Sample records for region salt lake

  1. Regional Gravity Survey of the Northern Great Salt Lake Desert...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Northern Great Salt Lake Desert and Adjacent Areas in Utah, Nevada, and Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Regional Gravity...

  2. Disparities in Salt Lake County and Salt Lake City Mortgage Outcomes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feschotte, Cedric

    Disparities in Salt Lake County and Salt Lake City Mortgage Outcomes and Lending Practices Darius of lending practices. This article is an adapted excerpt from the Salt Lake County Regional Analysis impediments in the home mortgage application process. The HMDA data from 2006 to 2011 were compiled for Salt

  3. BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Tony R.

    BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program 2011 A financial aid program of the Brigham Young University Division of Continuing Education BYU Salt Lake Center 345 West North Temple Street 3 Triad Center Salt Lake City, UT 84180 Fax: (801) 933­9456 Email: slc@byu.edu #12;BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid

  4. BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program 2013 A financial aid program of the Brigham Young University Division of Continuing Education BYU Salt Lake Center 345 West North Temple Street 3 Triad Center Salt Lake City, UT 84180 Fax: (801) 933­9456 Email: slc@byu.edu #12;BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid

  5. BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program 2014 A financial aid program of the Brigham Young University Division of Continuing Education BYU Salt Lake Center 345 West North Temple Street 3 Triad Center Salt Lake City, UT 84180 Fax: (801) 933­9456 Email: slc@byu.edu #12;BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid

  6. BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program 2012 A financial aid program of the Brigham Young University Division of Continuing Education BYU Salt Lake Center 345 West North Temple Street 3 Triad Center Salt Lake City, UT 84180 Fax: (801) 933­9456 Email: slc@byu.edu #12;BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid

  7. Solar Policy Environment: Salt Lake

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The overall objective of the “Solar Salt Lake” (SSL) team is to develop a fully-scoped city and county-level implementation plan that will facilitate at least an additional ten megawatts of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations in the government, commercial, industrial, and residential sectors by 2015. To achieve this aggressive goal, the program strategy includes a combination of barrier identification, research, and policy analysis that utilizes the input of various stakeholders. Coupled with these activities will be the development and implementation of pilot installations in the government and residential sectors, and broad outreach to builders and potential practitioners of solar energy products in the process. In this way, while creating mechanisms to enable a demand for solar, SSL will also facilitate capacity building for suppliers, thereby helping to ensure long-term sustainability for the regional market.

  8. Salt Lake City- High Performance Buildings Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salt Lake City's mayor issued an executive order in July 2005 requiring that all public buildings owned and controlled by the city be built or renovated to meet the requirements of LEED "silver"...

  9. Energy Efficient Buildings, Salt Lake County, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, Kimberly

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary Salt Lake County's Solar Photovoltaic Project - an unprecedented public/private partnership Salt Lake County is pleased to announce the completion of its unprecedented solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the Calvin R. Rampton Salt Palace Convention Center. This 1.65 MW installation will be one the largest solar roof top installations in the country and will more than double the current installed solar capacity in the state of Utah. Construction is complete and the system will be operational in May 2012. The County has accomplished this project using a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) financing model. In a PPA model a third-party solar developer will finance, develop, own, operate, and maintain the solar array. Salt Lake County will lease its roof, and purchase the power from this third-party under a long-term Power Purchase Agreement contract. In fact, this will be one of the first projects in the state of Utah to take advantage of the recent (March 2010) legislation which makes PPA models possible for projects of this type. In addition to utilizing a PPA, this solar project will employ public and private capital, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG), and public/private subsidized bonds that are able to work together efficiently because of the recent stimulus bill. The project also makes use of recent changes to federal tax rules, and the recent re-awakening of private capital markets that make a significant public-private partnership possible. This is an extremely innovative project, and will mark the first time that all of these incentives (EECBG grants, Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, New Markets tax credits, investment tax credits, public and private funds) have been packaged into one project. All of Salt Lake County's research documents and studies, agreements, and technical information is available to the public. In addition, the County has already shared a variety of information with the public through webinars, site tours, presentations, and written correspondence.

  10. Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a lack of understanding about solar contributed to preventing the widespread adoption of solar energy in all markets. Salt Lake City's prior solar successes with support from...

  11. administration salt lake: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gsa2005AMfinalprogramabstract96987.htm 2005 Salt Lake City Annual Meeting (October 1619, 2005) Geosciences Websites Summary: http:gsa.confex.comgsa2005AM...

  12. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Power Sales Rate History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Power Sales Rate History Updated: 9112013 Rate Schedule Effective Dates Energy (MillskWh) Capacity (kW-mo.) Combined (MillskWh) 1...

  13. Continuous Commissioning of Salt Lake Community College South City Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Hood, J.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The State of Utah's Department of Natural Resources funded two projects in Salt Lake City to demonstrate the feasibility of the Continuous Commissioning® (CC®)1 process. The two sites selected were a modern state building, the Matheson Courthouse [1...

  14. Quaternary freshwater Ostracoda from the Great Salt Lake Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lister, K. H.

    1975-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissertation Fellowship. I appreciate loans of type specimens by The Illinois State Geological Survey; The United States National Museum; and the Geological Sur- 5 vey of Canada, Saskatchewan. Specimens of the Great Salt Lake Basin ostracodes studied have been... Dissertation Fellowship. I appreciate loans of type specimens by The Illinois State Geological Survey; The United States National Museum; and the Geological Sur- 5 vey of Canada, Saskatchewan. Specimens of the Great Salt Lake Basin ostracodes studied have been...

  15. EIS-0099: Remedial Actions at the Former Vitro Chemical Company Site, South Salt Lake, Salt Lake County, Utah

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate the environmental impacts of various scenarios associated with the cleanup of those residues remaining at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site located in South Salt Lake, Utah.

  16. Salt Lake Film Society Discount with U Card How Sweet It Is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    Salt Lake Film Society Discount with U Card How Sweet It Is As staff and faculty of the University.staffcouncil.utah.edu Perk of the Month Brought to you by your Staff Council June 2011 The Salt Lake Film Society is the premiere film establishment of the Salt Lake community. We promote diversity of film exhibition

  17. Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Salt Lake City, UT, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  18. Road salt turning Twin Cities lakes into dead seas By JOSEPHINE MARCOTTY, Star Tribune

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Road salt turning Twin Cities lakes into dead seas By JOSEPHINE MARCOTTY, Star Tribune March 23 in lakes and streams around the Twin Cities -- road salt. The fish, bugs and other wildlife that live, a primary ingredient in salt, and what it will take to keep urban waters healthy. But the far more difficult

  19. Climate Action Champions: Salt Lake City, UT | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO OverviewAttachments4 Chairs Meeting - AprilEvents Clean EnergyofDepartmentOberlin,Salt Lake

  20. Salt Lake County Residential Solar Financing Study | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy atLLC - FE DKT. 10-160-LNG - ORDERSTATE0-1of EnergyIndiaAsSalt Lake

  1. Great Salt Lake Basin Hydrologic Observatory Prospectus Submitted to CUAHSI for consideration as a CUAHSI Hydrologic Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    1 Great Salt Lake Basin Hydrologic Observatory Prospectus Submitted to CUAHSI for consideration.S., the Great Salt Lake Basin provides the opportunity to observe climate and human-induced land-surface changes relationship between people and water across the globe and make the Great Salt Lake Basin a microcosm

  2. Seizing a species : the story of the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp harvest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wotipka, Samuel Alex

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early 1950s, C.C. "Sparkplug" Sanders began harvesting brine shrimp from Utah's Great Salt Lake. Sanders built up a small business selling their eggs, called "cysts, to aquarium stores across the country. During the ...

  3. The Madeleine Choir School (Salt Lake City, Utah): A Contemporary American Choral Foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tappan, Lucas Matthew

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document chronicles the work of the Madeleine Choir School, founded in 1996 by Gregory Glenn as a ministry of the Cathedral of the Madeleine in Salt Lake City, Utah. The school teaches children in pre-kindergarten ...

  4. Great Lakes Water Scarcity and Regional Economic Development

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cameron Davis; Tim Eder; David Ulrich; David Naftzger; Donald J. Wuebbles; Mark C. Petri

    2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Great Lakes Water Scarcity and Regional Economic Development panel at Northwestern University on 10/10/2012

  5. Great Lakes Water Scarcity and Regional Economic Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron Davis; Tim Eder; David Ulrich; David Naftzger; Donald J. Wuebbles; Mark C. Petri

    2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Great Lakes Water Scarcity and Regional Economic Development panel at Northwestern University on 10/10/2012

  6. Canada Lynx in the Great Lakes Region 2004 Annual Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Canada Lynx in the Great Lakes Region 2004 Annual Report to USDA Forest Service and MN Cooperative. #12;Canada Lynx in the Great Lakes Region 2004 Annual Report ii Executive Summary We summarize the second year of a project on the Canada lynx ecology in the Great Lakes region. The project is designed

  7. arutlus salt lake: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  8. awra salt lake: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  9. Lake Region Electric Cooperative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groupsIllinois:Lake Region Electric Cooperative

  10. ORIGINAL PAPER Geochemical Evolution of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , USA, is the largest saline lake in North America, and its brines are some of the most concentrated and mirabilite, have periodically modified lake-brine chemistry through density stratifi- cation in the north. These and other conditions have created brine differentiation, mixing, and fractional

  11. Lake Region Electric Cooperative- Commercial Energy Efficiency Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lake Region Electric Cooperative (LREC) offers grants to commercial customers for electric energy efficiency improvements, audits, and engineering and design assistance for new and existing...

  12. Lake Region Electric Cooperative- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lake Region Electric Cooperative (LREC) offers a variety of rebates for residential customers to improve the energy efficiency of homes. Rebates are available for Energy Star refrigerators and...

  13. EIS-0150: Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Area Power Administration prepared this environmental impact statement to analyze the environmental impacts of its proposal to establish the level of its commitment (sales) of long- term firm electrical capacity and energy from the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects hydroelectric power plants.

  14. Continuous Commissioning® of the Matheson Courthouse in Salt Lake City, Utah

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Hood, J.; Butler, M.; Healy, R. K.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commissioning® 1 of the Matheson Courthouse in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Matheson Courthouse is a relatively new building, well-run, with a modern controls system. It is one of the most efficient buildings in Utah, averaging only $1.08 per square foot per year...

  15. Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Salt Lake City, UT, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  16. Salt Lake City, Utah, Processing and Disposal Sites Fact Sheet

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona, DisposalFourthN V O 1 8B100B100WWNASCUBA80 ' ,19.7Salt

  17. Maerz, N. H., and Palangio, 2000. Online fragmentation analysis for grinding and crushing control. Control 2000 Symposium, 2000 SME Annual Meeting, March 1, 2000, Salt Lake City, Utah, SME, pp.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maerz, Norbert H.

    . Control 2000 Symposium, 2000 SME Annual Meeting, March 1, 2000, Salt Lake City, Utah, SME, pp. 109

  18. Canada Lynx in the Great Lakes Region 2003 Annual Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Canada Lynx in the Great Lakes Region 2003 Annual Report to USDA Forest Service and MN Cooperative-01 #12;Canada Lynx Annual Report ii of 33 ii In this report we summarize accomplishments of the Canada Forest to address 4 major questions about this population of Canada lynx: location, distribution

  19. The Impact of Climate Change on Great Lakes Water Levels Region: Great Lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Discuss global warming as an issue to discover what students already know about polar ice cap melting of global warming, due to melting of the polar ice caps. 3. Have students discuss the effects of changes places in the world (such as the Great Lakes region), while at the same time polar melting is occurring

  20. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 3. Great Lakes Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paton, D.L.; Bass, A.; Smith, D.G.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Great Lakes Region atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data, one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Great Lakes region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin. At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than in the regional discussion and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations over several time scales in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and of hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  1. Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederic Kuzel

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Council of Great Lakes Governors administered the Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This Partnership grew out of the existing Regional Biomass Energy Program which the Council had administered since 1983. The GLBSRP includes the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin. The GLBSRPÃ?Â?s overall goal is to facilitate the increased production and use of bioenergy and biobased products throughout the region. The GLBSRP has traditionally addressed its goals and objectives through a three-pronged approach: providing grants to the States; undertaking region-wide education, outreach and technology transfer projects; and, providing in-house management, support and information dissemination. At the direction of US Department of Energy, the primary emphasis of the GLBSRP in recent years has been education and outreach. Therefore, most activities have centered on developing educational materials, hosting workshops and conferences, and providing technical assistance. This report summarizes a selection of activities that were accomplished under this cooperative agreement.

  2. Lake Region Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou NewKorea PartsLLNLLaizhou Luneng WindLake Region

  3. Position paper on the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Uranium Mill Tailings Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the potential applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer underlying the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. There are two goals for this evaluation: provide the landowner with information to make an early qualitative decision on the possible use of the Vitro property, and evaluate the proposed application of supplemental standards as the ground water compliance strategy at the site. Justification of supplemental standards is based on the contention that the uppermost aquifer is of limited use due to wide-spread ambient contamination not related to the previous site processing activities. In support of the above, this report discusses the site conceptual model for the uppermost aquifer and related hydrogeological systems and establishes regional and local background water quality. This information is used to determine the extent of site-related and ambient contamination. A risk-based evaluation of the contaminants` effects on current and projected land uses is also provided. Reports of regional and local studies and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site investigations provided the basis for the conceptual model and established background ground water quality. In addition, a limited field effort (4 through 28 March 1996) was conducted to supplement existing data, particularly addressing the extent of contamination in the northwestern portion of the Vitro site and site background ground water quality. Results of the field investigation were particularly useful in refining the conceptual site model. This was important in light of the varied ground water quality within the uppermost aquifer. Finally, this report provides a critical evaluation, along with the related uncertainties, of the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Salt Lake City Vitro processing site.

  4. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  5. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  6. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-48 LAKE ERIE REGIONAL ICE COVER ANALYSIS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-48 LAKE ERIE REGIONAL ICE COVER ANALYSIS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS R.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Observation density Average regional ice cover Percentage exceedance from average regional ice cover for discrete ice cover values Contour analysis of percentage ice cover exceedance

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

  8. Numerical methods for the simulation of salt migration in regional groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Numerical methods for the simulation of salt migration in regional groundwater flow E.S. van Baaren #12;Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Model description 3 2.1 Basic Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.2 Finite Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.2.1 Grid

  9. Changing Weather and Climate in the Great Lakes Region Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Offered by the University of Wisconsin-Madison through Coursera, this four-week course will feature a new season each week through short lectures and activities covering Great Lakes weather, observed changes in the climate, and societal impacts of climate change.

  10. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome.

  11. Tolerance to cadmium and cadmium-binding ligands in Great Salt Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayasekara, S.; Drown, D.B.; Sharma, R.P.

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information on the accumulation of cadmium in cytosolic proteins of Great Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was obtained from animals collected directly from the lake and also from animal hatched and maintained in three sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 ppm) in saltwater aquaria. Brine shrimp growth under these conditions was monitored by measuring body lengths during a 7-day exposure period. Heat-stable, cadmium-binding ligands were isolated and identified by Sephadex G-75 chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cadmium was found to be equally distributed between high and low molecular weight proteins in animals collected from the lake and the 0.5 ppm cadmium group. There was also a slight growth stimulation noted in the 0.5-pm group. Higher cadmium incorporation was noted in low molecular weight fractions with increasing cadmium concentration in the exposure media. Low molecular weight fractions were also found to have high uv absorption characteristics at 250 nm and low absorption at 280 nm. Molecular weight of the cadmium-binding ligands was found to be 11,000 as estimated by the gel filtration method. De novo synthesis of this protein was increased as a function of cadmium concentration in the media. However, slow accumulation of cadmium in other protein fractions was also noticed in higher cadmium exposure groups, suggesting the existence of possible tolerance mechanisms in brine shrimp exposed to suspected acute cadmium concentrations.

  12. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  13. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a salt dome repository: a technical memorandum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kier, R.S.; Showalter, P.A.; Dettinger, M.D.

    1980-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes is a major environmental problem influencing further development of nuclear energy in this country. Salt domes in the Gulf Coast Basin are being investigated as repository sites. A major concern is geologic and hydrologic stability of candidate domes and potential transport of radionuclides by groundwater to the biosphere prior to their degradation to harmless levels of activity. This report conceptualizes a regional geohydrologic model for transport of radionuclides from a salt dome repository. The model considers transport pathways and the physical and chemical changes that would occur through time prior to the radionuclides reaching the biosphere. Necessary, but unknown inputs to the regional model involve entry and movement of fluids through the repository dome and across the dome-country rock interface and the effect on the dome and surrounding strata of heat generated by the radioactive wastes.

  14. Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Gulf Interior Region salt domes. [Richton, Vacherie, Cypress domes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Gulf Interior Region of the United States (Louisiana and Mississippi). Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Paradox Basin in Utah and Permian Basin in Texas) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in-situ testing of the salt. The in-situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homoqeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptural design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required.

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the first is the Surface Project, and the second is the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site known as the Vitro site, near Salt Lake City, Utah, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1985 to 1987. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. A risk assessment is the process of describing a source of contamination and showing how that contamination may reach people and the environment. The amount of contamination people or the environment may be exposed to is calculated and used to characterize the possible health or environmental effects that may result from this exposure. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Vitro site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Vitro site will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  16. Filling holes in regional carbon budgets: Predicting peat depth in a north temperate lake district

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    Filling holes in regional carbon budgets: Predicting peat depth in a north temperate lake district] Peat deposits contain on the order of 1/6 of the Earth's terrestrial fixed carbon (C), but uncertainty in peat depth precludes precise estimates of peat C storage. To assess peat C in the Northern Highlands

  17. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Great Lakes Region (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts identified by the study for the Great Lakes region.

  18. Decadal oscillation of lakes and aquifers in the upper Great Lakes region of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, Emily

    , Peking University, Beijing, China, 7 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University by changes in the net atmospheric flux of water (PÀ E) and stage-dependent outflow. The oscillation Pacific that support the flux of moisture into the region from the Gulf of Mexico. Recent data indicate

  19. Regional factors governing performance and sustainability of wastewater treatment plants in Honduras : Lake Yojoa Subwatershed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Kent B. (Kent Bramwell)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake Yojoa, the largest natural lake in Honduras, is currently experiencing eutrophication from overloading of nutrients, in part due to inadequate wastewater treatment throughout the Lake Yojoa Subwatershed. Some efforts ...

  20. Lake Ecosystems Nelson G Hairston Jr,Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fussman, Gregor

    to use in effective management. Introduction Lakes are inland bodies of water that lack any direct contained within these water bodies. Lakes may contain fresh or salt water (in arid regions). They may the boundaries between water and land, and water and air are distinct, there is tight coupling among many

  1. Regional Gravity Survey of the Northern Great Salt Lake Desert and Adjacent

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to:bJumpRedSeismic

  2. Aksaray And Ecemis Faults - Diapiric Salt Relationships- Relevance...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aksaray And Ecemis Faults - Diapiric Salt Relationships- Relevance To The Hydrocarbon Exploration In The Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey Jump to: navigation,...

  3. Spatial analysis of ice phenology trends across the Laurentian Great Lakes region during a recent warming period

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Canada Patricia A. Soranno Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1222 Kenton M. Stewart Department of Biological Science, State University of New YorkSpatial analysis of ice phenology trends across the Laurentian Great Lakes region during a recent

  4. Seismic stratigraphy and salt tectonics along the Sigsbee Escarpment, southeastern Green Canyon region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swiercz, Alan Mark

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Geophysics SEISItllC STRATIGHAPHY AND SALT TECTONICS ALONG THE 'ilGSHEL' L'SCARPMENT. SOI. THEASTERX GREEN CANYON RFGION A Thesis ALAN MARK SWIERCZ Approved as to style and content by: Earl... R. Hoskins (Chairman of Committee) Robert J. McCabe (Member) Gr M. arberg (Member) AVilliam R. Bryant ('Member) j~/ Earl R. Hoskins (Head of Department) December 1986 ABSTRAC'T Seismic Stratigraphy and Salt Tectonics along the Sigsbee...

  5. Housing Archetype Analysis for Home Energy-Efficient Retrofit in the Great Lakes Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S. K.; Mrozowski, T.; Harrell-Seyburn, A.; Ehrlich, N.; Hembroff, L.; Bieburn, B.; Mazor, M.; McIntyre, A.; Mutton, C.; Parsons, G.; Syal, M. G.; Wilkinson, R.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project report details activities and results of the 'Market Characterization' project undertaken by the Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) team targeted toward the DOE goal of achieving 30%-50% reduction in existing building energy use. CEER consists of members from the Dow Chemical Company, Michigan State University, Ferris State University and Habitat for Humanity Kent County. The purpose of this market characterization project was to identify housing archetypes which are dominant within Great Lakes region and therefore offer significant potential for energy-efficient retrofit research and implementation due to the substantial number of homes possessing similar characteristics. Understanding the characteristics of housing groups referred to as 'archetypes' by vintage, style, and construction characteristics can allow research teams to focus their retrofit research and develop prescriptive solutions for those structure types which are prevalent and offer high potential uptake within a region or market. Key research activities included; literature review, statistical analysis of national and regional data of the American Housing Survey (AHS) collected by the U.S. Census Bureau, analysis of Michigan specific data, development of a housing taxonomy of architectural styles, case studies of two local markets (i.e., Ann Arbor and Grand Rapids in Michigan) and development of a suggested framework (or process) for characterizing local markets. In order to gain a high level perspective, national and regional data from the U.S. Census Bureau was analyzed using cross tabulations, multiple regression models, and logistic regression to characterize the housing stock and determine dominant house types using 21 variables.

  6. In Situ Observations of Sediment Resuspension in a Non-Depositional Region of Southern Lake Michigan: A Comparison of Spring and Fall Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Episodic Events

    In Situ Observations of Sediment Resuspension in a Non-Depositional Region of Southern Lake-bottom conditions and sediment resuspension in Lake Michigan have concentrated on areas of high sediment deposition that the apparently recurrent winter-spring resuspension event (misnamed "plume") includes new material eroded from

  7. Seismic stratigraphy and salt tectonics of the East Breaks region, Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardiner, Wayne Bartlett

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Pleistocene inter~ale. Analysis of these maps suggests that a north-south trending depositional trough parallels the western edge of the massive dome province. Isochron interval maps show that the prograding Pleistocene shelf margin causes asymmetric.... Atwater and Forman (1959) present well data from oil fields in south Louisiana that show shale diapirism adjacent to, and rising above, salt cored structures. Bruce (1973) and Bishop (1977) both give seismic examples of' shale diapirism and show its...

  8. Midcontinent rift volcanism in the Lake Superior region: Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic evidence for a mantle plume origin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholson, S.W. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA) Univ. of Minnesota, MN (USA)); Shirey, S.B. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Between 1091 and 1098 Ma, most of a 15- to 20-km thickness of dominantly tholeiitic basalt erupted in the Midcontinent Rift System of the Lake Superior region, North American. The Portage Lake Volcanics in Michigan, which are the youngest MRS flood basalts, fall into distinctly high- and low-TiO{sub 2} types having different liquid lines of descent. Incompatible trace elements in both types of tholeiites are enriched compared to depleted or primitive mantle (La/Yb = 4.3-5.3; Th/Ta = 2.12-2.16; Zr/Y = 4.3-4.4), and both basalt types are isotopically indistinguishable. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of the Portage Lake tholeiites have {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr{sub i} {approx}0.7038, {epsilon}{sub Nd(1095 Ma)} {approx}0 {plus minus} 2, and {mu}{sub 1} {approx}8.2. Model ages with respect to a depleted mantle source (T{sub DM}) average about 1950-2100 Ma. Portage Lake rhyolits fall into two groups. Type I rhyolites have Nd and Pb isotopic characteristics ({epsilon}{sub Nd(1095 Ma)} {approx}0 to {minus}4.7; {mu}{sub 1} {approx}8.2-7.8) consistent with contamination of tholeiitic rocks by 5-10% Archean crust. The one type II rhyolite analyzed has Nd and Pb isotopic compositions ({epsilon}{sub Nd(1095 Ma)} {approx}{minus}13 to {minus}16; {mu}{sub 1} {approx}7.6-7.7) which are consistent with partial melting of Archean crust. Early Proterozoic crust was not a major contaminant of MRS rocks in the Lake Superior region. Most reported Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of MRS tholeiites from the main stage of volcanism in the Lake Superior region and of the Duluth Complex are comparable to the Nd and Pb isotopic data for Portage lake tholeiites. The isotopic enrichment of the MRS source compared to depleted mantle is striking and must have occurred at least 700 m.y. before 1100 Ma.

  9. Best Practices for Wind Energy Development in the Great Lakes Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Hummer, John; Haven, Celia

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report offers a menu of 18 different, yet complementary, preferred practices and policies. The best practices cover all phases of the wind energy development process - from the policies that allow for wind development, to the sustainable operation of a wind project, to the best practices for decommissioning a spent turbine - including applications for offshore wind. Each best practice describes the opportunities and challenges (pros and cons), and offers a case example that illustrates how that best practice is being utilized by a particular jurisdiction or wind project. The practices described in this publication were selected by a diverse group of interests from the Great Lakes Wind Collaborative that included environmental groups, industry, academia, and federal, state and local government regulators. The practices were identified through a year-long process that included a literature review, online survey and interviews with individuals from the public, private and non-profit sectors. Optimally, a suite of these best practices would be applied in an appropriate combination to fit the conditions of a particular wind project or a set of wind projects within a given locality or region.

  10. Regional efforts through the IJC to address contaminated bottom-sediment problems in the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kizlauskas, A.G.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Joint Commission (IJC) is a binational (United States and Canada) organization that was established under the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909. In 1978, the two countries signed a Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, pursuant to the Boundary Waters Treaty. Carrying out the provisions of this Agreement, the United States and Canada, through the IJC, are addressing the problem of contaminated bottom sediments both in the traditional context of dredging projects and in the newer context of the potentially harmful environmental impacts of contaminated bottom sediments, even in the absence of dredging activity.

  11. Supraglacial lakes on the Larsen B Ice Shelf, Antarctica, and Paakitsoq Region, Greenland: a comparative study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banwell, Alison F.; Caballero, Martamaria; Arnold, Neil S.; Glasser, Neil F.; Cathles, L. Mac; MacAyeal, Douglas R.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .epsl.2011.04.014. 427 Box, J. E., and K. Ski (2007), Remote sounding of Greenland supraglacial melt lakes: 428 implications for subglacial hydraulics, J. Glaciol., 53(181), 257–265, 429 doi:10.3189/172756507782202883. 430 Bromwich, D. H., J. P. Nicolas... , Geophys. Res. Lett., 39(16), L16504, 510 doi:10.1029/2012GL052413. 511 Mobley, C. D. (1994), Light and water: radiative transfer in natural waters. 512 Academic Press, San Diego, 592. 513 Phillips, H. A. (1998), Surface meltstreams on the Amery Ice...

  12. Best Practices for Sustainable WInd Energy Development in the Great Lakes Region and Beyond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Great Lakes Commission; Victoria Pebbles; John Hummer; Celia Haven

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This document offers a menu of 18 different, yet complimentary preferred practices and policies. The best practices cover all phases of the wind energy development process - from the policies that allow for wind development, to the sustainable operation of a wind project, to the best practices for decommissioning a spent turbine - including applications for offshore wind. The practices include those that have been previously tested and proven effective, as well as new practices that were identified by experts in the field as needed for future wind developments. Each best practice includes information about the opportunities and challenges (pros and cons), and offers a case example that illustrates how that best practice is being utilized by a particular jurisdiction or wind project. The practices described in this publication were selected by a diverse group of interests from the Great Lakes Wind Collaborative that included environmental groups, industry, and federal, state and local government regulators. They were identified through a year long process that included a literature review, online survey and interviews with individuals from the public, private and non-profit sectors.

  13. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Oak Ridge Reservation (USDOE) Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility, Oak Ridge, TN, July 7, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This documents presents a description of the selected remedy, which includes removing flush salt and fuel salt from their respective storage containers in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment facility, removing uranium from the salts, treating the uranium to form an oxide for safer storage, placing the uranium oxide into storage, containerizing the fuel and flush salts without uranium, and temporarily storing this salt at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory until final disposition of the salt.

  14. Evaluating the Economics of Best Management Practices for Tarrant Regional Water District’s Eagle Mountain Lake Watershed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jason L.

    manag e me n t unit of analys i s is one designated wetland project encompassing 20.6 acres. In-Lake BMPs Based on feedback from TRWD personne l , it was noted that BMP 20 (Hypolimnetic Aeration ) and BMP 21 (P Inactiva t i o n with Alum... years. The manage me n t unit of analysi s is one designa t e d hypol i mn e t i c aerat i o n proj ec t withi n the Eagle Mountai n Lake watersh e d . BMP 21 P Inactivation with Alum. T h e addition of powdered alum at variou s lake depths...

  15. Safety Evaluation Report: Development of a Novel Efficient Solid-Oxide Hybrid for Co-generation of Hydrogen and Electricity Using Nearby Resources for Local Applications, Materials and Systems Research, Inc. (MSRI), Salt Lake City, UT, February 17, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barilo, Nick F.; Frikken, Don; Skolnik, Edward G.; Weiner, Steven C.

    2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Following a telephone interview with Materials and Systems Research, Inc. (MSRI) by members of the Hydrogen Safety Panel on December 4, 2008, a safety review team was dispatched to Salt Lake City, UT to perform a site-visit review. The major topic of concern was the presence of a hydrogen storage and dispensing shed on the MSRI premises close to both its own laboratory/office building and to the adjoining property. The metal shed contains 36 cylinders (two 18-cylinder "pods") of hydrogen all connected to a common manifold and used to supply hydrogen to a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fuel cell project plus several other projects using an entire pod as a common supply. In busy times, MSRI uses and replaces one pod per week. As a result of the site visit, the safety review team has raised some concern with the shed’s location, design, use, and safety features as well as other components of the facility, including the laboratory area.

  16. Salt tectonism and seismic stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic in the Destin Dome Region, northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacRae, Grant

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Norphlet Formation (Bearden and Mink, 1989). Comprehensive high-quality multifold seismic reflection data have not previously been available for detailed seismic stratigraphic analysis in the Destin Dome region. Establishment of a seismic stratigraphic... DD-2 Destin Dome Exxon 162 17 938 P, V, G, S, SP, R, D DD-3 Destin Dome Sun Oil 166 17 608 P, V, G, S, SP, D DD-4 Destin Dome Gulf 360 20 988 P, V, G, S, SP, R, D DD-5 Destin Dome Chevron 422 22 222 V, G, S, SP, R, D DD-6 Destin Dome Sohio...

  17. Evaluating the Economics of Best Management Practices for Tarrant Regional Water District’s Eagle Mountain Lake Watershed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jason L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economics Texas A&M University and Texas AgriLife Extension Service Executive Summary The object i ve of this asses s me n t was to identi f y the most cost-e f f e c t i v e means of reduci n g (and/o r preven t i n g ) tota l phosph o r u s (TP...) inflow s into the Eagle Mountain Lake from a compr e h e n s i v e set of Best Manag e me n t Pract i c e s (BMPs ) . Additi o na l l y , the reduce d total nitrog e n (TN), and sedime n t inflow s result i n g from adoption of these BMPs was also...

  18. Temperature analysis for lake Yojoa, Honduras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chokshi, Mira (Mira K.)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake Yojoa is the largest freshwater lake in Honduras, located in the central west region of the country (1405' N, 88° W). The lake has a surface area of 82 km2, a maximum depth of 26 m. and an average depth of 16 m. The ...

  19. Physical Controls on Methane Ebullition from Reservoirs and Lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Cari

    Department of Geology and Geophysics, 135 South 1460 East, Room 719, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT the potential to cause blowouts during drilling operations as well as decreasing the geotechnical stability

  20. Geophysical (time domain electromagnetic model) delineation of a shallow brine beneath a freshwater lake,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gvirtzman, Haim

    groundwaters. It is hypothesized that salt transport is dominated by molecular diffusion in the central part streams entering the lake. This order of magnitude difference is a result of salt fluxes from two major cores and nineteen 0.5-m cores drilled to sediments within the lake basin (Figure 1). At the water

  1. Field Trip Guide to Serpentinite, Silica-Carbonate Alteration, and Related Hydrothermal Activity in the Clear Lake Region, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraser Goff; George Guthrie

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide is designed to familiarize scientists with the geology, structure, alteration, and fluids typical of California serpentinites for purposes of carbon dioxide sequestration (Lackner et al., 1995). Goff et al. (1997) and Goff and Lackner (1998) describe the geology and geochemistry of some of the serpentinites from this area. Mechanisms of silica-carbonate alteration were outlined by Barnes et al. (1973). Donnelly-Nolan et al. (1993) most recently reviewed relations between regional hydrothermal alteration and Quarternary volcanic activity. Stanley et al. (1998) summarized geophysical characteristics of the region.

  2. P3.17 DEVELOPMENT OF THE SECOND-GENERATION HYDROSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE RESEARCH MODEL (CHARM) FOR THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the prevailing wisdom remained that global warming leads to dropping lake levels. This pre- vailing wisdom, Michigan 1. INTRODUCTION* The question of what effect global warming might have on the amount of water to decreased net ba- sin water supply and lowered lake levels. More recently, Lofgren et al. (2002) carried out

  3. athabasca lake: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and heat exchanges that eventually can be coupled with a regional climate model. Preliminary results will be presented on how this lake model may improve the regional climate...

  4. Stantec Investigates Bat Activity in Atlantic and Great Lakes...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Maine, Great Lakes, and Mid-Atlantic coastal states regions to inform efforts to mitigate potential impacts associated with offshore wind energy development in these regions....

  5. Salt Waste Processing Initiatives

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1 Patricia Suggs Salt Processing Team Lead Assistant Manager for Waste Disposition Project Office of Environmental Management Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Initiatives...

  6. ORIGINAL PAPER An Equation of State for Hypersaline Water in Great Salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Great Salt Lake, Utah 810 Aquat Geochem (2011) 17:809­820 123 #12;more saline brine layer in the south arm, commonly referred to as the deep brine layer (DBL), is not subject to annual turnover and can

  7. Bottle Habitat Region: Great Lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to each bottle to minimize sand displacement. In each bottle, root three ten-centimeter elodea stalks period, have the students research pond ecology and the organisms involved in the project. 11. At the end you think would happen if the fish population doubled? Quadrupled?" or "What impact does temperature

  8. Salt never calls itself sweet.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baliga, Ragavendra R; Narula, Jagat

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    54. 11. Frohlich ED. The role of salt in hypertension: theblockade, diuretics, and salt restriction for the managementa low- sodium high-potassium salt in hypertensive patients

  9. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  10. Retrospective salt tectonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, M.P.A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

  11. The late Quaternary limnological history of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco, Shmuel "Shmulik"

    , indicating that the Dead Sea brine (which supports aragonite production) never reached or affected Lake; Stein, 2001). The salt dissolved in the lakes originated from the ancient Sedom brine, and freshwater mixed with the brine reflects 0033-5894/$ - see front matter D 2004 University of Washington. All rights

  12. Dosimetry using silver salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

  13. To Brunswick Folsom Lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MASONITE UPPER LAKE LUCERNE WILLIAMS MERIDAN CORTINA PEASE BARRY BOGUE OLIVEHURST HARTER Marysville Yuba

  14. NOVEL SALTS OF GRAPHITE AND A BORON NITRIDE SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartlett, Neil

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ i\\f'{y AND DOCUMENTS SECTION NOVEL SALTS OF GRAPHITE ANDA BORON NITRIDE SALT Neil Bartlett, R. N. Biagioni, B. W.privately owned rights. Novel Salts of Graphite and a Boron

  15. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  16. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  17. Water purification using organic salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  18. Method for the production of uranium chloride salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

  19. Lake Titicaca - Physics of an Inherited Hydropower Macroproject Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cathcart, R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shared almost evenly by Peru and Bolivia, Lake Titicaca is situated on an Altiplano endorheic region of the northern Andes Mountains. Rio Desaguadero is the lake only outlet. From 1908, several macro-engineers speculated on the creation of a second, completely artificial, outlet for Lake Titicaca freshwater. Here we reconsider several 20th Century macroproject proposals, with the goal of examining and enhancing this technically interesting South American 21st Century Macro-engineering inheritance.

  20. Lake Titicaca - Physics of an Inherited Hydropower Macroproject Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Cathcart; A. Bolonkin

    2007-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Shared almost evenly by Peru and Bolivia, Lake Titicaca is situated on an Altiplano endorheic region of the northern Andes Mountains. Rio Desaguadero is the lake only outlet. From 1908, several macro-engineers speculated on the creation of a second, completely artificial, outlet for Lake Titicaca freshwater. Here we reconsider several 20th Century macroproject proposals, with the goal of examining and enhancing this technically interesting South American 21st Century Macro-engineering inheritance.

  1. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  2. LAKE COLUSA SAN JOAQUIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEL NORTE SISKIYOU MODOC LASSEN BUTTE PLUMAS GLENN LAKE COLUSA SUTTER YUBA NEVADA SIERRA PLACER EL ¡¢ 1 0 1 "!9 6 Lake Tahoe HUMBOLDT TEHAMA MENDOCINO DEL NORTE SISKIYOU MODOC LASSEN BUTTE PLUMAS GLENN

  3. Growth and metal uptake of microalgae produced using salt groundwaters from the Bay of Bourgneuf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Growth and metal uptake of microalgae produced using salt groundwaters from the Bay of Bourgneuf production of microalgae. Salt groundwaters, available in this region, support a large part of four microalgae grown in two salt groundwaters or in enriched coastal seawater. Cultures of microalgae

  4. A LARGE SCALE CONTINUUM-DISCRETE NUMERICAL MODELLING: APPLICATION TO OVERBURDEN DAMAGE OF A SALT CAVERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A LARGE SCALE CONTINUUM-DISCRETE NUMERICAL MODELLING: APPLICATION TO OVERBURDEN DAMAGE OF A SALT damage on top of an underground solution mining, an in-situ experiment is undertaken above a salt cavity in the Lorraine region (NE of France). The overburden overlying the salt cavity is characterized by a competent

  5. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United States repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, helps define a clear strategy for a heat-generating nuclear waste repository in salt.

  6. National Science Foundation, Lake Hoare, Antarctica | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Science Foundation, Lake Hoare, Antarctica National Science Foundation, Lake Hoare, Antarctica Photo of a Photovoltaic System Located at Lake Hoare, Antarctica Lake Hoare...

  7. The precipitation response to the desiccation of Lake Chad

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauwaet D.; VanWeverberg K.; vanLipzig, N. P. M., Weverberg, K. V., Ridderb, K. D., and Goyens, C.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Located in the semi-arid African Sahel, Lake Chad has shrunk from a surface area of 25000 km2 in 1960 to about 1350 km2 due to a series of droughts and anthropogenic influences. The disappearance of such a large open-water body can be expected to have a noticeable effect on the meteorology in the surroundings of the lake. The impact could extend even further to the west as westward propagating convective systems pass Lake Chad in the rainfall season. This study examines the sensitivity of the regional hydrology and convective processes to the desiccation of the lake using a regional atmospheric model. Three Lake Chad scenarios are applied reflecting the situation in 1960, the current situation and a potential future scenario in which the lake and the surrounding wetlands have disappeared. The model simulations span the months July-September in 2006, which includes the rainfall season in the Lake Chad area. Total precipitation amounts and the components of the hydrological cycle are found to be hardly affected by the existence of the lake. A filled Lake Chad does, however, increase the precipitation at the east side of the lake. The model results indicate that the boundary layer moisture and temperature are significantly altered downwind of the lake. By investigating a mesoscale convective system (MCS) case, this is found to affect the development and progress of the system. At first, the MCS is intensified by the more unstable boundary layer air but the persistence of the system is altered as the cold pool propagation becomes less effective. The proposed mechanism is able to explain the differences in the rainfall patterns nearby Lake Chad between the scenarios. This highlights the local sensitivity to the desiccation of Lake Chad whereas the large-scale atmospheric processes are not affected.

  8. Dating the Glass Lake Dugout by Dendrochronology (NY State Museum #CN-37516)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Sturt

    Dating the Glass Lake Dugout by Dendrochronology (NY State Museum #CN-37516) Carol Griggs, Dendrochronology Lab, Cornell University, cbg4@cornell.edu The Glass Lake Dugout was found at the bottom of Glass for the Glass Lake Dugout (Figure 2B). The series was compared with other site and regional white pine

  9. Recipient: Lounty of Salt Lake ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    without NEPA approval from DOE. Upgrades and retrofits of Street Lights to LED (light emitting diode) B5.1 Waste Stream Clause. Additional Comments: Solar PV Systems need to be...

  10. RheologyBulletin Technical Program Salt Lake City, Utah USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the angular displacement measured at the start of a creep test, as a result of the coupling of instrument that the initial strain response of any real creep test is always quadratic in time, rather than the simple linear as undesirable, because inertia limits the ability to measure the theoretical creep response of an unknown test

  11. Salt Lake City, Utah: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to:RoscommonSBY SolutionsChangeOklahoma:OpenSalley, SouthEnergyJump

  12. Salt Lake City, Utah: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to:RoscommonSBY SolutionsChangeOklahoma:OpenSalley,

  13. Salt Lake County, Utah: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to:RoscommonSBY SolutionsChangeOklahoma:OpenSalley,County, Utah:

  14. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Salt_Lake

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling Corp -K Le Blond Machine0-03Rohm-

  15. Category:Salt Lake City, UT | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformationCashtonGo BackLocation Media in categorySRML

  16. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  17. Influence of Permian salt dissolution on distribution of shallow Niobrara gas fields, eastern Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldham, D.W.; Smosna, R.A. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface analysis of Permian salt and related strata in the shallow Niobrara gas area on the eastern flank of the Denver basin reveals that the location of faulted anticlines which produce gas from porous chalk is related to the occurrence of six Nippewalla Group (Leonardian) salt zones. Salt distribution is controlled by the configuration of evaporate basins during the Leonardian, truncation at a sub-Jurassic unconformity (which has completely removed Guadalupian salts), and post-Jurassic subsurface dissolution. Significant dissolution took place in response to Laramide orogeny and subsequent eastward regional groundwater flow within the Lyons (Cedar Hills) Sandstone aquifer. Initially, dissolution occurred along a regional facies change from sandstone to salt. Solution collapse allowed for cross-formational flow and removal of younger salts. Shallow Niobrara gas fields are situated above salt outliers or along regionally updip salt edges. No significant Niobrara production exists in areas where salt is absent. Structural relief across fields is related to Leonardian thickness variations, rather than subsalt offset. Seismic data reveal abrupt Leonardian thinning at the regionally updip limit of Eckley field, which has produced over 33 BCFG. Thickness of residual salt may be important in controlling the amount of gas trapped within the Niobrara. Where thick salts are preserved, structural relief is greater, the gas-water transition zone is thicker, and gas saturation is higher at the crests of faulted anticlines.

  18. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  19. Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, B.L.; Roelke, Daniel; Grover, James; Brooks, Bryan

    bloom level, occurred when 7-day accumulated inflows were <10 x 106 m3 for Lake Possum Kingdom, <20 x 106 m3 for Lake Granbury and conservatively <40 x 106 m3 for Lake Whitney. These bloom inflow-thresholds corresponded to system flushing rates of 0...-24 h at -20? C. Extracts were filtered (0.2 ?m) and injected (300 ul) into an HPLC system equipped with reverse-phase C18 columns in series (Rainin Microsorb-MV, 0.46 x 10 cm, 3mm, Vydac 201TP, 0.46 x 25cm, 5mm). A nonlinear binary gradient...

  20. Lake Improvement District Law and County Lake Improvement Program (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lake Improvement Districts may be established by county boards in order to “improve the quality of water in lakes; provide for reasonable assurance of water quantity in lakes, where feasible and...

  1. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  2. RECHARGEABLE MOLTEN-SALT CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    KC! /FeS 2 cell lithium-silicon magnesium oxide molten-saltmolten-salt cells Na/Na glass/Na:z.Sn-S cell Na/NazO•xA!Symposium on Molten Salts, Physical Electrochemistry

  3. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); Von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  4. APPLICATIONS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPLICATIONS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING iNlarine Biological Laboratory LIB55.A.K.Y WOODS HOLE, MASS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING By Robert E . Lennon and Phillip S . Parker Fishery Research Biologists Leetown. Electric fisliliiK. 2. Salt. i. Farker, Phillip Slieridaii, 192t>- .joiut author, ii. Title. ( Series : IT

  5. Texas' Natural Lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Texas A&M?s Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, said the summary report synthesizes the ?state of knowl- edge? about the geography, hydrology, ecology and environmental impacts affecting Caddo Lake and Big Cypress Creek. At the second...; and heavy metals, including mercury found in the lignite coal used to power electricity-generating plants, are accumulating in fish tissues. Texas? Natural Lake tx H2O | pg. 2 Research to help restore environmental flows to Caddo Lake Scientists...

  6. Lake Ontario Maritime Cultural Landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Benjamin L.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ........................................................................................... 64 Ice ................................................................................................... 66 Storms............................................................................................. 67 Lake Fauna and Ecology............................................................................... 342 Introduction .................................................................................... 342 Ephemeral Landscapes and Ice Roads ........................................... 342 Boundaries and the Pan-Lake Identity...

  7. Analysis of Multistage and Other Creep Data for Domal Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, D.E.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have existed for some time relatively sparse creep databases for a number of domal salts. Although all of these data were analyzed at the time they were reported, to date there has not been a comprehensive, overall evaluation within the same analysis framework. Such an evaluation may prove of value. The analysis methodology is based on the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) description of salt creep and the corresponding model parameters determined from conventional creep tests. The constitutive model of creep wss formulated through application of principles involved in micromechanical modeling. It was possible, at minimum, to obtain the steady state parameters of the creep model from the data on the domal salts. When this was done, the creep of the domal salts, as compared to the well-defined Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) bedded clean salt, was either essentially identical to, or significantly harder (more creep resistant) than WIPP salt. Interestingly, the domal salts form two distinct groups, either sofl or hard, where the difference is roughly a factor often in creep rate between the twcl groups. As might be expected, this classification corresponds quite well to the differences in magnitude of effective creep volume losses of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns as determined by the CAVEMAN cavern pressure history analysis, depending upon the specific dome or region within the dome. Creep response shoulcl also correlate to interior cavern conditions that produce salt falls. WMle, in general, the caverns in hard sah have a noticeably greater propensity for salt falls, a smaller number of similar events are exhibited even in the caverns in soft salt.

  8. Lake Region Electric Cooperative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groupsIllinois:

  9. Lake Region State College | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii9969995°,ILEDSGP/joinHavasuPalmdale Wind

  10. THE EFFECT OF LAKE ERIE WATER LEVEL VARIATIONS ON SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, Diane

    THE EFFECT OF LAKE ERIE WATER LEVEL VARIATIONS ON SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION A Thesis Presented regions of resuspension. In this study, areas of possible resuspension were examined for the heavily populated Cleveland, Ohio, region and for the entire lake. Areas of possible resuspension were identified

  11. Lake Baikal in southeastern Siberia,the "Sacred Sea,"incites strong emotions and action in Russia. In March 2006,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    this extraordinary lake,as the recent protests in Siberia illustrate. Among these stressors, climate change,we (a) describe contemporary climate change in the Lake Baikal region and future climate Climate Change, and most biotically diverse lake--is responding strongly to climate change, according to recent analyses

  12. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  13. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  14. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  15. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  16. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  17. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  18. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  19. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  20. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  1. Salt Repository Research,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome ton6 th US/German Workshop on Salt

  2. Salt Selected (FINAL)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements RecentlyElectronicResourcesjobsJuly throughR EMaterialsSafety,andWHY SALT

  3. Damage in porous media due to salt crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noushine Shahidzadeh-Bonn; Julie Desarnaud; François Bertrand; Xavier Chateau; Daniel Bonn

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the origins of salt damage in sandstones for the two most common salts: sodium chloride and sulfate. The results show that the observed difference in damage between the two salts is directly related to the kinetics of crystallization and the interfacial properties of the salt solutions and crystals with respect to the stone. We show that, for sodium sulfate, the existence of hydrated and anhydrous crystals and specifically their dissolution and crystallization kinetics are responsible for the damage. Using magnetic resonance imaging and optical microscopy we show that when water imbibes sodium sulfate contaminated sandstones, followed by drying at room temperature, large damage occurs in regions where pores are fully filled with salts. After partial dissolution, anhydrous sodium sulfate salt present in these regions gives rise to a very rapid growth of the hydrated phase of sulfate in the form of clusters that form on or close to the remaining anhydrous microcrystals. The rapid growth of these clusters generates stresses in excess of the tensile strength of the stone leading to the damage. Sodium chloride only forms anhydrous crystals that consequently do not cause damage in the experiments.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Molten Salt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    receiver technology is attractive because it can cost-effectively capture and store heat at higher ... Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a Tremendous Success On...

  5. The limnology of L Lake: Results of the L-Lake monitoring program, 1986--1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, J.A.

    1991-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    L Lake was constructed in 1985 on the upper regions of Steel Creek, SRS to mitigate the heated effluents from L Reactor. In addition to the NPDES permit specifications (Outfall L-007) for the L-Reactor outfall, DOE-SR executed an agreement with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), that thermal effluents from L-Reactor will not substantially alter ecosystem components in the approximate lower half of L Lake. This region should be inhabited by Balanced (Indigenous) Biological Communities (BBCs) in accordance with Section 316(a) of the Pollution Control (Clean Water) Act (Public Law 92-500). In response to this requirement the Environmental Sciences Section/Ecology Group initiated a comprehensive biomonitoring program which documented the development of BBCs in L Lake from January 1986 through December 1989. This report summarizes the principal results of the program with regards to BBC compliance issues and community succession in L Lake. The results are divided into six sections: water quality, macronutrients, and phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, and community succession. One of the prime goals of the program was to detect potential reactor impacts on L Lake.

  6. Lake Preservation (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The construction, reconstruction, recleaning, or repair of a dam, ditch, or other project is prohibited when the action is likely to lower the water level of a public freshwater lake, regulated or...

  7. A Thermodynamic Model for Predicting Mineral Reactivity in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: I. Phase Behavior of Carbon Dioxide - Water - Chloride Salt Systems Across the H2O-Rich to the CO2-Rich Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, Ronald D.; Wang, Zheming; Anderko, Andre; Wang, Peiming; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase equilibria in mixtures containing carbon dioxide, water, and chloride salts have been investigated using a combination of solubility measurements and thermodynamic modeling. The solubility of water in the CO2-rich phase of ternary mixtures of CO2, H2O and NaCl or CaCl2 was determined, using near infrared spectroscopy, at 90 atm and 40 to 100 °C. These measurements fill a gap in the experimental database for CO2 water salt systems, for which phase composition data have been available only for the H2O-rich phases. A thermodynamic model for CO2 water salt systems has been constructed on the basis of the previously developed Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte (MSE) framework, which is capable of modeling aqueous solutions over broad ranges of temperature and pressure, is valid to high electrolyte concentrations, treats mixed-phase systems (with both scCO2 and water present) and can predict the thermodynamic properties of dry and partially water-saturated supercritical CO2 over broad ranges of temperature and pressure. Within the MSE framework the standard-state properties are calculated from the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state whereas the excess Gibbs energy includes a long-range electrostatic interaction term expressed by a Pitzer-Debye-Hückel equation, a virial coefficient-type term for interactions between ions and a short-range term for interactions involving neutral molecules. The parameters of the MSE model have been evaluated using literature data for both the H2O-rich and CO2-rich phases in the CO2 - H2O binary and for the H2O-rich phase in the CO2 - H2O - NaCl / KCl / CaCl2 / MgCl2 ternary and multicompontent systems. The model accurately represents the properties of these systems at temperatures from 0°C to 300 °C and pressures up to ~4000 atm. Further, the solubilities of H2O in CO2-rich phases that are predicted by the model are in agreement with the new measurements for the CO2 - H2O - NaCl and CO2 - H2O - CaCl2 systems. Thus, the model can be used to predict the effect of various salts on the water content and water activity in CO2-rich phases on the basis of parameters determined from the properties of aqueous systems. Given the importance of water activity in CO2-rich phases for mineral reactivity, the model can be used as a foundation for predicting mineral transformations across the entire CO2/H2O composition range from aqueous solution to anhydrous scCO2. An example application using the model is presented which involves the transformation of forsterite to nesquehonite as a function of temperature and water content in the CO2-rich phase.

  8. Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy atLLC - FE DKT. 10-160-LNG - ORDERSTATE0-1of EnergyIndiaAsSalt LakeSalt

  9. The role of syn-kinematic sedimentation on early salt tectonic processes in the Post-Permian Salt Basin, Southern North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    - Permian salt basin of the southernmost North Sea using 3D seismic interpretation, structural modelling seismic interpretation will enable the kinematic analysis and reconstruction of the early Post training in tectonic basin modelling, seismic interpretation, regional tectonic analysis, kinematic

  10. The Lake Charles CCS Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Cathro

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lake Charles CCS Project is a large-scale industrial carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) project which will demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. Specifically the Lake Charles CCS Project will accelerate commercialization of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage from industrial sources by leveraging synergy between a proposed petroleum coke to chemicals plant (the LCC Gasification Project) and the largest integrated anthropogenic CO{sub 2} capture, transport, and monitored sequestration program in the U.S. Gulf Coast Region. The Lake Charles CCS Project will promote the expansion of EOR in Texas and Louisiana and supply greater energy security by expanding domestic energy supplies. The capture, compression, pipeline, injection, and monitoring infrastructure will continue to sequester CO{sub 2} for many years after the completion of the term of the DOE agreement. The objectives of this project are expected to be fulfilled by working through two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive project basis for a competitive Renewal Application process to proceed into Phase 2 - Design, Construction and Operations. Phase 1 includes the studies attached hereto that will establish: the engineering design basis for the capture, compression and transportation of CO{sub 2} from the LCC Gasification Project, and the criteria and specifications for a monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) plan at the Hastings oil field in Texas. The overall objective of Phase 2, provided a successful competitive down-selection, is to execute design, construction and operations of three capital projects: (1) the CO{sub 2} capture and compression equipment, (2) a Connector Pipeline from the LLC Gasification Project to the Green Pipeline owned by Denbury and an affiliate of Denbury, and (3) a comprehensive MVA system at the Hastings oil field.

  11. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selectionmore »and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.« less

  12. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

  13. Palaeoenvironmental evolution of Lake Gacko (Southern Bosnia and Herzegovina): Impact of the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum on the Dinaride Lake System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Palaeoenvironmental evolution of Lake Gacko (Southern Bosnia and Herzegovina): Impact of the Middle, Elektroprivreda Republike Srpske, Industrijska zona bb, 89240 Gacko, Bosnia and Herzegovina d Isotope Geochemistry evolution of the region. Lake Gacko, situated in southern Bosnia and Herzegovina, is one of the constituent

  14. Independent Oversight Assessment, Salt Waste Processing Facility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Salt Waste Processing Facility Project - January 2013 January 2013 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project The U.S. Department...

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: molten salt test loop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    molten salt test loop Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar ThermalMolten Salt Energy-Storage Demonstration On May 21, 2014, in Capabilities, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy...

  16. Lake Ontario Maritime Cultural Landscape 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Benjamin L.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Lake Ontario Maritime Cultural Landscape project was to investigate the nature and distribution of archaeological sites along the northeast shoreline of Lake Ontario while examining the environmental, ...

  17. Lake restoration by dredging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorini, R.F.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a summary overview of the $17 million Vancouver Lake Restoration Project, the largest project of its type ever undertaken through the Federal Clean Lakes Program. It was funded jointly by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, and the Port of Vancouver. Although the project was conceived in 1965, a nationwide program to help fund such projects did not exist until 1976. Then, final approval was not received until 1981, after many volumes of studies and reviews. Construction was completed in June 1983, after 30 months--6 months ahead of schedule and underbudget. A great deal of time, money, and energy was expended to demonstrate to Federal and state environmental agencies that dredging was a key tool in effecting this lake's restoration.

  18. A LIMNOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE FINGER LAKES OF NEW YORK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569 Heat supply of the smaller lakes

  19. Lakes_Elec_You

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM toLEDControl Concept | DepartmentLakeLakes,

  20. A fractal-based approach to lake size-distributions David A. Seekell,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Michael L.

    A fractal-based approach to lake size-distributions David A. Seekell,1 Michael L. Pace,1 Lars J in regional and global biogeochemical processes. Lakes are fractal but do not always conform to the power law size-distribution typically associated with fractal geographical features. Here, we evaluate

  1. Great Lakes Ice Thickness Data Rescue Primary Investigator: Raymond Assel -NOAA/GLERL (Emeritus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Great Lakes Ice Thickness Data Rescue Primary Investigator: Raymond Assel - NOAA/GLERL (Emeritus) Overview Ice cover is an important environmental factor affecting physical and biological processes in the coastal region of the Great Lakes. However, computerized ice thickness data along the shores of the Great

  2. Pressure-State-Response in Land Resource Changes, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Pressure-State-Response in Land Resource Changes, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia Birru Yitaferu, Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Ethiopia; Hans Hurni, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, Switzerland; Gete Zeleke, Global Mountain Program, Ethiopia Lake Tana Basin (LTB

  3. Landscape influences on climate-related lake shrinkage at high latitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    reservoirs of carbon. Here, using a population of ca. 2300 lakes with statistically significant increasing-related declines in lake area have been identified across circumpolar regions and have been characterized-reaching ecosystem services along migratory routes. Net declining trends have also been characterized by spatial

  4. Evolution of supra-glacial lakes across the Greenland Ice Sheet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sundal, Aud

    2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We used 268 cloud-free Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images spanning the melt seasons 2003 and 2005-2007 to study the seasonal evolution of supra-glacial lakes in three different regions of the Greenland ice sheet. Lake area...

  5. NAME: Salt Creek Estuary Restoration LOCATION: Salt Creek Watershed, Clallam County, Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    NAME: Salt Creek Estuary Restoration LOCATION: Salt Creek Watershed, Clallam County, Washington Federal funds $0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Salt Creek Estuary Reconnection project will significantly enhance tidal and fluvial hydrology to 22.5 acres of salt marsh, which will return the salt marsh to its

  6. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, Vol. 91, No.5, 2 February 2010, P-Jges 41-42 Severe Ice Cover on Great Lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ice Cover on Great Lakes DuringWinter 2008-2009 The North American Great Lakes contain about 95. Because of this concentration of pop- ulation, the ice cover that forms on the Great Lakes each winter and its year-la-year vari- ability affect the regional economy [Niimi, 1982]. Ice cover also affects

  7. EVIDENCE OF CORROSIVE GAS FORMED BY RADIOLYSIS OF CHLORIDE SALTS IN PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion and pitting have been observed in headspace regions of stainless steel containers enclosing plutonium oxide/salt mixtures. These observations are consistent with the formation of a corrosive gas, probably HCl, and transport of that gas to the headspace regions of sealed containers. The NH{sub 4}Cl films found on the walls of the sealed containers is also indicative of the presence of HCl gas. Radiolysis of hydrated alkaline earth salts is the probable source of HCl.

  8. Lake Survey DETROIT, MICH.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . DEPARTMENT OF' COMMERCE National Ouanic and Atmospheric Admlnl,trltion National OeUII SUI"II, Great Lakes Ice ................. .... ............. . $l'.iUllary ice charts ..............·.......·................. Area ice charts - winter 1971-72 ......... . ,, Table Tabl e l.--Ice 2.--Key to ice chart sy

  9. Northwestern Indiana Regional Planning Commission (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NIRPC is a regional council of local governments serving the citizens of Lake, Porter, and LaPorte counties in Northwest Indiana. NIRPC provides a forum that enables the citizens of Northwest...

  10. Development of the Great Lakes Ice-circulation Model (GLIM): Application to Lake Erie in 20032004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of the Great Lakes Ice-circulation Model (GLIM): Application to Lake Erie in 2003: Received 4 May 2009 Accepted 30 November 2009 Communicated by Dr. Ram Yerubandi Index words: Coupled Ice-Ocean Model Ice modeling Lake ice cover Ice thickness Ice speed Lake surface temperature Great Lakes Lake Erie

  11. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in cavern sealing and operation. The MDCF model is used in three simulations of field experiments in which indirect measures were obtained of the generation of damage. The results of the simulations help to verify the model and suggest that the model captures the correct fracture behavior of rock salt. The model is used in this work to estimate the generation and location of damage around a cylindrical storage cavern. The results are interesting because stress conditions around the cylindrical cavern do not lead to large amounts of damage. Moreover, the damage is such that general failure can not readily occur, nor does the extent of the damage suggest possible increased permeation when the surrounding salt is impermeable.

  12. Great Lakes ports coal handling capacity and export coal potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, A.H. Jr.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was developed to determine the competitive position of the Great Lakes Region coal-loading ports in relation to other US coastal ranges. Due to the congestion at some US Atlantic coastal ports US coal producers have indicated a need for alternative export routes, including the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System. The study assesses the regions coal handling capacity and price competitiveness along with the opportunity for increased US flag vessel service. A number of appendices are included showing major coal producers, railroad marketing representatives, US vessel operators, and port handling capacities and throughput. A rate analysis is provided including coal price at the mine, rail rate to port, port handling charges, water transportation rates to western Europe, Great Lakes route versus the US Atlantic Coast ports.

  13. Salt Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: An integrated genomics approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    machinery against salt-induced damage in Synechococcus.Lactobacillus plantarum to salt and nonelectrolyte stress. Jregulation of acid, heat, and salt tolerance in Escherichia

  14. Salt Dynamics in Non-Riparian Freshwater Wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stacey, Mark T

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resources Center Project “Salt Dynamics in Non-RiparianTechnical Completion Report “Salt Dynamics in Non-Riparianindicate that the flux of salt between the soil and water

  15. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  16. Rend Lake College celebrates the opening of a new coal miner training facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal Miner Training Center at Rend Lake College recently hosted the Illinois Mining Institute's annual conference and a regional mine rescue competition. The article gives an outline of the coal miner training and refresher course offered. 3 photos.

  17. NAWS-China Lake Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the NAWS-China Lake Project at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting, held on November 18-19, 2009.

  18. White Bear Lake Conservation District (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes the White Bear Lake Conservation District, which has the authority to set water and land use regulations for the area around White Bear Lake.

  19. Salt dome discoveries mounting in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ericksen, R.L. [Mississippi Office of Geology, Jackson, MS (United States)

    1996-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Exploratory drilling around piercement salt domes in Mississippi has met with a string of successes in recent months. Exploration of these salt features is reported to have been initiated through the review of non-proprietary, 2D seismic data and subsurface control. This preliminary data and work were then selectively upgraded by the acquisition of additional, generally higher quality, conventional 2D seismic lines. This current flurry of successful exploration and ensuing development drilling by Amerada Hess Corp. on the flanks of salt domes in Mississippi has resulted in a number of significant Hosston discoveries/producers at: Carson salt dome in Jefferson Davis County; Dry Creek salt dome in Covington County, Midway salt dome in lamar County, Monticello salt dome in Lawrence County, and Prentiss salt dome in Jefferson Davis County. The resulting production from these fields is gas and condensate, with wells being completed on 640 acre production units.

  20. Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles Print Wednesday, 06 February 2013 00:00 Particles or aerosols can be directly released...

  1. First Robert Stobie SALT Workshop Science with SALT Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 2, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bershady, Matthew A.

    First Robert Stobie SALT Workshop Science with SALT Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 2, 2004 D.A.H. Buckley Galaxy Kinematics with SALT M. A. Bershady1, M. A. W. Verheijen2, D. R. Andersen3, R. A. Swaters4-gathering power of SALT coupled with the high-throughput performance of the Prime Focus Imaging Spec- trograph

  2. Salt marsh geomorphology: Physical and ecological effects on landform Keywords: salt marsh geomorphology; AGU Chapman Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    Editorial Salt marsh geomorphology: Physical and ecological effects on landform Keywords: salt marsh geomorphology; AGU Chapman Conference Evidence that the three-dimensional structure of salt marsh, and the ratio of marsh edge:marsh interior have all been shown to affect the distribution and density of salt

  3. 8, 7194, 2008 Sea salt aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 71­94, 2008 Sea salt aerosol refractive indices R. Irshad et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Laboratory measurements of the optical properties of sea salt aerosol R. Irshad 1 , R. G. Grainger salt aerosol refractive indices R. Irshad et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  4. Expected near-field thermal performance for nuclear waste repositories at potential salt sites: Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNulty, E.G.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal analyses were made for the environmental assessments of seven potential salt sites for a nuclear waste repository. These analyses predicted that potential repository sites in domal salts located in the Gulf Coast will experience higher temperature than those in bedded salts of Paradox and Palo Duro Basins, mainly because of higher ambient temperatures at depth. The TEMPV5 code, a semi-analytical heat transfer code for finite line sources, calculated temperatures for commercial high-level waste (CHLW) and spent fuel from pressurized-water reactors (SFPWR). Benchmarks with HEATING6, THAC-SIP-3D, STEALTH, and SPECTROM-41 showed that TEMPV5 agreed closely in the very near field around the waste package and approximately in the near-field and far-field regions of the repository. The analyses used site-specific thermal conductivities that were increased by 40% to compensate for reductions caused by testing technique, salt impurities, and other heterogeneities, and sampling disturbance. Analyses showed peak salt temperatures of 236/sup 0/C (CHLW) and 134/sup 0/C (SFPWR) for the bedded salt and 296/sup 0/C (CHLW) and 180/sup 0/C (SFPWR) for the domal salt. Analyses with uncorrected laboratory thermal conductivities would increase peak salt temperatures by about 120/sup 0/C for CHLW and about 60/sup 0/C for SFPWR. These temperature increases would increase the thermally induced flow of brine and accelerate corrosion of the waste package. 30 refs., 35 figs., 48 tabs.

  5. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  6. An urban lake remediation experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castelli, S.E.; Gardner, K.H.; Jennings, A.A.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Circumstances provided the opportunity to study a small urban lake as the surrounding municipalities attempted to improve its aesthetic quality by dredging. This manuscript focuses primarily on the sediments in the system: accumulation rates, the expected dynamics of the lake bed drying process, and the influence of the sediments on water quality.

  7. Dry Creek salt dome, Mississippi Interior Salt basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Ericksen, R.L.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent drilling of salt dome flanks in the Mississippi Salt basin has resulted in important new discoveries and the opening of a frontier play. This play is focused on gas/condensate reserves in several Cretaceous formations, most notably the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw and lower Tuscaloosa intervals and Lower Cretaceous Paluxy and Hosston formations. As many as eight domes have been drilled thus far; sandstones in the upper Hosston Formation comprise the primary target. Production has been as high as 3-5 Mcf and 500-1200 bbl of condensate per day, with estimated ultimate reserves in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 MBOE (million barrels oil equivalent) per well. As typified by discovery at Dry Creek salt dome, traps are related to faulting, unconformities, and updip loss of permeability. Previous drilling at Dry Creek, and in the basin generally, avoided the flank areas of most domes, due to geologic models that predicted latestage (Tertiary) piercement and breached accumulations. Recent data from Dry Creek and other productive domes suggest that growth was episodic and that piercement of Tertiary strata did not affect deeper reservoirs charged with hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous.

  8. Radar investigation of the Hockley salt dome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hluchanek, James Andrew

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Geophysics RADAR INVESTIGATION OF THE HOCKLEY SALT DOME A Thesis by UAMES ANDREW HLUCHANEK A'pproved as to style and content by: (Head of Departme t ? Member) May 1. 973 ABSTRACT Radar investigation of the Hockley Salt Dome. . (Nay, 1973) James... Andrew Hluchanek, B. S. , Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. Robert R. Unterberger Radar probing through salt was accomplished at 17 radar stations established in the United Salt Company mine at Hockley, Texas. The top of the salt dom is mapped...

  9. An empirical correlation between the enthalpy of solution of aqueous salts and their ability to form hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandelov, S.; Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pilles, Bert M.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of aqueous salt solutions to form hydrates by cooling them at ambient pressure is probed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy by examining the structure of the spectra in the hydrogen-bonding region (3,000 - 3,800 cm-1). A collection of 75 organic and inorganic salts in saturated solutions are examined. We have found a correlation between the enthalpy of solution of the salt and its ability to form a hydrate, namely that the salt’s enthalpy of solution is lower than the standard enthalpy of fusion of ice (6 kJ/mol). This observation can serve as an empirical rule that determines whether a salt will form a hydrate upon cooling from its aqueous solution.

  10. Geologic technical assessment of the Chacahoula Salt Dome, Louisiana, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snider, Anna C.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant, Lovelady, TX)

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chacahoula salt dome, located in southern Louisiana, approximately 66 miles southwest of New Orleans, appears to be a suitable site for a 160-million-barrel-capacity expansion facility for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, comprising sixteen 10-million barrel underground storage caverns. The overall salt dome appears to cover an area of some 1800 acres, or approximately 2.8 square miles, at a subsea elevation of 2000 ft, which is near the top of the salt stock. The shallowest known salt is present at 1116 ft, subsea. The crest of the salt dome is relatively flatlying, outward to an elevation of -4000 ft. Below this elevation, the flanks of the dome plunge steeply in all directions. The dome appears to comprise two separate spine complexes of quasi-independently moving salt. Two mapped areas of salt overhang, located on the eastern and southeastern flanks of the salt stock, are present below -8000 ft. These regions of overhang should present no particular design issues, as the conceptual design SPR caverns are located in the western portion of the dome. The proposed cavern field may be affected by a boundary shear zone, located between the two salt spines. However, the large size of the Chacahoula salt dome suggests that there is significant design flexibility to deal with such local geologic issues.

  11. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300oC, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  12. Oakland Sub-Area Folsom Lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UPPER LAKE LUCERNE WILLIAMS MERIDAN CORTINA PEASE BARRY BOGUE OLIVEHURST HARTER Marysville Yuba City

  13. Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source:Additions to Capacity ForYear Jan7. Average Cost8.2.4.5.

  14. Sedimentation rates and depositional processes in Lake Superior from /sup 210/Pb geochronology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J.E. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis); Johnson, T.C.; Alexander, E.C., Jr., Lively, R.S.; Eisenreich, S.J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sedimentation rates range from 0.01 to 0.32 cm/yr in 17 sediment box cores from Lake Superior, as determined by /sup 210/Pb geochronology. Shoreline erosion and resuspension of nearshore sediments causes moderate to high (0.05-0.11 cm/yr) sedimentation rates in the western arm of Lake Superior. Sedimentation rates are very high (> 0.15 cm/yr) in marginal bays adjoining Lake Superior; and moderate to very high (0.07-0.19 cm/yr) in open lake regions adjacent to marginal bays. Resuspension of nearshore and shoal top sediments in southern and southeastern Lake Superior by storms is responsible for depositional anomalies in /sup 210/Pb profiles corresponding to 1905, 1916-1918, and 1940 storms. Sedimentation rates are very low (0.01-0.03 cm/yr) in the central basins due to isolation from sediment sources. These data indicate that sedimentation rates and processes vary significantly in different regions of Lake Superior. The sedimentation rates provided by this study, in conjunction with previously-reported sedimentation rates, yield a better understanding of the Lake Superior depositional environment.

  15. Global Change and Mountain Lakes: Establishing Nutrient Criteria and Critical Loads for Sierra Nevada Lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heard, ANDREA Michelle

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the summer and fall of 2011 at Emerald Lake (EML) and Marblethe summer and fall of 2011 at Emerald Lake (EML) and Marble

  16. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  17. Interior cavern conditions and salt fall potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myers, R.E. [Strategic Petroleum Reserve, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A relatively large number of salt caverns are used for fluid hydrocarbon storage, including an extensive set of facilities in the Gulf Coast salt domes for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Attention is focused on the SPR caverns because of available histories that detail events involving loss and damage of the hanging string casing. The total number of events is limited, making the database statistically sparse. The occurrence of the events is not evenly distributed, with some facilities, and some caverns, more susceptible than others. While not all of these events could be attributed to impacts from salt falls, many did show the evidence of such impacts. As a result, a study has been completed to analyze the potential for salt falls in the SPR storage caverns. In this process, it was also possible to deduce some of the cavern interior conditions. Storage caverns are very large systems in which many factors could possibly play a part in casing damage. In this study, all of the potentially important factors such as salt dome geology, operational details, and material characteristics were considered, with all being logically evaluated and most being determined as secondary in nature. As a result of the study, it appears that a principal factor in determining a propensity for casing damage from salt falls is the creep and fracture characteristics of salt in individual caverns. In addition the fracture depends strongly upon the concentration of impurity particles in the salt. Although direct observation of cavern conditions is not possible, the average impurity concentration and the accumulation of salt fall material can be determined. When this is done, there is a reasonable correlation between the propensity for a cavern to show casing damage events and accumulation of salt fall material. The accumulation volumes of salt fall material can be extremely large, indicating that only a few of the salt falls are large enough to cause impact damage.

  18. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established.

  19. Factors influencing algal biomass in hydrologically dynamic salt ponds in a subtropical salt marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Carrie J.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    by channels and shallow ponds that are subject to flooding by winds, tides, and storm surges. Coastal salt marshes are widely regarded as zones of high macrophyte productivity. However, microalgae may contribute more to salt marsh productivity than previously...

  20. Noncentrosymmetric salt inclusion oxides: Role of salt lattices and counter ions in bulk polarity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, J. Palmer [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States); Hwu, Shiou-Jyh, E-mail: shwu@clemson.edu [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis and structural features of a newly emerged class of salt-inclusion solids (SISs) are reviewed. The descriptive chemistry with respect to the role of ionic salt and its correlation with bulk noncentrosymmetricity and polarity of the covalent oxide lattice in question is discussed by means of structure analysis. These unprecedented discoveries have opened doors to novel materials synthesis via the utilities of salt-inclusion chemistry (SIC) that are otherwise known as the molten-salt approach. The result of these investigations prove that the bulk acentricity, or cancellation of which, can be accounted for from the perspective of ionic and/or salt lattices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis and structure of newly emerged salt-inclusion solids are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt lattice and its symmetry correlation with polar framework are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preservation of acentricity is accounted for from the perspective of ionic and salt lattices.

  1. Solubility of hydrocarbons in salt water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Lin, X. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the design and operation of industrial processes, physical and thermodynamic property data are required. Increasingly stringent regulations are making water solubility of substances even more critical. Water solubility data of naphthenes, or cycloalkanes, is applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations, including water without salt to water saturated with salt. The results are intended for use in initial engineering and environmental applications. Solubility values from the correlation are useful in determining the distribution of a hydrocarbon spill on its contact with sea water. Solubility values at other salt concentrations also may be computed. Results are presented for water solubility of hydrocarbons (naphthenes) as a function of salt concentration (log(S) = A + BX + CX[sup 2]). The correlation constants, A, B and C, are displayed in an easy-to-use tabular format that is applicable for rapid engineering use with the personal computer or hand-held calculator. The results for solubility in salt water are applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations. This range covers water without salt, X = 0, to water saturated with salt, X = 358,700 ppM(wt). Correlation and experimental results are in favorable agreement.

  2. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  3. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Tempe, AZ)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  4. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stührenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  5. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  6. Great Lakes Water Level Statistics Primary Investigator: Cynthia Sellinger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Great Lakes Water Level Statistics Primary Investigator: Cynthia Sellinger Overview Extreme Great disruption throughout the Great Lakes system. Reliable lake level frequency distributions are a critical of monthly lake levels reflect secular changes in connecting channel hydraulics, watershed hydrologic

  7. Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landoll, Michael 1984-

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . Mixtures of calcium carboxylate salts were thermally decomposed at 450 degrees C. Low lime-to-salt ratios (g Ca(OH)2/g salt) of 0.00134 and less had a negligible effect on ketone yield. In contrast, salts with higher lime-to-salt ratios of 0.00461, 0.0190...

  8. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, Ernest A.

    2003-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objectives are improving access to information for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin by inventorying data files and records of the major information repositories in the region, making these inventories easily accessible in electronic format, increasing the amount of information available on domestic sedimentary basins through a comprehensive analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, and enhancing the understanding of the petroleum systems operating in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin.

  9. SPR salt wall leaching experiments in lab-scale vessel : data report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Stephen Walter; O'Hern, Timothy John; Hartenberger, Joel David

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During cavern leaching in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), injected raw water mixes with resident brine and eventually interacts with the cavern salt walls. This report provides a record of data acquired during a series of experiments designed to measure the leaching rate of salt walls in a labscale simulated cavern, as well as discussion of the data. These results should be of value to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models used to simulate leaching applications. Three experiments were run in the transparent 89-cm (35-inch) ID diameter vessel previously used for several related projects. Diagnostics included tracking the salt wall dissolution rate using ultrasonics, an underwater camera to view pre-installed markers, and pre- and post-test weighing and measuring salt blocks that comprise the walls. In addition, profiles of the local brine/water conductivity and temperature were acquired at three locations by traversing conductivity probes to map out the mixing of injected raw water with the surrounding brine. The data are generally as expected, with stronger dissolution when the salt walls were exposed to water with lower salt saturation, and overall reasonable wall shape profiles. However, there are significant block-to-block variations, even between neighboring salt blocks, so the averaged data are considered more useful for model validation. The remedial leach tests clearly showed that less mixing and longer exposure time to unsaturated water led to higher levels of salt wall dissolution. The data for all three tests showed a dividing line between upper and lower regions, roughly above and below the fresh water injection point, with higher salt wall dissolution in all cases, and stronger (for remedial leach cases) or weaker (for standard leach configuration) concentration gradients above the dividing line.

  10. The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion in Aqueous Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annunziata, Onofrio

    The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion of salt stoichiometry on the transport properties of lysozyme-salt aqueous mixtures. We find that the two cross-diffusion coefficients are very sensitive to salt stoichiometry. One of the cross

  11. Energy Budget-Based Simulation of Evapotranspiration from Land in the Great Lakes Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Budget-Based Simulation of Evapotranspiration from Land in the Great Lakes Basin Primary-available data for change in net radiative energy for land surfaces in the same region in the same general energy available in this region according to the corresponding GCM. Thus there is a mismatch: While air

  12. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 8): Murray Smelter, Murray City, UT, April 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Murray Smelter Site (``the Site``) is located in the city of Murray, Utah, in Salt Lake County. The remedial action described in this ROD addresses contaminated groundwater, the subsurface soil which is the source of ground water contamination, contaminated surface soils, and the surface water of Little Cottonwood Creek.

  13. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  14. Modeling of Porous Electrodes in Molten-Salt Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, John

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Porous Electrodes in Molten-Salt Systems^ John Newmanon High-Temperature Molten Salt B a t - teries, Argonneby the modeling of molten-salt cells, including some

  15. THE MECHANISM OF INTRAGRANULAR MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machiels, A.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Brine Inclusions in a Salt Repository", ORM. -5526 (JulyOF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT A.J. Machiels, S. Yagnik, D.R.OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT by A.J. Machiels S. Yagnik D.R.

  16. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in Light of SNO Salt Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beta Decay in Light of SNO Salt Data Hitoshi Murayama andBeta Decay in Light of SNO Salt Data Hitoshi Murayama ? andIn the SNO data from its salt run, probably the most signi?

  17. THERMAL GRADIENT MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yagnik, S.K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT Suresh K. Yagnik February 1982 TOF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT by Suresh K. Yagnik Materialsb u i l t in future. The salt deposits, however, are known

  18. Advances in alleviating growth limitations of maize under salt stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during the first phase of salt stress. J. Appl. Bot. 2004;during the first phase of salt stress. J. Plant Nutr. SoilC, Hartung W, Schubert S. Salt resistance is determined by

  19. Salt glacier and composite sediment-salt glacier models for the emplacement and early burial of allochthonous salt sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, R.C.; Hudec, M.R.; Watson, I.A. [Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Allochthonous salt sheets in the northern Gulf of Mexico were emplaced as extrusive {open_quotes}salt glaciers{close_quotes} at the sediment-water interface. Massive dissolution was suppressed by a thin carapace of pelagic sediments. During emplacement, several hundred meters of bathymetric relief restricted rapid sedimentation to outside the glacial margins. The glaciers acted as sediment dams, influencing the transport and deposition of sediment from an upslope source. Because of contemporaneous sedimentation, the base of the glaciers climbed upward in all directions away from their feeder stocks, and successive sedimentary horizons were truncated against it. The local slope at the base of the sheets is equal to the local rate of sedimentation divided by the local rate of salt advance. Alternating episodes of slow and rapid sedimentation gave rise to a basal salt surface of alternating flats and ramps, which are preserved. Many salt sheets have nearly circular map patterns but are strongly asymmetric. Feeder stocks occur near upslope edges, and base-of-salt slopes are greater updip of the feeder. The asymmetry is due to more rapid sedimentation at the upslope edge and to slower advance induced by the smaller hydraulic head between the salt fountain and the upslope edge compared to the downslope edge. Rapid emplacement of the Mickey salt sheet (Mitchell dome) from a preexisting salt stock took {approximately}4 m.y, as {approximately}1 km of sediment was deposited. A three-dimensional geomechanical model for the rapid salt emplacement yields the following relationship for the diapir`s downdip radius versus time: R(t) {approx} Mt{sup q} {approx} B[({rho} - {rho}{sub w})gK{sup 3} / {eta}]{sup 1/8}t{sup q}, where M, q, b, and K are constants related to salt supply into the sheet, {rho} and {rho}{sub w} are the densities of salt water, g is the acceleration of gravity, {eta} is salt viscosity, and t is a model time extrapolated back to zero sheet volume at t = 0.

  20. Lakes and Rivers Improvement Act (Ontario, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Lakes and Rivers Improvement Act proscribes the management, protection, preservation and use of the waters of the lakes and rivers of Ontario and the land under them. The Act also details...

  1. Recreational Lake and Water Quality Districts (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Territory contiguous to a recreational lake may be incorporated into a recreational lake and water quality district if such action is conducive to the public health, comfort, convenience, water...

  2. Restoration of cross sections above intrusive salt domes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, R.C.; Groshong, R.H. Jr. (Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States))

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The applicability of bed-length restoration to the sequence above a vertical intrusion of salt was tested on an experimental model that included deposition of units during uplift. Restoration of the model resulted in an apparently unbalanced cross section due to excess bed length in the pre-growth interval. The excess bed length was due to significant internal strain. For a correct restoration, it is thus important to distinguish between the growth and pre-growth sequences. The thinning index, which quantifies the thinning onto the uplift, aids in making this distinction. A thinning index vs. depth curve has a sharp inflection at the top of the pre-growth sequence. The pre-growth sequence is restored by area balancing. The growth sequence deforms mainly by formation of a crestal graben, with little other strain. Sequential restoration of growth intervals shows the growth history of the dome. When applied to the Pool Creek salt dome from the Mississippi Interior Salt basin, the methods developed for the model served to separate the pre-growth from the growth sequence and to indicate a growth history of vertical intrusion changing through time to vertical intrusion plus regional extension.

  3. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Salt Cavern Storage Reservoir...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Source: PB Energy Storage Services Inc....

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: molten salt energy storage demonstration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    molten salt energy storage demonstration Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar ThermalMolten Salt Energy-Storage Demonstration On May 21, 2014, in Capabilities, Concentrating Solar Power,...

  5. Enterprise Assessments Review of the Savannah River Site Salt...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Quality and Startup Test Plans - June 2015 Enterprise Assessments Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste...

  6. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants, seeks to determine whether the inorganic fluids (molten salts) offer a sufficient...

  7. Development Wells At Salt Wells Area (Nevada Bureau of Mines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salt Wells Area (Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Development Wells At Salt Wells Area...

  8. Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes...

  9. New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

  10. Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic Efficiency of Lithium Electrode. Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic...

  11. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salt Wells Area (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salt Wells Area (Shevenell & Garside, 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells...

  12. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Penn Salt Manufacturing...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Salt Manufacturing Co Whitemarsh Research Laboratories - PA 20 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: PENN SALT MANUFACTURING CO., WHITEMARSH RESEARCH LABORATORIES (PA.20) Eliminated from...

  13. Characterization of Organic Coatings on Hygroscopic Salt Particles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Coatings on Hygroscopic Salt Particles and their Atmospheric Impacts. Characterization of Organic Coatings on Hygroscopic Salt Particles and their Atmospheric Impacts....

  14. Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste Processing Facility Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste Processing Facility October...

  15. acid salt solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  16. asse ii salt: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  17. alkaline salt solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  18. avery island salt: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  19. alkaline salt solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  20. alkyl ammonium salts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  1. alkali salt deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  2. aluminium salt cakes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  3. aminodifluorosulfinium tetrafluoroborate salts: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  4. aqueous salt systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  5. aromatic diazonium salts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  6. alkyl ester salts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  7. allylic silanolate salts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  8. alternative salt processing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  9. Energy Department Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech Republic for Advanced Reactor Research Energy Department Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech Republic for Advanced...

  10. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Salt Waste Processing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project - February 2013 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project - February 2013...

  11. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Parsons Corp., Salt...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Parsons Corp., Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project - May 2014 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Parsons Corp., Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction...

  12. Climate Change and Variability Lake Ice, Fishes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    #12;Climate Change and Variability Lake Ice, Fishes and Water Levels John J. Magnuson Center to everything else." #12;The Invisible Present The Invisible Place Magnuson 2006 #12;Ice-on Day 2007 Peter W. Schmitz Photo Local Lake Mendota #12;Ice Breakup 2010 Lake Mendota March 20 #12;March 21 Ice Breakup 2010

  13. Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, D.E.

    1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimentally determined creep responses of a number of domal salts have been reported in, the literature. Some of these creep results were obtained using standard (conventional) creep tests. However, more typically, the creep data have come from multistage creep tests, where the number of specimens available for testing was small. An incremental test uses abrupt changes in stress and temperature to produce several time increments (stages) of different creep conditions. Clearly, the ability to analyze these limited data and to correlate them with each other could be of considerable potential value in establishing the mechanical characteristics of salt domes, both generally and specifically. In any analysis, it is necessary to have a framework of rules to provide consistency. The basis for the framework is the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) constitutive model. This model utilizes considerable general knowledge of material creep deformation to supplement specific knowledge of the material response of salt. Because the creep of salt is controlled by just a few micromechanical mechanisms, regardless of the origin of the salt, certain of the material parameters are values that can be considered universal to salt. Actual data analysis utilizes the methodology developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program, and the response of a bedded pure WIPP salt as the baseline for comparison of the domal salts. Creep data from Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Bayou Choctaw, and Big Hill salt domes, which are all sites of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, were analyzed, as were data from the Avery Island, Moss Bluff, and Jennings salt domes. The analysis permits the parameter value sets for the domal salts to be determined in terms of the M-D model with various degrees of completeness. In turn this permits detailed numerical calculations simulating cavern response. Where the set is incomplete because of the sparse database, reasonable assumptions permit the set to be completed. From the analysis, two distinct response groups were evident, with the salts of one group measurably more creep resistant than the other group. Interestingly, these groups correspond well with the indirectly determined creep closure of the SPR storage caverns, a correlation that probably should be expected. Certainly, the results suggest a simple laboratory determination of the creep characteristics of a salt material from a dome site can indicate the relative behavior of any potential cavern placed within that dome.

  14. Measurements of radio propagation in rock salt for the detection of high-energy neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amy Connolly; Abigail Goodhue; Christian Miki; Ryan Nichol; David Saltzberg

    2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of the transmission of radio/microwave pulses through salt in the Cote Blanche salt mine operated by the North American Salt Company in St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. These results are from data taken in the southwestern region of the 1500 ft. (457 m) deep level of the mine on our third and most recent visit to the mine. We transmitted and received a fast, high-power, broadband pulse from within three vertical boreholes that were drilled to depths of 100 ft. (30 m) and 200 ft. below the 1500 ft. level using three different pairs of dipole antennas whose bandwidths span 125 to 900 MHz. By measuring the relative strength of the received pulses between boreholes with separations of 50 m and 169 m, we deduce the attenuation of the signal attributed to the salt medium. We fit the frequency dependence of the attenuation to a power law and find the best fit field attenuation lengths to be 93 \\pm 7 m at 150 MHz, 63 \\pm 3 m at 300 MHz, and 36 \\pm 2 m at 800 MHz. This is the most precise measurement of radio attenuation in a natural salt formation to date. We assess the implications of this measurement for a future neutrino detector in salt.

  15. Threat of a sinkhole: A reevaluation of Cavern 4, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Linn, J.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R. [Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States)

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cavern Lake at Bayou Choctaw salt dome resulted from the failure of Cavern 7 in 1954. Uncontrolled solutioning of this cavern through the thin caprock had set the stage for overburden to collapse into the cavern below. A similar situation developed with nearby Cavern 4, but with less dissolutioning of the caprock. Because pressure loss was already a problem and because another 800 ft diameter lake would have endangered surface operations, solutioning of Cavern 4 was stopped and the cavern abandoned in 1957 in order to protect the already-small site. In 1978 the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) acquired a number of caverns at Bayou Choctaw, including Cavern 4, and the possible repeat of the Cavern 7 failure and formation of another lake thus became an issue. The cavern dimensions were re-sonared in 1980 for comparison with 1963 and 1977 surveys. Annual surface leveling between 1982--1992 showed less subsidence occurring than the site average, and a cavern monitoring system, installed in 1984, has revealed no anomalous motion. Repeat sonar surveys in 1992 showed very little, if any, change occurred since 1980 although a small amount of uncertainty exists as a result of changing sonar techniques. We conclude that significant additional solutioning or erosion of the caprock has not occurred and that there is no increased threat to SPR operations.

  16. Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer equipment designs. All of the data discussed above were taken under forced convective conditions (both laminar and turbulent). Some recent data taken at ORNL under free convection conditions are also presented and results discussed. This data was taken using a simple crucible experiment with an instrumented nickel heater inserted in the salt to induce natural circulation within the crucible. The data was taken over a temperature range of 550oC to 650oC in FLiNaK salt. This data covers both laminar and turbulent natural convection conditions, and is compared to existing forms of natural circulation correlations.

  17. SOUTH CARIBOO 2011 Williams Lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    , Spectra Energy Transmission Bursaries for Aboriginal Students Jinny Donovan UNBC Scholars Award Cassandra First-year students (left to right) Emmaline Hanet of Williams Lake, and Allison Matfin of Lone Butte University Way · Prince George, BC, Canada V2N 4Z9

  18. Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Henrys Lake, located in southeastern Idaho, is a large, shallow lake (6,600 acres, {approx} 17.1 feet maximum depth) located at 6,472 feet elevation in Fremont Co., Idaho at the headwaters of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River. The upper watershed is comprised of high mountains of the Targhee National Forest and the lakeshore is surrounded by extensive flats and wetlands, which are mostly privately owned. The lake has been dammed since 1922, and the upper 12 feet of the lake waters are allocated for downriver use. Henrys Lake is a naturally productive lake supporting a nationally recognized ''Blue Ribbon'' trout fishery. There is concern that increasing housing development and cattle grazing may accelerate eutrophication and result in winter and early spring fish kills. There has not been a recent thorough assessment of lake water quality. However, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is currently conducting a study of water quality on Henrys Lake and tributary streams. Septic systems and lawn runoff from housing developments on the north, west, and southwest shores could potentially contribute to the nutrient enrichment of the lake. Many houses are on steep hillsides where runoff from lawns, driveways, etc. drain into wetland flats along the lake or directly into the lake. In addition, seepage from septic systems (drainfields) drain directly into the wetlands enter groundwater areas that seep into the lake. Cattle grazing along the lake margin, riparian areas, and uplands is likely accelerating erosion and nutrient enrichment. Also, cattle grazing along riparian areas likely adds to nutrient enrichment of the lake through subsurface flow and direct runoff. Stream bank and lakeshore erosion may also accelerate eutrophication by increasing the sedimentation of the lake. Approximately nine streams feed the lake (see map), but flows are often severely reduced or completely eliminated due to irrigation diversion. In addition, subsurface flows can occur as a result of severe cattle grazing along riparian areas and deltas. Groundwater and springs also feed the lake, and are likely critical for oxygen supply during winter stratification. During the winter of 1991, Henrys Lake experienced low dissolved oxygen levels resulting in large fish kills. It is thought that thick ice cover combined with an increase in nutrient loads created conditions resulting in poor water quality. The Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, DEQ is currently conducting a study to determine the water quality of Henrys Lake, the sources contributing to its deterioration, and potential remedial actions to correct problem areas.

  19. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet materialmore »in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically « less

  20. Novel coordination geometries in fluoroaluminate salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herron, N.; Harlow, R.L.; Thorn, D.L. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Comp., Wilmington, DE (United States))

    1993-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Two tetramethylammonium salts of new fluoroaluminate species have been crystallographically characterized and reveal structural motifs previously unknown for such species. The elusive tetrahedral [AlF[sub 4][sup [minus

  1. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

  2. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

  3. SALT---Structured Assertion Language for Temporal Logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leucker, Martin

    SALT---Structured Assertion Language for Temporal Logic Andreas Bauer, Martin Leucker,leucker,streit}@informatik.tu­muenchen.de Abstract. This paper presents Salt. Salt is a general purpose speci­ fication and assertion language other formalisms used for temporal specification of properties, Salt does not target a specific domain

  4. SALT--Structured Assertion Language for Temporal Logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SALT--Structured Assertion Language for Temporal Logic Andreas Bauer, Martin Leucker , and Jonathan,leucker,streit}@informatik.tu-muenchen.de Abstract. This paper presents Salt. Salt is a general purpose speci- fication and assertion language other formalisms used for temporal specification of properties, Salt does not target a specific domain

  5. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks Geoffrey is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling

  6. SALT CREEK ROADWI-80North STADIUMDRIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powers, Robert

    thSt. 0thSt. 1thSt. 2thSt. 3thSt. 4thSt. . t. 10 SALT CREEK ROADWI-80North 10THSTREET 14THSTREET W STADIUM DRIVE PARKING GARAGE 9thSt. 10thSt. 11thSt. 12thSt. 13thSt. 14thSt. 16thSt. 10thSt. SALT CREEK

  7. Salt tolerance of grasses for range seeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Francis Stephen

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 0 bars with polyethylene glycol. Emergence and rate of growth were measured for caryopses planted in an artificially salinized soil where the osmotic tensions of the saturated extract were the same as those of the salt solu- tions during..., chloride, and sulfate i n the saturated extract were measured by ti tration (Richards et al. , 1954). The mechanical analyses were taken from unpublished data of the Fanning et al. , 1965. Movement of salts was studied in Catarina, Montell...

  8. Salt Tolerance of Guayule (Parthenium argentatum).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyamoto, S.; Davis, J.; Madrid, L.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TDOC Z TA245 .7 8873 NO.1651 ---- Salt Tolerance of yUayu{e ~" y r , B -1651 The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station? Charles J. Arntzen, Director? The Texas A&M University System? College Station, Texas (Blank Pille In Origblll...BUUetlal? . "! . . . " k ? ..... . . - ... Salt Tolerance of Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) by s. Miyamoto J. Davis L. Madrid 1 1 Professor, former research technician, and graduate assistant, respectively, Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at EI...

  9. The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1909-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ERIME .-- - --- - -- BULLETIN NO. izz. June, 1909. THE EFFECT OF SALT WATE ON RICE, LAPS, Che Postoffice College Station, 1 --- Texas. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT S I'ATIONS. OFFICERS. GOVERNING BOARD. (Board of Directors A. and M... is Col- lege Station, Texas. Reports and bulletins are sent upon application to the Director. The Effect of Salt Water on Rice. . ...... By G. S. FRAPS. At some of the rice farms located near the coast, the amount of water lxml~etl is sometimes...

  10. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  11. Salt as non-food 1 Salt as a `non-food': to what extent do gustatory perceptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Salt as non-food 1 Salt as a `non-food': to what extent do gustatory perceptions determine non chloride. In the same vein, the present utilisation of salt in cooked foods throughout the world led several scientists to consider that salt is a basic and compulsory part of the human diet and that our

  12. ASCE World Water and Environmental Resources Congress Salt Lake City, Utah USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitt, Robert E.

    inlet devices, and recommend important features to optimize their performance. Case studies are also............................................................................................................................................................2 Bellevue Catchbasin Monitoring Study............................................................................................................................................................ 14 #12;2 Abstract This presentation summarizes the results from past and recent studies of catchbasin

  13. Department of Metallurgical Engineering University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    in the context of the new NSF-Design of Engineering Materials for the Future project Opportunities for PhD Fellowships & Post-doctoral Positions Research on Materials Design and Processing of Multiclass Structural Materials The Metallurgical Engineering

  14. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rev. 1. Berkeley, CA. California Energy Commission (CEC).1994. “Technology Energy Savings Volume II: BuildingPrototypes”. California Energy Commission Report P300-94-

  15. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simulated energy and power savings from HIR strategies byStrategies References . Appendix A, Simulated Energythe use of HIR strategies to reduce cooling energy use in

  16. Continuous Commissioning® of the Matheson Courthouse in Salt Lake City, Utah 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Hood, J.; Butler, M.; Healy, R. K.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nominal 180?F water to the building year round. The water temperature was lowered to 155?-160?F, which was as low as the boiler controls would allow. 5) Add a new boiler controller and turn off boiler in summer. These two recommendations are still...

  17. Geosynthetics 2009 February 25-27 2009, Salt Lake City, Utah

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    centrifuge tests suggest that the inclination angle of failure plane is less than that one calculated based equilibrium analyses shows a good agreement with the experimental data from centrifuge tests conducted) performed a comprehensive series of centrifuge model tests on narrow GRS wall systems. Woodruff (2003

  18. Steroids in sediments from Zabuye Salt Lake, western Tibet: diagenetic, ecological or climatic signals?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polly, David

    diagenesis and climate signals. Steroids, including sterols and sterenes, dominate the soluble organic matter to the biogeochemical change of organic matter during early diagenesis. 4,4-dimethyl spirosterenes and their possible rocks, as well as crude oils. Diagenesis of the organic matter occurring in waters and sediments

  19. Salt Lake Community College | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements RecentlyElectronicResourcesjobsJuly throughR EMaterialsSafety,and

  20. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Salt Lake City AEC Ore Buying Station

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling Corp -K Le Blond Machine0-03Rohm- UT

  1. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Salt Lake City Vitro Chemical - UT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling Corp -K Le Blond Machine0-03Rohm- UT0-04

  2. 2011 APS-DPP Poster Session, Salt Lake City, UT | Princeton Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruary 2004August 2011 Wed, 08/31/2011Center

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNewPropaneEVsFacilityPowers

  4. Low temperature oxidation using support molten salt catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W.; Czerpak, Peter J.; Hilbert, Patrick M.

    2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten salt reactions are performed by supporting the molten salt on a particulate support and forming a fluidized bed of the supported salt particles. The method is particularly suitable for combusting hydrocarbon fuels at reduced temperatures, so that the formation NO.sub.x species is reduced. When certain preferred salts are used, such as alkali metal carbonates, sulfur and halide species can be captured by the molten salt, thereby reducing SO.sub.x and HCl emissions.

  5. NBP RFI: Communications Requirements- Comments of Lake Region Electric

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement of theTechno-economic Evaluation ofCooperative- Minnesota |

  6. Lake Region Electric Assn, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou NewKorea PartsLLNLLaizhou Luneng Wind

  7. Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ.of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

  8. Preservation of a Pristine Lake for Future Generations: Llanquihue Lake, X Region, Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delorenzo, Angela; Colibri, Mariana

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tahoe RTP/SCS Draft EIR/EIS. 2012. Ascent Environmental.Tahoe RTP/SCS Draft EIR/EIS. 2012. Ascent Environmental.Tahoe RTP/SCS Draft EIR/EIS. 2012. Ascent Environmental .

  9. J. Great Lakes Res. 33 (Special Issue 3):211223 Internat. Assoc. Great Lakes Res., 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorcas, Michael E.

    , coastal wetlands, Great Lakes. *Corresponding author. E-mail: hower@uwgb.edu 211 #12;212 Price et al

  10. Great Lakes Steel -- PCI facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichinger, F.T. [BMH Claudius Peters AG, Buxtehude (Germany); Dake, S.H.; Wagner, E.D.; Brown, G.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the planning, design, and start-up of the 90 tph PCI facility for National Steel`s Great Lakes Steel Division in River Rouge, MI. This project is owned and operated by Edison Energy Services, and was implemented on a fast-track basis by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Babcock Material Handling, and Babcock and Wilcox. This paper presents important process issues, basic design criteria, an the challenges of engineering and building a state-of-the-art PCI facility in two existing plants. Pulverized coal is prepared at the River Rouge Power Plant of Detroit Edison, is pneumatically conveyed 6,000 feet to a storage silo at Great Lakes Steel, and is injected into three blast furnaces.

  11. CLEAR LAKE BASIN 2000 PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LAKE COUNTY SANITATION DISTRICT

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The following is a final report for the Clear Lake Basin 2000 project. All of the major project construction work was complete and this phase generally included final details and testing. Most of the work was electrical. Erosion control activities were underway to prepare for the rainy season. System testing including pump stations, electrical and computer control systems was conducted. Most of the project focus from November onward was completing punch list items.

  12. Developing Great Lakes Ice Model (GLIM) using CIOM (Coupled Ice-Ocean Model) in Lake Erie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Developing Great Lakes Ice Model (GLIM) using CIOM (Coupled Ice- Ocean Model) in Lake Erie Primary of the ice-ocean models, assistance with development of project reports and scientific presentations will first start the implementation of the CIOM in Lake Erie, assemble satellite observations of ice cover

  13. Temperature Influence on Commercial Lake Whitefish Harvest in Eastern Lake Michigan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Temperature Influence on Commercial Lake Whitefish Harvest in Eastern Lake Michigan Holly Price1 of Statistics University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 2Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 3NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental

  14. J. Great Lakes Res. 25(4):663682 Internat. Assoc. Great Lakes Res., 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inventories and Mercury Profiles from Lake Superior: Evidence for Mining Impacts W. Charles Kerfoot*,1, Sandra size of Lake Superior, were sediment profiles at locations far offshore impacted by nearshore activi, copper, mining, mercury, sediment. 663 INTRODUCTION The Great Lakes ecosystem is susceptible to loading

  15. Borehole locations on seven interior salt domes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simcox, A.C.; Wampler, S.L.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is designed as an inventory of all wells known to have been drilled within a five-mile radius of each of seven salt domes within the Interior Salt Basin in east Texas, northern Louisiana and Mississippi. There are 72 boreholes that entered salt above an elevation of -3000 feet mean sea level. For these, details of location, drilling dates, depth of casing and cement, elevation of top of caprock and salt, etc., are given on tables in the appendix. Of the seven domes, Oakwood has the largest number of boreholes, thirty-eight (including two sidetracked wells) that enter the salt stock above -3000 feet mean sea level; another dome in northeast Texas, Keechi, has eight; in northern Louisiana, Rayburn's has four and Vacherie has five; in southern Mississippi, Cypress Creek has seven, Lampton has one, and Richton has nine. In addition, all wells known outside the supra-domal area, but within a five-mile radius of the center of the 7 domes are separately catalogued.

  16. Toxic and deadly: Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic and deadly Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury Lake Granbury, located about 33 miles southwest of Fort Worth, is a recreation haven for water enthusiasts. In recent years, however, bacteria and golden algae have threatened the lake...?s water quality. Educating citizens about water quality issues affecting Lake Granbury and determining ways to manage the deadly algae are the focus of two Texas Water Resources Institute (TWRI) projects. Lake Granbury, a critical water supply...

  17. Toxic and deadly: Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic and deadly Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury Lake Granbury, located about 33 miles southwest of Fort Worth, is a recreation haven for water enthusiasts. In recent years, however, bacteria and golden algae have threatened the lake...?s water quality. Educating citizens about water quality issues affecting Lake Granbury and determining ways to manage the deadly algae are the focus of two Texas Water Resources Institute (TWRI) projects. Lake Granbury, a critical water supply...

  18. Disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts from the Molten Salt Reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peretz, F.J.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is an 8 MW reactor that was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1965 through 1969. The reactor used a unique liquid salt fuel, composed of a mixture of LIF, BeF{sub 2}, ZrF{sub 4}, and UF{sub 4}, and operated at temperatures above 600{degrees}C. The primary fuel salt circulation system consisted of the reactor vessel, a single fuel salt pump, and a single primary heat exchanger. Heat was transferred from the fuel salt to a coolant salt circuit in the primary heat exchanger. The coolant salt was similar to the fuel salt, except that it contains only LiF (66%) and BeF, (34%). The coolant salt passed from the primary heat exchanger to an air-cooled radiator and a coolant salt pump, and then returned to the primary heat exchanger. Each of the salt loops was provided with drain tanks, located such that the salt could be drained out of either circuit by gravity. A single drain tank was provided for the non-radioactive coolant salt. Two drain tanks were provided for the fuel salt. Since the fuel salt contained radioactive fuel, fission products, and activation products, and since the reactor was designed such that the fuel salt could be drained immediately into the drain tanks in the event of a problem in the fuel salt loop, the fuel salt drain tanks were provided with a system to remove the heat generated by radioactive decay. A third drain tank connected to the fuel salt loop was provided for a batch of flush salt. This batch of salt, similar in composition to the coolant salt, was used to condition the fuel salt loop after it had been exposed to air and to flush the fuel salt loop of residual fuel salt prior to accessing the reactor circuit for maintenance or experimental activities. This report discusses the disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salt.

  19. american great lakes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    polynorphismsobserved among the North American Great Lakes ciscoes suggest that this fish group has Bernatchez, Louis 2 Great Lakes CiteSeer Summary: Grant realized an...

  20. Hyperspectral Imaging At Fish Lake Valley Area (Littlefield ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish Lake Valley Area (Littlefield & Calvin, 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Hyperspectral Imaging At Fish Lake Valley Area...

  1. VALUE DISTRIBUTION ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT IN LAKE COUNTY, CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Churchman, C.W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eleven: Lake County Geothermal Energy Resource. . . .of Susanville, Susanville Geothermal Energy Project Workshopparts of the state. Geothermal energy is only one of Lake

  2. ancylus lake age: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    North Entrance of the University's Lake Honduras Iraq Israel Japan Korea Kuwait Libya Peru Saudi Arabia Taiwan Thailand Turkey Ukraine United Pilyugin, Sergei S. 46 Mirror Lake...

  3. Obama Administration and Great Lakes States Announce Agreement...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Obama Administration and Great Lakes States Announce Agreement to Spur Development of Offshore Wind Projects Obama Administration and Great Lakes States Announce Agreement to Spur...

  4. Holocene Paleohydrology of the tropical andes from lake records

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, M. B., LLNL

    1997-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Two century-scale time series in northern Bolivia constrain the ages of abrupt changes in the physical, geochemical, and biological characteristics of sediments obtained from lakes that formed during deglaciation from the late Pleistocene glacial maximum. The watersheds of Laguna Viscachani (16{degrees}12`S, 68{degrees}07`W, 3780m) and Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota (16{degrees}13`S, 68{degrees}21`W, 4300m), located on the eastern and western slopes of the Cordillera Real, respectively, contain small cirque glaciers. A high-resolution chronology of the lake sediments is provided by 23 AMS {sup 14}C dates of discrete macro-fossils. Late Pleistocene glaciers retreated rapidly, exposing the lake basins between 10,700 and 9700 {sup 14}C yr B.P. The sedimentary facies suggest that after 8900 {sup 14}C B.P. glaciers were absent from the watersheds and remained so during the middle Holocene. An increase in the precipitation-evaporation balance is indicated above unconformities dated to about 2300 {sup 14}C yr B.P. in both Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota and Laguna Viscachani. An abrupt increase in sediment accumulation rated after 1400 {sup 14}C yr B.P. signals the onset of Neoglaciation. A possible link exists between the observed millennial-scale shifts in the regional precipitation- evaporation balance and seasonal shifts in tropical insolation.

  5. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  6. Molecular-Based Mechanisms of Mendelian Forms of Salt-Dependent Hypertension: Questioning the Prevailing Theory.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurtz, TW; Dominiczak, AF; DiCarlo, SE; Pravenec, M; Morris, RC

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inherited disorders of renal salt homeostasis: Insights fromof Mendelian Forms of Salt-Dependent Hypertension:AC. Hypertension caused by salt loading in the dog. 3. Onset

  7. Effect of Salt Stress on Purslane and Potential Health Benefits: Oxalic Acid and Fatty Acids Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, Isabel S.; Teixeira, Mónica; Brodelius, Maria

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IS. 2009. Effects of salt stress on purslane (Portulacaacid concentration occurs when the salt stress concentrationfor higher concentration of salt in both purslanes. In GL

  8. Control of Soluble Salts in Farming and Gardening.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longenecker, D. E.; Lyerly, P. J.

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    waters pass through beds of salt, dissolving appreciable quantities before they emerge and enter the rivers. Ocean waters, much too salty for irrigation, contain about 3 percent salt, or about 40 tons of salt per acre-foot of water... ater are applied each year are shown in Table 2. Salts I (.in ilrcnmulate very rapidly. The water containing 1 ton of jdt per acre-foot is generally considered to be good ,I~,~lit\\* water, yet in 2 years enough salt could accumu- I,ltr to harm salt...

  9. Lake-effect snowfall in Western New York and surface temperatures of Lakes Erie and Ontario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrella, William

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - tures (' F) 39 A comparison of mean monthly lake ? surface temperatures and their standard deviations (' F) for Lakes Erie and Ontario 45 Estimates o f Lake Erie average monthly ice cover, percent, 1962-1968 (after Derecki, 1975) 50 Correlation... on such cities as Buffalo and Watertown. Buffalo, perched at the eastern end of Lake Erie, received over 16 ft of snow from November through April, nearly 6 ft of which fell during January alone. At Watertown, situated on the eastern shore of Lake Ontario...

  10. Method for using salt deposits for storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, M. W.; Voorhees, E. J.

    1984-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for developing, evacuating, using, sealing, and re-entering multiple stacked cavities which are created from a single well in salt deposits. The cavities are created in a salt deposit by circulating raw water through concentric casing strings in the well. Each of the cavities is evacuated of liquids prior to use. After storage material is injected into a cavity, the cavity is sealed by setting a plug in the well bore above the top of the cavity. The cavities may be re-entered by drilling out the plug or by drilling a directional well directly into the cavity.

  11. The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1927-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mq A QTF *'. ' . - - . 1 bC1 r*. .. r * - .=.-ksl-, G v $. THE EFFECT OF SALT WATER ON RICE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President \\ STATION ,,,bfINISTRATION: *B. YOUNGBLOOD, M. S., Ph. D.,, Director A B CONNER... of Agriculture. ****In cooperation with the School of Agriculture. SYNOPSIS Rice farmers sometimes have trouble with salt in the water used for irrigation. Varying conditions, such as character of soil, amount of water already on the land, stage of growth...

  12. Lake Ronkonkoma, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groupsIllinois:Lake Region Electric CooperativeRonkonkoma,

  13. Lake San Marcos, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groupsIllinois:Lake Region Electric

  14. Lake Shore, Maryland: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groupsIllinois:Lake Region ElectricShore, Maryland: Energy

  15. Lake Shore, Utah: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groupsIllinois:Lake Region ElectricShore, Maryland:

  16. Lake Telemark, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groupsIllinois:Lake Region ElectricShore,

  17. Lake View, Alabama: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groupsIllinois:Lake Region ElectricShore,Alabama: Energy

  18. Lake View, Maine: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groupsIllinois:Lake Region ElectricShore,Alabama:

  19. Lake Wazeecha, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groupsIllinois:Lake Region ElectricShore,Alabama:Wazeecha,

  20. Lake Worth Corridor, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groupsIllinois:Lake Region

  1. Lake Worth, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groupsIllinois:Lake RegionWorth, Florida: Energy Resources

  2. Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groupsIllinois:Lake RegionWorth, Florida: Energy

  3. Lakes by the Bay, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groupsIllinois:Lake RegionWorth,Lakemore, Ohio:

  4. Ice Cover on the Great Lakes NATIONALOCEANIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ice Cover on the Great Lakes NATIONALOCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM ER CE Great Lakes Ice Cover facts since 1973 - 94.7% ice coverage in 1979 is the maximum on record - 9.5% ice coverage in 2002 is the lowest on record - 11.5% ice coverage in 1998, a strong El Nino

  5. LAKE MICHIGAN'S TRIBUTARY AND NEARSHORE FISH HABITATS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    7 LAKE MICHIGAN'S TRIBUTARY AND NEARSHORE FISH HABITATS Edward S. Rutherford1 Background, the Lake Michigan LaMP was developed to comply with provisions in the GLWQA and to guide management-ranging, cooperative effort to design and implement a strategy for the 1 E.S. Rutherford. University of Michigan School

  6. Tank 41-H salt level fill history 1985 to 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, R.H.

    1996-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The fill rate of the evaporator drop waste tank (i.e., salt tank) at Savannah River Site contained in the Waste Management Technology (WMT) monthly data record is based upon a simple formula that apportioned 10 percent of the evaporator output concentrate to the salt fill volume. Periodically, the liquid level of the salt tank would be decanted below the salt level surface and a visual inspection of the salt profile would be accomplished. The salt volume of the drop tank would then be corrected, if necessary, based upon the visual elevation of the salt formation. This correction can erroneously indicate an excess amount of salt fill occurred in a short time period. This report established the correct fill history for Tank 41H.

  7. Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : from high breeding to simplified reprocessing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : from high breeding to simplified reprocessing L. Mathieu, D. Heuer, A- ceptable. The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) may contribute to solve these problems. The thorium cycle

  8. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Salt Marsh Vegetation across Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Daehyun

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Biogeographic patterns across a landscape are developed by the interplay of environmental processes operating at different spatial and temporal scales. This research investigated dynamics of salt marsh vegetation on the Skallingen salt marsh...

  9. Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1 Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1...

  10. Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for Next-Generation CSP Systems - FY13 Q2 Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...

  11. Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014, Underground Salt...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5, 2014, Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad NM Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014, Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the...

  12. EM Completes Salt Waste Disposal Units $8 Million under Budget...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EM Completes Salt Waste Disposal Units 8 Million under Budget at Savannah River Site EM Completes Salt Waste Disposal Units 8 Million under Budget at Savannah River Site February...

  13. Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landoll, Michael 1984-

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate...

  14. Colloidal stability of magnetic nanoparticles in molten salts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somani, Vaibhav (Vaibhav Basantkumar)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten salts are important heat transfer fluids used in nuclear, solar and other high temperature engineering systems. Dispersing nanoparticles in molten salts can enhance the heat transfer capabilities of the fluid. High ...

  15. Cooling of Kilauea Iki lava lake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hills, R.G.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1959 Kilauea Iki erupted leaving a 110 to 120 m lake of molten lava in its crater. The resulting lava lake has provided a unique opportunity to study the cooling dynamics of a molten body and its associated hydrothermal system. Field measurements taken at Kilauea Iki indicate that the hydrothermal system above the cooling magma body goes through several stages, some of which are well modeled analytically. Field measurements also indicate that during most of the solidification period of the lake, cooling from above is controlled by 2-phase convection while conduction dominates the cooling of the lake from below. A summary of the field work related to the study of the cooling dynamics of Kilauea Iki is presented. Quantitative and qualitative cooling models for the lake are discussed.

  16. Salt repository project closeout status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Nuclear salt-in-crude monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheikh, S.; Richter, A.P.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arabian American Oil Co. (ARAMCO) recently installed a nuclear salt-in-crude monitor (SICM) that continuously measures the salt content of a flowing stream of crude oil. This device was developed by Texaco Inc.'s Bellaire (TX) Research Laboratory. The monitor consists of two parts: a counting chamber and an instrument console. The counting chamber is a length of 24-in.-diameter pipe containing a long-life neutron source and a gamma ray detector, both mounted in cross pipes so that there is no direct contact with the flowing crude. Neutrons from the source are absorbed by chloride ions in the stream, which in turn emit gamma rays. The intensity of the gamma rays is proportional to the amount of chlorine in the crude. The gamma ray detector is electrically connected to the instrument console, which is located in a control room. The console contains the necessary instrumentation to process the data from the detector, to compute the salt concentration, and to provide a continuous printed record of the salt per thousand barrels (PTB).

  18. Geothermal studies of seven interior salt domes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report defines and compares the geothermal environments of eight selected Gulf Coast salt domes. The thermal regimes in and around Gulf Coast salt domes are not well documented. The data base used for this study is an accumulation of bottom-hole temperature readings from oil and gas exploration wells and temperature logs run for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. The bottom-hole tempreatures were corrected in order to estimate the actual geothermal environments. Prior thermal studies and models indicate temperatures in and around salt domes are elevated above the norm by 1/sup 0/F to 25/sup 0/F. Using existing geothermal data and accepted theory, geothermal gradients for the selected domes and surrounding sediments were estimated. This study concludes that salt domes within a given basin have similar geothermal gradients, but that the basins differ in average geothermal gradients. This relationship is probably controlled by deep basement structural trends. No evidence of residual heat of emplacement was found associated with any of the selected domes.

  19. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolley, Robert D [PPPL; Miller, Laurence F [PPPL

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  20. Lake Winds | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii9969995°,ILEDSGP/joinHavasuPalmdaleLake

  1. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY - NETL CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DESIGNATIO...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah Characterization of Most Promising Carbon Capture and Sequestration Formations in the Central Rocky Mountain Region This CX is for paper...

  2. The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

    1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, Preeident BULLETIN NO. 271 OCTOBER, 1920 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEEDS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOK COLLEGE.... ............... Salt content of feecls.. ......... Salt content of mixed feeds.. ................... Summary ancl conclusions. Page. l1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] BULLETIN XO. 271. OCTOBE- '"On THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEI The Texas feed...

  3. Method for preparing salt solutions having desired properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ally, Moonis R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Braunstein, Jerry (Clinton, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The specification discloses a method for preparing salt solutions which exhibit desired thermodynamic properties. The method enables prediction of the value of the thermodynamic properties for single and multiple salt solutions over a wide range of conditions from activity data and constants which are independent of concentration and temperature. A particular application of the invention is in the control of salt solutions in a process to provide a salt solution which exhibits the desired properties.

  4. Seismic stratigraphy and salt tectonics of the Alaminos Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechler, Suzanne Marie

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    morphology, salt structure, and suprasalt sediments indicate the majority of the slope is covered by a shallow salt canopy. The salt structure map indicates that the Alaminos Canyon study area represents a transition from a semi-continuous salt sheet...

  5. Removal of uranium and salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peretz, F.J.; Rushton, J.E.; Faulkner, R.L.; Walker, K.L.; Del Cul, G.D.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1994, migration of {sup 233}U was discovered to have occurred at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper describes the actions now underway to remove uranium from the off-gas piping and the charcoal bed, to remove and stabilize the salts, and to convert the uranium to a stable oxide for long-term storage.

  6. REGIONS NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 Small is beautiful

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a Swiss team first place in the 2003 America's Cup, and the plans for the Solar Impulse, a solar-friendliness of the Lake Geneva region, and its thrilling mix of universities, small biotech companies and large research

  7. From waterfront to watershed : mapping a big idea in the Greater Toronto Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciesielski, Linda C. (Linda Claire)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, Toronto is revered among Great Lakes' and waterfront cities for its environmental planning: its massive re-investment in water and stormwater infrastructure; protected headwaters of the region's rivers; realized ...

  8. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  9. Influence of Salt Purity on Na+ and Palmitic Acid Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of Salt Purity on Na+ and Palmitic Acid Interactions Zishuai Huang, Wei Hua, Dominique of salt purity on the interactions between Na+ ions and the carboxylate (COO- ) head group of palmitic frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Ultrapure (UP) and ACS grade NaCl salts are used for aqueous

  10. Molten Salt Synthesis of Calcium Hydroxyapatite Whiskers A. Cuneyt Tas*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Molten Salt Synthesis of Calcium Hydroxyapatite Whiskers A. Cu¨neyt Tas¸*, Department hydroxyapatite (HA) whiskers and crystals were produced by the route of molten salt synthesis. The effects. A tentative X-ray diffraction pattern was proposed for the HA whiskers. Molten salt synthesis with a K2SO4

  11. Developing salt-tolerant crop plants: challenges and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    Developing salt-tolerant crop plants: challenges and opportunities Toshio Yamaguchi and Eduardo areas of the world; the need to produce salt-tolerant crops is evident. Two main approaches are being used to improve salt tolerance: (i) the exploitation of natural genetic variations, either through

  12. Salt Frost Deterioration in Concrete Pavement --Causes and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salt Frost Deterioration in Concrete Pavement --Causes and Mitigation Zhichao Liu, Will Hansen and special effects such as surface tension and osmotic effect (salt solution). ·Below the nucleation the surface contains a salt solution, pore suction attracts surface liquid and additional ice growth may

  13. SALT-flSH INPUSTRIES FISHERY LEAFLET 240

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SALT-flSH INPUSTRIES FISHERY LEAFLET 240 FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT, Albert M. Day, Director #12;THE VENEZUKLAN SALT-FISH INDUSTRIES CONTE^fTS Part II Potential Productive and Craft 29 Development of Unused or Underutilized Species 29 Development of New Areas 35 Salt 35 Studies

  14. Simulation of salt migrations in density dependent groundwater flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Simulation of salt migrations in density dependent groundwater flow E.S. van Baaren Master's Thesis for the salt migration in the groundwater underneath the polders near the coast. The problem description of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities of modelling salt migrations in density dependent groundwater

  15. Structural restoration of Louann Salt and overlying sediments, De Soto Canyon Salt Basin, northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Mengdong

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The continental margin of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is suited for seismic stratigraphic analysis and salt tectonism analysis. Jurassic strata include the Louann Salt on the continental shelf and upper slope of the Destin Dome OCS area...

  16. Distribution of Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe and Mn in Lake Victoria sediments, East Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onyari, J.M.; Wandiga, S.O. (Univ. of Nairobi (Kenya))

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of many metals at trace or ultra-trace levels in the human environment has received increased global attention. Sediments as a sink for pollutants are widely recognized pollution sources and diagenesis and biochemical transformations within the sediment may mobilize pollutants posing a threat to a wider biological community. The natural (background) concentrations of heavy metals in lake sediments can be estimated either by analysis of surface sediments in non-polluted regions or by analysis of core samples antedating modern pollution. The distribution pattern of heavy metals in tropical freshwater systems has been little studied. The authors found increased concentrations of lead and other trace metals in Lake Victoria. Thus this study was initiated in order to further investigate the distribution patterns of lead and other metals in Lake Victoria.

  17. Contemporary Lake Superior Ice Cover Climatology Raymond A. Assel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contemporary Lake Superior Ice Cover Climatology Raymond A. Assel NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Introduction A brief discussion of Lake Superior ice cover climatology (Phillips, 1978) was included) almost three decades ago. Much additional information (and analysis) of Great Lakes ice cover has been

  18. Selection and durability of seal materials for a bedded salt repository: preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, D.M.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Wakeley, L.D.

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details preliminary results of both experimental and theoretical studies of cementitious seal materials for use in a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. Effects of changes in bulk composition and environment upon phase stability and physical/mechanical properties have been evaluated for more than 25 formulations. Bonding and interfacial characteristics of the region between host rock and seal material or concrete aggregate and cementitious matrix for selected formulations have been studied. Compatibilities of clays and zeolites in brines typical of the SE New Mexico region have been investigated, and their stabilities reviewed. Results of these studies have led to the conclusion that cementitious materials can be formulated which are compatible with the major rock types in a bedded salt repository environment. Strengths are more than adequate, permeabilities are consistently very low, and elastic moduli generally increase only very slightly with time. Seal formulation guidelines and recommendations for present and future work are presented. 73 references, 25 figures, 61 tables.

  19. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  20. Microwave emissivity of fresh water ice--Lake ice and Antarctic ice pack--Radiative transfer simulations versus satellite radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave emissivity models of sea ice are poorly validated empirically. Typical validation studies involve using averaged or stereotyped profiles of ice parameters against averaged radiance measurements. Measurement sites are rarely matched and even less often point-by-point. Because of saline content, complex permittivity of sea ice is highly variable and difficult to predict. Therefore, to check the validity of a typical, plane-parallel, radiative-transfer-based ice emissivity model, we apply it to fresh water ice instead of salt-water ice. Radiance simulations for lake ice are compared with measurements over Lake Superior from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E). AMSR-E measurements are also collected over Antarctic icepack. For each pixel, a thermodynamic model is driven by four years of European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis data and the resulting temperature profiles used to drive the emissivity model. The results suggest that the relatively simple ...

  1. LAKE AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT, 1990 6(2): 175-180 C 1990 North American Lake Management Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in both lakes. Prior Lake contained a fish community in which the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoicks at Prior Lake was 2,200 uS/cm. The most abundant fish species in this lake were largemouth bass, bluegill carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a her- bivorous fish that can control nuisance aquatic vegetation

  2. Toxic and deadly: Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic and deadly Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury Lake Granbury, located about 33 miles southwest of Fort Worth, is a recreation haven for water enthusiasts. In recent years, however, bacteria and golden algae have threatened the lake... of water and the presence of pathogens. These E. coli sources can be from sewage overflows, polluted stormwater runoff, or malfunctioning septic systems. Toxic golden algae blooms have killed fish in Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney, downstream...

  3. Toxic and deadly: Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic and deadly Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury Lake Granbury, located about 33 miles southwest of Fort Worth, is a recreation haven for water enthusiasts. In recent years, however, bacteria and golden algae have threatened the lake... of water and the presence of pathogens. These E. coli sources can be from sewage overflows, polluted stormwater runoff, or malfunctioning septic systems. Toxic golden algae blooms have killed fish in Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney, downstream...

  4. Lakes Survey Year 1 www.waterboards.ca.gov/swamp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .14 0.4 0.8 0.0 1 Trinity Lake Rainbow Trout C1 0.11 1 Trinity Lake Rainbow Trout C2 0.11 1 Trinity Lake Rainbow Trout C3 0.08 1 Trinity Lake Rainbow Trout C4 0.05 1 Trinity Lake Rainbow Trout LC 0.0 0.32 0.0 0

  5. Radar investigation of the Cote Blanche salt dome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Robert Donald

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE COTE BLANCHE SALT DOME. Geology of the Cote Blanche Salt-Dome Azea. . Economic History of the Cote BLanche Salt-Dome Azea, Salt. . Oil and gas. III. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION. . . Radar Speed in Air and in Salt. . . Velocity...' zznd i'r. mzznz 1959) . The east, south, end west flanks are nearly vertical. However, the north side oi the dome is characterised by a massive overhang. A well drilled by Shell Oil Company, Caffrey No. 1, confirmed the presence of a minimum of 3300...

  6. Pore water chemistry of an alkaline rift valley lake: Lake Turkana, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerling, T.E.; Johnson, T.C.; Halfman, J.D.; Lister, G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake Turkana is the largest closed basin lake in the African rift system. It has evolved through the past 5000 years to become a moderately alkaline lake. Previous mass balance argument suggest that sulfate is removed from the lake by sulfate reduction in the sediments, and that the lake is accumulating in chloride, sodium, and alkalinity. Studies of pore water from 12 meter cores collected in November 1984 show that sulfate is reduced in the sediment column with a net production of alkalinity. Some sodium is lost from the lake and diffuses into the sediment to maintain charge balance. At several meters depth, organic matter is destroyed by methanogenic bacteria, as shown by the high delta /sup 13/C values for dissolved inorganic carbon. Magnesium and calcium molar ratios change with depth; chloride, sodium, and alkalinity also change with depth.

  7. Molten Salt Fuel Version of Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R W; Shaw, H F; Caro, A; Kaufman, L; Latkowski, J F; Powers, J; Turchi, P A

    2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten salt with dissolved uranium is being considered for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) fission blanket as a backup in case a solid-fuel version cannot meet the performance objectives, for example because of radiation damage of the solid materials. Molten salt is not damaged by radiation and therefore could likely achieve the desired high burnup (>99%) of heavy atoms of {sup 238}U. A perceived disadvantage is the possibility that the circulating molten salt could lend itself to misuse (proliferation) by making separation of fissile material easier than for the solid-fuel case. The molten salt composition being considered is the eutectic mixture of 73 mol% LiF and 27 mol% UF{sub 4}, whose melting point is 490 C. The use of {sup 232}Th as a fuel is also being studied. ({sup 232}Th does not produce Pu under neutron irradiation.) The temperature of the molten salt would be {approx}550 C at the inlet (60 C above the solidus temperature) and {approx}650 C at the outlet. Mixtures of U and Th are being considered. To minimize corrosion of structural materials, the molten salt would also contain a small amount ({approx}1 mol%) of UF{sub 3}. The same beryllium neutron multiplier could be used as in the solid fuel case; alternatively, a liquid lithium or liquid lead multiplier could be used. Insuring that the solubility of Pu{sup 3+} in the melt is not exceeded is a design criterion. To mitigate corrosion of the steel, a refractory coating such as tungsten similar to the first wall facing the fusion source is suggested in the high-neutron-flux regions; and in low-neutron-flux regions, including the piping and heat exchangers, a nickel alloy, Hastelloy, would be used. These material choices parallel those made for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL. The nuclear performance is better than the solid fuel case. At the beginning of life, the tritium breeding ratio is unity and the plutonium plus {sup 233}U production rate is {approx}0.6 atoms per 14.1 MeV neutron.

  8. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  9. Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Tichenor, Mark S. (San Diego, CA); Artau, Alexander (Humacao, PR)

    2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

  10. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  11. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullins, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, Dana C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  12. Measurements of radio propagation in rock salt for the detection of high-energy neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connolly, Amy; Miki, Christian; Nichol, Ryan; Saltzberg, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of the transmission of radio/microwave pulses through salt in the Cote Blanche salt mine operated by the North American Salt Company in St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. These results are from data taken in the southwestern region of the 1500 ft. (457 m) deep level of the mine on our third and most recent visit to the mine. We transmitted and received a fast, high-power, broadband pulse from within three vertical boreholes that were drilled to depths of 100 ft. (30 m) and 200 ft. below the 1500 ft. level using three different pairs of dipole antennas whose bandwidths span 125 to 900 MHz. By measuring the relative strength of the received pulses between boreholes with separations of 50 m and 169 m, we deduce the attenuation of the signal attributed to the salt medium. We fit the frequency dependence of the attenuation to a power law and find the best fit field attenuation lengths to be 93 \\pm 7 m at 150 MHz, 63 \\pm 3 m at 300 MHz, and 36 \\pm 2 m at 800 MHz. This is the most precise measuremen...

  13. Predicting viscosities of aqueous salt mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscosity plays an important role in quantifying heat and mass transfer rates as depicted in theoretical and semi-empirical correlations. In practical problems where extreme temperatures and solute concentrations are encountered, viscosity data is usually unavailable. At these conditions, no dependable correlation appears to exist in the literature. This paper uses the hole type model to predict the viscosity of aqueous electrolytes containing single and mixed salts up to the molten salt regime. This model needs two parameters which can be evaluated from sparse data. For LiBr/water and (Li, K, na) NO[sub 3]/water mixtures, it is shown that the agreement between predicted and experimental values is very good over wide temperature and concentration ranges. The deviation between these two values was found to be less than 9%.

  14. Predicting viscosities of aqueous salt mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscosity plays an important role in quantifying heat and mass transfer rates as depicted in theoretical and semi-empirical correlations. In practical problems where extreme temperatures and solute concentrations are encountered, viscosity data is usually unavailable. At these conditions, no dependable correlation appears to exist in the literature. This paper uses the hole type model to predict the viscosity of aqueous electrolytes containing single and mixed salts up to the molten salt regime. This model needs two parameters which can be evaluated from sparse data. For LiBr/water and (Li, K, na) NO{sub 3}/water mixtures, it is shown that the agreement between predicted and experimental values is very good over wide temperature and concentration ranges. The deviation between these two values was found to be less than 9%.

  15. Molten salts database for energy applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serrano-López, Roberto; Cuesta-López, Santiago

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing interest in energy applications of molten salts is justified by several of their properties. Their possibilities of usage as a coolant, heat transfer fluid or heat storage substrate, require thermo-hydrodynamic refined calculations. Many researchers are using simulation techniques, such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their projects or conceptual designs. The aim of this work is providing a review of basic properties (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity) of the most common and referred salt mixtures. After checking data, tabulated and graphical outputs are given in order to offer the most suitable available values to be used as input parameters for other calculations or simulations. The reviewed values show a general scattering in characterization, mainly in thermal properties. This disagreement suggests that, in several cases, new studies must be started (and even new measurement techniques should be developed) to obtain accurate values.

  16. Dense QCD: a Holographic Dyonic Salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mannque Rho; Sang-Jin Sin; Ismail Zahed

    2009-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Dense QCD at zero temperature with a large number of colors is a crystal. We show that in the holographic dual description, the crystal is made out of pairs of dyons with $e=g=\\pm 1$ charges in a salt-like arrangement. We argue that with increasing density the dyon masses and topological charges equalize, turning the salt-like configuration to a bcc of half-instantons. The latter is dual to a cubic crystal of half-skyrmions. We estimate the transition from an fcc crystal of instantons to a bcc crystal of dyons to about 3 times nuclear matter density with a dyon binding energy of about 180 MeV.

  17. Hydrological and solute budgets of Lake Qinghai, the largest lake on the Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Zhangdong; You, Chen-Feng; Wang, Yi; Shi, Yuewei

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water level and chemistry of Lake Qinghai are sensitive to climate changes and are important for paleoclimatic implications. An accurate understanding of hydrological and chemical budgets is crucial for quantifying geochemical proxies and carbon cycle. Published results of water budget are firstly reviewed in this paper. Chemical budget and residence time of major dissolved constituents in the lake are estimated using reliable water budget and newly obtained data for seasonal water chemistry. The results indicate that carbonate weathering is the most important riverine process, resulting in dominance of Ca2+ and DIC for river waters and groundwater. Groundwater contribution to major dissolved constituents is relatively small (4.2 ± 0.5%). Wet atmospheric deposition contributes annually 7.4–44.0% soluble flux to the lake, resulting from eolian dust throughout the seasons. Estimates of chemical budget further suggest that (1) the Buha-type water dominates the chemical components of the lake water, (2) Na+, Cl?, Mg2+, and K+ in lake water are enriched owing to their conservative behaviors, and (3) precipitation of authigenic carbonates (low-Mg calcite, aragonite, and dolomite) transits quickly dissolved Ca2+ into the bottom sediments of the lake, resulting in very low Ca2+ in the lake water. Therefore, authigenic carbonates in the sediments hold potential information on the relative contribution of different solute inputs to the lake and the lake chemistry in the past.

  18. Stationary phase deposition based on onium salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Dirk, Shawn M. (Albuquerque, NM); Trudell, Daniel E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Onium salt chemistry can be used to deposit very uniform thickness stationary phases on the wall of a gas chromatography column. In particular, the stationary phase can be bonded to non-silicon based columns, especially microfabricated metal columns. Non-silicon microfabricated columns may be manufactured and processed at a fraction of the cost of silicon-based columns. In addition, the method can be used to phase-coat conventional capillary columns or silicon-based microfabricated columns.

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  20. Lakes: Restrictions on Ditches and Drains (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The construction or alteration of new ditches and drains that may result in a lowering of the water level of a given lake must be accompanied by the construction of a dam to protect the water level...

  1. Synthetic ecology : revisiting Mexico City's lakes project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daou, Daniel (Daou Ornelas)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mexico City was founded 700 years ago on man made islets in the middle of a lake. Today, it faces a contradictory situation were water is running scarce, but simultaneously the city runs the risk of drowning in its own ...

  2. Lake Worth Utilities- Energy Conservation Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Lake Worth Utilities, in conjunction with Florida Municipal Power Agency, offers a variety of rebates to residential and commercial customers for upgrading to energy saving equipment....

  3. Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative Final Scientific/Technical Report Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, B.L.; Roelke, Daniel; Brooks, Bryan; Grover, James

    2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A team of Texas AgriLife Research, Baylor University and University of Texas at Arlington researchers studied the biology and ecology of Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) in Texas lakes using a three-fold approach that involved system-wide monitoring, experimentation at the microcosm and mesocosm scales, and mathematical modeling. The following are conclusions, to date, regarding this organismâ??s ecology and potential strategies for mitigation of blooms by this organism. In-lake monitoring revealed that golden algae are present throughout the year, even in lakes where blooms do not occur. Compilation of our field monitoring data with data collected by Texas Parks and Wildlife and Brazos River Authority (a period spanning a decade) revealed that inflow and salinity variables affect bloom formations. Thresholds for algae populations vary per lake, likely due to adaptations to local conditions, and also to variations in lake-basin morphometry, especially the presence of coves that may serve as hydraulic storage zones for P. parvum populations. More specifically, our in-lake monitoring showed that the highly toxic bloom that occurred in Lake Granbury in the winter of 2006/2007 was eliminated by increased river inflow events. The bloom was flushed from the system. The lower salinities that resulted contributed to golden algae not blooming in the following years. However, flushing is not an absolute requirement for bloom termination. Laboratory experiments have shown that growth of golden algae can occur at salinities ~1-2 psu but only when temperatures are also low. This helps to explain why blooms are possible during winter months in Texas lakes. Our in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco, as well as our laboratory experiments, revealed that cyanobacteria, or some other bacteria capable of producing algicides, were able to prevent golden algae from blooming. Identification of this organism is a high priority as it may be a key to managing golden algae blooms. Our numerical modeling results support the idea that cyanobacteria, through allelopathy, control the timing of golden algae blooms in Lake Granbury. The in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco also revealed that as golden algae blooms develop, there are natural enemies (a species of rotifer, and a virus) that help slow the population growth. Again, better characterization of these organisms is a high priority as it may be key to managing golden algae blooms. Our laboratory and in-lake experiments and field monitoring have shown that nutrient additions will remove toxicity and prevent golden algae from blooming. In fact, other algae displace the golden algae after nutrient additions. Additions of ammonia are particularly effective, even at low doses (much lower than what is employed in fish hatchery ponds). Application of ammonia in limited areas of lakes, such as in coves, should be explored as a management option. The laboratory experiments and field monitoring also show that the potency of toxins produced by P. parvum is greatly reduced when water pH is lower, closer to neutral levels. Application of mild acid to limited areas of lakes (but not to a level where acidic conditions are created), such as in coves, should be explored as a management option. Finally, our field monitoring and mathematical modeling revealed that flushing/dilution at high enough levels could prevent P. parvum from forming blooms and/or terminate existing blooms. This technique could work using deeper waters within a lake to flush the surface waters of limited areas of the same lakes, such as in coves and should be explored as a management option. In this way, water releases from upstream reservoirs would not be necessary and there would be no addition of nutrients in the lake.

  4. Tank 37H Salt Removal Batch Process and Salt Dissolution Mixing Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, K.C.

    2001-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Tank 30H is the receipt tank for concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. Tank 30H has had problems, such as cooling coil failure, which limit its ability to receive concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. SRS High Level Waste wishes to use Tank 37H as the receipt tank for the 3H Evaporator concentrate. Prior to using Tank 37H as the 3H Evaporator concentrate receipt tank, HLW must remove 50 inches of salt cake from the tank. They requested SRTC to evaluate various salt removal methods for Tank 37H. These methods include slurry pumps, Flygt mixers, the modified density gradient method, and molecular diffusion.

  5. Bioenergetics of Lake Whitefish in the Great Lakes Primary Investigator: Steve Pothoven -NOAA GLERL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bioenergetics of Lake Whitefish in the Great Lakes Primary Investigator: Steve Pothoven - NOAA elicited concern by fishery managers and commercial fishermen. We propose to use bioenergetics modeling that are contributing to declines in fish growth is bioenergetics modeling. We recently evaluated and modified

  6. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal research effort for Phase 1 (Concept Development) of the project has been data compilation; determination of the tectonic, depositional, burial, and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin; basin modeling (geohistory, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon expulsion); petroleum system identification; comparative basin evaluation; and resource assessment. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, and regional cross sections have been prepared. Structure, isopach and formation lithology maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies; shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies; and carbonate shoal, shelf and reef facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbon expulsion commenced during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary with peak expulsion occurring during the Early to Late Cretaceous. The geohistory of the North Louisiana Salt Basin is comparable to the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin with the major difference being the elevated heat flow the strata in the North Louisiana Salt Basin experienced in the Cretaceous due primarily to reactivation of upward movement, igneous activity, and erosion associated with the Monroe and Sabine Uplifts. Potential undiscovered reservoirs in the North Louisiana Salt Basin are Triassic Eagle Mills sandstone and deeply buried Upper Jurassic sandstone and limestone. Potential underdeveloped reservoirs include Lower Cretaceous sandstone and limestone and Upper Cretaceous sandstone.

  7. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  8. BASIN ANALYSIS OF THE MISSISSIPPI INTERIOR SALT BASIN AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM MODELING OF THE JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, EASTERN GULF COASTAL PLAIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A,. Mancini

    1999-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Part 2 (Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin) objectives are to provide a comprehensive analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin in Years 2 and 3 of the project and to transfer effectively the research results to producers through workshops and topical reports. Work accomplished so far: (Task 1) Tectonic History--Petroleum traps in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin have been characterized. (Task 2) Depositional History--The depositional systems for Mesozoic strata in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin have been identified and characterized. (Task 3) Fluid Flow--Modeling of 1-D burial and thermal history profiles for 48 wells in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin has been completed. Multidimensional thermal maturity modeling has been initiated. (Task 4) Underdeveloped Plays--Three major exploration plays have been identified. These include the basement ridge play, the regional peripheral fault trend play, and the salt anticline play. (Task 5) Technology Transfer--No work was performed on this task for this quarter. (Task 6) Topical Reports--The topical reports on the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal histories of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin have been completed and sent to DOE.

  9. A TEX86 lake record suggests simultaneous shifts in temperature in Central Europe and Greenland during the last deglaciation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    A TEX86 lake record suggests simultaneous shifts in temperature in Central Europe and Greenland years. The remarkable resemblance with the Greenland and regional stable oxygen isotope records suggests and Greenland during the last deglaciation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 948­953, doi:10.1002/grl.50181. 1

  10. Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

  11. The Salt Industry at Sterling, Kansas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horner, Robert Messenger

    1914-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    work more cheaply than coal and the rail~ road. For such reasons the snlt industry of Oreat Britain has dwindled steadily for some years. In twenty-two years her exports shrunk one half. She has no effective sunlight and all her salt plants...^r prepared in con- tact with a metal kills the plants. Addition of Kg CI and Mg SO to the above -2 4 mixture enabled the plants to live practically as long as in sea-water. Although Ca CI added 2 singly to Ha CI inhibits the poisonous effect of Na CI...

  12. Acoustic probing of salt using sonar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Kenneth Bryan

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , glycerine, and s1li cone oil provi ded satisfactory performance. In spite of these results, Gupta did not develop a workable means of us1ng 11quid coupl1ng media under mine condit1ons. In his field tests, Gupta used dental impression plaster (a coupling... acoustic pulses which are coupled 1nto the salt via a castor oil coupling medium. The acoustic source signa'i is a square-enveloped pulse of compress1onal waves; a pulse duration of e1ther 0. 3 ms or 1. 1 ms is used. The ranges to discontinuities...

  13. Salt dome gas storage solves curtailment threat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, J.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In November 1981, Valero Transmission Co. (San Antonio, TX) opened two salt-dome storage caverns with a combined capacity of 5 billion CF (1.5 billion of cushion gas, 3.5 of working gas). The facility's maximum deliverability is 400 million CF/day for 9 days; when two more caverns are finished in late 1982, the $55 million complex will be able to sustain that level for 18 days, making Valero less dependent on linepacking and spot sales to avoid curtailing deliveries to its customers.

  14. Safe actinide disposition in molten salt reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gat, U.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Safe molten salt reactors (MSR) can readily accommodate the burning of all fissile actinides. Only minor compromises associated with plutonium are required. The MSRs can dispose safely of actinides and long lived isotopes to result in safer and simpler waste. Disposing of actinides in MSRs does increase the source term of a safety optimized MSR. It is concluded that the burning and transmutation of actinides in MSRs can be done in a safe manner. Development is needed for the processing to handle and separate the actinides. Calculations are needed to establish the neutron economy and the fuel management. 9 refs.

  15. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Salt River Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistma AG Jump to:Energysource History ViewJumpSaintSalmonSalt

  17. Salt Wells Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey Jump to:WY) JumpLandSRTHelena:Sakti3RiverSalt Wells

  18. The Salt Defense Disposal Investigations (SDDI)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesis of 2Dand WaterThe FutureRiskSalt Defense Disposal

  19. A subtropical fate awaited freshwater discharged from glacial Lake Agassiz

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Condron, Alan; Winsor, Peter

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 8.2 kyr event is the largest abrupt climatic change recorded in the last 10,000 years, and is widely hypothesized to have been triggered by the release of thousands of kilometers cubed of freshwater into the North Atlantic Ocean. Using a high-resolution (1/6°) global, ocean-ice circulation model we present an alternative view that freshwater discharged from glacial Lake Agassiz would have remained on the continental shelf as a narrow, buoyant, coastal current, and would have been transported south into the subtropical North Atlantic. The pathway we describe is in contrast to the conceptual idea that freshwater from this lake outburstmore »spread over most of the sub-polar North Atlantic, and covered the deep, open-ocean, convection regions. This coastally confined freshwater pathway is consistent with the present-day routing of freshwater from Hudson Bay, as well as paleoceanographic evidence of this event. Using a coarse-resolution (2.6°) version of the same model, we demonstrate that the previously reported spreading of freshwater across the sub-polar North Atlantic results from the inability of numerical models of this resolution to accurately resolve narrow coastal flows, producing instead a diffuse circulation that advects freshwater away from the boundaries. To understand the climatic impact of freshwater released in the past or future (e.g. Greenland and Antarctica), the ocean needs to be modeled at a resolution sufficient to resolve the dynamics of narrow, coastal buoyant flows.« less

  20. A subtropical fate awaited freshwater discharged from glacial Lake Agassiz

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Condron, Alan [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Climate System Research Center, Dept. of Geosciences; Winsor, Peter [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Marine Science, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 8.2 kyr event is the largest abrupt climatic change recorded in the last 10,000 years, and is widely hypothesized to have been triggered by the release of thousands of kilometers cubed of freshwater into the North Atlantic Ocean. Using a high-resolution (1/6°) global, ocean-ice circulation model we present an alternative view that freshwater discharged from glacial Lake Agassiz would have remained on the continental shelf as a narrow, buoyant, coastal current, and would have been transported south into the subtropical North Atlantic. The pathway we describe is in contrast to the conceptual idea that freshwater from this lake outburst spread over most of the sub-polar North Atlantic, and covered the deep, open-ocean, convection regions. This coastally confined freshwater pathway is consistent with the present-day routing of freshwater from Hudson Bay, as well as paleoceanographic evidence of this event. Using a coarse-resolution (2.6°) version of the same model, we demonstrate that the previously reported spreading of freshwater across the sub-polar North Atlantic results from the inability of numerical models of this resolution to accurately resolve narrow coastal flows, producing instead a diffuse circulation that advects freshwater away from the boundaries. To understand the climatic impact of freshwater released in the past or future (e.g. Greenland and Antarctica), the ocean needs to be modeled at a resolution sufficient to resolve the dynamics of narrow, coastal buoyant flows.

  1. Annular core liquid-salt cooled reactor with multiple fuel and blanket zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Per F.

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid fluoride salt cooled, high temperature reactor having a reactor vessel with a pebble-bed reactor core. The reactor core comprises a pebble injection inlet located at a bottom end of the reactor core and a pebble defueling outlet located at a top end of the reactor core, an inner reflector, outer reflector, and an annular pebble-bed region disposed in between the inner reflector and outer reflector. The annular pebble-bed region comprises an annular channel configured for receiving pebble fuel at the pebble injection inlet, the pebble fuel comprising a combination of seed and blanket pebbles having a density lower than the coolant such that the pebbles have positive buoyancy and migrate upward in said annular pebble-bed region toward the defueling outlet. The annular pebble-bed region comprises alternating radial layers of seed pebbles and blanket pebbles.

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for about 600 elementary-age students. WIPP's nuclear waste disposal repository mining operations result in large volumes of excavated salt. Seeking an innovative...

  3. Salt River Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salt River Electric serves as the rural electric provider in Kentucky's Bullitt, Nelson, Spencer, and Washington counties. Residential customers are eligible for a variety of cash incentives for...

  4. Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids Halotechnics logo Halotechnics, under the Thermal Storage FOA, is conducting high-throughput, combinatorial research and development of salt...

  5. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

  6. alternative salt transfer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dish concentrator Renewable Energy Websites Summary: the receiver is dominated by the solar irradiance profile over the cavity surface; with the heat exchangeMolten salt as heat...

  7. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA); Troup, R. Lee (Murrysville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

  8. Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    August 2013 Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Safety Basis and Design Development. This report documents the results of an independent oversight...

  9. avoid salt induced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multidisciplinary Databases and Resources Websites Summary: thermal gradients around the waste depository. Natural occurring salt formations contain small quantities is directed...

  10. Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada, USA, Including Warm Ground, Borate Deposits, and Siliceous Alteration Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference...

  11. Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P.C.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  12. Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshifumi, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)] [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Sakka, Tetsuo [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

  13. When asked the question, "What makes Lake Mendota

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    . Although in relation to blue- green algae the lake's health is improving, human impact, climate change for Limnology is housed in the Hasler Laborato- ry of Limnology building which is located on Lake Mendota

  14. Lake George Park Commission: Stormwater Management (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Lake George Park Commission is a quasi-independent commission within the Department of Environmental Protection that is responsible for environmental conservation in the Lake George Park area....

  15. Salt Screening and Selection: New Challenges and Considerations in the Modern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Salt Screening and Selection: New Challenges and Considerations in the Modern Pharmaceutical R · Introduction · Theoretical Considerations · pH-solubility profiles, pKa and salt formation · Prediction of salt solubility · Solubility product and in situ salt screening · Solubility/dissolution rate of salts

  16. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program : Limnological and Fisheries Monitoring Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLellan, Holly; Lee, Chuck; Scofield, Ben; Pavlik, Deanne

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Grand Coulee Dam was constructed in 1939 without a fish ladder, which eliminated steelhead (Onchorhynchus mykiss), chinook salmon (O. twshwastica), coho salmon (O. kisutch) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka) from returning to approximately 1,835 km (1,140 miles) of natal streams and tributaries found in the upper Columbia River Drainage in the United States and Canada. The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 gave the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the authority and responsibility to use its legal and financial resources, 'to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries. This is to be done in a manner consistent with the program adopted by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC), and the purposes of the Act' (NWPPC, 1987). With the phrase 'protect, mitigate and enhance', Congress signaled its intent that the NWPPC's fish and wildlife program should do more than avoid future hydroelectric damage to the basin's fish and wildlife. The program must also counter past damage, work toward rebuilding those fish and wildlife populations that have been harmed by the hydropower system, protect the Columbia Basin's fish and wildlife resources, and mitigate for harm caused by decades of hydroelectric development and operations. By law, this program is limited to measures that deal with impacts created by the development, operation and management of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. However, off-site enhancement projects are used to address the effects of the hydropower system on fish and wildlife (NWPPC 1987). Resident game fish populations have been established in Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, the reservoir behind Grand Coulee Dam, since the extirpation of anadromous fish species. The resident game fish populations are now responsible for attracting a large percentage of the recreational visits to the region. An increase in popularity has placed Lake Roosevelt fifth amongst the most visited State and Federal parks in Washington. Increased use of the reservoir prompted amplified efforts to enhance the Native American subsistence fishery and the resident sport fishery in 1984 with hatchery supplementation of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) and kokanee salmon (O. nerka). This was followed by the formation of the Spokane Tribal Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Project (LRMP) in 1988 and later by formation of the Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project in 1991. The Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project began in July 1991 as part of the BPA, Bureau of Reclamation, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers System Operation Review process. This process sought to develop an operational scenario for the federal Columbia River hydropower system to maximize the in-reservoir fisheries with minimal impacts to all other stakeholders in the management of the Columbia River. The Lake Roosevelt Monitoring/Data Collection Program (LRMP) is the result of a merger between the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Program (BPA No. 8806300) and the Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project (BPA No. 9404300). These projects were merged in 1996 forming the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Program (LRMP), which continues the work historically completed under the separate projects. The LRMP has two main goals. The first is to develop a biological model for Lake Roosevelt that will predict in-reservoir biological responses to a range of water management operational scenarios, and to develop fisheries and reservoir management strategies accordingly. The model will allow identification of lake operations that minimize impacts on lake biota while addressing the needs of other interests (e.g. flood control, hydropower generation, irrigation, and downstream resident and anadromous fisheries). Major components of the model will include: (1) quantification of entrainment and other impacts to phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; (2) quantification

  17. EIS-0224: Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This EIS analyzes the Lake County Sanitation District joint venture with the geothermal industry, specifically the Northern California Power Agency, Calpine Corporation (Calpine), and Pacific Gas and Electric Company, to develop a plan for disposal of secondary-treated effluent from the Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant near the City of Clearlake, California, in the Southeast Geysers Geothermal Steam Field."

  18. Solving the structure of disordered mixed salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenkel, A. (School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel)); Stern, E.A. (Department of Physics FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)); Voronel, A. (School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel)); Qian, M. (Princeton Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)); Newville, M. (Department of Physics FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) investigation of two mixed alkali halides Rb[sub 0.76]K[sub 0.24]Br and RbBr[sub 0.62]Cl[sub 0.38] was performed. The concentrations of the mixtures had been chosen to produce a single homogeneous phase for each, and it was checked by XAFS that the salts were randomly mixed on the atomic level. Detailed analysis of the data including multiple-scattering contributions revealed an rms buckling angular deviation of both mixtures from the average NaCl collinear structure of 7--9[degree]. The angles are defined by three atomic positions determined through double- and triple-scattering paths. These angles are new parameters which should be added to characterize the buckled crystals. Adding to diffraction results the parameters determined from XAFS as input into a molecular-dynamics simulation the structures of the mixed salts with their fluctuations about the NaCL structure are solved and displayed.

  19. Lead and other metals distribution in local cooking salt from the Fofi salt- spring in Akwana, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dim, L.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; Munyithya, J.M.; Adetunji, J. (Centre for Nuclear Science Techniques, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nairobi (Kenya))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique has been used to determine the concentrations of lead(Pb) and other heavy metals in local cooking salts (LCS) from Akwana village, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria. The comparison of the distribution of these metals in LCS, fake salt (FS) and the usual common salts (CS) are given. Lead was found to be enriched in LCS by factor exceeding 200 times compared to the other salts. The origin of Pb contamination in the LCS is examined and its effects on the inhabitants of the village are considered.

  20. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY,VOL. 10,731-748 (1990) AN ICE-COVER CLIMATOLOGY FOR LAKE ERIE AND LAKE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY,VOL. 10,731-748 (1990) AN ICE-COVER CLIMATOLOGY FOR LAKE-lake Great Lakes ice cover are sparse prior to the decade of the 1960s.In an effort to provide an historical perspective of mid-lake ice cover back to the turn of the century, daily average ice cover for Lakes Erie

  1. Battling Golden Algae: Results suggest preventative lake management approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    14 tx H2O Winter 2011 Story by Danielle Supercinski Battling golden algae Results suggest preventative lake management approaches Golden algae blooms, or the explosive growth of algae, are known to be toxic, but recent #28;ndings from.... Bryan Brooks at Baylor University, working jointly, recently completed the Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative project studying the biology and ecology of golden algae (Prymnesium parvum) in Texas lakes. First appearing in Texas...

  2. Battling golden algae: Results suggest preventative lake managment approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    14 tx H2O Winter 2011 Story by Danielle Supercinski Battling golden algae Results suggest preventative lake management approaches Golden algae blooms, or the explosive growth of algae, are known to be toxic, but recent #28;ndings from.... Bryan Brooks at Baylor University, working jointly, recently completed the Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative project studying the biology and ecology of golden algae (Prymnesium parvum) in Texas lakes. First appearing in Texas...

  3. antelope lake tonopah: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 189 Preliminary Evaluation of a Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) Bioenergetics Model Charles whitefish...

  4. antelope lake ttr: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 189 Preliminary Evaluation of a Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) Bioenergetics Model Charles whitefish...

  5. Lake Effect Snow Storms METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    , cutting off or reducing the heat supply. Lake Erie often freezes entirely because it is more shallow

  6. Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

  7. EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMAPCT OF DREDGING BURNABY LAKE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMAPCT OF DREDGING BURNABY LAKE FINAL REPORT DOE FRAP 1997 the environmental impacts of dredging Burnaby Lake. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential environmental implications of dredging the lake for environmental rejuvenation in order to assist decision

  8. GREAT LAKES ICE COVER RaymondA. Asset'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 6 GREAT LAKES ICE COVER RaymondA. Asset' ABSTRACT: Theformation of ice on the Lallrentian (~rthe Great Lakes anel local weather and climate. The (I1Inllal seasonal and ~'Patialprogression of ice Lake (Section 6.2) incillding ice thickness, the different types of iceformed, and ice classification

  9. Hypolimnetic Oxygen Depletion in Eutrophic Lakes Beat Muller,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Hypolimnetic Oxygen Depletion in Eutrophic Lakes Beat Muller,*, Lee D. Bryant,, Andreas Matzinger obtained from 11 eutrophic lakes and suggests a model describing the consumption of dissolved oxygen (O2) in the hypolimnia of eutrophic lakes as a result of only two fundamental processes: O2 is consumed (i) by settled

  10. Bridge Creek Watershed Volunteer Lake Secchi Disk Monitoring Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Bridge Creek Watershed Volunteer Lake Secchi Disk Monitoring Program 1996 DOE FRAP 1996-13 Ryan Creek Watershed Volunteer Lake Monitoring Program. Using a Secchi disk, volunteers collected water transparency data from 22 lakes in the Bridge Creek watershed. Secchi depth readings were collected between May

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of a Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) Bioenergetics Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    189 Preliminary Evaluation of a Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) Bioenergetics Model Charles whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) bioenergetics model by applying the model to size-at-age data for lake bioenergetics model with previously published estimates of GGE for bloater (C. hoyi) in Lake Michigan

  12. NOAA Selects Muskegon Lake as Habitat Focus Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , foundries, a coal-fired power plant, and a paper mill. Muskegon Lake has suffered water quality concerns on the fishery, aquatic organisms and vegetation in Muskegon Lake; · monitoring the socio-economic impacts Fisheries, and the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory have implemented numerous projects

  13. ORIGINAL PAPER Calcium Carbonate Nucleation in an Alkaline Lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Calcium Carbonate Nucleation in an Alkaline Lake Surface Water, Pyramid Lake, Nevada (X) needed for calcium carbonate nucleation and crystal growth in Pyramid Lake (PL) surface water­16. Notwithstanding high X, calcium carbonate growth did not occur on aragonite single crystals suspended PL surface

  14. SURFACE CURRENTS OF LAKE MICHIGAN 1931 AND 1932

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    413 SURFACE CURRENTS OF LAKE MICHIGAN 1931 AND 1932 Marine Biological Laboratory x,i23:r jKernan, Director SURFACE CURRENTS OF LAKE MICHIGAN, 1931 AND 1932 by John Van Oosten United States Fish Introduction 1 History of Lake Michigan current samiec 1 Materials and methods 3 Releases and recoveries

  15. COMMERCIAL FISHERY FOR CHUBS (CISCOES) IN LAKE MICHIGAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COMMERCIAL FISHERY FOR CHUBS (CISCOES) IN LAKE MICHIGAN THROUGH 1953 Marine Biological Laboratory COMMERCIAL FISHERY FOR CHUBS (CISCOES) IN LAKE MICHIGAN THROUGH 1953 By Ralph Hile and Howard J . Buettner #12;ABSTRACT The chub fishery of Lake Michigan is based on 7 deep-water species of coregonines . Small

  16. SURFACE CURRENTS IN LAKE MICHIGAN 1954 and 1955

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SURFACE CURRENTS IN LAKE MICHIGAN 1954 and 1955 j Mafine Biological Laboratory .-'Ml 41960 'i WOODS, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Amle J. Suoaela, Commissioner SURFACE CURREirrS IN LAKE MICHIGAN, 1954 Page Introduction 1 General features of Lake Michigan Current -generating agents and modifying factors

  17. Solvent deasphalting effects on whole Cold Lake bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brons, G. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States); Yu, J.M. [Imperial Oil Limited, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent separation of bitumen from the Cold Lake region of Alberta, Canada, into deasphalted oils and asphaltenes has been studied using propane, i-butane, n-butane and n-pentane. The resulting range of deasphalting was from 20 to 50 wt.% of the whole bitumen. An extensive study of the fractions, as a function of yield, has shown how and to what extent volatiles, aromatics, sulfur and metals are distributed between the fractions. It was found that the highest molecular weight asphaltenes have the most impact on the viscous nature of such heavy oils, suggesting that even low levels of deasphalting can have a dramatic impact in reducing viscosity. In addition, thiophenic sulfur is more concentrated in the asphaltenes, but the sulfides, acting as cross-links, may be responsible for the highest molecular weight fractions of the asphaltenes.

  18. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boezaart, Arnold [GVSU; Edmonson, James [GVSU; Standridge, Charles [GVSU; Pervez, Nahid [GVSU; Desai, Neel [University of Michigan; Williams, Bruce [University of Delaware; Clark, Aaron [GVSU; Zeitler, David [GVSU; Kendall, Scott [GVSU; Biddanda, Bopi [GVSU; Steinman, Alan [GVSU; Klatt, Brian [Michigan State University; Gehring, J. L. [Michigan State University; Walter, K. [Michigan State University; Nordman, Erik E. [GVSU

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the project including to: 1) test and validate floating LIDAR technology; 2) collect and access offshore wind data; 3) detect and measure bird and bat activity over Lake Michigan; 4) conduct an over water sound propagation study; 5) prepare and offer a college course on offshore energy, and; 6) collect other environmental, bathometric, and atmospheric data. Desk-top research was performed to select anchorage sites and to secure permits to deploy the buoy. The project also collected and analyzed data essential to wind industry investment decision-making including: deploying highly mobile floating equipment to gather offshore wind data; correlating offshore wind data with conventional on-shore MET tower data; and performing studies that can contribute to the advancement and deployment of offshore wind technologies. Related activities included: • Siting, permitting, and deploying an offshore floating MET facility; • Validating the accuracy of floating LWS using near shoreline cup anemometer MET instruments; • Assessment of laser pulse technology (LIDAR) capability to establish hub height measurement of wind conditions at multiple locations on Lake Michigan; • Utilizing an extended-season (9-10 month) strategy to collect hub height wind data and weather conditions on Lake Michigan; • Investigation of technology best suited for wireless data transmission from distant offshore structures; • Conducting field-validated sound propagation study for a hypothetical offshore wind farm from shoreline locations; • Identifying the presence or absence of bird and bat species near wind assessment facilities; • Identifying the presence or absence of benthic and pelagic species near wind assessment facilities; All proposed project activities were completed with the following major findings: • Floating Laser Wind Sensors are capable of high quality measurement and recordings of wind resources. The WindSentinel presented no significant operational or statistical limitations in recording wind data technology at a at a high confidence level as compared to traditional an

  19. Salt plays an important role in our daily lives. True, salt makes our food tastier, but perhaps its most significant role is as an ingredient in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Salt plays an important role in our daily lives. True, salt makes our food tastier, but perhaps its, or the concentration of salt at the ocean's surface, gives scientists vital information on global ocean circulation changes, so does salinity! Ocean salinity is affected by the water cycle. As salt water evaporates

  20. Lake Whitney Comprehensive Water Quality Assessment, Phase 1B- Physical and Biological Assessment (USDOE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, Robert D; Byars, Bruce W

    2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Baylor University Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research (CRASR) has conducted a phased, comprehensive evaluation of Lake Whitney to determine its suitability for use as a regional water supply reservoir. The area along the Interstate 35 corridor between Dallas / Fort Worth Metroplex and the Waco / Temple Centroplex represents one of the fastest growth areas in the State of Texas and reliable water supplies are critical to sustainable growth. Lake Whitney is situated midway between these two metropolitan areas. Currently, the City of Whitney as well as all of Bosque and Hill counties obtain their potable water from the Trinity Sands aquifer. Additionally, parts of the adjoining McLennan and Burleson counties utilize the Trinity sands aquifer system as a supplement to their surface water supplies. Population growth coupled with increasing demands on this aquifer system in both the Metroplex and Centroplex have resulted in a rapid depletion of groundwater in these rural areas. The Lake Whitney reservoir represents both a potentially local and regional solution for an area experiencing high levels of growth. Because of the large scope of this project as well as the local, regional and national implications, we have designed a multifaceted approach that will lead to the solution of numerous issues related to the feasibility of using Lake Whitney as a water resource to the region. Phase IA (USEPA, QAPP Study Elements 1-4) of this research focused on the physical limnology of the reservoir (bathymetry and fine scale salinity determination) and develops hydrodynamic watershed and reservoir models to evaluate how salinity would be expected to change with varying hydrologic and climatic factors. To this end, we implemented a basic water quality modeling program in collaboration with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality to add to the developing long-term database on Lake Whitney. Finally, we conducted an initial assessment of knowledge of watershed and water quality related issues by local residents and stakeholders of Lake Whitney and design an intervention educational program to address any deficiencies discovered. Phase IA was funded primarily from EPA Cooperative Agreement X7-9769 8901-0. Phase IC (USEPA, QAPP Study Element 5) of this research focused on the ambient toxicity of the reservoir with respect to periodic blooms of golden algae. Phase IC was funded primarily from Cooperative Agreement EM-96638001. Phase 1B (USDOE, Study Elements 6-11) complemented work being done via EPA funding on study elements 1-5 and added five new study elements: 6) Salinity Transport in the Brazos Watershed to Lake Whitney; 7) Bacterial Assessment; 8) Organic Contaminant Analysis on Lake Whitney; 9) Plankton Photosynthesis; 10) Lake Whitney Resident Knowledge Assessment; and 11) Engineering Scoping Perspective: Recommendations for Use.

  1. Le Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Au del du MSBR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Le Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Au delà du MSBR L. Mathieu, D. Heuer, A. Billebaud, R. Brissot, C réflexion est menée afin de trou- ver des solutions et ainsi d'aboutir au concept du Thorium Mol- ten Salt optimale du minerai d'uranium ou de thorium, une conception résistante à la prolifération, une meilleur

  2. SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a field-scale application demonstrating the use of continuum damage mechanics to determine the minimum allowable operating pressure of compressed natural gas storage caverns in salt formations. A geomechanical study was performed of two natural gas storage caverns (one existing and one planned) utilizing state-of-the-art salt mechanics to assess the potential for cavern instability and collapse. The geomechanical study consisted primarily of laboratory testing, theoretical development, and analytical/numerical tasks. A total of 50 laboratory tests was performed on salt specimens to aid in the development and definition of the material model used to predict the behavior of rock salt. Material model refinement was performed that improved the predictive capability of modeling salt during damage healing, recovery of work-hardened salt, and the behavior of salt at stress states other than triaxial compression. Results of this study showed that the working gas capacity of the existing cavern could be increased by 18 percent and the planned cavern could be increased by 8 percent using the proposed method compared to a conventional stress-based method. Further refinement of the continuum damage model is recommended to account for known behavior of salt at stress conditions other than triaxial compression that is not characterized accurately by the existing model.

  3. Laboratory Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosol Refractive Index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.3 Complex Refractive Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.4 Size Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3.5 Coagulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.4 Sea Salt AerosolsLaboratory Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosol Refractive Index Thesis submitted for the degree

  4. Leucobacter salsicius sp. nov., from a salt-fermented food

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine and c-aminobutyric acid. The majorLeucobacter salsicius sp. nov., from a salt- fermented food Ji-Hyun Yun,1 Seong Woon Roh,1,2 Min, Daejeon 305-806, Republic of Korea Strain M1-8T was isolated from jeotgal, a Korean salt-fermented food

  5. Sealing Ponds and Lakes with Bentonite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of 1 pound per square foot will require two bags of 50 pounds each in each square (each square contains 100 square feet). Large ponds or lakes may require the bentonite to be delivered to the site in bulk quantities. Spread the bentonite even- ly over... of Bentonite to Use The amount of bentonite required to effectively reduce seepage losses from a pond or lake varies from 1 to 2 pounds per square foot of soil surface. One-half pound of bentonite per square foot of soil is usually satisfactory when the bottom...

  6. Lake Country Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groups <LackawannaLagoBenton,(Redirected from LakeLake

  7. INDICATOR: LAKE ERIE ICE COVER Winter ice cover on Lake Erie affects the amount of heat and moisture transferred

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    102 INDICATOR: LAKE ERIE ICE COVER Background Winter ice cover on Lake Erie affects the amount of heat and moisture transferred between the lake and the atmosphere. During winter, ice and snow can decrease the amount of light available below the ice surface for photosynthesis. In the absence of an ice

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - attributes saturated salt Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for: attributes saturated salt Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 This thesis focuses on the restoration of salt marshes in north-west Europe. Salt marshes are important habitats that...

  9. Metals concentration in salt marshes plants and kelp around San Diego: A window to environment quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deheyn, Dimitri

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in salt marshes plants and kelp around San Diego: A windowassessing levels of metals in kelp and salt marsh plants inmetals levels found in kelp and salt marsh plants reflect

  10. Effect of salt identity on the phase diagram for a globular protein in aqueous electrolyte solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bostrom, Mathias; Tavares, Frederico W.; Ninham, Barry W.; Prausnitz, John M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or NaSCN. For all cases, salt concentration is 0.2 M. StableEFFECT OF SALT IDENTITY ON THE PHASE DIAGRAM FOR A GLOBULARcannot account for the effect of salt identity on the phase

  11. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt 2014; published online 14 October 2014) Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced

  12. PEP-carboxylase activity supports organic acid metabolism of maize (Zea mays) under salt stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatzig, Sarah Vanessa; Kumar, Ashwani; Neubert, Anja; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    physical basis for improving salt resistance in maize. Inand their expression under salt stress. J. Plant Physiol.may have a function for the salt resistance of maize during

  13. Salt stress affects polyamine concentrations and plasma membrane H+-ATPase proton pumping in maize

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingold, Mariko; Hanstein, Stefan; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during the first phase of salt stress? J. Plant Nutr. SoilH + -ATPase in roots, is lowered by salt treatment.synthesis of polyamines under salt stress may contribute to

  14. Does jasmonic acid control the maize shoot growth during the first phase of salt stress?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Pollmann, Stephan; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction Salt stress affects plant growth in twohormones, pH) in response to salt/drought stress is notin response to osmotic/salt stress (Creelman and Mullet

  15. MONITORING OF SALT-INDUCED DEFORMATIONS IN POROUS SYSTEMS BY MICROSCOPIC SPECKLE PATTERN INTERFEROMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinsch, Klaus

    MONITORING OF SALT-INDUCED DEFORMATIONS IN POROUS SYSTEMS BY MICROSCOPIC SPECKLE PATTERN porosity distribution, and its negligible humidity expansion. The glass sam- ples, soaked with salt: electronic speckle pattern interferometry, deformation measurement, salt crys- tallization, phase transition

  16. Invasive Spartina densiflora Brongn. Reduces Primary Productivity in a Northern California Salt Marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lagarde, Luc A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Distichlis spicata in salt marshes at Humboldt Bay,Carolina Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Estuaries 4:97-die-off of southern U.S. salt marshes. Science 310:1803-

  17. Temperature dependent mechanical property testing of nitrate thermal storage salts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, Brian DeVon; Broome, Scott Thomas; Siegel, Nathan Phillip

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three salt compositions for potential use in trough-based solar collectors were tested to determine their mechanical properties as a function of temperature. The mechanical properties determined were unconfined compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and indirect tensile strength. Seventeen uniaxial compression and indirect tension tests were completed. It was found that as test temperature increases, unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus decreased for all salt types. Empirical relationships were developed quantifying the aforementioned behaviors. Poisson's ratio tends to increase with increasing temperature except for one salt type where there is no obvious trend. The variability in measured indirect tensile strength is large, but not atypical for this index test. The average tensile strength for all salt types tested is substantially higher than the upper range of tensile strengths for naturally occurring rock salts.

  18. Rutgers Regional Report # Regional Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    , population, income, and building permits over a 32-year period from 1969 to 2001 for the 31-county Tri counties of the Tri-State (Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York) Region have been divided for analytical the nation and the Tri-State Region. What has not been fully documented, however, is the apparent shift

  19. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  20. Natural gas storage in bedded salt formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macha, G.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1990 Western Resources Inc. (WRI) identified the need for additional natural gas storage capacity for its intrastate natural gas system operated in the state of Kansas. Western Resources primary need was identified as peak day deliverability with annual storage balancing a secondary objective. Consequently, an underground bedded salt storage facility, Yaggy Storage Field, was developed and placed in operation in November 1993. The current working capacity of the new field is 2.1 BCF. Seventy individual caverns are in service on the 300 acre site. The caverns vary in size from 310,000 CF to 2,600,000 CF. Additional capacity can be added on the existing acreage by increasing the size of some of the smaller existing caverns by further solution mining and by development of an additional 30 potential well sites on the property.

  1. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  2. Technical review of Molten Salt Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process was reviewed for destruction of mixed low-level radioactive waste. Results: extensive development work and scaleup has been documented on coal gasification and hazardous waste which forms a strong experience base for this MSO process; it is clearly applicable to DOE wastes such as organic liquids and low-ash wastes. It also has potential for processing difficult-to-treat wastes such as nuclear grade graphite and TBP, and it may be suitable for other problem waste streams such as sodium metal. MSO operating systems may be constructed in relatively small units for small quantity generators. Public perceptions could be favorable if acceptable performance data are presented fairly; MSO will likely require compliance with regulations for incineration. Use of MSO for offgas treatment may be complicated by salt carryover. Figs, tabs, refs.

  3. 1 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 Pathology Advisory Note

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 Pathology Advisory Note (No. 11) De-icing salt damage to trees De-icing Salt Damage to Trees Joan F Webber, David R Rose, Martin C Dobson #12;2 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 S a l t D a m a g e De-icing Salt Damage Introduction Rock salt

  4. Intermediate DNA at low added salt: DNA bubbles slow the diffusion of short DNA fragments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomislav Vuletic; Sanja Dolanski Babic; Ticijana Ban; Joachim Raedler; Francoise Livolant; Silvia Tomic

    2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a study of DNA (150 bp fragments) conformations in very low added salt $DNA concentration range $0.0015\\leq c \\leq 8$~mM (bp). We found an intermediate DNA conformation in the region $0.05 DNA has the diffusion coefficient, $D_p$ reduced below the values for both ssDNA coils and native dsDNA helices of similar polymerization degree $N$. Thus, this DNA population can not be a simple mix of dsDNA and of ssDNA which results from DNA melting. Here, melting occurs due to a reduction in screening concomitant with DNA concentration being reduced, in already very low salt conditions. The intermediate DNA is rationalized through the well known concept of fluctuational openings (DNA bubbles) which we postulate to form in AT-rich portions of the sequence, without the strands coming apart. Within the bubbles, DNA is locally stretched, while the whole molecule remains rod-like due to very low salt environment. Therefore, such intermediate DNA is elongated, in comparison to dsDNA, which accounts for its reduced $D_p$.

  5. Genetic Assessment of Lake Sturgeon Population Structure in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, Bernie

    Water Street, Alpena, Michigan 49707, USA HENRY QUINLAN U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ashland National Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office, 2800 Lake Shore Drive East, Ashland, Wisconsin 54806, USA

  6. The biogeochemistry of tropical lakes: A case study from Lake Matano, Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowe, S.A.; O'Neill, A.H.; Katsev, S.; Hehanussa, P.; Haffner, G. Douglas; Sundby, Bjorn; Mucci, Alfonso; Fowle, David A.

    2008-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We examined the chemical composition of the water column of Lake Matano, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, to document how the high abundances of Fe (hydr)oxides in tropical soils and minimal seasonal temperature variability affect biogeochemical cycling...

  7. J. Great Lakes Res. 27(4):518546 Internat. Assoc. Great Lakes Res., 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaetzl, Randall

    glacial lakes can be found in Farrand 1969, Karrow et al. 1975, Karrow and Calkin 1985, Larsen 1987, Teller 1987, Hansel and Mickelson 1988, Schnei- der and Fraser 1990, Colman et al. 1994a, and Lewis et al

  8. Invasive Spartina densiflora Brongn. Reduces Primary Productivity in a Northern California Salt Marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lagarde, Luc A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    alterniflora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh food webs:dynamics of benthic microalgae in salt marshes. Pages 81-106primary productivity of microalgae and cyanobacteria (Geider

  9. Levels of metals from salt marsh plants from Southern California, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyt, Kimberly Ann

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    alterniflora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh foodalterniflora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh foodSpartina, but feed on microalgae (Currin,1990). Isotope

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area...

  11. anion heavy-atom salt: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  12. aluminum-molten salt contactor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  13. Elucidation of Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance in Zoysia matrella Cultivars: A Study of Structure and Function of Salt Glands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Sheetal

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Salt glands are important structural adaptations in some plant and animal species that are involved in the excretion of excess salts. Zoysia matrella is a highly salt tolerant turf grass that has salt glands. Two cultivars of Z. matrella, ‘Diamond...

  14. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbon expulsion commenced during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary with peak expulsion occurring mainly during the Late Cretaceous.

  15. Fall 2014 / LAKELINE 25 Terminal Lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    used commercially for mineral extraction and brine shrimp harvest. GSL is vital to the local-largest in the world. The only outflow of water is via evaporation, causing a very gradual accumulation of minerals a very small amount of water to the lake. averaging 317 g/L since 1966, while the south is considerably

  16. Fish Grubs in Freshwater Ponds and Lakes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Sterling K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rooc Z TA245.7 8873 N0.1380 r--- u ----!i -- B-1380 Fish Grubs in Freshwater Ponds and Lakes Sterling K. Johnson* Fish grubs are the immature forms of parasitic worms that invade the flesh of fishes. Grubs appear as round or bead...

  17. Controlled black liquor viscosity reduction through salting-in

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, J.E.; Khan, S.A.; Spontak, R.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor viscosity increases exponentially with solids content and therefore causes processing problems for the paper industry by being a limiting factor in the Kraft pulp process. This study investigates a new approach for achieving viscosity reduction by salting-in black liquor through the addition of thiocyanate salts. These salts generally increase the solubility of the polymer constituents in black liquor, leading to a decrease in its viscosity. Several thiocyanate salts capable of reducing liquor viscosity by more than two orders of magnitude have been identified, with viscosity reduction greatest at high solids content. Salting-in of black liquor depends on the cation paired with the thiocyanate anion, as well as on solution pH and temperature. Comparative studies reveal the most effective viscosity-reducing agent of the series examined and that lignin plays an important role in the viscosity behavior of both unmodified and salted-in black liquor at high solids concentrations. These experimental findings are interpreted in terms of the underlying principles that describe salting-in and how it affects aqueous solution structure.

  18. Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BODNER,SOL R.; CHAN,KWAI S.; MUNSON,DARRELL E.

    1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering.

  19. Fish mercury distribution in Massachusetts, USA lakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, J.; Hutcheson, M.S.; West, C.R.; Pancorbo, O.; Hulme, K.; Cooperman, A.; DeCesare, G.; Isaac, R.; Screpetis, A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sediment, water, and three species of fish from 24 of Massachusetts' (relatively) least-impacted water bodies were sampled to determine the patterns of variation in edible tissue mercury concentrations and the relationships of these patterns to characteristics of the water, sediment, and water bodies (lake, wetland, and watershed areas). Sampling was apportioned among three different ecological subregions and among lakes of differing trophic status. The authors sought to partition the variance to discover if these broadly defined concepts are suitable predictors of mercury levels in fish. Average muscle mercury concentrations were 0.15 mg/kg wet weight in the bottom-feeding brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus); 0.31 mg/kg in the omnivorous yellow perch (Perca flavescens); and 0.39 mg/kg in the predaceous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Statistically significant differences in fish mercury concentrations between ecological subregions in Massachusetts, USA, existed only in yellow perch. The productivity level of the lakes (as deduced from Carlson's Trophic Status Index) was not a strong predictor of tissue mercury concentrations in any species. pH was a highly (inversely) correlated environmental variable with yellow perch and brown bullhead tissue mercury. Largemouth bass tissue mercury concentrations were most highly correlated with the weight of the fish (+), lake size (+), and source area sizes (+). Properties of individual lakes appear more important for determining fish tissue mercury concentrations than do small-scale ecoregional differences. Species that show major mercury variation with size or trophic level may not be good choices for use in evaluating the importance of environmental variables.

  20. More than a “Subspecies of American Literature”: Obstacles toward a Transnational Mormon Novel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hales, Scott

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Margaret Blair. Salvador. Salt Lake City: Aspen Books, 1993.Salvador (Salt Lake City: Aspen Books, 1993), 32. Robert

  1. Effect of iron salts on the carbonization of coal-bitumen slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royce, A.; Silveston, P.L.; Readyhough, P.J.; Fouda, S.A.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibition of coke fusion by the presence of iron salts in coal-bitumen slurries. A Plastofrost apparatus was used for the above purpose, along with a specially developed procedure to handle the slurry. Three Canadian and one US coals were used along with a heavy bitumen (Cold Lake vacuum bottoms). Plastofrost samples were prepared of the coals with 0, 5 and 20 wt% additive, the vacuum bottoms, and slurries of 30 wt% coal in the vacuum bottoms with additive levels of 0, 5 and 20 wt%. The additive delayed initial fusion of the coal grains and completion of fusion. The anisotropic texture of the semicoke was diminished by the additive. The presence of vacuum bottoms suppressed coal fusion, probably by physically separating the coal grains. Fusion is also slightly suppressed at 20 wt% additive; 5 wt% seemed to have little effect. Dissolution of vitrain in the bitumen was not observed. The coal and vacuum bottom phases carbonize separately yielding distinct, but well bonded semicokes. Anisotropic texture of the vacuum bottoms coke is strongly diminished by the presence of the finely ground coal.

  2. The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Moving on from the MSBR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Mathieu; D. Heuer; R. Brissot; C. Le Brun; E. Liatard; J. M. Loiseaux; O. Méplan; E. Merle-Lucotte; A. Nuttin; J. Wilson; C. Garzenne; D. Lecarpentier; E. Walle; the GEDEPEON Collaboration

    2005-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A re-evaluation of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor concept has revealed problems related to its safety and to the complexity of the reprocessing considered. A reflection is carried out anew in view of finding innovative solutions leading to the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor concept. Several main constraints are established and serve as guides to parametric evaluations. These then give an understanding of the influence of important core parameters on the reactor's operation. The aim of this paper is to discuss this vast research domain and to single out the Molten Salt Reactor configurations that deserve further evaluation.

  3. A mechanical model of early salt dome growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin, Frank Albert

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    salt and the upper layer representing the overlying sediment, is used to study the mechanics of growth in the early stages of salt dome formation. Three cases of this model, each representing a particular rate of removal of the surface topography..., are examined to determine which case best fits observations of salt domes in East Texas, Northwest Germany, and the North Sea. These observations include the spacing and growth rate of the dome and the amount of deformation of the sediments above the dome...

  4. The Estimation of Salt and Molasses in Mixed Feeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . THE ESTIMATION OF SALT The method described in Bulletin 271 referred to above, consists briefly in extracting the salt from 5.55 gm. of the feed with about 200 cc. water, purifying the extract by means of carbon black or lead acetate, making up to 200 cc... described in this publication is based upon the method of E. R. Theis, published in the Chemist-Analyst, No. 41, 1924, and consists in extracting the salt with a solution of picric acid, neutral- izing with calcium carbonate, and titrating an aliquot...

  5. The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor Moving on from the MSBR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, L; Brissot, R; Le Brun, C; Liatard, E; Loiseaux, J M; Méplan, O; Merle-Lucotte, E; Nuttin, A; Wilson, J; Garzenne, C; Lecarpentier, D; Walle, E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A re-evaluation of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor concept has revealed problems related to its safety and to the complexity of the reprocessing considered. A reflection is carried out anew in view of finding innovative solutions leading to the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor concept. Several main constraints are established and serve as guides to parametric evaluations. These then give an understanding of the influence of important core parameters on the reactor's operation. The aim of this paper is to discuss this vast research domain and to single out the Molten Salt Reactor configurations that deserve further evaluation.

  6. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Hung-Sui (East Setauket, NY); Geng, Lin (Coram, NY); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY)

    1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

  7. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

  8. Comparison of linear and nonlinear acoustic probing of rock salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Albert Min-Hao

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    equation (2) (3) where A = oo ~ = '0'0 0 (4) with c being the sound speed for 1nfin1tesimal-amplitude wave propa- 0 gation. The rat1o 8/A is the nonlinear ity parameter of liquids. It can be written as: where T 1s the absolute temperature c... equipment, Butler (1977) encountered difficulty in obtaining a narrow beam in salt. The sound speed i n salt is higher than the sound speed in the coupling fluid (castor oil or glycerin). Therefore, coupling sound energy into salt, with a coupling fluid...

  9. Experimental Investigation of Two-Phase Flow in Rock Salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malama, Bwalya; Howard, Clifford L.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Test Plan describes procedures for conducting laboratory scale flow tests on intact, damaged, crushed, and consolidated crushed salt to measure the capillary pressure and relative permeability functions. The primary focus of the tests will be on samples of bedded geologic salt from the WIPP underground. However, the tests described herein are directly applicable to domal salt. Samples being tested will be confined by a range of triaxial stress states ranging from atmospheric pressure up to those approximating lithostatic. Initially these tests will be conducted at room temperature, but testing procedures and equipment will be evaluated to determine adaptability to conducting similar tests under elevated temperatures.

  10. Incident and in situ irradiance in Lakes Cadagno and Lucerne: A comparison of methods and models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommaruga, Ruben

    Incident and in situ irradiance in Lakes Cadagno and Lucerne: A comparison of methods and models Key words: Lake Lucerne, Lake Cadagno, PAR, UV-A, UV-B, irradiance regime, radiative transfer models) at the field stations Kastanienbaum at Lake Lucerne (434 m a.s.l.) and Piora at Lake Cadagno (1923 m a

  11. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material - There are likely multiple phases of material in the salt (metal or compound), either suspended through the salt matrix, layered in the bottom of the tank, or both. These phases may contribute to plugging during any planned transfer. There is not enough data to know for sure. (4) Probe heat trace - The alternate transfer method does not include heat tracing of the bottom of the probe. There is a concern that this may cool the salt and other phases of materials present enough to block the flow of salt. (5) Stress-corrosion cracking - Additionally, there is a concern regarding moisture that may have been introduced into the tanks. Due to time constraints, this concern was not validated. However, if moisture was introduced into the tanks and not removed during heating the tanks before HF and F2 sparging, there would be an additional concern regarding the potential for stress-corrosion cracking of the tank walls.

  12. Norphlet Formation (Upper Jurassic) sand erg: depositional model for northeastern De Soto salt basin, eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemmer, D.A.; Reagan, R.L.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Available well control, seismic reflection geometries, and seismic modeling suggest the interpretation of a Norphlet Formation (Upper Jurassic) sand erg in the northeastern De Soto salt basin. Ranging in thickness from less than 100 ft to nearly 1000 ft, the Norphlet erg encompasses an area of approximately 700 mi/sup 2/. Separated from the major gas accumulation in the Norphlet in the Mobile Bay area by the offshore extension of the Pensacola arch, the Norphlet erg appears to be oriented transverse to the axis of the De Soto salt basin. Seismic signatures for the Smackover carbonate, Norphlet sand, and Louann Salt intervals are investigated using synthetic seismograms generated from six wells in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. General characteristics about the reflection coefficients from the major units in the interval are noted. The reflection coefficient information and synthetic seismograms are used to interpret seismic data on a regional basis. Two-dimensional, vertical-incidence, ray-trace modeling of the seismic data is done to aid the interpretation on a detailed basis. Interpreted Norphlet sandstone thicknesses and Louann Salt structures are combined to support the Norphlet Formation sand erg hypothesis.

  13. Determining the extragalactic extinction law with SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ido Finkelman; Noah Brosch; Alexei Y. Kniazev; David Buckley; Darragh O'Donoghue; Yas Hashimoto; Nicola Loaring; Encarni Romero; Martin Still; Petri Vaisanen

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We present CCD imaging observations of early-type galaxies with dark lanes obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) during its performance-verification phase. We derive the extinction law by the extragalactic dust in the dark lanes in the spectral range 1.11mu m^{-1} < lambda^{-1} < 2.94 mu m^{-1} by fitting model galaxies to the unextinguished parts of the image, and subtracting from these the actual images. We find that the extinction curves run parallel to the Galactic extinction curve, which implies that the properties of dust in the extragalactic enviroment are similar to those of the Milky Way. The ratio of the total V band extinction to the selective extinction between the V and B bands is derived for each galaxy with an average of 2.82+-0.38, compared to a canonical value of 3.1 for the Milky Way. The similar values imply that galaxies with well-defined dark lanes have characteristic dust grain sizes similar to those of Galactic dust.

  14. EM Gains Insight from Germany on Salt-Based Repositories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    KARLSRUHE and PEINE, Germany – EM officials recently took part in workshops in Germany to benefit from the exchange of research and experience operating salt-based repositories for radioactive waste.

  15. Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2014 April 2014 Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Quality and Fire Protection Systems The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of...

  16. Apparatus and method for making metal chloride salt product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Homer Glen, IL); Richmann, Michael K. (Carlsbad, NM)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing metal chlorides is disclosed in which chlorine gas is introduced into liquid Cd. CdCl.sub.2 salt is floating on the liquid Cd and as more liquid CdCl.sub.2 is formed it separates from the liquid Cd metal and dissolves in the salt. The salt with the CdCl.sub.2 dissolved therein contacts a metal which reacts with CdCl.sub.2 to form a metal chloride, forming a mixture of metal chloride and CdCl.sub.2. After separation of bulk Cd from the salt, by gravitational means, the metal chloride is obtained by distillation which removes CdCl.sub.2 and any Cd dissolved in the metal chloride.

  17. Salt Fog Testing Iron-Based Amorphous Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, Raul B. [Chemistry and Materials Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, L- 631, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States); Aprigliano, Louis F. [Consultant, Berlin, MD, 21811 (United States); Day, S. Daniel; Farmer, Joseph C. [LLNL, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron-based amorphous alloys are hard and highly corrosion resistant, which make them desirable for salt water and other applications. These alloys can be produced as powder and can be deposited as coatings on any surface that needs to be protected from the environment. It was of interest to examine the behavior of these amorphous alloys in the standard salt-fog testing ASTM B 117. Three different amorphous coating compositions were deposited on 316L SS coupons and exposed for many cycles of the salt fog test. Other common engineering alloys such as 1018 carbon steel, 316L SS and Hastelloy C-22 were also tested together with the amorphous coatings. Results show that amorphous coatings are resistant to rusting in salt fog. Partial devitrification may be responsible for isolated rust spots in one of the coatings. (authors)

  18. Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA(DOI-BLM...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Drilling Program EA (DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2009-0006-EA) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program...

  19. Molten salt electrolyte battery cell with overcharge tolerance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten salt electrolyte battery having an increased overcharge tolerance employs a negative electrode with two lithium alloy phases of different electrochemical potential, one of which allows self-discharge rates which permits battery cell equalization.

  20. Salt Tolerance of Landscape Plants Common to the Southwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyamoto, S.

    With sharply increasing costs of providing potable water, many communities in the Southwest are attempting to utilize non-potable saline water for irrigating large landscapes. This publication provides the information related to salt effects...