public-private partnerships.

  1. CEMI Western Regional Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Please Join Assistant Secretary of Energy Dr. David Danielson for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative's Western Regional Summit. Register now for this free event.

  2. ERHIC INTERACTION REGION DESIGN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MONTAG,C.PARKER,B.PTITSYN,V.TEPIKIAN,S.WANG,D.WANG,F.

    2003-10-13

    This paper presents the current interaction region design status of the ring-ring version of the electron-ion collider eRHIC (release 2.0).

  3. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  4. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    an action described in Section 311 of P.L. 112-74 in excess of 1,000,000. This information is source selection information related to the conduct of a Federal agency...

  5. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    BNL

    2009-09-01

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), hosted by Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, Stephen Dierker. The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray light for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, environmental, and materials sciences.

  6. Field emission electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  7. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, WA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Grabner, R. Fred (Brentwood, CA); Ramsey, Philip B. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

  8. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

    1994-08-02

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

  9. Photon Source Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source Parameters Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They

  10. Advanced Light Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next >> Visitors Access to the ALS Gate Access guest-house Guest House lab-shuttles Lab Shuttles maps-and-directions Maps and Directions Parking Safety Experiment Safety safety-for-staff Safety for Staff In Case of Emergency Resources Acronyms Multimedia Employment staff-intranet Staff Intranet Site Map Contact Digg: ALSBerkeleyLab Facebook Page: 208064938929 Flickr: advancedlightsource Twitter: AdvLightSource YouTube: AdvancedLightSource Recent Science Highlights Manganese

  11. The Independent Technical Analysis Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2007-04-13

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical analytical support for system-wide fish passage information (BPA Project No. 2006-010-00). The goal of this project was to produce rigorous technical analysis products using independent analysts and anonymous peer reviewers. In the past, regional parties have interacted with a single entity, the Fish Passage Center to access the data, analyses, and coordination related to fish passage. This project provided an independent technical source for non-routine fish passage analyses while allowing routine support functions to be performed by other well-qualified entities.

  12. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Howard A. (Ripon, CA)

    2006-04-25

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  13. Appendix C: Map of NEMS Electricity Market Module Regions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    U.S. Energy Information Administration | Analysis of Impacts of a Clean Energy Standard as requested by Chairman Bingaman Appendix C: Map of NEMS Electricity Market Module Regions...

  14. Pulse Analysis Spectroradiometer System (PASS) Software - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Pulse Analysis ... SummaryFlashing artificial light sources are used extensively in photovoltaic ...

  15. EA-1975: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: Supplement Analysis EA-1975: Supplement Analysis LINAC Coherent Light Source-Il, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California This document provides an analysis...

  16. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenly, J.B.

    1997-08-12

    An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

  17. Regional Science Bowl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January » Regional Science Bowl Regional Science Bowl WHEN: Jan 23, 2016 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM WHERE: Highland High School 4700 Coal SE, Albuquerque, NM CONTACT: Janelle Vigil-Maestas (505) 665-4329 CATEGORY: Community INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description Five teams from Northern New Mexico area schools are among 16 participating in the middle school Regional Science Bowl competition. Northern area teams participating are from Los Alamos, Española, Cuba and Santa Fe. The winning team at this

  18. Regional Workforce Study - SRSCRO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Workforce Study Regional employers will need to fill more than 30,000 job openings over the next five years in the five-county region of South Carolina and Georgia represented by the SRS Community Reuse Organization (SRSCRO). That is a key finding of a new study released on April 22, 2015. TIP Strategies, an Austin, Texas-based economic consulting firm, performed the study for the SRSCRO by examining workforce trends in the five counties the SRSCRO represents - Aiken, Allendale and

  19. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  20. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Short Tons." ,,"Coal",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  1. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"LPG",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  2. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Billion Cubic Feet." ,,"Natural Gas",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  3. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"Residual Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  4. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Million Kilowatthours." ,,"Electricity Receipts",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  5. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  6. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Short Tons." ,,"Coal",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  7. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"LPG",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  8. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Billion Cubic Feet." ,,"Natural Gas",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  9. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"Residual Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  10. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Million Kilowatthours." ,,"Electricity Receipts",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  11. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  12. Intense fusion neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-15

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 21} neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10{sup 20} neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  13. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition, and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC)particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source-receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation of the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source- receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on seasons and the locations in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in Himalayas and Central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to Northeast Plateau in all seasons and Southeast Plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching Northwest Plateau, especially in the summer. Although the HTP local emissions only contribute about 10% of BC in the HTP, this contribution is extremely sensitive to changes in the local emissions. Lastly, we show that the annual mean radiative forcing (0.42 W m-2) due to BC in snow outweighs the BC dimming effect-0.3 W m-2)at the surface over the HTP, although the mean BC-in- snow forcing is likely overestimated. We find strong seasonal and sub -region variation with a peak value of 5W m-2 in the spring over Northwest Plateau. The annual mean dust-in-snow forcing is comparable to that of BC over the entire HTP but significantly larger than BC over the North east Plateau. Such a large forcing of BC in snow is sufficient to cause earlier snow melting and potentially contribute to the acceleration of glacier retreat

  14. Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources Sci. Technol. 6 (1997) 492-498. Printed in the UK PII: S0963-0252(97)87196-4 Impurities, temperature and density in a miniature electrostatic plasma and current source D J Den Hartog†, D J Craig†, G Fiksel‡ and J S Sarff‡ † Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA ‡ Sterling Scientific, Inc., 1415 Rutledge Street, Madison, WI 53703, USA Received 23 October 1996, in final form 25 July 1997 Abstract. We have

  15. OLED area illumination source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foust, Donald Franklin (Scotia, NY); Duggal, Anil Raj (Niskayuna, NY); Shiang, Joseph John (Niskayuna, NY); Nealon, William Francis (Gloversville, NY); Bortscheller, Jacob Charles (Clifton Park, NY)

    2008-03-25

    The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

  16. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  17. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  18. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1998-06-02

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  19. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  20. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also...

  1. Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.; Patton, H.J.; Jarpe, S.; Glenn, L.

    1995-10-01

    The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve the understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report the authors discuss preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize the Middle East and North Africa. They show that the remarkable stability of coda allows one to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. They then discuss progress to date on evaluating and improving physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. The authors apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. They find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally they discuss development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  2. NREL: Wind Research - Regional Test Centers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Test Centers To increase the availability of small wind turbine testing and share field expertise, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and NREL initiated the Regional Test Center (RTC) project in 2009. The project ended in early 2016. During the project, DOE and NREL subsidized certification testing of two small wind turbines at each RTC. In addition, NREL provided technical assistance during the testing and data analysis process. The project goal is for the RTCs to be self-sustaining,

  3. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1991-12-24

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) interim policy and to provide guidance for sealed radioactive source accountability. The directive does not cancel any directives. Extended by DOE N 5400.10 to 12-24-93 & Extended by DOE N 5400.12 to 12-24-94.

  4. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1994-12-22

    This Notice extends DOE N 5400.9, Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability, of 12-24-91, until 12-24-95, unless sooner superseded or rescinded. The contents of DOE N 5400.9 will be updated and incorporated in the revised DOE O 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers.

  5. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-05-14

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

  6. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

  7. Alternate sources of energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    Eleven papers are included. A separate abstract was prepared for each for Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); seven were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  8. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Quigley, Gerard P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm.sup.2 emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm.sup.2 at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing.

  9. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  10. NV PFA Regional Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Faulds

    2015-10-28

    This project focused on defining geothermal play fairways and development of a detailed geothermal potential map of a large transect across the Great Basin region (96,000 km2), with the primary objective of facilitating discovery of commercial-grade, blind geothermal fields (i.e. systems with no surface hot springs or fumaroles) and thereby accelerating geothermal development in this promising region. Data included in this submission consists of: structural settings (target areas, recency of faulting, slip and dilation potential, slip rates, quality), regional-scale strain rates, earthquake density and magnitude, gravity data, temperature at 3 km depth, permeability models, favorability models, degree of exploration and exploration opportunities, data from springs and wells, transmission lines and wilderness areas, and published maps and theses for the Nevada Play Fairway area.

  11. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA); Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  12. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-18

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45[degree] to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures.

  13. Voltage controlled current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casne, Gregory M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  14. Evaluated teletherapy source library

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, Lawrence J.; Schach Von Wittenau, Alexis E.

    2000-01-01

    The Evaluated Teletherapy Source Library (ETSL) is a system of hardware and software that provides for maintenance of a library of useful phase space descriptions (PSDs) of teletherapy sources used in radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The PSDs are designed to be used by PEREGRINE, the all-particle Monte Carlo dose calculation system. ETSL also stores other relevant information such as monitor unit factors (MUFs) for use with the PSDs, results of PEREGRINE calculations using the PSDs, clinical calibration measurements, and geometry descriptions sufficient for calculational purposes. Not all of this information is directly needed by PEREGRINE. It also is capable of acting as a repository for the Monte Carlo simulation history files from which the generic PSDs are derived.

  15. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  16. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  17. Advanced Light Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Light Source - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  18. Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  19. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION - SEE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (FAR) 2.101 AND 3.104 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 (enter date here, centered revised template January 24, 2013) The Honorable Harold Rogers The Honorable Barbara A. Mikulski Chairman, Committee on Appropriations Chairwoman, Committee on Appropriations U.S. House of Representatives U.S. Senate Washington, DC 20515 Washington, DC 20510 The Honorable Rodney P. Frelinghuysen The Honorable Dianne Feinstein Chairman,

  20. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.

    2011-03-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

  1. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION - SEE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (FAR) 2.101 AND 3.104 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 (enter date here, centered revised template April 26, 2013) The Honorable Harold Rogers The Honorable Barbara A. Mikulski Chairman, Committee on Appropriations Chairwoman, Committee on Appropriations U.S. House of Representatives U.S. Senate Washington, DC 20515 Washington, DC 20510 The Honorable Rodney P. Frelinghuysen The Honorable Dianne Feinstein Chairman,

  2. Capillary discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, III, Howard Albert

    2003-11-25

    Debris generation from an EUV electric discharge plasma source device can be significantly reduced or essentially eliminated by encasing the electrodes with dielectric or electrically insulating material so that the electrodes are shielded from the plasma, and additionally by providing a path for the radiation to exit wherein the electrodes are not exposed to the area where the radiation is collected. The device includes: (a) a body, which is made of an electrically insulating material, that defines a capillary bore that has a proximal end and a distal end and that defines at least one radiation exit; (b) a first electrode that defines a first channel that has a first inlet end that is connected to a source of gas and a first outlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore, wherein the first electrode is positioned at the distal end of the capillary bore; (c) a second electrode that defines a second channel that has a second inlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore and an outlet end, wherein the second electrode is positioned at the proximal end of the capillary bore; and (d) a source of electric potential that is connected across the first and second electrodes, wherein radiation generated within the capillary bore is emitted through the at least one radiation exit and wherein the first electrode and second electrode are shielded from the emitted radiation.

  3. Characterization of Quaternary and suspected Quaternary faults, regional studies, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.E.; Bucknam, R.C.; Crone, A.J.; Haller, K.M.; Machette, M.N.; Personius, S.F.; Barnhard, T.P.; Cecil, M.J.; Dart, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    This report presents the results of geologic studies that help define the Quaternary history of selected faults in the region around Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These results are relevant to the seismic-design basis of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The relevancy is based, in part, on a need for additional geologic data that became apparent in ongoing studies that resulted in the identification of 51 relevant and potentially relevant individual and compound faults and fault zones in the 100-km-radius region around the Yucca Mountain site. Geologic data used to characterize the regional faults and fault zones as relevant or potentially relevant seismic sources includes age and displacement information, maximum fault lengths, and minimum distances between the fault and the Yucca Mountain site. For many of the regional faults, no paleoseismic field studies have previously been conducted, and age and displacement data are sparse to nonexistent. In November 1994, the Branch of Earthquake and Landslide Hazards entered into two Memoranda of Agreement with the Yucca Mountain Project Branch to conduct field reconnaissance, analysis, and interpretation of six relevant and six potentially relevant regional faults. This report describes the results of study of those faults exclusive of those in the Pahrump-Stewart Valley-Ash Meadows-Amargosa Valley areas. We also include results of a cursory study of faults on the west flank of the Specter Range and in the northern part of the Last Chance Range. A four-phase strategy was implemented for the field study.

  4. Light sources based on semiconductor current filaments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zutavern, Fred J.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Buttram, Malcolm T.; Mar, Alan; Helgeson, Wesley D.; O'Malley, Martin W.; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Baca, Albert G.; Chow, Weng W.; Vawter, G. Allen

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a new type of semiconductor light source that can produce a high peak power output and is not injection, e-beam, or optically pumped. The present invention is capable of producing high quality coherent or incoherent optical emission. The present invention is based on current filaments, unlike conventional semiconductor lasers that are based on p-n junctions. The present invention provides a light source formed by an electron-hole plasma inside a current filament. The electron-hole plasma can be several hundred microns in diameter and several centimeters long. A current filament can be initiated optically or with an e-beam, but can be pumped electrically across a large insulating region. A current filament can be produced in high gain photoconductive semiconductor switches. The light source provided by the present invention has a potentially large volume and therefore a potentially large energy per pulse or peak power available from a single (coherent) semiconductor laser. Like other semiconductor lasers, these light sources will emit radiation at the wavelength near the bandgap energy (for GaAs 875 nm or near infra red). Immediate potential applications of the present invention include high energy, short pulse, compact, low cost lasers and other incoherent light sources.

  5. Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) Seismic Source Characterization (SSC) for Nuclear Facilities Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin J. Coppersmith; Lawrence A. Salomone; Chris W. Fuller; Laura L. Glaser; Kathryn L. Hanson; Ross D. Hartleb; William R. Lettis; Scott C. Lindvall; Stephen M. McDuffie; Robin K. McGuire; Gerry L. Stirewalt; Gabriel R. Toro; Robert R. Youngs; David L. Slayter; Serkan B. Bozkurt; Randolph J. Cumbest; Valentina Montaldo Falero; Roseanne C. Perman' Allison M. Shumway; Frank H. Syms; Martitia P. Tuttle

    2012-01-31

    This report describes a new seismic source characterization (SSC) model for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). It will replace the Seismic Hazard Methodology for the Central and Eastern United States, EPRI Report NP-4726 (July 1986) and the Seismic Hazard Characterization of 69 Nuclear Plant Sites East of the Rocky Mountains, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Model, (Bernreuter et al., 1989). The objective of the CEUS SSC Project is to develop a new seismic source model for the CEUS using a Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 assessment process. The goal of the SSHAC process is to represent the center, body, and range of technically defensible interpretations of the available data, models, and methods. Input to a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) consists of both seismic source characterization and ground motion characterization. These two components are used to calculate probabilistic hazard results (or seismic hazard curves) at a particular site. This report provides a new seismic source model. Results and Findings The product of this report is a regional CEUS SSC model. This model includes consideration of an updated database, full assessment and incorporation of uncertainties, and the range of diverse technical interpretations from the larger technical community. The SSC model will be widely applicable to the entire CEUS, so this project uses a ground motion model that includes generic variations to allow for a range of representative site conditions (deep soil, shallow soil, hard rock). Hazard and sensitivity calculations were conducted at seven test sites representative of different CEUS hazard environments. Challenges and Objectives The regional CEUS SSC model will be of value to readers who are involved in PSHA work, and who wish to use an updated SSC model. This model is based on a comprehensive and traceable process, in accordance with SSHAC guidelines in NUREG/CR-6372, Recommendations for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis: Guidance on Uncertainty and Use of Experts. The model will be used to assess the present-day composite distribution for seismic sources along with their characterization in the CEUS and uncertainty. In addition, this model is in a form suitable for use in PSHA evaluations for regulatory activities, such as Early Site Permit (ESPs) and Combined Operating License Applications (COLAs). Applications, Values, and Use Development of a regional CEUS seismic source model will provide value to those who (1) have submitted an ESP or COLA for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review before 2011; (2) will submit an ESP or COLA for NRC review after 2011; (3) must respond to safety issues resulting from NRC Generic Issue 199 (GI-199) for existing plants and (4) will prepare PSHAs to meet design and periodic review requirements for current and future nuclear facilities. This work replaces a previous study performed approximately 25 years ago. Since that study was completed, substantial work has been done to improve the understanding of seismic sources and their characterization in the CEUS. Thus, a new regional SSC model provides a consistent, stable basis for computing PSHA for a future time span. Use of a new SSC model reduces the risk of delays in new plant licensing due to more conservative interpretations in the existing and future literature. Perspective The purpose of this study, jointly sponsored by EPRI, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the NRC was to develop a new CEUS SSC model. The team assembled to accomplish this purpose was composed of distinguished subject matter experts from industry, government, and academia. The resulting model is unique, and because this project has solicited input from the present-day larger technical community, it is not likely that there will be a need for significant revision for a number of years. See also Sponsors Perspective for more details. The goal of this project was to implement the CEUS SSC work plan for developing a regional CEUS SSC model. The work plan, formulated by the project manager and a

  6. BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

    2007-08-26

    The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

  7. Strategic Sourcing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategic Sourcing Strategic Sourcing Energy Wide Strategic Sourcing (EWSS) DOE leadership has recognized that benefits could be achieved at the federal level through an organized, systematic and collaborative approach to acquiring commonly used goods and services. The DOE strategic sourcing program builds upon historical accomplishments as well as establishes a more cohesive and disciplined program, consistent with OMB's direction, for the conduct of DOE future strategic sourcing efforts. The

  8. Energy Sources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sources Energy Sources Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Learn more about energy from solar, wind, water, geothermal and biomass. Read more Nuclear Nuclear Learn more about how we use nuclear energy. Read more Electricity Electricity Learn more about how we use electricity as an energy source. Read more Fossil Fossil Learn more about our fossil energy sources: coal, oil and natural gas. Read more Primary energy sources take many forms, including nuclear energy, fossil energy -- like oil, coal

  9. Source Recertification, Refurbishment, and Transfer Logistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Duckworth, Leesa L.; Greenfield, Bryce A.; Doll, Stephanie R.

    2013-09-01

    The 2012 Gap Analysis of Department of Energy Radiological Sealed Sources, Standards, and Materials for Safeguards Technology Development [1] report, and the subsequent Reconciliation of Source Needs and Surpluses across the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory Complex [2] report, resulted in the identification of 33 requests for nuclear or radiological sealed sources for which there was potentially available, suitable material from within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex to fill the source need. Available, suitable material was defined by DOE laboratories as material slated for excess, or that required recertification or refurbishment before being used for safeguards technology development. This report begins by outlining the logistical considerations required for the shipment of nuclear and radiological materials between DOE laboratories. Then, because of the limited need for transfer of matching sources, the report also offers considerations for an alternative approach the shipment of safeguards equipment between DOE laboratories or technology testing centers. Finally, this report addresses repackaging needs for the two source requests for which there was available, suitable material within the DOE complex.

  10. Photon Source Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety

  11. Photon Source Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety

  12. Photon Source Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety

  13. Photon Source Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety

  14. Photon Source Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety

  15. Photon Source Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety

  16. Compact ion accelerator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2014-04-29

    An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

  17. NREL: Energy Analysis - Sustainability Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sustainability Analysis The laboratory's Sustainability Analysis looks at the environmental, life-cycle, climate, and other impacts of renewable energy technologies. Our energy choices have global implications that affect greenhouse gas emissions, water resource distribution, mineral consumption, and equipment manufacturing and transportation. The school of thought is that renewable energy technologies are more sustainable than many current sources of energy. However, we need to verify that this

  18. Degree of polarization and source counts of faint radio sources from Stacking Polarized intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stil, J. M.; George, S. J.; Keller, B. W.; Taylor, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    We present stacking polarized intensity as a means to study the polarization of sources that are too faint to be detected individually in surveys of polarized radio sources. Stacking offers not only high sensitivity to the median signal of a class of radio sources, but also avoids a detection threshold in polarized intensity, and therefore an arbitrary exclusion of sources with a low percentage of polarization. Correction for polarization bias is done through a Monte Carlo analysis and tested on a simulated survey. We show that the nonlinear relation between the real polarized signal and the detected signal requires knowledge of the shape of the distribution of fractional polarization, which we constrain using the ratio of the upper quartile to the lower quartile of the distribution of stacked polarized intensities. Stacking polarized intensity for NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) sources down to the detection limit in Stokes I, we find a gradual increase in median fractional polarization that is consistent with a trend that was noticed before for bright NVSS sources, but is much more gradual than found by previous deep surveys of radio polarization. Consequently, the polarized radio source counts derived from our stacking experiment predict fewer polarized radio sources for future surveys with the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders.

  19. Low energy spread ion source with a coaxial magnetic filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette

    2000-01-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as ion projection lithography (IPL) and radioactive ion beam production. The addition of a radially extending magnetic filter consisting of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. A coaxial multicusp ion source designed to further reduce the energy spread utilizes a cylindrical magnetic filter to achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution. The coaxial magnetic filter divides the source chamber into an outer annular discharge region in which the plasma is produced and a coaxial inner ion extraction region into which the ions radially diffuse but from which ionizing electrons are excluded. The energy spread in the coaxial source has been measured to be 0.6 eV. Unlike other ion sources, the coaxial source has the capability of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution and therefore the transverse ion temperature (or beam emittance).

  20. Independent Statistics & Analysis Drilling Productivity Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Independent Statistics & Analysis Drilling Productivity Report The seven regions analyzed in this report accounted for 92% of domestic oil production growth and all domestic natural gas production growth during 2011-14. March 2016 For key tight oil and shale gas regions U.S. Energy Information Administration Contents Year-over-year summary 2 Bakken Region 3 Eagle Ford Region 4 Haynesville Region 5 Marcellus Region 6 Niobrara Region 7 Permian Region 8 Utica Region 9 Explanatory notes 10

  1. Characteristic of a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, W.; Li, M.; Chen, L.

    2012-02-15

    In order to generate a better ion beam, a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source has been developed. Three plasma generators in the vacuum arc plasma source are equally located on a circle. Each generator initiated by means of a high-voltage breakdown between the cathode and the anode could be operated separately or simultaneously. The arc plasma expands from the cathode spot region in vacuum. In order to study the behaviors of expanding plasma plume generated in the vacuum arc plasma source, a Langmuir probe array is employed to measure the saturated ion current of the vacuum arc plasma source. The time-dependence profiles of the saturated current density of the triple vacuum arc plasma source operated separately and simultaneously are given. Furthermore, the plasma characteristic of this vacuum arc plasma source is also presented in the paper.

  2. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin [Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-1250 (United States); Connors, Alanna [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Freeman, Peter E. [Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zezas, Andreas, E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: dvd@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: aconnors@eurekabayes.co, E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed, E-mail: azezas@cfa.harvard.ed [Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2010-08-10

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper limits that applies to all detection algorithms.

  3. Regional Partnerships | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regional Partnerships Regional Partnerships DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also called carbon sequestration) in different regions and geologic formations within the Nation. Collectively, the seven RCSPs represent regions encompassing: 97 percent of coal-fired CO2 emissions; 97 percent

  4. SOURCE OF MICROBUNCHING AT BNL NSLS SOURCE DEVELOPMENT LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seletskiy, S.; Hidaka, Y.; Murphy, J.B.; Podobedov, B.; Qian, H.; Shen, Y.; Wang, J.; Yang, X.

    2011-03-28

    We report experimental studies of the origins of electron beam microbunching instability at BNL Source Development Laboratory (SDL). We eliminated laser-induced microbunching by utilizing an ultra-short photocathode laser. The measurements of the resulting electron beam led us to conclude that, at SDL, microbunching arising from shot noise is not amplified to any significant level. Our results demonstrated that the only source of microbunching instability at SDL is the longitudinal modulation of the photocathode laser pulse. Our work shows that assuring a longitudinally smoothed photocathode laser pulse allows mitigating microbunching instability at a typical FEL injector with a moderate microbunching gain. In this paper we investigated the source of microbunching instability at the SDL. To distinguish microbunching induced by shot noise from that arising from the longitudinal modulation of the photocathode laser, we studied the beam created by a very short laser pulse, thus eliminating the possibility of laser-induced microbunching. While the measured energy spectra of compressed beam did reveal severe longitudinal fragmentation, an analysis of the beam dynamics proved this to be due to self-fields acting on a beam with an initially smooth longitudinal profile, and not due to microbunching instability. Such fragmentation only was possible with the very short bunch chosen for these studies, and is absent in routine SDL operations. Our experiment shows that in the absence of the initial laser-induced beam modulation, microbunching instability at the SDL is not observed, and must be well below the levels that would limit the FEL performance. This result agrees with assumption of previous SDL studies that (when present under different machine conditions) microbunching instability at the SDL was laser-induced. Microbunching instability gain at the SDL is moderate. This is mainly because the SDL utilizes a single stage bunch compressor as well as due to the small compression ratio. Since the design of the SDL injector is typical of the majority of FEL injectors, our experiment proves that one possible way to control microbunching instability in such machines (that by design have a moderate microbunching gain) is to maintain a sufficiently smooth longitudinal profile of the photo-cathode laser. We note that the general principles for designing a machine with a moderate microbunching instability gain are presented in [12]. In conclusion, our experiment demonstrates that microbunching instability can be eliminated from a typical FEL injector with single stage bunch compressor (and operating without a laser heater) as long as the photocathode laser is longitudinally smooth. For machines with multi-stage bunch compressors, our results offer an important benchmark to establish a minimal laser heater power for instability-free operation.

  5. Advances in the Ion Source Research and Development Program at ISIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faircloth, D.C.; Thomason, J.W.G.; Sidlow, R.; Whitehead, M.O.

    2005-04-06

    This paper covers the advances in the ion source research and development Program at ISIS over the last 2 years. The work is a combination of theoretical finite element analysis calculations and experiments conducted on a purpose built development rig. The broad development goals are higher beam current with longer pulse length. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model is used here to understand the steady state and dynamic thermal behavior of the source, and to investigate the design changes necessary to offset the extra heating. Electromagnetic FEA modeling of the extraction region of the ISIS H- ion source has suggested that the present set up of extraction electrode and 90 deg. sector magnet is sub-optimal, with the result that the beam profile is asymmetric, the beam is strongly divergent in the horizontal plane and there is severe aberration in the focusing in the vertical plane. The FEA model of the beam optics has demonstrated that relatively simple changes to the system should produce a dramatic improvement in performance. The theoretical and experimental results are compared here.

  6. Energy Regional Catalyst

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Shaina Kilcoyne Energy Regional Catalyst Energy Efficiency Director Energy Efficiency Barriers  Cost of an energy audit  Lack of understanding of energy efficiency opportunities  Capacity for long-term planning  Program Gaps  Cash for energy upgrades  Owner-payer disconnect  Little energy tracking Collaboration Overcoming Barriers * Communication * Collaboration * Identify easy recommendations * Coordination * Follow Up! Photo Credits: Tim Leach Traveling Energy Efficiency

  7. Introduction: Regional Dialogue Contract Templates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction: Regional Dialogue Contract Templates October 17, 2007 1. Summary * BPA invites comments on the first draft of the Regional Dialogue Master Template by Friday,...

  8. Regions for Select Spot Prices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are used to represent the following regions: Region Gas Point Used Power Point Used New England Algonquin Citygate Massachusetts Hub (ISONE) New York City Transco Zone 6-NY...

  9. Regional solid waste management study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  10. Manhattan Project: Sources and Notes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SOURCES AND NOTES Resources > Sources Below are the collected specific notes for the text and images used on the pages of this web site. For a discussion of the most important works on the Manhattan Project, see the "Suggested Readings." For a general discussion of the use of sources in this web site, see "A Note on Sources." To scan the sources and notes for various categories, choose from the list below. To view the sources and notes for a specific web page, see the

  11. An Efficient RF Source for Jlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, M.; Dudas, A.; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Haipeng

    2013-12-01

    We propose the development of a highly reliable high efficiency RF source for JLAB with a lower lifetime cost operating at 80% efficiency with system operating costs of about 0.7M$/year for the 6 GeV machine. The design of the RF source will be based upon two injection locked magnetrons in a novel combining architecture for amplitude modulation and a cross field amplifier (CFA) as an output tube for the 12 GeV upgrade. A cost analysis including efficiency and reliability will be performed to determine the optimum system architecture. Several different system architectures will be designed and evaluated for a dual injection locked magnetron source using novel combining techniques and possibly a CFA as the output tube. A paper design for the 1497 MHz magnetron system will be completed. The optimum system architecture with all relevant specifications will be completed so that a prototype can be built.

  12. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  13. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  14. Infrared source test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, L.

    1994-11-15

    The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

  15. Fortran 90 Source Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-01-13

    A major advance contained in the new Fortran 90 language standard is the ability to define new data types and the operators associated with them. Writing computer code to implement computations with real and complex three domensional vectors and dyadics is greatly simplified if the equations can be implemented directly, without the need to code the vector arithmetic explicitly. The Fortran 90 module VECTORS contains source code which defines new data types for real andmore » complex 3-dimensional vectors and dyadics, along with the common operations needed to work with these objects. Routines to allow convenient initalization and output of the new types are also included. in keeping with the philosophy of data abstraction, the details of the implementation of the data types are maintained private, and the functions and operators are made generic to simplify the combining of real, complex, single and double precision vectors and dyadics.« less

  16. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHP (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-04-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first 18-months of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (fifth and sixth project quarters) of the project (October 1, 2004-March 31, 2005) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, no changes occurred during the fifth or sixth quarters of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, refinements have been made to the general mapping and screening of sources and sinks. Integration and geographical information systems (GIS) mapping is ongoing. Characterization during this period was focused on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB continues to expand upon its assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has used results of a survey and focus group meeting to refine approaches that are being taken to educate and involve the public. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB has evaluated findings from work performed during the first 18-months. The focus of the project team has shifted from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team is developing an integrated approach to implementing the most promising opportunities and in setting up measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) programs for the most promising opportunities. Milestones completed during the fifth and sixth project quarters included: (1) Q1-FY05--Assess safety, regulatory and permitting issues; and (2) Q2-FY05--Finalize inventory of major sources/sinks and refine GIS algorithms.

  17. Structural analysis of a novel rabbit monoclonal antibody R53 targeting an epitope in HIV-1 gp120 C4 region critical for receptor and co-receptor binding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Ruimin; Chen, Yuxin; Vaine, Michael; Hu, Guangnan; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan; Kong, Xiang -Peng

    2015-07-15

    The fourth conserved region (C4) in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 is a structural element that is important for its function, as it binds to both the receptor CD4 and the co-receptor CCR5/CXCR4. It has long been known that this region is highly immunogenic and that it harbors B-cell as well as T-cell epitopes. It is the target of a number of antibodies in animal studies, which are called CD4-blockers. However, the mechanism by which the virus shields itself from such antibody responses is not known. Here, we determined the crystal structure of R53 in complex with its epitope peptide using a novel anti-C4 rabbit monoclonal antibody R53. Our data show that although the epitope of R53 covers a highly conserved sequence 433AMYAPPI439, it is not available in the gp120 trimer and in the CD4-bound conformation. Our results suggest a masking mechanism to explain how HIV-1 protects this critical region from the human immune system.

  18. Structural analysis of a novel rabbit monoclonal antibody R53 targeting an epitope in HIV-1 gp120 C4 region critical for receptor and co-receptor binding

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pan, Ruimin; Chen, Yuxin; Vaine, Michael; Hu, Guangnan; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan; Kong, Xiang -Peng

    2015-07-15

    The fourth conserved region (C4) in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 is a structural element that is important for its function, as it binds to both the receptor CD4 and the co-receptor CCR5/CXCR4. It has long been known that this region is highly immunogenic and that it harbors B-cell as well as T-cell epitopes. It is the target of a number of antibodies in animal studies, which are called CD4-blockers. However, the mechanism by which the virus shields itself from such antibody responses is not known. Here, we determined the crystal structure of R53 in complex with its epitopemore » peptide using a novel anti-C4 rabbit monoclonal antibody R53. Our data show that although the epitope of R53 covers a highly conserved sequence 433AMYAPPI439, it is not available in the gp120 trimer and in the CD4-bound conformation. Our results suggest a masking mechanism to explain how HIV-1 protects this critical region from the human immune system.« less

  19. Four Corners methane hotspot points to coal-related sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane hotspot points to coal-related sources Four Corners methane hotspot points to coal-related sources Methane is very efficient at trapping heat in the atmosphere and, like carbon dioxide, it contributes to global warming. October 14, 2014 Los Alamos National Laboratory measurement instruments were placed in the field for analysis of Four Corners area power plant emissions. Los Alamos National Laboratory measurement instruments were placed in the field for analysis of Four Corners area

  20. Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mitchell, John; Gibson, Murray; Young, Linda; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-04-19

    Upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by Department Of Energy. Read more: http://go.usa.gov/ivZ

  1. Regional Energy Planning

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regional Energy Planning Photo by: Cassandra Cerny, GVEA Jed Drolet, Energy Information Analyst BIA Providers Conference December 3, 2015 Alaska Energy Authority: Mission "To Reduce the Cost of Energy in Alaska"  AEA is an independent and public corporation of the State of Alaska  Created by the Alaska Legislature in 1976  44.83.070: " The purpose of the Authority is to promote, develop, and advance the general prosperity and economic welfare of the people of the state by

  2. Electrode configuration for extreme-UV electrical discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spence, Paul Andrew (Pleasanton, CA); Fornaciari, Neal Robert (Tracey, CA); Chang, Jim Jihchyun (San Ramon, CA)

    2002-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that debris generation within an electric capillary discharge source, for generating extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray, is dependent on the magnitude and profile of the electric field that is established along the surfaces of the electrodes. An electrode shape that results in uniform electric field strength along its surface has been developed to minimize sputtering and debris generation. The electric discharge plasma source includes: (a) a body that defines a circular capillary bore that has a proximal end and a distal end; (b) a back electrode positioned around and adjacent to the distal end of the capillary bore wherein the back electrode has a channel that is in communication with the distal end and that is defined by a non-uniform inner surface which exhibits a first region which is convex, a second region which is concave, and a third region which is convex wherein the regions are viewed outwardly from the inner surface of the channel that is adjacent the distal end of the capillary bore so that the first region is closest to the distal end; (c) a front electrode positioned around and adjacent to the proximal end of the capillary bore wherein the front electrode has an opening that is communication with the proximal end and that is defined by a non-uniform inner surface which exhibits a first region which is convex, a second region which is substantially linear, and third region which is convex wherein the regions are viewed outwardly from the inner surface of the opening that is adjacent the proximal end of the capillary bore so that the first region is closest to the proximal end; and (d) a source of electric potential that is connected across the front and back electrodes.

  3. Analysis of a Nuclear Accident: Fission and Activation Product Releases from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Facility as Remote Indicators of Source Identification, Extent of Release, and State of Damaged Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Clark, Richard A.

    2012-09-10

    Measurements of several radionuclides within environmental samples taken from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility and reported on the Tokyo Electric Power Company website following the recent tsunami-initiated catastrophe were evaluated for the purpose of identifying the source term, reconstructing the release mechanisms, and estimating the extent of the release. 136Cs/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs ratios identified Units 1-3 as the major source of radioactive contamination to the surface soil close to the facility. A trend was observed between the fraction of the total core inventory released for a number of fission product isotopes and their corresponding Gibbs Free Energy of formation for the primary oxide form of the isotope, suggesting that release was dictated primarily by chemical volatility driven by temperature and reduction potential within the primary containment vessels of the vented reactors. The absence of any major fractionation beyond volatilization suggested all coolant had evaporated by the time of venting. High estimates for the fraction of the total inventory released of more volatile species (Te, Cs, I) indicated the damage to fuel bundles was likely extensive, minimizing any potential containment due to physical migration of these species through the fuel matrix and across the cladding wall. 238Pu/239,240Pu ratios close-in and at 30 km from the facility indicated that the damaged reactors were the major contributor of Pu to surface soil at the source but that this contribution likely decreased rapidly with distance from the facility. The fraction of the total Pu inventory released to the environment from venting units 1 and 3 was estimated to be ~0.003% based upon Pu/Cs isotope ratios relative to the within-reactor modeled inventory prior to venting and was consistent with an independent model evaluation that considered chemical volatility based upon measured fission product release trends. Significant volatile radionuclides within the spent fuel at the time of venting but not as yet observed and reported within environmental samples are suggested as potential analytes of concern for future environmental surveys around the site.

  4. Colorado Regional Faults

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  5. Existing climate data sources and Their Use in Heat IslandResearch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Pon, Brian; Smith, Craig Kenton; Stamper-Kurn, Dan Moses

    1998-10-01

    Existing climate data sources can be used in two general types of analysis for the detection of urban heat islands. Historical analyses use long-term data records-preferentially from several locations in and around an urban area-to trace the gradual influence of urban development on its climate. Primary sources of such data include the cooperative network, first-order National Weather Service stations, and military weather stations. Analyses of short-term data use information from a dense urban weather station network to discern the location, extent, and magnitude of urban heat islands. Such analyses may use the aforementioned national networks or regional networks such as agricultural, air quality monitoring, or utility networks. We demonstrate the use of existing data sources with a historical analysis of temperature trends in Los Angeles, California, and an analysis of short-term data of the urban temperature profile for Phoenix, Arizona. The Los Angeles climate was examined with eleven long-term data records from the cooperative network. Statistically significant trends of rising temperature were detected at Los Angeles Civic Center and other stations over some parts of the year, although timing of the increase varied from station to station. Observed increases in temperatures maybe due to long-term climate changes, microclimate influences, or local-scale heat islands. The analysis of short-term data was made for Phoenix using the PRISMS station network. Mean diurnal temperature profiles for a month were examined and compared with those for adjacent rural areas. Data fi-om stations in the center of Phoenix showed clear and significant nighttime and daytime temperature differences of 1- 2K (3 - 4"F). These temperature increases maybe attributable to a local-scale heat island.

  6. lightsource_data_challenge-analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Source Data Analysis & Simulation: The Data Challenge Alexander Hexemer (ALS), Xiaoye Li (CRD), Stefano Marchesini (ALS), Dilworth Parkinson (ALS), Nobumichi Tamura (ALS), Craig E. Tull (CRD) Advanced Light Source, LBNL; Computing Research Division, LBNL BES facilities (Light Sources and Neutron Sources) serve ~10,000 researchers per year. Recent improvements in detector speed and light source luminosity are yielding unprecedented data rates which exceed the capabilities of most data

  7. Multiwavelength study of the northeastern outskirts of the extended TeV source HESS J1809193

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangelov, Blagoy; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Hare, Jeremy; Volkov, Igor; Posselt, Bettina; Pavlov, George G.

    2014-11-20

    HESS J1809193 is an extended TeV ?-ray source in the Galactic plane. Multiwavelength observations of the HESS J1809193 field reveal a complex picture. We present results from three Chandra X-Ray Observatory and two Suzaku observations of a region in the northeastern outskirts of HESS J1809-193, where enhanced TeV emission has been reported. Our analysis also includes GeV ?-ray and radio data. One of the X-ray sources in the field is the X-ray binary XTE J1810-189, for which we present the outburst history from multiple observatories and confirm that XTE J1810-189 is a strongly variable type I X-ray burster, which can hardly produce TeV emission. We investigate whether there is any connection between the possible TeV extension of HESS J1809193 and the sources seen at lower energies. We find that another X-ray binary candidate, Suzaku J1811-1900, and a radio supernova remnant, SNR G11.40.1, can hardly be responsible for the putative TeV emission. Our multiwavelength classification of fainter X-ray point sources also does not produce a plausible candidate. We conclude that the northeast extension of HESS J1809193, if confirmed by deeper observations, can be considered a dark acceleratora TeV source without a visible counterpart at lower energies.

  8. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathryn A. Baskin

    2004-03-31

    Work during the first six months of the project mainly concentrated on contracts execution and collection of data to characterize the region and input of that data into the geographical information system (GIS) system. Data was collected for source characterization, transportation options and terrestrial options. In addition, discussions were held to determine the extent of the geologic information that would be needed for the project. In addition, activities associated with the regulatory, permitting and safety issues were completed. Outreach activities are in the formative stages.

  9. Strengthening regional safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980`s and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States.

  10. Coal-Producing Region

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Coal Production by State (thousand short tons) Year to Date Coal-Producing Region and State July - September 2015 April - June 2015 July - September 2014 2015 2014 Percent Change Alabama 3,192 3,504 4,331 10,718 12,345 -13.2 Alaska 255 345 372 866 1,178 -26.5 Arizona 1,762 1,912 2,165 5,429 5,979 -9.2 Arkansas 26 27 18 74 58 27.4 Colorado 5,123 5,078 6,574 15,464 18,367 -15.8 Illinois 13,967 13,360 14,816 44,105 42,575 3.6 Indiana 9,124 8,577 9,805 27,164 29,328 -7.4 Kansas 42 49 5 144 16 NM

  11. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam

  12. EIS-0380-SA-02: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supplement Analysis EIS-0380-SA-02: Supplement Analysis Transport and Storage of High-Activity Sealed Sources From Uruguay and Other Locations This supplement analysis (SA) was...

  13. REGIONAL PARTNERSHIPSThe Pioneer Regional Partnerships are early-stage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REGIONAL PARTNERSHIPSThe Pioneer Regional Partnerships are early-stage public/private collaborative projects that address specific near-term grid modernization issues important to the identified region and its stakeholders. The Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) has initiated 11 proposed partnerships to accomplish the following:Address a key state/regional grid modernization challenge that is visible and important to local industry and government stakeholders.Engage collaboration

  14. Microwave Ion Source and Beam Injection for an Accelerator-drivenNeutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainionpaa, J.H.; Gough, R.; Hoff, M.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt,B.A.; Regis, M.J.; Wallig, J.G.; Wells, R.

    2007-02-15

    An over-dense microwave driven ion source capable ofproducing deuterium (or hydrogen) beams at 100-200 mA/cm2 and with atomicfraction>90 percent was designed and tested with an electrostaticlow energy beam transport section (LEBT). This ion source wasincorporatedinto the design of an Accelerator Driven Neutron Source(ADNS). The other key components in the ADNS include a 6 MeV RFQaccelerator, a beam bending and scanning system, and a deuterium gastarget. In this design a 40 mA D+ beam is produced from a 6 mm diameteraperture using a 60 kV extraction voltage. The LEBT section consists of 5electrodes arranged to form 2 Einzel lenses that focus the beam into theRFQ entrance. To create the ECR condition, 2 induction coils are used tocreate ~; 875 Gauss on axis inside the source chamber. To prevent HVbreakdown in the LEBT a magnetic field clamp is necessary to minimize thefield in this region. Matching of the microwave power from the waveguideto the plasma is done by an autotuner. We observed significantimprovement of the beam quality after installing a boron nitride linerinside the ion source. The measured emittance data are compared withPBGUNS simulations.

  15. Biogenic sulfur source strengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.; Bamesberger, W.L.

    1981-12-01

    Conclusions are presented from a 4-yr field measurement study of biogenic sulfur gas emissions from soils, and some water and vegetated surfaces, at 35 locales in the eastern and southeastern United States. More than one soil order was examined whenever possible to increase the data base obtained from the 11 major soil orders comprising the study area. Data analysis and emission model development were based upon an (80 x 80)-km/sup 2/ grid system. The measured sulfur fluxes, adjusted for the annual mean temperature for each sampling locale, weigted by the percentage of each soil order within each grid, and averaged for each of the east-west grid tiers from 47/sup 0/N to 25/sup 0/N latitude, showed an exponential north-to-south increase in total sulfur gas flux. Our model predits an additional increase of nearly 25-fold in sulfur flux between 25/sup 0/N and the equator.

  16. The SIAM Photon Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pairsuwan, Weerapong

    2007-01-19

    A short history of the SIAM Photon Source in Thailand is described. The facility is based on the 1 GeV storage ring obtained from the SORTEC consortium in Japan. After a redesign to include insertion straight sections it produced the first light in December 2001 and the first beam line became operational in early 2002. Special difficulties appear when a synchrotron light facility is obtained by donation, which have mostly to do with the absence of human resource development that elsewhere is commonly accomplished during design and construction. Additional problems arise by the distance of a developing country like Thailand from the origin of technical parts of the donation. A donation does not provide time to generate local capabilities or include in the technical design locally obtainable parts. This makes future developments, repairs and maintenance more time consuming, difficult and expensive than it should be. In other cases, parts of components are proprietary or obsolete or both which requires redesign and engineering at a time when the replacement part should be available to prevent stoppage of operation.The build-up of a user community is very difficult, especially when the radiation spectrum is confined to the VUV regime. Most of scientific interest these days is focused on the x-ray regime. Due to its low beam energy, the SIAM storage ring did not produce useful x-ray intensities and we are therefore in the midst of an upgrade to produce harder radiation. The first step has been achieved with a 20% increase of energy to 1.2 GeV. This step shifts the critical photon energy of bending magnet radiation from 800 eV to 1.4 keV providing useful radiation up to 7 keV. A XAS-beam line has been completed in 2005 and experimentation is very active by now. The next step is to install a 6.4 T wavelength shifter by the end of 2006 resulting in a critical photon energy of 6.15 keV. Further upgrades are planed for the comming years.

  17. Constricted glow discharge plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Dickinson, Michael (San Leandro, CA); Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Winnetka, IL)

    2000-01-01

    A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

  18. Sourcing Capabilities | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home > GE Global Research Sourcing External Document & Process Repository > Sourcing Capabilities Sourcing Capabilities The General Electric Company is strongly committed to meet the principles of Public Laws, Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARs), and specific cognizant Government Agency FAR supplemental regulations, and directs that business practices and procedures conform to these Federal laws and regulations. It is the policy of GE Global Research to encourage participation in

  19. Video Library | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Archives APS Brochure Annual Reports Posters Podcasts Image Gallery external site Video Library Syndicated Feeds (RSS) Now Playing: The Advanced Photon Source More videos:...

  20. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  1. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  2. Media Center | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    distributed to all APS users and others interested in the APS. Research Highlights Books Articles on Advanced Photon Source research and engineering highlights that are written...

  3. APS Science | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science APS Science features articles on Advanced Photon Source research and engineering highlights that are written for the interested public as well as the synchrotron x-ray,...

  4. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.H.; Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M.; Peretz, F.J.

    1991-02-01

    This report discusses the research and development, design and safety of the Advanced Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (LSP)

  5. Video Library | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Video Library Related Links: APS Colloquium APS Podcasts APS Today More videos: Introduction to the APS Physics of the Blues Now Playing: Building the Advanced Photon Source This...

  6. Semiconductor light source with electrically tunable emission wavelength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belenky, Gregory (Port Jefferson, NY); Bruno, John D. (Bowie, MD); Kisin, Mikhail V. (Centereach, NY); Luryi, Serge (Setauket, NY); Shterengas, Leon (Centereach, NY); Suchalkin, Sergey (Centereach, NY); Tober, Richard L. (Elkridge, MD)

    2011-01-25

    A semiconductor light source comprises a substrate, lower and upper claddings, a waveguide region with imbedded active area, and electrical contacts to provide voltage necessary for the wavelength tuning. The active region includes single or several heterojunction periods sandwiched between charge accumulation layers. Each of the active region periods comprises higher and lower affinity semiconductor layers with type-II band alignment. The charge carrier accumulation in the charge accumulation layers results in electric field build-up and leads to the formation of generally triangular electron and hole potential wells in the higher and lower affinity layers. Nonequillibrium carriers can be created in the active region by means of electrical injection or optical pumping. The ground state energy in the triangular wells and the radiation wavelength can be tuned by changing the voltage drop across the active region.

  7. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1979-10-25

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the ions as they are extracted from the ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the ions to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage energy while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply energy. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative ions from a negative ion source beam at < 4% of full energy.

  8. The 17 GHz active region number

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A.; Costa, J. E. R.; Gimnez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A.; Shibasaki, K.

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  9. Hollow electrode plasma excitation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballou, N.E.

    1992-04-14

    A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

  10. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    White, William E.; Robert, Aymeric; Dunne, Mike

    2015-05-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was the first hard X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) to operate as a user facility. After five years of operation, LCLS is now a mature FEL user facility. Our personal views about opportunities and challenges inherent to these unique light sources are discussed.

  11. Techno-Economic Modeling, Analysis, and Support

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory PV Regional ... Facility Geomechanics and Drilling Labs National ... of energy analysis, and offshore component and ...

  12. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Qian, Y.; Rasch, P. J.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. -L.; Singh, B.; Huang, J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-01-07

    Black carbon (BC) particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source–receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fatemore » of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation of the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source–receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on seasons and the locations in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in Himalayas and Central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to Northeast Plateau in all seasons and Southeast Plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching Northwest Plateau, especially in the summer. Although local emissions only contribute about 10% to BC in the HTP, this contribution is extremely sensitive to local emission changes. Lastly, we show that the annual mean radiative forcing (0.42 W m-2) due to BC in snow outweighs the BC dimming effect (-0.3 W m-2) at the surface over the HTP. We also find strong seasonal and spatial variation with a peak value of 5 W m-2 in the spring over Northwest Plateau. Such a large forcing of BC in snow is sufficient to cause earlier snow melting and potentially contribute to the acceleration of glacier retreat.« less

  13. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition, and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Qian, Y.; Rasch, P. J.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. -L.; Singh, B.; Huang, J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-06-08

    Black carbon (BC) particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source–receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source-tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate ofmore » BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation in the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source–receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on season and location in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer, when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in the Himalayas and central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to the northeast plateau in all seasons and southeast plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching the northwest plateau, especially in the summer. Although local emissions only contribute about 10% of BC in the HTP, this contribution is extremely sensitive to local emission changes. Lastly, we show that the annual mean radiative forcing (0.42 W m-2) due to BC in snow outweighs the BC dimming effect (-0.3 W m-2) at the surface over the HTP. We also find strong seasonal and spatial variation with a peak value of 5 W m-2 in the spring over the northwest plateau. Such a large forcing of BC in snow is sufficient to cause earlier snow melting and potentially contribute to the acceleration of glacier retreat.« less

  14. The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James J. Dooley; Robert Dahowski; Casie Davidson

    2005-12-01

    This final report summarizes the Phase I research conducted by the Midwest regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The Phase I effort began in October 2003 and the project period ended on September 31, 2005. The MRCSP is a public/private partnership led by Battelle with the mission of identifying the technical, economic, and social issues associated with implementation of carbon sequestration technologies in its seven state geographic region (Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) and identifying viable pathways for their deployment. It is one of seven partnerships that together span most of the U.S. and parts of Canada that comprise the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Regional Carbon Sequestration Program led by DOE's national Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The MRCSP Phase I research was carried out under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41981. The total value of Phase I was $3,513,513 of which the DOE share was $2,410,967 or 68.62%. The remainder of the cost share was provided in varying amounts by the rest of the 38 members of MRCSP's Phase I project. The next largest cost sharing participant to DOE in Phase I was the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority (OCDO). OCDO's contribution was $100,000 and was contributed under Grant Agreement No. CDO/D-02-17. In this report, the MRCSP's research shows that the seven state MRCSP region is a major contributor to the U. S. economy and also to total emissions of CO2, the most significant of the greenhouse gases thought to contribute to global climate change. But, the research has also shown that the region has substantial resources for sequestering carbon, both in deep geological reservoirs (geological sequestration) and through improved agricultural and land management practices (terrestrial sequestration). Geological reservoirs, especially deep saline reservoirs, offer the potential to permanently store CO2 for literally 100s of years even if all the CO2 emissions from the region's large point sources were stored there, an unlikely scenario under any set of national carbon emission mitigation strategies. The terrestrial sequestration opportunities in the region have the biophysical potential to sequester up to 20% of annual emissions from the region's large point sources of CO2. This report describes the assumptions made and methods employed to arrive at the results leading to these conclusions. It also describes the results of analyses of regulatory issues in the region affecting the potential for deployment of sequestration technologies. Finally, it describes the public outreach and education efforts carried out in Phase I including the creation of a web site dedicated to the MRCSP at www.mrcsp.org.

  15. Management of Disused Sealed Sources in Hungary - 13077

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapitany, Sandor

    2013-07-01

    Since 1976 the spent and disused radioactive sources arisen in Hungary are stored in a central storage facility called Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility operated by Public Limited Company for Radioactive Waste Management. The Facility is responsible for the record keeping, the waste acceptance procedure, the shipment and the storage or disposal (whether a certain source meets the waste acceptance criteria for disposal or not) of sources. Based on the more than 35 year old operation of the facility many experiences have been gathered regarding the technology for long-term storage of sources, the attitude of the users of sources, the evolution of the legislation and the national record keeping system. Recently a new legislation for the security of radioactive materials (including sources) was introduced, first in Central-Europe. It requires special security arrangements from the facility for transport and for storage. Due to the ongoing retrieval of radioactive waste formerly disposed of, partly containing sealed sources, there is a new challenge in the physical inventory control of historical waste. The paper would show the effect of the changes in the legislation system of record keeping or security on the users' attitude for discard of sources and on the management of the sources in the facility. The facility has a unique storage technology (shallow boreholes) in the narrow region. The sealed sources are placed into vertical pipes sunk into the surface. In the beginning, each of the sources were dropped into the pipe directly, recently they are placed in a metal tube first ensuring the retrieval. The lessons learned will be presented. There were several issues to introduce the new security arrangements (partly financially supported by US DOE) for storage and for transportation of sealed sources. These issues are addressed. In the past part of the sealed sources were disposed together with solid radioactive waste packaged in plastic bags. A waste retrieval campaign was fulfilled in 2008 to retrieve the sealed sources. The paper demonstrates the conditions of sealed sources after twenty-year disposal period. As a summary, the paper will share the main experiences of a 35-year old facility, managing radioactive sealed sources in Central Europe. (authors)

  16. Risk assessment based on point source deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chadwick, G.F.

    1997-12-31

    The International Joint Commission (IJC) in a recently published report states that various clean-up techniques have resulted in significantly cleaner lakes than 20 years ago. Both the US EPA and Environment Canada have passed laws that require emissions controls on significant sources of contaminants. Improved emission controls have played a large part in the reduced pollution levels to the Great Lakes. Improved controls have significantly reduced the pollutants deposited to both land and water. This paper will discuss a Risk Analysis for the emissions from a Hospital in Rochester, New York. Current New York Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) regulations require emission controls on such incinerators. This hospital has added both a scrubber and a bag house to control emissions. Twenty years ago, such incinerators, like many other emission sources would not have had control devices. New York`s Department of Environmental Conservation requires, as part of the Permitting process, that an Impact Analysis and if required, a multipathway Health Risk Assessment (HRA) be performed for all Medical Waste Incinerators before a Permit can be issued. This insures that the emissions will not create a health hazard to humans. Such an analysis was performed for a new 1,000 lb/hr Medical Waste Incinerator (MWI) installed in the North-East part of Rochester, New York. An Air Quality Impact Assessment (AQIA) based on an actual stack test indicated that this facility`s dioxin emissions would exceed the NY DEC Guideline levels. The Carcinogenic Risk (of death) for our most exposed individual (MEI) was calculated to be 8.75 E{sup {minus}06} (<1:100,000). The Hazard Index calculated for this MEI was 0.43. Hazard Index`s less then 1 are considered a reasonable risk. Health risk assessments are by design, very conservative. EPA sources have concluded that calculated death risks between one (1) and one hundred (100) per million are not excessive.

  17. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes: Part I. Comprehensive model evaluation and trend analysis for 2006 and 2011

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-08-18

    Online-coupled climate and chemistry models are necessary to realistically represent the interactions between climate variables and chemical species and accurately simulate aerosol direct and indirect effects on cloud, precipitation, and radiation. In this Part I of a two-part paper, simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the physics package of Community Atmosphere Model (WRF-CAM5) are conducted with the default heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization over East Asia for two full years: 2006 and 2011. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed using satellite and surface observations. The model shows an overall acceptable performance for major meteorological variables at themore » surface and in the boundary layer, as well as column variables (e.g., precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitating water vapor, downward longwave and shortwave radiation). Moderate to large biases exist for cloud condensation nuclei over oceanic areas, cloud variables (e.g., cloud droplet number concentration, cloud liquid and ice water paths, cloud optical depth, longwave and shortwave cloud forcing). These biases indicate a need to improve the model treatments for cloud processes, especially cloud droplets and ice nucleation, as well as to reduce uncertainty in the satellite retrievals. The model simulates well the column abundances of chemical species except for column SO2 but relatively poor for surface concentrations of several species such as CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, and PM10. Several reasons could contribute to the underestimation of major chemical species in East Asia including underestimations of anthropogenic emissions and natural dust emissions, uncertainties in the spatial and vertical distributions of the anthropogenic emissions, as well as biases in meteorological, radiative, and cloud predictions. Despite moderate to large biases in the chemical predictions, the model performance is generally consistent with or even better than that reported for East Asia with only a few exceptions. The model generally reproduces the observed seasonal variations and the difference between 2006 and 2011 for most variables or chemical species. Overall, these results demonstrate promising skills of WRF-CAM5 for long-term simulations at a regional scale and suggest several areas of potential improvements.« less

  18. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes: Part I. Comprehensive model evaluation and trend analysis for 2006 and 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-08-18

    Online-coupled climate and chemistry models are necessary to realistically represent the interactions between climate variables and chemical species and accurately simulate aerosol direct and indirect effects on cloud, precipitation, and radiation. In this Part I of a two-part paper, simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the physics package of Community Atmosphere Model (WRF-CAM5) are conducted with the default heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization over East Asia for two full years: 2006 and 2011. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed using satellite and surface observations. The model shows an overall acceptable performance for major meteorological variables at the surface and in the boundary layer, as well as column variables (e.g., precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitating water vapor, downward longwave and shortwave radiation). Moderate to large biases exist for cloud condensation nuclei over oceanic areas, cloud variables (e.g., cloud droplet number concentration, cloud liquid and ice water paths, cloud optical depth, longwave and shortwave cloud forcing). These biases indicate a need to improve the model treatments for cloud processes, especially cloud droplets and ice nucleation, as well as to reduce uncertainty in the satellite retrievals. The model simulates well the column abundances of chemical species except for column SO2 but relatively poor for surface concentrations of several species such as CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, and PM10. Several reasons could contribute to the underestimation of major chemical species in East Asia including underestimations of anthropogenic emissions and natural dust emissions, uncertainties in the spatial and vertical distributions of the anthropogenic emissions, as well as biases in meteorological, radiative, and cloud predictions. Despite moderate to large biases in the chemical predictions, the model performance is generally consistent with or even better than that reported for East Asia with only a few exceptions. The model generally reproduces the observed seasonal variations and the difference between 2006 and 2011 for most variables or chemical species. Overall, these results demonstrate promising skills of WRF-CAM5 for long-term simulations at a regional scale and suggest several areas of potential improvements.

  19. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-09-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is a diverse partnership covering eleven states involving the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) an interstate compact; regulatory agencies and/or geological surveys from member states; the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); academic institutions; a Native American enterprise; and multiple entities from the private sector. Figure 1 shows the team structure for the partnership. In addition to the Technical Team, the Technology Coalition, an alliance of auxiliary participants, in the project lends yet more strength and support to the project. The Technology Coalition, with its diverse representation of various sectors, is integral to the technical information transfer, outreach, and public perception activities of the partnership. The Technology Coalition members, shown in Figure 2, also provide a breadth of knowledge and capabilities in the multiplicity of technologies needed to assure a successful outcome to the project and serve as an extremely important asset to the partnership. The eleven states comprising the multi-state region are: Alabama; Arkansas; Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Mississippi; North Carolina; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; and Virginia. The states making up the SECARB area are illustrated in Figure 3. The primary objectives of the SECARB project include: (1) Supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program by promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. This requires the development of relevant data to reduce the uncertainties and risks that are barriers to sequestration, especially for geologic storage in the SECARB region. Information and knowledge are the keys to establishing a regional carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage industry with public acceptance. (2) Supporting the President's Global Climate Change Initiative with the goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by 2012. A corollary to the first objective, this objective requires the development of a broad awareness across government, industry, and the general public of sequestration issues and establishment of the technological and legal frameworks necessary to achieve the President's goal. The information developed by the SECARB team will play a vital role in achieving the President's goal for the southeastern region of the United States. (3) Evaluating options and potential opportunities for regional CO{sub 2} sequestration. This requires characterization of the region regarding the presence and location of sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), primarily CO{sub 2}, the presence and location of potential carbon sinks and geological parameters, geographical features and environmental concerns, demographics, state and interstate regulations, and existing infrastructure.

  20. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2004-09-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first year of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (third and fourth quarter) of the project (April 1--September 30, 2004) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, Texas and Virginia were added during the second quarter of the project and no geographical changes occurred during the third or fourth quarter of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, general mapping and screening of sources and sinks has been completed, with integration and Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping ongoing. The first step focused on the macro level characterization of the region. Subsequent characterization will focus on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB has completed a preliminary assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has conducted a survey and focus group meeting to gain insight into approaches that will be taken to educate and involve the public. Task 5.0 and 6.0 will be implemented beginning October 1, 2004. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB will evaluate findings from work performed during the first year and shift the focus of the project team from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team will develop an integrated approach to implementing and setting up measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) programs for the most promising opportunities. During this semiannual period special attention was provided to Texas and Virginia, which were added to the SECARB region, to ensure a smooth integration of activities with the other 9 states. Milestones completed and submitted during the third and fourth quarter included: Q3-FY04--Complete initial development of plans for GIS; and Q4-FYO4--Complete preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues.

  1. Diversity employment and recruitment sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

  2. International Data on Radiological Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Finck; Margaret Goldberg

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The mission of radiological dispersal device (RDD) nuclear forensics is to identify the provenance of nuclear and radiological materials used in RDDs and to aid law enforcement in tracking nuclear materials and routes. The application of databases to radiological forensics is to match RDD source material to a source model in the database, provide guidance regarding a possible second device, and aid the FBI by providing a short list of manufacturers and distributors, and ultimately to the last legal owner of the source. The Argonne/Idaho National Laboratory RDD attribution database is a powerful technical tool in radiological forensics. The database (1267 unique vendors) includes all sealed sources and a device registered in the U.S., is complemented by data from the IAEA Catalogue, and is supported by rigorous in-lab characterization of selected sealed sources regarding physical form, radiochemical composition, and age-dating profiles. Close working relationships with global partners in the commercial sealed sources industry provide invaluable technical information and expertise in the development of signature profiles. These profiles are critical to the down-selection of potential candidates in either pre- or post- event RDD attribution. The down-selection process includes a match between an interdicted (or detonated) source and a model in the database linked to one or more manufacturers and distributors.

  3. Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control Technologies Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control Technologies 2005 Diesel Engine...

  4. Focused ion beam source method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Lykke, Keith R. (Gaithersburg, MD); Lill, Thorsten B. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

  5. Protection #1: Remove the Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Remove the Source Protection #1: Remove the Source The 3 Protections = Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Waste being removed from MDA-B inside a metal building Excavation of waste from MDA-B thumbnail of Removing the source means excavating contaminants, sorting these by waste type, and transporting to a disposal area in which contaminants are contained. RELATED IMAGES http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7388/9571274521_679fe1e34a_t.jpg Enlarge http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3726/9571272211_6873a571

  6. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

    1983-11-10

    It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

  7. FY08 LDRD Final Report Regional Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bader, D C; Chin, H; Caldwell, P M

    2009-05-19

    An integrated, multi-model capability for regional climate change simulation is needed to perform original analyses to understand and prepare for the impacts of climate change on the time and space scales that are critical to California's future environmental quality and economic prosperity. Our intent was to develop a very high resolution regional simulation capability to address consequences of climate change in California to complement the global modeling capability that is supported by DOE at LLNL and other institutions to inform national and international energy policies. The California state government, through the California Energy Commission (CEC), institutionalized the State's climate change assessment process through its biennial climate change reports. The bases for these reports, however, are global climate change simulations for future scenarios designed to inform international policy negotiations, and are primarily focused on the global to continental scale impacts of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. These simulations do not meet the needs of California public and private officials who will make major decisions in the next decade that require an understanding of climate change in California for the next thirty to fifty years and its effects on energy use, water utilization, air quality, agriculture and natural ecosystems. With the additional development of regional dynamical climate modeling capability, LLNL will be able to design and execute global simulations specifically for scenarios important to the state, then use those results to drive regional simulations of the impacts of the simulated climate change for regions as small as individual cities or watersheds. Through this project, we systematically studied the strengths and weaknesses of downscaling global model results with a regional mesoscale model to guide others, particularly university researchers, who are using the technique based on models with less complete parameterizations or coarser spatial resolution. Further, LLNL has now built a capability in state-of-the-science mesoscale climate modeling that complements that which it has in global climate simulation, providing potential sponsors with an end-to-end simulation and analysis program.

  8. Regional Networks for Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Sustainability Peer Exchange Call: Regional Networks for Energy Efficiency, call slides and discussion summary, December 6, 2012.

  9. An integrated computer modeling environment for regional land use, air quality, and transportation planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanley, C.J.; Marshall, N.L.

    1997-04-01

    The Land Use, Air Quality, and Transportation Integrated Modeling Environment (LATIME) represents an integrated approach to computer modeling and simulation of land use allocation, travel demand, and mobile source emissions for the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area. This environment provides predictive capability combined with a graphical and geographical interface. The graphical interface shows the causal relationships between data and policy scenarios and supports alternative model formulations. Scenarios are launched from within a Geographic Information System (GIS), and data produced by each model component at each time step within a simulation is stored in the GIS. A menu-driven query system is utilized to review link-based results and regional and area-wide results. These results can also be compared across time or between alternative land use scenarios. Using this environment, policies can be developed and implemented based on comparative analysis, rather than on single-step future projections. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. APS Podcasts | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Art Preservation and Connoisseurship August 14, 2007; mp3 - 1.88MB Franceska Casadio, Art Institute of Chicago: November 3, 2004 The Advanced Photon Source (videomp4) August...

  11. Next Generation Light Source Workshops

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Generation Light Source Workshops A series of workshops will be held in late August with the goal of refining the scientific drivers for the facility and translating the...

  12. Sponsored E-Source Membership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Programs Service (EDRP) With EDRP, you'll discover ways to make your EE and demand-response programs more effective. With E Source EDRP you can: Identify attributes...

  13. Magnetic Materials | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Internal Magnetic Materials The Magnetic Material Group (MMG) is part of the X-ray Science Division (XSD) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Our research focuses on the...

  14. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan (10516 Royal Birkdale, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Ingersoll, David (5824 Mimosa Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  15. E Source | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    use and provision of energy. Who Is E Source? Whether you're an electric or natural gas utility or a large business customer served by a utility, your problems are probably...

  16. Storage Ring Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    srlogot.gif (19784 bytes) As of March 1, 2005 this WEB page is no longer updated. For future information about light sources go to Hyperlinks in the "RING (INST. )" column will...

  17. Small plasma focus as neutron pulsed source for nuclides identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milanese, M.; Moroso, R.; Barbaglia, M.; Universidad del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires , Pinto 399, Tandil 7000, Buenos Aires ; Niedbalski, J.; Mayer, R.; Castillo, F.

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, we present preliminary results on the feasibility of employing a low energy (2 kJ, 31 kV) plasma focus device as a portable source of pulsed neutron beams (2.45 MeV) generated by nuclear fusion reactions D-D, for the in situ analysis of substances by nuclear activation. This source has the relevant advantage of being pulsed at requirement, transportable, not permanently radioactive, without radioactive waste, cheap, among others. We prove the feasibility of using this source showing several spectra of the characteristic emission line for manganese, gold, lead, and silver.

  18. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obozov, A.J.; Loscutoff, W.V.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  19. ARM - Sources of Atmospheric Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Atmospheric carbon represented a steady state system, where influx equaled outflow, before the Industrial Revolution. Currently, it is no longer a steady state system because the

  20. Energy Sources | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sources Energy Sources December 17, 2015 Top 5 Interactives and Maps of 2015 From rapidly rising renewables to carbon emission comparisons, these powerful visual aids illustrate the biggest energy stories of 2015. August 21, 2015 This gigantic animated globe will soon take environmental awareness to a whole new level! The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Science On a Sphere, like this one at their headquarters in Maryland, will soon feature new energy datasets to

  1. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.

  2. Unidentified Gamma-Ray Sources: Hunting Gamma-Ray Blazars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Tosti, G.; Ajello, M.; Gasparrini, A.Paggi.D.

    2012-04-02

    One of the main scientific objectives of the ongoing Fermi mission is unveiling the nature of the unidentified {gamma}-ray sources (UGSs). Despite the large improvements of Fermi in the localization of {gamma}-ray sources with respect to the past {gamma}-ray missions, about one third of the Fermi-detected objects are still not associated to low energy counterparts. Recently, using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey, we discovered that blazars, the rarest class of Active Galactic Nuclei and the largest population of {gamma}-ray sources, can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Based on this result, we designed an association method for the {gamma}-ray sources to recognize if there is a blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic {gamma}-ray source. With this new IR diagnostic tool, we searched for {gamma}-ray blazar candidates associated to the UGS sample of the second Fermi {gamma}-ray catalog (2FGL). We found that our method associates at least one {gamma}-ray blazar candidate as a counterpart each of 156 out of 313 UGSs analyzed. These new low-energy candidates have the same IR properties as the blazars associated to {gamma}-ray sources in the 2FGL catalog.

  3. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-20

    An x-ray source is described utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms. 6 figures.

  4. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray source utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms.

  5. EWONAP Training and Regional Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Native Learning Center is pleased to announce the 2016 Eastern Woodlands ONAP Training and Regional Meeting taking place in our newly renovated training facility in Hollywood, FL. This three-day interactive training is designed to address Tribal Housing needs identified throughout the Eastern Woodlands region.

  6. USDA Regional Conservation Partnership Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture is accepting applications for the Regional Conservation Partnership Program to identify and address natural resource objectives in balance with operational goals in order to benefit soil, water, wildlife, and related natural resources locally, regionally, and nationally.

  7. Science and Technology of Future Light Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dierker,S.; Bergmann, U.; Corlett, J.; Dierker, S.; Falcone, R.; Galayda, J.; Gibson, M.; Hastings, J.; Hettel, B.; Hill, J.; Hussain, Z.; Kao, C.-C.; Kirx, J.; Long, G.; McCurdy, B.; Raubenheimer, T.; Sannibale, F.; Seeman, J.; Shen, Z.-X.; Shenoy, g.; Schoenlein, B.; Shen, Q.; Stephenson, B.; Stohr, J.; Zholents, A.

    2008-12-01

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects. The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee [1]. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, and serve the entire range of science from advanced materials to life sciences. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. X-rays with energies above 10 keV offer capabilities extending beyond the nanoworld shown in Figure 1.1 due to their ability to penetrate into optically opaque or thick objects. This opens the door to combining atomic level information from scattering studies with 3D information on longer length scales from real space imaging with a resolution approaching 1 nm. The investigation of multiple length scales is important in hierarchical structures, providing knowledge about function of living organisms, the atomistic origin of materials failure, the optimization of industrial synthesis, or the working of devices. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of electromagnetic origin, it is intuitively clear that electromagnetic radiation is the critical tool in the study of material properties. On the level of atoms, electrons, and spins, x-rays have proved especially valuable. Future advanced x-ray sources and instrumentation will extend the power of x-ray methods to reach greater spatial resolution, increased sensitivity, and unexplored temporal domains. The purpose of this document is threefold: (1) summarize scientific opportunities that are beyond the reach of today's x-ray sources and instrumentation; (2) summarize the requirements for advanced x-ray sources and instrumentation needed to realize these scientific opportunities, as well as potential methods of achieving them; and (3) outline the R&D required to establish the technical feasibility of these advanced x-ray sources and instrumentation.

  8. Science and Technology of Future Light Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergmann, Uwe; Corlett, John; Dierker, Steve; Falcone, Roger; Galayda, John; Gibson, Murray; Hastings, Jerry; Hettel, Bob; Hill, John; Hussain, Zahid; Kao, Chi-Chang; Kirz, Janos; Long, Danielle; McCurdy, Bill; Raubenheimer, Tor; Sannibale, Fernando; Seeman, John; Shen, Z. -X.; Schenoy, Gopal; Schoenlein, Bob; Shen, Qun; Stephenson, Brian; Sthr, Joachim; Zholents, Alexander

    2009-01-28

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee [1]. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, and serve the entire range of science from advanced materials to life sciences. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. X-rays with energies above 10 keV offer capabilities extending beyond the nanoworld shown in Figure 1.1 due to their ability to penetrate into optically opaque or thick objects. This opens the door to combining atomic level information from scattering studies with 3D information on longer length scales from real space imaging with a resolution approaching 1 nm. The investigation of multiple length scales is important in hierarchical structures, providing knowledge about function of living organisms, the atomistic origin of materials failure, the optimization of industrial synthesis, or the working of devices. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of electromagnetic origin, it is intuitively clear that electromagnetic radiation is the critical tool in the study of material properties. On the level of atoms, electrons, and spins, x-rays have proved especially valuable. Future advanced x-ray sources and instrumentation will extend the power of x-ray methods to reach greater spatial resolution, increased sensitivity, and unexplored temporal domains. The purpose of this document is threefold: (1) summarize scientific opportunities that are beyond the reach of today's x-ray sources and instrumentation; (2) summarize the requirements for advanced x-ray sources and instrumentation needed to realize these scientific opportunities, as well as potential methods of achieving them; and (3) outline the R&D required to establish the technical feasibility of these advanced x-ray sources and instrumentation.

  9. Mapping Correlation of Two Point Sources in the Gamma-Ray Sky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, Alexander

    2015-08-20

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has been taking data on high energy photons or γ rays since June 11th, 2008, and people have been cataloging and profiling point sources of these γ rays ever since. After roughly one year of being in operation over 1400 sources were cataloged. Now, in 2015 we have 3033 sources cataloged. With the increasing amount of sources it’s important to think about the limitations of likelihood analysis for highly correlated sources. In this paper I will present the problems of using likelihood analysis for sources that are highly correlated as well as show under what circumstances sources can be considered highly correlated. Dark matter over densities may show up as a point source, so it is a necessary step to learn how the two signals will interact to allow for a proper search for dark matter.

  10. Light source comprising a common substrate, a first led device and a second led device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choong, Vi-En

    2010-02-23

    At least one stacked organic or polymeric light emitting diode (PLEDs) devices to comprise a light source is disclosed. At least one of the PLEDs includes a patterned cathode which has regions which transmit light. The patterned cathodes enable light emission from the PLEDs to combine together. The light source may be top or bottom emitting or both.

  11. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," ","

  12. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural

  13. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural

  14. Table 7.6 Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Coke Residual Distillate Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coal and Breeze NAICS Total Electricity Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) (billion NGL(d) (million (million Other(e) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 Food 1,108 75,652 2 4

  15. Table 7.9 Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Million U.S. Dollars." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","

  16. Table 7.9 Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Million U.S. Dollars. NAICS Residual Distillate LPG and Coke Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Electricity Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coal and Breeze Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 10,111 5,328 130 431 3,391 150 442 29 210 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 2,130 932 2 12 673 Q 294 0 158 311221 Wet Corn Milling 1,002 352 1 5 296 1 239 0 107

  17. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  18. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  19. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  20. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  1. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  2. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  3. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  4. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed {sup 252}Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the U.S. government and to universities for educational, research, and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of {sup 252}Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments, and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations.

  5. Accretion disks in the IRAS 23151+5912 region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrguez-Esnard, T.; Trinidad, M. A.; Migenes, V. E-mail: trinidad@astro.ugto.mx

    2014-06-20

    We present observations of radio continuum emission at 1.3 and 3.6 cm and H{sub 2}O masers toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 23151+5912 carried out with the Very Large Array-Expanded Very Large Array (in transition phase) in configuration A. We detected one continuum source at 1.3 cm in the region, but the counterpart of this radio continuum source at 3.6 cm was not detected at a level of 3?. We also detected 13 water maser spots toward IRAS 23151+5912, which are distributed in three groups aligned along the northeast-southwest direction. Our results suggest that the 1.3 cm emission is consistent with a hypercompact H II region, probably with an embedded zero-age main-sequence star of type B2. In particular, we find that this young star is spatially associated with a maser group, which is tracing a disk-like structure of about 460 AU. We also find that the masers of the second group are probably describing a circumstellar disk of about 86 AU, whose central protostar, still undetected, should have a mass of ?11 M {sub ?}. We also suggest that the third water maser group is possibly associated with the SiO outflow and the undetected driving source of the system. Finally, we noted that the 1.3 cm continuum source and the three maser groups are aligned in the northeast-southwest direction, similar to the elongation of the large ionized region, which probably is the result of shock-wave induced star formation on the densest region of the medium.

  6. Fact #799: September 30, 2013 Electricity Generation by Source, 2003-2012 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 9: September 30, 2013 Electricity Generation by Source, 2003-2012 Fact #799: September 30, 2013 Electricity Generation by Source, 2003-2012 With the increase in market penetration for electric vehicles, the upstream emissions from electricity generation become important. Those emissions are dependent upon the source of electricity generation. Although the generation of electricity varies greatly by region, the overall use of coal declined by about 24% from 2008 to 2012.

  7. Regional Climate Change Webinar Presentation | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Regional Climate Change Webinar presentation dated August 6, 2015. Regional Climate Change Webinar Presentation More Documents & Publications Regional Climate Change Webinar...

  8. Glass diffusion source for constraining BSF region of a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lesk, I.A.; Pryor, R.A.; Coleman, M.G.

    1982-08-27

    The present invention is directed to a method of fabricating a solar cell comprising simultaneous diffusion of the p and n dopant materials into the solar cell substrate. The simultaneous diffusion process is preceded by deposition of a capping layer impervious to doping by thermal diffusion processes.

  9. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," ","

  10. Geologic Analysis of Priority Basins for Exploration and Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, H.B.; Reeves, T.K.

    1999-04-27

    There has been a substantial decline in both exploratory drilling and seismic field crew activity in the United States over the last 10 years, due primarily to the declining price of oil. To reverse this trend and to preserve the entrepreneurial independent operator, the U.S. DOE is attempting to encourage hydrocarbon exploration activities in some of the under exploited regions of the United States. This goal is being accomplished by conducting broad regional reviews of potentially prospective areas within the lower 48 states. Data are being collected on selected areas, and studies are being done on a regional scale generally unavailable to the smaller independent. The results of this work will be made available to the public to encourage the undertaking of operations in areas which have been overlooked until this project. Fifteen criteria have been developed for the selection of study areas. Eight regions have been identified where regional geologic analysis will be performed. This report discusses preliminary findings concerning the geology, early tectonic history, structure and potential unconventional source rocks for the Black Mesa basin and South Central states region, the two highest priority study areas.

  11. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis...

  12. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  13. Compact portable electric power sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Sensor/source electrometer circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, W.J.

    1991-12-31

    A multiple decade electrometer circuit is claimed which can measure low input currents or act as a current source and is comprised of a microprocessor controlled digital to analog converters to derive individual decades. A plurality of decades are created by multiple D-A voltage sources which generate electrometer currents through scaled resistors. After a first series of decades of current are successively produced, the converters are 10 cycled to generate current through new resistors scaled to produce another series decades of current. In this manner, the electrometer circuit generates or senses a plurality of decades of current without significant scale change.

  15. Source Term Analysis for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Quality Control Inspector (QCI) Pre-Exam Quiz U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Alignment: Achieving Management & Operational Excellence...

  16. Identifying sources of variation for reliability analysis of field inspections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, F.W.

    1998-04-01

    It has been recognized that nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques and instruments that have proven themselves in the laboratory do not always perform as well under field conditions. In this paper the authors explore combinations of formal laboratory and field experimentation to characterize NDI processes as they may be implemented in field conditions. They also discuss appropriate modeling for probability of detection (POD) curves as applied to data gathered under field conditions. A case is made for expanding the more traditional two-parameter models to models using either three or four parameters. They use NDI data gathered from various airframe inspection programs to illustrate the points.

  17. Hybrid Ground Source System Analysis and Tool Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: 1. Compile filtered hourly data for three monitored hybrid installations. 2.Validate existing HyGCHP model. 3.Refine and enhance the HyGCHP model (usability / capability). 4. Demonstrate impact of actual hybrid installations. 5. Report lessons learned and impacts of HyGSHPs to design/engineering community.

  18. Figure 1. Census Regions and Divisions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    US Federal Region Map US Federal Regions> Region 1 Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont Region 2 New...

  19. 2015 NHA Alaska Regional Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Register today and join industry professionals for interactive discussions covering a variety of regional topics and a tour of the Eklutna lake Project.

  20. Geothermal Regions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    groundwater flow), and other relevant factors. The 21 regions can be seen outlined in red and overlain on the 2008 USGS Geothermal Favorability Map in Figure 1.1 Add a new...

  1. More Regional Science Bowl Winners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    By March 25, 2011, thousands of students will have competed in more than 100 regional science bowl contests throughout the country, and then the winning schools will compete in DC this spring for the national championship.

  2. CEMI Southeast Regional Summit Speakers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following are confirmed speakers for the CEMI Southeast Regional Summit, which will be held on July 9, 2015 at the Renaissance Atlanta Midtown Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia. 

  3. Regional

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ta boa vontade de aprender e dis- ponibilidade", afirma humilde- mente Carlos Sousa, entrevista- do nandiaatravs de e-mail pelo Aoriano Oriental. Estas so, alis,...

  4. World Bank-MENA Regional-NAMAs and Corresponding Climate Finance...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    analysis, Background analysis Website http:www.worldbank.org UN Region Northern Africa, Western Asia References World Bank1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  5. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2004-04-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of September 2003 through February 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include chemical fractionation of the organic fraction to quantify the ratio of organic mass to organic carbon (OM/OC). The average OM/OC ratio for the 31 samples analyzed so far is 1.89, ranging between 1.62 and 2.53, which is consistent with expectations for an atmospherically processed regional aerosol. Analysis of the single particle data reveals that a on a particles in Pittsburgh consist of complex mixture of primary and secondary components. Approximately 79% of all particles measured with the instrument containing some form of carbon, with Carbonaceous Ammonium Nitrate (54.43%) being the dominant particle class. PMCAMx predictions were compared with data from more than 50 sites of the STN network located throughout the Eastern United States for the July 2001 period. OC and sulfate concentrations predicted by PMCAMx are within {+-}30% of the observed concentration at most of these sites. Spherical Aluminum Silicate particle concentrations (SAS) were used to estimate the contribution of primary coal emissions to fine particle levels at the central monitoring site. Primary emissions from coal combustion contribute on average 0.44 {+-} 0.3 {micro}g/m{sup 3} to PM{sub 2.5} at the site or 1.4 {+-} 1.3% of the total PM{sub 2.5} mass. Chemical mass balance analysis was performed to apportion the primary organic aerosol. About 70% of the primary OC emissions are from vehicular sources, with the gasoline contribution being on average three times greater than the diesel emissions in the summer.

  6. WINDExchange: About Regional Resource Centers

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Deployment Activities Printable Version Bookmark and Share Regional Resource Centers About Economic Development Siting About Regional Resource Centers Significant expansion of wind energy deployment will be required to achieve the President's goal of doubling renewable energy production in the United States by 2020. Wind energy currently provides more than 4% of the nation's electricity but has the potential to provide much more. Increasing the country's percentage from wind power will mean

  7. Spent sealed radium sources conditioning in Latin America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mourao, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    The management of spent sealed sources is considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) one of the greatest challenges faced by nuclear authorities today, especially in developing countries. One of the Agency`s initiatives to tackle this problem is the Spent Radium Sources Conditioning Project, a worldwide project relying on the regional co-operation between countries. A team from the Brazilian nuclear research institute Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) was chosen as the expert team to carry out the operations in Latin America; since December 1996 radium sources have been safely conditioned in Uruguay, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Ecuador and Paraguay. A Quality Assurance Program was established, encompassing the qualification of the capsule welding process, written operational procedures referring to all major steps of the operation, calibration of monitors and information retrievability. A 200L carbon steel drum-based packaging concept was used to condition the sources, its cavity being designed to receive the lead shield device containing stainless steel capsules with the radium sources. As a result of these operations, a total amount of 2,897 mg of needles, tubes, medical applicators, standard sources for calibration, lightning rods, secondary wastes and contaminated objects were stored in proper conditions and are now under control of the nuclear authorities of the visited countries.

  8. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trk, T.; Titov, V. S.; Miki?, Z.; Leake, J. E.; Archontis, V.; Linton, M. G.; Dalmasse, K.; Aulanier, G.; Kliem, B.

    2014-02-10

    There has been a long-standing debate on the question of whether or not electric currents in solar active regions are neutralized. That is, whether or not the main (or direct) coronal currents connecting the active region polarities are surrounded by shielding (or return) currents of equal total value and opposite direction. Both theory and observations are not yet fully conclusive regarding this question, and numerical simulations have, surprisingly, barely been used to address it. Here we quantify the evolution of electric currents during the formation of a bipolar active region by considering a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the emergence of a sub-photospheric, current-neutralized magnetic flux rope into the solar atmosphere. We find that a strong deviation from current neutralization develops simultaneously with the onset of significant flux emergence into the corona, accompanied by the development of substantial magnetic shear along the active region's polarity inversion line. After the region has formed and flux emergence has ceased, the strong magnetic fields in the region's center are connected solely by direct currents, and the total direct current is several times larger than the total return current. These results suggest that active regions, the main sources of coronal mass ejections and flares, are born with substantial net currents, in agreement with recent observations. Furthermore, they support eruption models that employ pre-eruption magnetic fields containing such currents.

  9. Finding Alternative Water Sources for Power Plants with Google Earth

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sobering news from experts: Rising populations, regional droughts, and decreasing groundwater levels are draining the nation’s fresh water supply. What plant operators need is a system that catalogs in one place nontraditional water sources that can be used for electricity production instead of valuable, limited fresh water. Now, thanks to a Department of Energy (DOE)-supported project, there’s an app for that.

  10. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," ","

  11. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","

  12. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," ","

  13. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","

  14. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," ","

  15. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","

  16. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,"Coke" ,,,,"Net",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)",,"LPG and","Coal","and Breeze" "NAICS",,"Total",,"Electricity(b)",,"Fuel Oil","Fuel

  17. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." "NAICS",,,,"Net",,"Residual","Distillate",,,"LPG and",,,"Coke" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total",,"Electricity(b)",,"Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural

  18. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",,,," "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," ","

  19. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." "NAICS",,,,,,"Residual","Distillate",,,"LPG and",,,"Coke" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total",,"Electricity(b)",,"Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural

  20. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,,,,,,,"Coke" ,,,,"Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)","LPG and","Coal","and Breeze" "NAICS",,"Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  1. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." "NAICS",,,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural

  2. Combined Electric Machine and Current Source Inverter Drive System - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Combined Electric Machine and Current Source Inverter Drive System Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-G00249_ID2505.pdf (764 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryThis technology is a drive system that includes a permanent magnet-less (PM-L) electric motor

  3. There is no Silver Bullet: Regionalization and Market Fragmentation in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies | Department of Energy There is no Silver Bullet: Regionalization and Market Fragmentation in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies There is no Silver Bullet: Regionalization and Market Fragmentation in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Joint Global Change Research Institute PDF icon 2004_deer_stokes.pdf More Documents & Publications Analysis Activities at Pacific Northwest

  4. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Steve Dierker

    2010-01-08

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  5. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  6. Reporting of Radioactive Sealed Sources

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-02-27

    To establish U.S. Department of Energy requirements for inventory reporting, transaction reporting, verification of reporting, and assign responsibilities for reporting of radioactive sealed sources. DOE N 251.86 extends this notice until 5-6-11. No cancellations. Canceled by DOE O 231.1B

  7. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary I. (Sunnyvale, CA); Maccagno, Pierre (Stanford, CA)

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  8. Property:HeatSource | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    HeatSource Jump to: navigation, search Property Name HeatSource Property Type String Description A description of the resource heat source in the geothermal area. Describes what...

  9. Introduction to APS | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction to APS What is the APS? What is the APS? The Advanced Photon Source is a synchrotron light source that produces high-energy, high-brightness x-ray beams. The source is...

  10. EPA Source Reduction Assistance Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is accepting applications for the Source Reduction Assistance Grant Program to support pollution prevention/source reduction and/or resource conservation projects that reduce or eliminate pollution at the source.

  11. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Mai, T.; Mowers, M.; Uriarte, C.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.; Martinez, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a deterministic optimization model of the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States into the future. The model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, is designed to analyze the critical energy issues in the electric sector, especially with respect to potential energy policies, such as clean energy and renewable energy standards or carbon restrictions. ReEDS provides a detailed treatment of electricity-generating and electrical storage technologies and specifically addresses a variety of issues related to renewable energy technologies, including accessibility and cost of transmission, regional quality of renewable resources, seasonal and diurnal generation profiles, variability of wind and solar power, and the influence of variability on the reliability of the electrical grid. ReEDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit statistical treatment of the variability in wind and solar output over time, and consideration of ancillary services' requirements and costs.

  12. Isotopic Analysis-Fluid At Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Estimate deep reservoir temperature Notes The oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes have been tested. Methods are...

  13. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown References B. M. Kennedy, M. A. Lynch, J. H. Reynolds, S. P. Smith (1985) Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Overview...

  14. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References B. M. Kennedy, J. H. Reynolds, S. P. Smith (1988) Noble Gas Geochemistry In Thermal Springs Additional References Retrieved from...

  15. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (LLNL), Livermore, CA Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER...

  16. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Hurwitz...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of climatic and hydrologic factors. References Shaul Hurwitz, Jacob B. Lowenstern, Henry Heasler (2007) Spatial And Temporal Geochemical Trends In The Hydrothermal System Of...

  17. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish (Wilson), Twin Peak, Cudahy, Laverkin, Grantsville, Crystal Prison, Arrowhead, Red Hill, Monroe, Joseph, Castilla, Saratoga, Thermo, Crater, Wasatch, Beck, Deseret, Big...

  18. Core Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Sturchio, Et Al., 1990)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    were 43 hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from Yellowstone drill cores Y-5, Y-6, Y-7, Y-8, Y-11, Y-12, and Y-13 (Fig. 1). References N. C. Sturchio, T. E. C....

  19. Core Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Dobson, Et Al., 2003) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    F. Dobson, Timothy J. Kneafsey, Jeffrey Hulen, Ardyth Simmons (2003) Porosity, Permeability, And Fluid Flow In The Yellowstone Geothermal System, Wyoming Additional References...

  20. NREL: Energy Analysis - Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    statelocal regulators and others optimize and visualize the build-out of U.S. electricity generation and transmission systems. Learn more about ReEDS: Model Description...

  1. Isotopic Analysis At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References T. E. C. Keith, J. M. Thompson, R. A. Hutchinson, L. D. White (1992) Geochemistry Of Waters In The Valley Of Ten...

  2. A SYNCHRONIZED FIR/VUV LIGHT SOURCE AT JEFFERSON LAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Benson, David Douglas, George Neil, Michelle D. Shinn, Gwyn Williams

    2012-07-01

    We describe a dual free-electron laser (FEL) configuration on the UV Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab that allows simultaneous lasing at FIR/THz and UV wavelengths. The FIR/THz source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing nearly diffraction-limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules. The FIR source would use the exhaust beam from a UVFEL. The coherent harmonics in the VUV from the UVFEL are out-coupled through a hole. The FIR source uses a shorter resonator with either hole or edge coupling to provide very high power FIR pulses. Simulations indicate excel-lent spectral brightness in the FIR region with over 100 W/cm-1 output.

  3. Transverse coupling property of beam from ECR ion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.; Yuan, Y. J.; Sun, L. T.; Feng, Y. C.; Fang, X.; Cao, Y.; Lu, W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-11-15

    Experimental evidence of the property of transverse coupling of beam from Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source is presented. It is especially of interest for an ECR ion source, where the cross section of extracted beam is not round along transport path due to the magnetic confinement configuration. When the ions are extracted and accelerated through the descending axial magnetic field at the extraction region, the horizontal and vertical phase space strongly coupled. In this study, the coupling configuration between the transverse phase spaces of the beam from ECR ion source is achieved by beam back-tracking simulation based on the measurements. The reasonability of this coupling configuration has been proven by a series of subsequent simulations.

  4. Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); MacGill, Robert A. (Richmond, CA)

    2003-04-15

    A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  5. WIPP Opportunities - Procurement - Sources Sought

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety Safety Rules for Subcontractors Job Hazard Analysis 851 Rule Worker Safety Health Plan (WSHP) Integrated Safety Management System Description Occupational Health...

  6. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates National Grid Northeast Utilities PA Office of Consumer Advocates Pacific Gas & Electric Corporation Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission PJM Interconnection The Electricity Consumers Resource Council U.S. Department of Energy US Department of the Interior Van Ness Feldman Western Interstate Energy Board Wind on the Wires Wisconsin Public Service Commission Xcel Energy

  7. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 1998;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural

  8. Mr. W. Librirzi Regional Superfund Office EPA Region II

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    * , AP)J2 p" H-l2 &,q qp@- Department of Energy Washington, D .C. 20545 DEC. 20 1984 Mr. W. Librirzi Regional Superfund Office EPA Region II 4th Floor 26 Federal Plaza New York, New York 10278 Dear Mr. Librizzi: The Department of Energy (DOE) has completed two radiological surveys at the former Simonds Saw & Steel Company site (presently owned by the Guterl Steel Corporation), Lockport, New York (Enclosures 1 and 2). These surveys indicated that the levels of residual radioactive

  9. Power Sources Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sources Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power Sources Inc. Place: Charlotte, North Carolina Sector: Biomass Product: US-based operator and developer of biomass-to-energy...

  10. Agri Source Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Agri-Source Fuels Place: Pensacola, Florida Zip: 32505 Product: Biodiesel producer located in Florida that owns a plant in Dade City. References: Agri-Source...

  11. Alternative Energy Sources Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sources Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Alternative Energy Sources Inc Place: Kansas City, Missouri Zip: 64108 Product: Kansas City-based company that constructs, owns and...

  12. Alternative Water Sources Map | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Efficiency Alternative Water Sources Map Alternative Water Sources Map The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) created the Alternative Water Map to...

  13. Source Geometric Considerations for OMEGA Dante Measurements...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Source Geometric Considerations for OMEGA Dante Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Source Geometric Considerations for OMEGA Dante Measurements You are...

  14. Source Geometric Considerations for OMEGA Dante Measurements...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Source Geometric Considerations for OMEGA Dante Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Source Geometric Considerations for OMEGA Dante Measurements Authors: May, M...

  15. Ground Source Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Source LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Blue Source LLC Place: Salt Lake City, Utah Zip: 84121 Product: Salt Lake City-based emission offset aggregation company. References:...

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  19. Open Source Software | Argonne National Laboratory

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  20. Comparison of General Purpose Heat Source testing with the ANSI N43.6-1977 (R1989) sealed source standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigsby, C.O.

    1998-03-26

    This analysis provides a comparison of the testing of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and RTG components with the testing requirements of ANSI N43.6-1977 (R1989) ``Sealed Radioactive Sources, Categorization``. The purpose of this comparison is to demonstrate that the RTGs meet or exceed the requirements of the ANSI standard, and thus can be excluded from the radioactive inventory of the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building in Los Alamos per Attachment 1 of DOE STD 1027-92. The approach used in this analysis is as follows: (1) describe the ANSI sealed source classification methodology; (2) develop sealed source performance requirements for the RTG and/or RTG components based on criteria from the accident analysis for CMR; (3) compare the existing RTG or RTG component test data to the CMR requirements; and (4) determine the appropriate ANSI classification for the RTG and/or RTG components based on CMR performance requirements. The CMR requirements for treating RTGs as sealed sources are derived from the radiotoxicity of the isotope ({sup 238}P7) and amount (13 kg) of radioactive material contained in the RTG. The accident analysis for the CMR BIO identifies the bounding accidents as wing-wide fire, explosion and earthquake. These accident scenarios set the requirements for RTGs or RTG components stored within the CMR.