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1

AEO2011: Coal Minemouth Prices by Region and Type | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Minemouth Prices by Region and Type Minemouth Prices by Region and Type Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is Table 141, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons and the US Dollar. The data is broken down into northern Appalachia, central Appalachia, southern Appalachia, eastern interior, western interior, Gulf, Dakota medium, western Montana, Wyoming, Rocky Mountain, Arizona/New Mexico and Washington/Alaska. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal Minemouth Prices EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Coal Minemouth Prices by Region and Type- Reference Case (xls, 121.6 KiB)

2

AEO2011: Coal Production by Region and Type | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

by Region and Type by Region and Type Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is Table 140, and contains only the reference case. The unit of measurement in this dataset is million short tons. The data is broken down into northern Appalachia, central Appalachia, southern Appalachia, eastern interior, western interior, gulf, Dakota medium, western montana, Wyoming, Rocky Mountain, Arizona/New Mexico and Washington/Alaska. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal Production EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AE2011: Coal Production by Region and Type- Reference Case (xls, 122.3 KiB)

3

Coal Supply Region  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Implicit Price Deflators for Gross Domestic Product, as published by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. For the composition of coal basins, refer to the definition of...

4

Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production@nmsu.edu #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth i Disclaimer This report States Government or any agency thereof. #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic

Johnson, Eric E.

5

Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

2009-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

6

Pricing of Australia's coking coal exports: A regional hedonic analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Black coal is Australia's most important export commodity, but the profitability of the domestic coal industry has been low relative to the mining sector average. As a consequence, a key policy issue in Australia has been the extent to which Japan's coal pricing and investment policies have influenced coal market outcomes. In this paper, a regional hedonic pricing model of Australia's coking coal exports is estimated for the period JFY1989 to 1996. Non-Japan regional intercept dummy variables were found to be significantly different from zero, although these varied across coal categories and years. However, the empirical evidence indicates that Japan does not pay significantly lower prices relative to other major export markets for coking coal of a given quality.

Lindsay Hogan; Sally Thorpe; Anthony Swan; Simon Middleton

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Coal geology of the U.S. Gulf Coastal region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a comprehensive assessment of the major coal regions of the country. In this program, known as the National Coal Resource Assessment, the quantity and quality of coals that are expected to be mined during the next 30 years will be characterized. For the Gulf Coast region, the evaluation will include reviews of the stratigraphic setting, resource potential, and the quality of the lignites in four coal-producing areas. These areas are: the Sabine Uplift (including parts of Texas and Louisiana), Northeast Texas, Central Texas, and South Texas. The results of these efforts will be a series of digital Geographic Information System (GIS) maps, text, and tables that will be published in a CD-ROM format. These products, along with a national summary CD-ROM, are expected to be completed in 1999. This paper is to present a review of Gulf Coast coal geology and to outline the USGS assessment efforts for the Gulf Coast region. Most coal in the Gulf Coast area is produced from the Paleocene Wilcox Group, and minor amounts of coal are produced from the Ecocene Jackson and Claiborne Groups. Initial results indicate that for coals being mined in the Sabine Uplift, Northeast, and Central Texas areas mean moisture values are about 34%, mean ash yields range from 12 to 15%, and mean calorific values range from about 5,800 to 6,900 Btu/lb (all data are on an as-received basis). Detailed bed and zone analysis in all areas indicate that resource figures will be greater than previous estimates that have usually combined multiple coal horizons to estimate cumulative coal thicknesses for a formation. Ongoing research in the Sabine Uplift and Northeast study areas suggests that coal zones in both the upper and lower Wilcox may be more laterally extensive than previous studies indicate.

Warwick, P.D.; Aubourg, C.E.; Crowley, S.S. [and others

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

Phatak, Ramkrishna G. (San Antonio, TX)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Coos Bay Field Gulf Coast Coal Region Williston Basin Illinois  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

San Juan Basin C e n t r a l A p p a l a c h i a n B a s i n Michigan Basin Greater Green River Basin Black Warrior Basin North Central Coal Region Arkoma Basin Denver Basin...

10

A New Type Heat Exchanger for Coal Burning Boilers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To make the best of heat energy in the flue gas exhausted from a coal burning boiler, the design proposal for a new type of heat exchanger was put forward in the paper. Via the new type of heat exchanger, temperature of the flue gas can be decreased ... Keywords: waste heat utilization, energy conservation, special heat exchanger, economizer

Bingwen Zhang; Yingjin Zhang

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Regional trends in the take-up of clean coal technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using surveys of the electricity industry taken in major OECD coal producing/coal consuming regions of North America, Europe, Southern Africa, and Asia/Pacific, this paper reports on the attitudes of power plant operators and developers toward clean coal technologies, the barriers to their use and the policies and measures that might be implemented, if a country or region desired to encourage greater use of clean coal technologies.

Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

12

Table 23. Coal Mining Productivity by State, Mine Type, and Mine Production Range, 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Mining Productivity by State, Mine Type, and Mine Production Range, 2012 Mining Productivity by State, Mine Type, and Mine Production Range, 2012 (short tons produced per employee hour) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 23. Coal Mining Productivity by State, Mine Type, and Mine Production Range, 2012 (short tons produced per employee hour) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Mine Production Range (thousand short tons) Coal-Producing State, Region 1 and Mine Type Above 1,000 Above 500 to 1,000 Above 200 to 500 Above 100 to 200 Above 50 to 100 Above 10 to 50 10 or Under Total 2 Alabama 1.69 2.50 1.95 1.72 1.83 0.69 0.55 1.68 Underground 1.73 - - - 1.08 0.31 - 1.64 Surface 1.36 2.50 1.95 1.72 2.11 1.19 0.55 1.75 Alaska 5.98 - - - - - - 5.98 Surface 5.98 - - - - - - 5.98 Arizona 7.38 - - - - - - 7.38 Surface

13

Experimental studies of 1 ton/day coal slurry feed type oxygen blown, entrained flow gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental Studies of a 1 Ton/Day coal slurry feed type oxygen blown, entrained flow gasifier have been performed with the slurry concentration and gasifier temperature at 65% and above 1,300...2.../coal feed r...

Young-Chan Choi; Tae-Jun Park; Jae-Ho Kim…

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Regional price targets appropriate for advanced coal extraction. [Forecasting to 1985 and 2000; USA; Regional analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The object of the study is to provide a methodology for predicting coal prices in regional markets for the target time frames 1985 and 2000 that could subsequently be used to guide the development of an advanced coal extraction system. The model constructed for the study is a supply and demand model that focuses on underground mining, since the advanced technology is expected to be developed for these reserves by the target years. The supply side of the model is based on coal reserve data generated by Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. (EEA). Given this data and the cost of operating a mine (data from US Department of Energy and Bureau of Mines), the Minimum Acceptable Selling Price (MASP) is obtained. The MASP is defined as the smallest price that would induce the producer to bring the mine into production, and is sensitive to the current technology and to assumptions concerning miner productivity. Based on this information, market supply curves can then be generated. On the demand side of the model, demand by region is calculated based on an EEA methodology that emphasizes demand by electric utilities and demand by industry. The demand and supply curves are then used to obtain the price targets. This last step is accomplished by allocating the demands among the suppliers so that the combined cost of producing and transporting coal is minimized.

Terasawa, K.L.; Whipple, D.W.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Report Title: The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico Type of Report: Final Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed ......................................................................................16 Coal Prices........................................................Report Title: The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico Type of Report: Final Technical

Johnson, Eric E.

16

Coal Market Module This  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

51 51 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2012, DOE/EIA-M060(2012) (Washington, DC, 2012). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

17

Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 153 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2011, DOE/EIA-M060(2011) (Washington, DC, 2011). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

18

AEO2011: World Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 143, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into Metallurgical coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO coal EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries- Reference Case (xls, 103.8 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

19

AEO2011: World Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 144, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into total coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO coal EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries - Reference Case (xls, 104 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035

20

AEO2011: World Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 142, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into steam coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal flows countries EIA exporting importing Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries- Reference Case (xls, 103.7 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Coal in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains Region -- Clean, compliant, and available  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region produced over 340 million short tons of coal in 1997, approximately 30 percent of the nation`s total coal production. Coals from this region are shipped to 26 states in the western, midwest, southern, and eastern US and production is projected to increase to 415 million short tons by 2015; the projected increase will be utilized primarily for production of electric power. The coals are economically attractive because they can be produced by surface mining, and do not require costly beneficiation to be compliant with emission standards. The coals are compliant because their chemical composition was influenced by tectonic settings of the coal basins and provenance of the sediments entering the basins. Tectonics during the Paleocene also influenced rates of precipitation and depositional systems. These factors, in concert, controlled the amount, distribution, and levels of sulfur, ash, and trace elements of environmental concern in the region`s coals. The emphasis of this paper is on the chemistry of these thick, high-quality coals and the geologic controls that resulted in their accumulation.

Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam March 10, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- A U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) team of regional partners has begun injecting CO2 into a deep lignite coal seam in Burke County, North Dakota, to demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of geologic CO2 storage in the U.S. Great Plains region. Ultimately, geologic carbon sequestration is expected to play an important role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and combating climate change. The Lignite Field Validation Test is being conducted by the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, one of seven regional partnerships under DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program. The seven

23

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 1999 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal.gif (4423 bytes) coal.gif (4423 bytes) The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Model Documentation: Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System, DOE/EIA-MO60. Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions, and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves addresses the relationship between the minemouth price of coal and corresponding levels of coal production, labor productivity, and the cost of factor inputs (mining equipment, mine labor, and fuel requirements).

24

The U.S. Geological Survey coal assessment of the Gulf Coastal region, a progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a comprehensive assessment of the major coal regions of the country. This program, known as the National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA), is focused on five major coal-bearing regions in the country: the Appalachian basin, Illinois basin, Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, Colorado Plateau, and the Gulf Coast region. In this program, the authors are characterizing the quantity and quality of coals that are expected to be mined during the next 30 years. As part of this effort, they are conducting an evaluation of the stratigraphic setting, resource potential, and the quality of the lignites in five coal-producing areas within the Gulf Coast region. The results of these efforts will be a series of digital Geographic Information System (GIS) maps, text, and tables that will be published in a CD-ROM format. These products, along with a national summary CD-ROM, are expected to be completed by 1999. The assessment of the Gulf Coast region is focused primarily on four areas that are currently producing coal as shown in a figure. These areas are the: (1) Sabine area, which includes parts of northwest Louisiana and northeast Texas; (2) northeast Texas; (3) central Texas; and (4) south Texas. In addition, a fifth area in Mississippi has been evaluated because a new surface mine has been proposed for that area. The Gulf Coast coal region produces about 57 million short tons of coal annually from the states of Louisiana and Texas from Wilcox Group coals. The primary intervals of study for this project are the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) and selected coal-producing intervals (such as the Eocene Jackson and Claiborne Groups, and Cretaceous Olmos Formation in south Texas) that are producing or have potential for producing coal in the near future. The objectives of this project are to provide high-quality, organized information and interpretations on the location, quality, and quantity of the coal to be mined in the Gulf Coast area during the next several decades in order to meet the needs of the region for reliable, low cost, environmentally-acceptable energy.

Warwick, P.D.; Aubourg, C.E.; Crowley, S.S. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)] [and others

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

Overview of the potential for clean coal technology in the Asia-Pacific region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Asia-Pacific economies consume substantial amounts of coal for electricity generation and are potential important markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs). CCTs are defined as those technologies that can substantially reduce emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} resulting from the combustion of coal and lignite in electricity generating power plants. The rate of introduction of CCTs into Asia-Pacific economies varies widely and is broadly related to the level of economic development and environmental problems resulting from coal burning in individual economies. An overview is presented of the trends in electricity generation in the Asia-Pacific region and estimates of the market for CCTs in electricity generation plants to 2010. There are other important markets for CCTs, such as in the iron and steel industry, that are not covered. Governments in all coal-consuming Asia-Pacific economies are examining options for maintaining high levels of economic growth and reducing environmental impacts associated with increased energy consumption. There is a correlation between the expansion in economic activity, commonly measured as the gross domestic product (GDP), and the growth in electricity consumption. In low-income economies the growth rate of electricity consumption usually exceeds the growth rate of GDP. However, in higher income, mature economies (such as Japan) the increase in electricity consumption is often substantially lower than the GDP growth rate. The expansion in coal consumption for electricity generation is the dominant factor in the large increase in coal consumption. Without effective control measures, the projected increase in coal consumption will have a serious impact on environmental quality in many countries in the region. Therefore, there is a need to develop sound policies and strategies at both national and regional levels to reduce the negative environmental effects of increased coal use in Asia.

Johnson, C.J.; Binsheng Li

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2001 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2001, DOE/EIA-M060(2001) January 2001. Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions, and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves

27

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2002 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2002, DOE/EIA-M060(2002) (Washington, DC, January 2002). Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves

28

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2000 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal market module (CMM) represents the mining, transportation, and pricing of coal, subject to end-use demand. Coal supplies are differentiated by heat and sulfur content. CMM also determines the minimum cost pattern of coal supply to meet exogenously defined U.S. coal export demands as a part of the world coal market. Coal supply is projected on a cost-minimizing basis, constrained by existing contracts. Twelve different coal types are differentiated with respect to thermal grade, sulfur content, and underground or surface mining. The domestic production and distribution of coal is forecast for 13 demand regions and 11 supply regions (Figures 19 and 20). coal market module (CMM) represents the mining, transportation, and pricing of coal, subject to end-use demand. Coal supplies are differentiated by heat and sulfur content. CMM also determines the minimum cost pattern of coal supply to meet exogenously defined U.S. coal export demands as a part of the world coal market. Coal supply is projected on a cost-minimizing basis, constrained by existing contracts. Twelve different coal types are differentiated with respect to thermal grade, sulfur content, and underground or surface mining. The domestic production and distribution of coal is forecast for 13 demand regions and 11 supply regions (Figures 19 and 20). Figure 19. Coal Market Module Demand Regions Figure 20. Coal Market Module Supply Regions

29

AEO2011: Coal Production and Minemouth Prices by Region | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Minemouth Prices by Region and Minemouth Prices by Region Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 139, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons and the US Dollar. The data is broken down into production and minemouth prices. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal Production EIA Minemouth Prices Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Coal Production and Minemouth Prices by Region- Reference Case (xls, 41.5 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

30

COAL LOGISTICS. Tracking U.S. Coal Exports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

COAL LOGISTICS has the capability to track coal from a U. S. mine or mining area to a foreign consumer`s receiving dock. The system contains substantial quantities of information about the types of coal available in different U. S. coalfields, present and potential inland transportation routes to tidewater piers, and shipping routes to and port capabilities in Italy, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. It is designed to facilitate comparisons of coal quality and price at several stages of the export process, including delivered prices at a wide range of destinations. COAL LOGISTICS can be used to examine coal quality within or between any of 18 U. S. coalfields, including three in Alaska, or to compare alternative routes and associated service prices between coal-producing regions and ports-of-exit. It may be used to explore the possibilities of different ship sizes, marine routes, and foreign receiving terminals for coal exports. The system contains three types of information: records of coal quality, domestic coal transportation options, and descriptions of marine shipment routes. COAL LOGISTICS contains over 3100 proximate analyses of U. S. steam coals, usually supplemented by data for ash softening temperature and Hardgrove grindability; over 1100 proximate analyses for coals with metallurgical potential, usually including free swelling index values; 87 domestic coal transportation options: rail, barge, truck, and multi-mode routes that connect 18 coal regions with 15 U. S. ports and two Canadian terminals; and data on 22 Italian receiving ports for thermal and metallurgical coal and 24 coal receiving ports along the Asian Pacific Rim. An auxiliary program, CLINDEX, is included which is used to index the database files.

Sall, G.W. [US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

31

Dry cleaning of Turkish coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2000, DOE/EIA-M060(2000) January 2000. The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2000, DOE/EIA-M060(2000) January 2000. Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions, and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves addresses the relationship between the minemouth price of coal and corresponding levels of coal production, labor productivity, and the cost of factor inputs (mining equipment, mine labor, and fuel requirements).

33

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 1998 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

COAL MARKET MODULE COAL MARKET MODULE blueball.gif (205 bytes) Coal Production Submodule blueball.gif (205 bytes) Coal Distribution Submodule blueball.gif (205 bytes) Coal Export Component The coal market module (CMM) represents the mining, transportation, and pricing of coal, subject to end-use demand. Coal supplies are differentiated by heat and sulfur content. The CMM also determines the minimum cost pattern of coal supply to meet exogenously defined U.S. coal export demands as a part of the world coal market. Coal supply is projected on a cost-minimizing basis, constrained by existing contracts. Twelve different coal types are differentiated with respect to thermal grade, sulfur content, and underground or surface mining. The domestic production and distribution of coal is forecast for 13 demand regions and 11 supply

34

Coal investment and long-term supply and demand outlook for coal in the Asia-Pacific Region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The theme of this symposium to look ahead almost a quarter century to 2020 gives one the freedom to speculate more than usual in projections for coal. It is important to attempt to take a long term look into the future of coal and energy, so that one can begin to prepare for major changes on the horizon. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the crystal ball for making long term projections is accurate for 2020. Hopefully it can suggest plausible changes that have long term strategic importance to Asia`s coal sector. This paper presents the medium scenario of long term projects of coal production, consumption, imports and exports in Asia. The second part of the paper examines the two major changes in Asia that could be most important to the long term role of coal. These include: (1) the impact of strict environmental legislation on energy and technology choices in Asia, and (2) the increased role of the private sector in all aspects of coal in Asia.

Johnson, C.J.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

Elements of environmental concern in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments: A perspective of Fort Union coals in northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The elements of environmental concern (EECs) named in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments include 12 trace elements consisting of antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and uranium. Although all these trace elements are potentially hazardous, arsenic, mercury, lead, and selenium may be targeted in forthcoming Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Fort Union coals contain all the trace elements named in the Clean Air Act Amendments; however, the presence and amounts of individual trace elements vary from basin to basin. In the Powder River Basin, the major producing Fort Union coals (Wyodak-Anderson and equivalent coal beds, and Rosebud coal bed) contain the lowest (or statistically as low) amounts of EECs of any of the coal producing basins (i.e., Williston, Hanna, and Green River) in the region. In addition, when the arithmetic means of these trace elements in Powder River Basin coals are compared to other regions in the conterminous US, they are lower than those of Cretaceous coals in Colorado Plateau, Tertiary lignites in the Gulf Coast, and Pennsylvanian coals in the Illinois and Appalachian Basins. Thus, elements of environmental concern are generally low in Fort Union coals in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, and particularly low in the Powder River Basin. Projected increase in production of Powder River Basin coals will, therefore, be of greater benefit to the nation than an increase in development and production of coals in other basins.

Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.E.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Elements of environmental concern in the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments: A perspective of Fort Union coals in northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The elements of environmental concern (EECs) named in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments include 12 trace elements consisting of antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and uranium. Although all these trace elements are potentially hazardous, arsenic, mercury, lead, and selenium may be targeted in forthcoming Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Fort Union coals contain all the trace elements named in the Clean Air Act Amendments; however, the presence and amounts of individual trace elements vary from basin to basin. In the Powder River Basin, the major producing Fort Union coals (Wyodak-Anderson and equivalent coal beds, and Rosebud coal bed) contain the lowest (or statistically as low) amounts of EECs of any of the coal producing basins (i.e. Williston, Hanna, and Green River) in the region. In addition, when the arithmetic means of these trace elements in Powder River Basin coals are compared to other regions in the conterminous U.S., they are lower than those of Cretaceous coals in Colorado Plateau, Tertiary lignites in the Gulf Coast, and Pennsylvanian coals in the Illinois and Appalachian Basins. Thus, elements of environmental concern are generally low in Fort Union coals in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, and particularly low in the Powder River Basin. Projected increase in production of Powder River Basin coals will, therefore, be of greater benefit to the nation than an increase in development and production of coals in other basins.

Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.E.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Compilation of data on strippable Fort Union coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region: A CD-ROM presentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fort Union Formation and equivalent formations of Paleocene age in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region contain 14 strippable coals that yielded more than 30 percent of the 1.03 billion short tons produced in the United States in 1996. These thick, low contaminant, compliant coals, which are utilized by electric power plants in 28 States, are being assessed by the US Geological Survey. The minable coals occur in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana, Hanna, Carbon and Greater Green River Basins in Wyoming, and Williston Basin in North Dakota. Production during the past 25 years of thick, high quality Fort Union and equivalent coal beds and zones in the region increased from 40 to more than 340 million short tons. The Powder River Basin is projected to produce 416 million short tons of coal in 2015. Major production in the Powder River Basin is from the Wyodak-Anderson, Anderson-Dietz, and Rosebud coal deposits. Producing Fort Union coals in the Williston Basin include the Beulah-Zap, Hagel, and Harmon coal deposits. Producing Fort Union coals in the Greater Green River Basin are in five beds of the Deadman coal zone. Coal production in the Hanna Basin is from eight beds in the Ferris and Hanna Formations. Coals in the Powder River Basin and Williston Basin contain much less sulfur and ash than coals produced in other regions in the conterminous US. When sulfur values are compared as pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu (as received basis), Powder River Basin and Williston Basin coals have the lowest amounts of any coals in the conterminous US.

Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.; Cavaroc, V.V. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Formal Type Soundness for Cyclone's Region System Dan Grossman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management of Cyclone and its static typing discipline. The design incorporates several advance- mentsFormal Type Soundness for Cyclone's Region System Dan Grossman Greg Morrisett Trevor Jim Mike Hicks Yanling Wang James Cheney November 2001 Abstract Cyclone is a polymorphic, type-safe programming language

Hicks, Michael

39

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2004, DOE/EIA-M060(2004) (Washington, DC, 2004). Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves addresses the relationship between the minemouth price of coal and corresponding levels of capacity utilization of mines, mining capacity, labor productivity, and the cost of factor inputs (mining equipment, mine labor, and fuel requirements).

40

Magnetoresistance of p-Type Si in the Hopping Region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The magnetoresistance in the hopping region of B-doped Si was found to be negative. This contrasts with the behavior in n-type Ge, where a positive magnetoresistance is characteristic of the hopping conduction region. No anisotropy is observed in fields up to 17 kG in the p-type Si. The resistance tends to saturate at about 15 kG. The change in dc resistance at that field is about 10% from the zero-field value.

M. Pollak and D. H. Watt

1963-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining, and other counties in the nation. We converted mortality estimates to VSL estimates and compared the results with the economic contribution of coal mining. We also conducted a discount analysis to estimate current benefits relative to future mortality costs. The heaviest coal mining areas of Appalachia had the poorest socioeconomic conditions. Before adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual age-adjusted deaths in coal mining areas ranged from 3,975 to 10,923, depending on years studied and comparison group. Corresponding VSL estimates ranged from $18.563 billion to $84.544 billion, with a point estimate of $50.010 billion, greater than the $8.088 billion economic contribution of coal mining. After adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual deaths in mining areas ranged from 1,736 to 2,889, and VSL costs continued to exceed the benefits of mining. Discounting VSL costs into the future resulted in excess costs relative to benefits in seven of eight conditions, with a point estimate of $41.846 billion.

Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Environmental aspects of coal production in the Appalachian region. Final project report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comprehensive, multiyear study of environmental effects related to steep slope surface mining has integrated hydrology, water quality, geology, and biology at a single study area in the Appalachian Coal fields of northeast Tennessee. From this study, hydrology, water quality, and biological changes have been quantified and related to the types of mining and reclamation that are practical, the extent of watershed disturbed and the time since mining activity was completed. Since drainage in the study area was essentially non-acid in drainage characteristics, mining impacts aside from the more widely publicized acid mine drainage problem could be evaluated. Surface mining of steep slopes causes altered stream hydrology. There are increases in both peak storm water flow and dry weather flows. This is accompanied by long-term changes in water quality. Calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, and sulfate levels are elevated. Increases in alkalinity and pH are probably caused more by clay formation and the solution chemistry of some elements than by presence of carbonate minerals. Of these changes, the major factors affecting biological characteristics of these streams are catastrophic storm flows and increased silt loading. Species diversity, richness and population densities were invariably reduced after mining. Presently used sediment-control measures do not mitigate these effects. The practical models for mining operation and the design of control structures which have been developed in this study show promise for wide application with suitable refinement.

Minear, R.A.; Tschantz, B.A.; Vaughan, G.L.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Background This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Methods Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. Results After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14–1.30), angina or CHD (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.19–1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.10–1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Conclusions Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

Michael Hendryx; Keith J. Zullig

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Installation of a digital, wireless, strong-motion network for monitoring seismic activity in a western Colorado coal mining region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A seismic monitoring network has recently been installed in the North Fork Valley coal mining region of western Colorado as part of a NIOSH mine safety technology transfer project with two longwall coal mine operators. Data recorded with this network will be used to characterize mining related and natural seismic activity in the vicinity of the mines and examine potential hazards due to ground shaking near critical structures such as impoundment dams, reservoirs, and steep slopes. Ten triaxial strong-motion accelerometers have been installed on the surface to form the core of a network that covers approximately 250 square kilometers (100 sq. miles) of rugged canyon-mesa terrain. Spread-spectrum radio networks are used to telemeter continuous streams of seismic waveform data to a central location where they are converted to IP data streams and ported to the Internet for processing, archiving, and analysis. 4 refs.

Peter Swanson; Collin Stewart; Wendell Koontz [NIOSH, Spokane, WA (USA). Spokane Research Laboratory

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

EIA-Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2007 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2007, DOE/EIA-M060(2007) (Washington, DC, 2007). Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Forty separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade and sulfur content), and two mine types (underground and surface). Supply curves are constructed using an econometric formulation that relates the minemouth prices of coal for the supply regions and coal types to a set of independent variables. The independent variables include: capacity utilization of mines, mining capacity, labor productivity, the user cost of capital of mining equipment, and the cost of factor inputs (labor and fuel).

46

EIA - Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2010, DOE/EIA-M060(2010) (Washington, DC, 2010). Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade and sulfur content), and two mine types (underground and surface). Supply curves are constructed using an econometric formulation that relates the minemouth prices of coal for the supply regions and coal types to a set of independent variables. The independent variables include: capacity utilization of mines, mining capacity, labor productivity, the user cost of capital of mining equipment, the cost of factor inputs (labor and fuel), and other mine supply costs.

47

EIA - Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2008, DOE/EIA-M060(2008) (Washington, DC, 2008). Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade and sulfur content), and two mine types (underground and surface). Supply curves are constructed using an econometric formulation that relates the minemouth prices of coal for the supply regions and coal types to a set of independent variables. The independent variables include: capacity utilization of mines, mining capacity, labor productivity, the user cost of capital of mining equipment, and the cost of factor inputs (labor and fuel).

48

Appalachian coal awareness conference: promoting Eastern coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Promoting the development and use of coal, especially coal from the Appalachian region, was the focus of introductory and keynote speeches and a discussion by representatives of the Virginia Coal Council, mining engineers, industry, and the Edison Electric Institute. Governor Dalton's keynote address noted that both producers and consumers attending the conference should work together to promote coal as a solution to the US energy future, and reported the impact that a commitment to coal has had on Virginia's economic growth. Participants in the coal consumers panel discussion raised various economic and regulatory issues.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Distribution of hazardous air pollutant trace elements, total sulfur, and ash in coals from five Tertiary basins in the Rocky Mountain Region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Arithmetic mean values of the contents of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) trace elements named in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and uranium), ash, and total sulfur were statistically compared on a whole-coal basis for Paleocene coals from five Tertiary basins in the Rocky Mountain Region. The study of proximate and elemental analyses indicate a relationship between trace element contents and paleogeography.

Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

Disaggregating regional energy supply/demand and flow data to 173 BEAs in support of export coal analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the procedures and results of a study sponsored jointly by the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy. The study was conducted to provide, Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)-level production/consumption data for energy materials for 1985 and 1990 in support of an analysis of transportation requirements for export coal. Base data for energy forecasts at the regional level were obtained from the Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. The forecasts selected for this study are described in DOE/EIA's 1980 Annual Report to Congress, and are: 1985 Series, B, medium oil import price ($37.00/barrel); and 1990 Series B, medium oil import price ($41.00/barrel). Each forecast period is extensively described by approximately forty-three statistical tables prepared by EIA and made available to TERA for this study. This report provides sufficient information to enable the transportation analyst to appreciate the procedures employed by TERA to produce the BEA-level energy production/consumption data. The report presents the results of the procedures, abstracts of data tabulations, and various assumptions used for the preparation of the BEA-level data. The end-product of this effort was the BEA to BEA energy commodity flow data by more which serve as direct input to DOT's transportation network model being used for a detailed analysis of export coal transportation.

Not Available

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

International Energy Outlook - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2004 Coal Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2025. Coal continues to dominate fuel markets in developing Asia. Figure 52. World Coal Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 53. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2001 and 2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 54. Coal Share of Regional Energy Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since

53

Coal Combustion Science  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Opportunities for improved surface mine reclamation in the central Appalachian coal region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research was to estimate the costs of coal surface mine reclamation methods designed to prepare mined lands for improved use in areas of steeply sloping topography. During the course of this research, a computer-based mining and reclamation cost estimating system was developed. COSTSUM is a set of seven programs designed to analyze data from active surface mining sites to determine spoil handling and reclamation costs. OPSIM is a surface mining simulator designed to estimate the differences in spoil handling costs among reclamation and postmining landform alternatives. This cost-estimating system was utilized during an intensive study of mining and reclamation cost at a surface mining site in Wise County, Virginia, where a number of improved reclamation practices were implemented. At this site, a steeply sloping premining topography was transformed to a postmining landform containing an extensive near-level area covered with deep, uncompacted, potentially productive mine soils. Analysis of daily records of operations revealed that the cost of mining and reclaiming this site was comparable to industry average costs in the area in spite of departure from conventional methods. The results of simulation procedures indicated that the cost of mining so as to produce this landscape was less than the estimated cost of conventional mining methods.

Zipper, C.E.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Coal Gasification  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE's Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically via the process of coal gasification with sequestration. DOE anticipates that coal...

56

Clean coal technologies market potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

Drazga, B. (ed.)

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

57

HS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coal Coal Fossil Energy Study Guide: Coal Coal is the most plentiful fuel in the fossil family. The United States has more coal reserves than any other country in the world. In fact, one-fourth of all known coal in the world is in the United States, with large deposits located in 38 states. The United States has almost as much energ y in coal that can be mined as the rest of the world has in oil that can be pumped from the ground. TYPES OF COAL Coal is a black rock made up of large amounts of carbon. Like all fossil fuels, coal can be burned to release energy. Coal contains elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; has various amounts of minerals; and is itself considered to be a mineral of organic origin. Due to the variety of materials buried over time in the

58

Investigations into coal coprocessing and coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of coal to liquid suitable as feedstock to a petroleum refinery is dependent upon several process variables. These variables include temperature, pressure, coal rank, catalyst type, nature of the feed to the reactor, type of process, etc. Western Research Institute (WRI) has initiated a research program in the area of coal liquefaction to address the impact of some of these variables upon the yield and quality of the coal-derived liquid. The principal goal of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. Two different approaches are currently being investigated. These include the coprocessing of a heavy liquid, such as crude oil, and coal using a dispersed catalyst and the direct liquefaction of coal using a supported catalyst. Another important consideration in coal liquefaction is the utilization of hydrogen, including both externally- and internally-supplied hydrogen. Because the incorporation of externally-supplied hydrogen during conversion of this very aromatic fossil fuel to, for example, transportation fuels is very expensive, improved utilization of internally-supplied hydrogen can lead to reducing processing costs. The objectives of this investigation, which is Task 3.3.4, Coal Coprocessing, of the 1991--1992 Annual Research Plan, are: (1) to evaluate coal/oil pretreatment conditions that are expected to improve the liquid yield through more efficient dispersion of an oil-soluble, iron-based catalyst, (2) to characterize the coke deposits on novel, supported catalysts after coal liquefaction experiments and to correlate the carbon skeletal structure parameters of the coke deposit with catalyst performance as measured by coal liquefaction product yield, and (3) to determine the modes of hydrogen utilization during coal liquefaction and coprocessing. Experimental results are discussed in this report.

Guffey, F.D.; Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Thomas, K.P. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Zhang, Tiejun; Haynes, H.W. Jr. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

coking coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

coking coal [A caking coal suitable for the production of coke for metallurgical use] ? Kokskohle f, verkokbare Kohle

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Physical features of small disperse coal dust fraction transportation and structurization processes in iodine air filters of absorption type in ventilation systems at nuclear power plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The research on the physical features of transportation and structurization processes by the air-dust aerosol in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal adsorbent granules in an air filter of the adsorption type in the heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system at the nuclear power plant is completed. The physical origins of the coal dust masses distribution along the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules during the air-dust aerosol intake process in the near the surface layer of absorber are researched. The quantitative technical characteristics of air filtering elements, which have to be considered during the optimization of air filters designs for the application in the ventilation systems at the nuclear power plants, are obtained.

Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Influence of Spoil Type on Afforestation Success and Hydrochemical Function on a Surface Coal Mine in Eastern Kentucky.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Surface coal mining in Appalachia has contributed to a suite of ecological impacts, both terrestrial and aquatic. Conventional reclamation in Appalachia leads to the development… (more)

Sena, Kenton L.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Analyses of environmental impacts of underground coal mining in an arid region using remote sensing and GIS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influences of coal mining in an arid environment on vegetation coverage, land-use change, desertification, soil and water loss were discussed. A series of available TM/ETM+ images with no cloud cover from ...

Zheng-fu Bian; Hai-xia Zhang; Shao-gang Lei

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Status of Coal Gasification: 1977  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-pressure technology is important to coal gasification for several reasons. When the end product ... of high pressures in all types of coal gasification reduces the pressure drop throughout the equipment,...

F. C. Schora; W. G. Bair

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Bio-coal briquette  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some of the developing nations aim to earn foreign currency by exporting oil and/or gas and to increase the domestic consumption of coal to ensure a secure energy supply. Therefore, it is very important to promote effective coal utilization in these nations. Currently, these countries experience problems associated with coal use for household cooking and household industries. For household cooking, coal creates too much smoke and smells unpleasant. In addition, illegally obtained firewood is almost free in local agricultural regions. Coal is also used in household industries; however, simple stoker boilers are inefficient, since unburned coal particles tend to drop through screens during the combustion process. The bio-coal briquette, on the other hand, is an effective and efficient fuel, since it utilizes coal, which is to be used extensively in households and in small and medium-scale industry sectors in some coal-producing countries, as a primary fuel and bamboos (agricultural waste) as a secondary fuel. In addition, the use of bio-coal briquettes will greatly help reduce unburned coal content.

Honda, Hiroshi

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

65

International Energy Outlook 1999 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal.jpg (1776 bytes) coal.jpg (1776 bytes) CoalÂ’s share of world energy consumption falls slightly in the IEO99 forecast. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia, but it is projected to lose market share to natural gas in some other areas of the world. Historically, trends in coal consumption have varied considerably by region. Despite declines in some regions, world coal consumption has increased from 84 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1985 to 93 quadrillion Btu in 1996. Regions that have seen increases in coal consumption include the United States, Japan, and developing Asia. Declines have occurred in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. In Western Europe, coal consumption declined by 30

66

Impacts of Regional Electricity Prices and Building Type on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To identify the impacts of regional electricity prices and building type on the economics of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, 207 rate structures across 77 locations and 16 commercial building types were evaluated. Results for expected solar value are reported for each location and building type. Aggregated results are also reported, showing general trends across various impact categories.

Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Clark, N.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Coal News and Markets - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal News and Markets Coal News and Markets Release Date: December 16, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 24, 2013 "Coal News and Markets Report" summarizes spot coal prices by coal commodity regions (i.e., Central Appalachia (CAPP), Northern Appalachia (NAPP), Illinois Basin (ILB), Powder River Basin (PRB), and Uinta Basin (UIB)) in the United States. The report includes data on average weekly coal commodity spot prices, total monthly coal production, eastern monthly coal production, electric power sector coal stocks, and average cost of metallurgical coal at coke plants and export docks. The historical data for coal commodity spot market prices are proprietary and not available for public release. Average weekly coal commodity spot prices (dollars per short ton)

68

U. S. monthly coal production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal commodity regions (i.e., Central Appalachia (CAPP), Northern Appalachia (NAPP), Illinois Basin (ILB), Powder River Basin (PRB), and Uinta Basin (UIB)) in the United States....

69

Firmographic analysis in the previous coal mining area of Lens in the French NordPasdeCalais Region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Firmographic analysis in the previous coal mining area of Lens in the French Nord: Department of Transport Economics and Sociology 20 rue Elisée Reclus BP 317 59666 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex and Technology for Transport, Development and Networks Address: Department of Transport Economics

Boyer, Edmond

70

International Energy Outlook 2000 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2020. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia. Historically, trends in coal consumption have varied considerably by region. Despite declines in some regions, world coal consumption has increased from 84 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1985 to 93 quadrillion Btu in 1997. Regions that have seen increases in coal consumption include the United States, Japan, and developing Asia. Declines have occurred in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU). In Western Europe, coal consumption declined by 33 percent between 1985 and 1997, displaced in considerable measure by

71

NETL: Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

use of our domestic energy resources and infrastructure. Gasification Systems | Advanced Combustion | Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids | Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Turbines CO2...

72

Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes: identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Annual report, March 20, 1979-March 19, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial phase has been completed in the project to evaluate alternative fuels for highway transportation from synthetic crudes. Three refinery models were developed for Rocky Mountain, Mid-Continent and Great Lakes regions to make future product volumes and qualities forecast for 1995. Projected quantities of shale oil and coal oil syncrudes were introduced into the raw materials slate. Product slate was then varied from conventional products to evaluate maximum diesel fuel and broadcut fuel in all regions. Gasoline supplement options were evaluated in one region for 10% each of methanol, ethanol, MTBE or synthetic naphtha in the blends along with syncrude components. Compositions and qualities of the fuels were determined for the variation in constraints and conditions established for the study. Effects on raw materials, energy consumption and investment costs were reported. Results provide the basis to formulate fuels for laboratory and engine evaluation in future phases of the project.

Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

EIA - AEO2010 - Coal projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Projections Coal Projections Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Coal Projections Figure 88. Coal production by region, 1970-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 89. U.S. coal production in six cases, 2008, 2020, and 2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 90. Average annual minemouth coal prices by region, 1990-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 91. Average annual delivered coal prices in four cases, 1990-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 92. Change in U.S. coal consumption by end use in two cases, 2008-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Coal production increases at a slower rate than in the past In the AEO2010 Reference case, increasing coal use for electricity generation, along with the startup of several CTL plants, leads to growth in coal production averaging 0.2 percent per year from 2008 to 2035. This is significantly less than the 0.9-percent average growth rate for U.S. coal production from 1980 to 2008.

74

EIA - 2010 International Energy Outlook - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2010 Coal In the IEO2010 Reference case, world coal consumption increases by 56 percent from 2007 to 2035, and coal's share of world energy consumption grows from 27 percent in 2007 to 28 percent in 2035. Figure 60. World coal consumption by country grouping, 1980-2035. Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 61. Coal share of world energy consumption by sector, 2007, 2020, and 2035. Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 62. OECD coal consumption by region, Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 63. Non-OECD coal consumption by region, 1980,2007,2020, and 2035. Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 64. Coal consumption in China by sector, 2007, 2020, and 2035.

75

Coal Ash from Thermal Power Plants in Finland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review summarizes formation mechanisms of coal ash, its chemistry and use pattern in the Finnish industry. Coal is composed of organic and inorganic materials. The properties of coal varies from one region t...

Arun B. Mukherjee; Ryunosuke Kikuchi

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Emission factor of mercury from coal-fired power stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mercury emission from coal-fired power stations, situated in Poland in the Silesian region ... mercury in the consumed coal and in combustion gas, used in this research, are described. ... the air from coal combu...

Wojciech Mniszek

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Appalachia: the land of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Appalachian region of the United States is an area known worldwide for its long history as a source of coal. If any area of the Unted States is to gain from the projected growth of the coal industry, both domestic and international, it would surely be the coal mining areas of this region, including its biggest coal producing states - Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky and Ohio. An important facet of the region's coal industry is not only the presence of the giant coal companies but also the small, independent operator. These men are owner-operators and every dollar spent for their operations must bring a return. There is no room for error. WORLD COAL editors have recently traveled to areas in Appalachia and visited mines that are run by these independent operators. One such area was Harlan County, Kentucky. Virtually all mining done in Harlan is underground. Shaft mines are uncommon; most operations have access to exposed seams in the hillsides. Most of the small operations in this region use room and pillar mining and productivity is quite good. It is imperative that the transportation infrastructure be improved so that the expected increased movement of coal out of the region be handled efficiently. Potential domestic consumers of coal from Appalachia are numerous. New England, New York, the mid-Atlantic states, and the South are all looking to this nearby region to help reduce their dependence on oil. Other countries also are looking to the area.

Schneiderman, S.J. (ed.)

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Productivity by State and Mine Type, 2012 and 2011 Coal Productivity by State and Mine Type, 2012 and 2011 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 21. Coal Productivity by State and Mine Type, 2012 and 2011 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Number of Mining Operations 2 Number of Employees 3 Average Production per Employee Hour (short tons) 4 Coal-Producing State, Region 1 and Mine Type 2012 2011 Percent Change 2012 2011 Percent Change 2012 2011 Percent Change Alabama 54 62 -12.9 5,041 4,756 6.0 1.68 1.66 0.7 Underground 11 12 -8.3 3,190 3,138 1.7 1.64 1.45 13.2 Surface 43 50 -14.0 1,851 1,618 14.4 1.75 2.08 -15.8 Alaska 1 1 - 143 136 5.1 5.98 6.48 -7.7 Surface 1 1 - 143 136 5.1 5.98 6.48 -7.7 Arizona 1 1 - 432 419 3.1 7.38 8.44 -12.6 Surface 1 1 - 432 419 3.1 7.38 8.44 -12.6 Arkansas 2 2 - 73 70 4.3 0.58 0.70

79

The Public Subsidies of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

I have spent most of my life in western Pennsylvania, in the Appalachian coal belt of the U.S. I have direct experience with the economic, environmental, and social impacts of coal extraction and use. ... Although coal was important in building the economy of western Pennsylvania as well as the economies of other coal regions, its extraction and use left a legacy of damage: thousands of miles of streams severely impacted by acid drainage from abandoned mines; large piles of coal mine refuse; old strip mines that have not been refilled; damaged groundwater resources; and land subsidence from underground mining. ...

David A. Dzombak

2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

80

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2009 - Coal Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Production Coal Production Annual Energy Outlook 2009 with Projections to 2030 Coal Production Figure 78. Coal production by region, 1970-2030 (quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 79. U.S. coal production in four cases, 2007, 2015, and 2030 (quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 80. Average minemouth coal prices by regionCoal production by region, 1970-2030 (quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Total Coal Production Increases at a Slower Rate Than in the Past In the AEO2009 reference case, increasing coal use for electricity generation at both new and existing plants and the startup of several CTL

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81

Characteristics of coking coal burnout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An attempt was made to clarify the characteristics of coking coal burnout by the morphological analysis of char and fly ash samples. Laboratory-scale combustion testing, simulating an ignition process, was carried out for three kinds of coal (two coking coals and one non-coking coal for reference), and sampled chars were analyzed for size, shape and type by image analysis. The full combustion process was examined in industrial-scale combustion testing for the same kinds of coal. Char sampled at the burner outlet and fly ash at the furnace exit were also analyzed. The difference between the char type, swelling properties, agglomeration, anisotropy and carbon burnout were compared at laboratory scale and at industrial scale. As a result, it was found that coking coals produced chars with relatively thicker walls, which mainly impeded char burnout, especially for low volatile coals.

Nakamura, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Bailey, J.G. [Univ. of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

82

SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter PH SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES By M assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

83

15N CPMAS NMR of the Argonne Premium Coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

15N CPMAS NMR of the Argonne Premium Coals ... 15N NMR data are reported for the Argonne Premium Coals. ... XPS studies of the Argonne Premium Coals (APC) detected three general types of nitrogens. ...

Mark S. Solum; Ronald J. Pugmire; David M. Grant; Simon R. Kelemen; Martin L. Gorbaty; Robert A. Wind

1997-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

84

Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

Not Available

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2005-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

86

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley Region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley Region.

Kevin Crist

2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

87

Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by the USEPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2006-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

88

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2004-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

89

Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2005-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

90

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal-fired power plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley Region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2004-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

91

Coal availability and coal recoverability studies: A reevaluation of the United States coal resources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cooperative program between the US Geological Survey (USGS), US Bureau of Mines (USBM), and geological agencies of the principal coal-bearing States has began to (1) identify and delineate current major land-use/environmental and technologic/geologic restrictions on the availability of coal resources; (2) estimate the amount of remaining coal resources that may be available for development under those constraints; (3) estimate the amount that can be economically extracted and marketed; and (4) identify possible social and economic disruptions that could occur within local and regional economies as coal resources are exhausted. Within major coal-producing regions, selected 7.5-minute quadrangles are chosen to represent variations in geology, topography, and land-use patterns so that results might be extrapolated throughout the entire region. After identifying State and Federal coal mining regulations, USGS and State scientists consult with local coal-industry engineers, geologists, and mine operators to ascertain local mining practices. Coal bed outcrop lines, current and past mined areas, and restrictions to mining are plotted at 1:24,000 scale and geographic information system (GIS) techniques are applied. Coal availability/recoverability studies have expanded into the central and northern Appalachian regions, Illinois basin, and Powder River basin. The first four basins, with 75% of current US coal production, should be completed by 1998. The total program is designed to cover 150 quadrangles from within the 11 major coal regions of the US. These 11 regions represent 97% of current US coal production. Planned project completion is 2001.

Carter, M.D. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Teeters, D.D. [Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

92

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2012 and 2011 Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2012 and 2011 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 1. Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2012 and 2011 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 2012 2011 Percent Change Coal-Producing State and Region 1 Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Alabama 46 19,321 52 19,071 -11.5 1.3 Underground 8 12,570 9 10,879 -11.1 15.5 Surface 38 6,752 43 8,192 -11.6 -17.6 Alaska 1 2,052 1 2,149 - -4.5 Surface 1 2,052 1 2,149 - -4.5 Arizona 1 7,493 1 8,111 - -7.6 Surface 1 7,493 1 8,111 - -7.6 Arkansas 2 98 2 133 - -26.4 Underground 1 96 1 127 - -24.0 Surface 1 2 1 7 - -71.4 Colorado

93

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Production by State, Mine Type, and Union Status, 2012 Coal Production by State, Mine Type, and Union Status, 2012 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 7. Coal Production by State, Mine Type, and Union Status, 2012 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Union Nonunion Total Coal-Producing State and Region 1 Underground Surface Underground Surface Underground Surface Alabama 12,410 - 139 6,669 12,549 6,669 Alaska - 2,052 - - - 2,052 Arizona - 7,493 - - - 7,493 Arkansas - - 96 - 96 - Colorado 1,673 2,655 21,955 2,265 23,628 4,920 Illinois 2,897 - 39,939 5,649 42,837 5,649 Indiana - - 15,558 21,156 15,558 21,156 Kentucky Total 3,951 552 53,891 31,507 57,842 32,059 Kentucky (East) - 552 23,753 23,572 23,753 24,124 Kentucky (West) 3,951 - 30,138 7,935 34,089 7,935 Louisiana

94

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Mining Productivity by State, Mine Type, and Union Status, 2012 Coal Mining Productivity by State, Mine Type, and Union Status, 2012 (short tons produced per employee hour) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 24. Coal Mining Productivity by State, Mine Type, and Union Status, 2012 (short tons produced per employee hour) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Union Nonunion Coal-Producing State and Region 1 Underground Surface Underground Surface Alabama 1.69 - 0.66 1.80 Alaska - 5.98 - - Arizona - 7.38 - - Arkansas - - 0.59 - Colorado 4.90 6.09 6.02 4.45 Illinois 2.09 - 5.34 4.70 Indiana - - 3.23 5.41 Kentucky Total 3.02 2.45 2.36 3.06 Kentucky (East) - 2.45 1.64 2.65 Kentucky (West) 3.27 - 3.60 5.58 Louisiana - - - 6.86 Maryland - - 1.80 2.80 Mississippi - - - 6.73 Missouri - - - 6.73 Montana - 11.20 7.47 31.69 New Mexico

95

International Energy Outlook 2001 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal picture of a printer Printer Friendly Version (PDF) Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2020. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia. World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since the late 1980s, a trend that is expected to continue. Although 1999 world consumption, at 4.7 billion short tons,9 was 15 percent higher than coal use in 1980, it was lower than in any year since 1984 (Figure 51). The International Energy Outlook 2001 (IEO2001) reference case projects some growth in coal use between 1999 and 2020, at an average annual rate of 1.5 percent, but with considerable variation among regions.

96

Modelling coal gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal gasification processes in a slurry-feed-type entrained-flow gasifier are studied. Novel simulation methods as well as numerical results are presented. We use the vorticity-stream function method to study the characteristics of gas flow and a scalar potential function is introduced to model the mass source terms. The random trajectory model is employed to describe the behaviour of slurry-coal droplets. Very detailed results regarding the impact of the O2/coal ratio on the distribution of velocity, temperature and concentration are obtained. Simulation results show that the methods are feasible and can be used to study a two-phase reacting flow efficiently.

Xiang Jun Liu; Wu Rong Zhang; Tae Jun Park

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Coal pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Coal - Analysis & Projections - U.S. Energy Information Administration  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Most Requested Most Requested Change category... Most Requested Consumption Environment Imports & Exports Industry Characteristics Prices Production Projections Reserves Stocks All Reports Filter by: All Data Analysis Projections Weekly Reports Today in Energy - Coal Short, timely articles with graphs about recent coal issues and trends Coal News & Markets Summarizes spot coal prices by coal commodity regions (i.e., Central Appalachia (CAP), Northern Appalachia (NAP), Illinois Basin (ILB), Power River Basin (PRB), and Uinta Basin (UIB)) in the United States. Weekly Coal Production Estimates of U.S. coal production by State based on railroad car loadings data. (archived versions) Archived Versions Weekly Coal Production - Archive Weekly NYMEX Coal Futures

99

Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system having a heavily doped n-type region  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion semiconductor device is provided which incorporates a heavily doped n-type region and which, as a consequence, has improved TPV conversion efficiency. The thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device includes an emitter layer having first and second opposed sides and a base layer in contact with the first side of the emitter layer. A highly doped n-type cap layer is formed on the second side of the emitter layer or, in another embodiment, a heavily doped n-type emitter layer takes the place of the cap layer.

DePoy, David M. (Clifton Park, NY); Charache, Greg W. (Clifton Park, NY); Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Design and Feasibility Assessment of a Retrospective Epidemiological Study of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in the Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eighty-nine (89) percent of the electricity supplied in the 35-county Pittsburgh region (comprising parts of the states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland) is generated by coal-fired power plants making this an ideal region in which to study the effects of the fine airborne particulates designated as PM{sub 2.5} emitted by the combustion of coal. This report demonstrates that during the period from 1999-2006 (1) sufficient and extensive exposure data, in particular samples of speciated PM{sub 2.5} components from 1999 to 2003, and including gaseous co-pollutants and weather have been collected, (2) sufficient and extensive mortality, morbidity, and related health outcomes data are readily available, and (3) the relationship between health effects and fine particulates can most likely be satisfactorily characterized using a combination of sophisticated statistical methodologies including latent variable modeling (LVM) and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GLARMA) time series analysis. This report provides detailed information on the available exposure data and the available health outcomes data for the construction of a comprehensive database suitable for analysis, illustrates the application of various statistical methods to characterize the relationship between health effects and exposure, and provides a road map for conducting the proposed study. In addition, a detailed work plan for conducting the study is provided and includes a list of tasks and an estimated budget. A substantial portion of the total study cost is attributed to the cost of analyzing a large number of archived PM{sub 2.5} filters. Analysis of a representative sample of the filters supports the reliability of this invaluable but as-yet untapped resource. These filters hold the key to having sufficient data on the components of PM{sub 2.5} but have a limited shelf life. If the archived filters are not analyzed promptly the important and costly information they contain will be lost.

Richard A. Bilonick; Daniel Connell; Evelyn Talbott; Jeanne Zborowski; Myoung Kim

2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The Coal Logistics System: Documentation and user's guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Logistics System (CLS) has the capability to track coal from a US mine or mining area to a foreign consumer's receiving dock. The system contains substantial quantities of information about the types of coal available in different US coalfields, present and potential inland transportation routes to tidewater piers, and shipping routes to and port capabilities in the five importing nations now included. It is designed to facilitate comparisons of coal quality and price at several stages of the export process, including delivered prices at a wide range of destinations from Trieste to Vado Ligure in Italy, and from Muroran in northern Japan, to Sri Racha, near Bangkok, along the Asian Pacific Rim. The CLS can also be used to examine coal quality within or between any of 18 US coalfields, including three in Alaska, or compare alternative routes and associated service prices between coal producing regions and ports-of-exit. It may be used to explore the possibilities of different ship sizes, marine routes, and foreign receiving terminals for coal exports. The CLS interacts with users through a series of menus that provide the user with simple choices. 30 figs.

Not Available

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Some inferences on the role of lower positive charge region in facilitating different types of lightning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of lightning Amitabh Nag1 and Vladimir A. Rakov1 Received 24 November 2008; revised 22 January 2009; accepted 3'' the potential cloud-to-ground flash to an intracloud (or cloud-to-air) one. Assuming that the preliminary with the lower positive charge region, we qualitatively examine the inferred dependence of lightning type

Florida, University of

103

Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to the consumption of aromatic intermediates as they undergo ring cleavage. The results show that this process happens within 1 hour when using extracellular enzymes, but takes several days when using live organisms. In addition, live organisms require specific culture conditions, control of contaminants and fungicides in order to effectively produce extracellular enzymes that degrade coal. Therefore, when comparing the two enzymatic methods, results show that the process of using extracellular lignin degrading enzymes, such as laccase and manganese peroxidase, appears to be a more efficient method of decomposing bituminous coal.

Richard Troiano

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

104

Central Appalachia: Coal industry profile  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Central Appalachia, the most complex and diverse coal-producing region in the United States, is also the principal source of very low sulfur coal in the East. This report provides detailed profiles of companies and facilities responsible for about 90% of the area's production, conveying a unique view of the aggregate industry as well as its many parts.

McMahan, R.L.; Kendall, L.K. (Resource Data International, Inc., Boulder, CO (USA))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Consensus Coal Production Forecast for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rate Forecasts 19 5. EIA Forecast: Regional Coal Production 22 6. Wood Mackenzie Forecast: W.V. Steam to data currently published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), coal production in the state in this report calls for state production to decline by 11.3 percent in 2009 to 140.2 million tons. During

Mohaghegh, Shahab

106

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2008 - Coal Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Production Coal Production Annual Energy Outlook 2008 with Projections to 2030 Coal Production Figure 93. Coal production by region, 1970-2030 (quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 94. U.S. coal production, 2006, 2015, and 2030 (quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Western Coal Production Continues To Increase Through 2030 In the AEO2008 reference case, increasing coal use for electricity generation at existing plants and construction of a few new coal-fired plants lead to annual production increases that average 0.3 percent per year from 2006 to 2015, when total production is 24.5 quadrillion Btu. In the absence of restrictions on CO2 emissions, the growth in coal production

107

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 4 - Coal In the IEO2008 reference case, world coal consumption increases by 65 percent and international coal trade increases by 53 percent from 2005 to 2030, and coalÂ’s share of world energy consumption increases from 27 percent in 2005 to 29 percent in 2030. Figure 46. World Coal Consumption by Country Grouping, 1980-2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 47. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2005, 2015, and 2030 (Percent). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 48. OECD Coal Consumption by Region, 1980, 2005, 2015, and 2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

108

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2007 Chapter 5 - Coal In the IEO2007 reference case, world coal consumption increases by 74 percent from 2004 to 2030, international coal trade increases by 44 percent from 2005 to 2030, and coalÂ’s share of world energy consumption increases from 26 percent in 2004 to 28 percent in 2030. Figure 54. World Coal Consumption by Region, 1980-2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 55. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2004, 2015, and 2030 (Percent). Need help, contact the National Energy at 202-586-8800. Figure Data In the IEO2007 reference case, world coal consumption increases by 74 percent over the projection period, from 114.4 quadrillion Btu in 2004 to

109

An assessment of the quality of selected EIA data series: Coal data, 1983--1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to present information on the quality of some of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) coal data. This report contains discussions of data on production, direct labor hours, recoverable reserves, and prices from 1983 through 1988. Chapter 2 of this report presents a summary of the EIA coal data collection and identifies other sources providing similar data. Chapters 3 and 4 focus on data on coal production and direct labor hours, respectively. Detailed comparisons with data from the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and State mining agencies are presented. Chapter 5 examines recoverable reserves. Included are internal comparisons as well as comparisons with other published reserve-related data, namely those of BXG, Inc. Chapter 6 describes how EIA obtains estimates of coal prices and discusses the variability in the prices caused by factors such as mine type, coal rank, and region. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

110

" by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" 3. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group," " and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ,," Electricity",," Steam" ,," (kWh)",," (million Btu)" ,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC",,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors"

111

The metal abundance of circumnuclear star forming regions in early type spirals. Spectrophotometric observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have obtained long-slit observations in the optical and near infrared of 12 circumnuclear HII regions (CNSFR) in the early type spiral galaxies NGC 2903, NGC 3351 and NGC 3504 with the aim of deriving their chemical abundances. Only for one of the regions, the [SIII] $\\lambda$ 6312 \\AA was detected providing, together with the nebular [SIII] lines at $\\lambda\\lambda$ 9069, 9532 \\AA, a value of the electron temperature of T$_e$([SIII])= 8400$^{+ 4650}_{-1250}$K. A semi-empirical method for the derivation of abundances in the high metallicity regime is presented. We obtain abundances which are comparable to those found in high metallicity disc HII regions from direct measurements of electron temperatures and consistent with solar values within the errors. The region with the highest oxygen abundance is R3+R4 in NGC 3504, 12+log(O/H) = 8.85, about 1.5 solar if the solar oxygen abundance is set at the value derived by Asplund et al. (2005), 12+log(O/H)$_{\\odot}$ = 8.66$\\pm$0.05. Region R7 in NGC 3351 has the lowest oxygen abundance of the sample, about 0.6 times solar. In all the observed CNSFR the O/H abundance is dominated by the O$^+$/H$^+$ contribution, as is also the case for high metallicity disc HII regions. For our observed regions, however, also the S$^+$/S$^{2+}$ ratio is larger than one, contrary to what is found in high metallicity disc HII regions for which, in general, the sulphur abundances are dominated by S$^{2+}$/H$^+$...

Angeles I. Diaz; Elena Terlevich; Marcelo Castellanos; Guillermo F. Hagele

2007-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

112

Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. (TMS, Inc., Germantown, MD (USA)); Ruether, J.A. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Chapter 3 - Coal-fired Power Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal provides around 40% of the world’s electricity, more than any other source. Most modern coal-fired power stations burn pulverized coal in a boiler to raise steam for a steam turbine. High efficiency is achieved by using supercritical boilers made of advanced alloys that produce high steam temperatures, and large, high-efficiency steam turbines. Alternative types of coal-fired power plants include fluidized bed boilers that can burn a variety of poor fuels, as well as coal gasifiers that allow coal to be turned into a combustible gas that can be burned in a gas turbine. Emissions from coal plants include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and trace metals, all of which must be controlled. Capturing carbon dioxide from a coal plant is also under consideration. This can be achieved using post-combustion capture, a pre-combustion gasification process, or by burning coal in oxygen instead of air.

Paul Breeze

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Coal Mining Productivity by State and Mining Method, 2012 Underground Coal Mining Productivity by State and Mining Method, 2012 (short tons produced per employee hour) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 22. Underground Coal Mining Productivity by State and Mining Method, 2012 (short tons produced per employee hour) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Coal-Producing State, Region 1 and Mine Type Continuous 2 Conventional and Other 3 Longwall 4 Total Alabama 0.71 - 1.69 1.66 Arkansas 0.59 - - 0.59 Colorado 1.90 - 6.38 5.93 Illinois 3.65 - 6.60 4.86 Indiana 3.25 - - 3.25 Kentucky Total 2.43 1.77 - 2.39 Kentucky (East) 1.61 1.77 - 1.62 Kentucky (West) 3.61 - - 3.56 Maryland 1.80 - - 1.80 Montana - - 7.47 7.47 New Mexico - - 5.19 5.19 Ohio 2.44 - 4.96 4.02 Oklahoma 2.37 - - 2.37 Pennsylvania Total 2.25 0.92 3.79

115

Water deuterium fractionation in the inner regions of two solar type protostars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The [HDO]/[H2O] ratio is a crucial parameter for probing the history of water formation. So far, it has been measured for only three solar type protostars and yielded different results, possibly pointing to a substantially different history in their formation. In the present work, we report new interferometric observations of the HDO 4 2,2 - 4 2,3 line for two solar type protostars, IRAS2A and IRAS4A, located in the NGC1333 region. In both sources, the detected HDO emission originates from a central compact unresolved region. Comparison with previously published interferometric observations of the H218$O 3 1,3 - 2 2,0 line shows that the HDO and H$_2$O lines mostly come from the same region. A non-LTE LVG analysis of the HDO and H218$O line emissions, combined with published observations, provides a [HDO]/[H2O] ratio of 0.3 - 8 % in IRAS2A and 0.5 - 3 % in IRAS4A. First, the water fractionation is lower than that of other molecules such as formaldehyde and methanol in the same sources. Second, it is similar t...

Taquet, Vianney; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Neri, Roberto; Kahane, Claudine; Coutens, Audrey; Vastel, Charlotte

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

117

Spatial Variation of Soil Type and Soil Moisture in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soil characteristics (texture and moisture) are typically assumed to be initially constant when performing simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Soil texture is spatially homogeneous and time-independent, while soil moisture is often spatially homogeneous initially, but time-dependent. This report discusses the conversion of a global data set of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) soil types to RAMS soil texture and the subsequent modifications required in RAMS to ingest this information. Spatial variations in initial soil moisture obtained from the National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) large-scale models are also introduced. Comparisons involving simulations over the southeastern United States for two different time periods, one during warmer, more humid summer conditions, and one during cooler, dryer winter conditions, reveals differences in surface conditions related to increases or decreases in near-surface atmospheric moisture con tent as a result of different soil properties. Three separate simulation types were considered. The base case assumed spatially homogeneous soil texture and initial soil moisture. The second case assumed variable soil texture and constant initial soil moisture, while the third case allowed for both variable soil texture and initial soil moisture. The simulation domain was further divided into four geographically distinct regions. It is concluded there is a more dramatic impact on thermodynamic variables (surface temperature and dewpoint) than on surface winds, and a more pronounced variability in results during the summer period. While no obvious trends in surface winds or dewpoint temperature were found relative to observations covering all regions and times, improvement in surface temperatures in most regions and time periods was generally seen with the incorporation of variable soil texture and initial soil moisture.

Buckley, R.

2001-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

118

OZONOLYSIS OF “POLYMER-TYPE” MATERIAL IN COAL, KEROGEN AND IN THE ORGUEIL METEORITE: A PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...aggregate of aliphatic structures with some cycloalkane and mononuclear aromatic ring components; and (3) coaly-oil-shale-type, which has properties intermediate be- tween the two. The nature of the insoluble organic matter in carbonaceous...

Sister Mary Carol Bitz; Bartholomew Nagy

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2009 Chapter 4 - Coal In the IEO2009 reference case, world coal consumption increases by 49 percent from 2006 to 2030, and coalÂ’s share of world energy consumption increases from 27 percent in 2006 to 28 percent in 2030. Figure 42. World Coal Consumption by Country Grouping, 1980-2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 43. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2006, 2015, and 2030 (Percent). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 44. OECD Coal Consumption by Region, 1980, 2006, 2015, and 2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

120

International Energy Outlook 2006 - World Coal Markets  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Markets Coal Markets International Energy Outlook 2006 Chapter 5: World Coal Markets In the IEO2006 reference case, world coal consumption nearly doubles from 2003 to 2030, with the non-OECD countries accounting for 81 percent of the increase. CoalÂ’s share of total world energy consumption increases from 24 percent in 2003 to 27 percent in 2030. Figure 48. World Coal Consumption by Region, 1980-2030 (Billion Short Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 49. Coal Share of World energy Consumption by Sector 2003, 2015, and 2030 (Percent). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Table 10. World Recoverable Coal Reserves (Billion Short Tons) Printer friendly version

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Coal Minemouth Prices | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Minemouth Prices Minemouth Prices Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is Table 141, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons and the US Dollar. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal Minemouth Prices EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Coal Minemouth Prices by Region and Type- Reference Case (xls, 121.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata

122

Section 5 - Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal has the longest history of use among the fossil fuels, with use as a fuel dating to 3000 BC in China and Wales. Marco Polo’s “Description of the World” (1298) comments on many novel customs and practices of China, including the use of “stones that burn like logs” (coal). By the thirteenth century the mining of coal was widespread in England in regions such as Durham, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and North and South Wales. By the early seventeenth century nearly half of England’s maritime trade consisted of coal exports. Coal was the fuel that launched the Industrial Revolution in Europe and then the United States. By the late 1890s, the U.S. assumed the lead in world coal production. Britain now ranked second, after having been the world leader since the beginnings of the formal industry in the 1500s. Germany was third, an indication of its growing industrial power relative to continental rival France. Coal’s leading role in energy use peaked in the early twentieth century, after which it was supplanted by oil and natural gas. By the late twentieth century China’s rapid economic expansion, surging demand for electricity, and prodigious coal resources combined to propel it to become the world leader in production. Continuous improvements in coal mining technology have produced lower costs, improved safety, and greater labor productivity. John Buddle introduced the first air pump to ventilate coal mines (1803), followed shortly by the miner’s safety lamps that were developed independently by Sir Humphry Davy, William Clanny, and George Stephenson (1813-1816). Coal mining underwent a rapid transition in the 1880s to mechanical coal cutting in mines in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Russia. The St. Joseph Lead Company of Missouri (1900) invented the first underground mine roof bolts that became a key safety feature in underground coal mines. The first commercially successful bucket wheel excavator was used at the Luise Mine in Braunkohlemwerke, Germany (1925), followed by the first successful continuous miners in U.S. underground coal mining (1948). The first mechanized U.S. longwall mining system appeared in 1951, and was followed by the self-advancing hydraulic longwall support system that provided greater support for the roof of the mine. LeTourneau Technologies, Inc. of Texas manufactured the largest rubber tired front-end wheel loader in the world, the L-2350, which would play an important role in loading coal in Wyoming’s large surface mines (2005). Coal mining has always been a very hazardous occupation, and has produced some of history’s worst industrial disasters. The Courrières mine disaster, Europe's worst mining accident, caused the death of 1,099 miners in Northern France (1906). An explosion in a coal mine in Liaoning province in northeastern China killed more than 1,500 Chinese miners (1942), as did other major accidents in Ky?sh?, Japan (1914), Wankie, Rhodesia (1972), Wales (1913), Bihar, India (1965), and West Virginia, U.S. (1907), to name just a few. Legislation such as the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act in the U.S. (1969) improved working conditions in many nations. The Great Smog of London (1952) occurred after an exceptionally cold winter forced homes and factories to burn large quantities of coal. A temperature inversion formed, trapping pollutants above the ground. More than 4,000 people died from respiratory ailments within the following week. The use of coal has been impacted by legislation to control the environmental impacts associated with its mining and combustion. The first known environmental regulation of coal dates to 1306 when King Edward II of England prohibited burning sea coal while Parliament was in session because of its offensive smoke. Sulfur dioxide from coal combustion was tied to acid rain in the 1960s, and carbon dioxide emissions became a concern beginning in the 1980s when climate change emerged as a critical environmental issue.

Cutler J. Cleveland; Christopher Morris

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Economic environment of coal mining operations in Appalachia, United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Appalachia is a mountainous coal region, in the United States, where the small mining operation dominates. The large number of small coal operations makes the coal industry in that area very competitive, the industry concentration ratio being low. The vast majority of the small coal operations are contractors and nonunionized. There are various circumstances under which a large company will elect to supplement their coal production from their, usually larger, coal mines. The size of the coal mine is generally dictated by the size and location of the coal reserves. The optimum rate of coal extraction, and hence the life of the mine, is a factor of the size of the coal reserves and the contribution margin (coal price less variable cost). Large companies tend to have better safety records than smaller companies due to greater numbers of professional engineers and better management. Small mines have the advantage of closer supervision.

A.B. Szwilski

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter SB A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN, WYOMING assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U...........................................................................................................................SB-1 Coal Production History

125

EIS-0083: Final Northeast Regional Environmental Impact Statement; The Potential Conversion of Forty-Two Powerplants From Oil to Coal or Alternate Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Economic Regulatory Administration statement assesses the potential for cumulative and interactive environmental impacts resulting from conversion of up to 42 northeastern power plants from oil to coal and from an alternative “Voluntary Conversion” scenario for 27 power plants.

126

Coal flows | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal flows Coal flows Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 142, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into steam coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal flows countries EIA exporting importing Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries- Reference Case (xls, 103.7 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License

127

E-Print Network 3.0 - affecting clean coal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Environmental Management and Restoration Technologies 24 Impact of coal quality and gasifier technology on IGCC performance Summary: was little affected by coal type. The slurry...

128

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter GQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

129

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, WILLISTON BASIN, NORTH DAKOTA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter WQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, WILLISTON BASIN, NORTH DAKOTA By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

130

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, HANNA AND CARBON BASINS, WYOMING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter HQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, HANNA AND CARBON BASINS, WYOMING By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

131

Classification of Hepatitis C Virus Type 2 Isolates by Phylogenetic Analysis of Core and NS5 Regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Virus Type 2 Isolates by Phylogenetic Analysis of Core and NS5 Regions Mauro Pistello Fabrizio Maggi Claudia Fornai Alessandro Leonildi Antonietta Morrica Maria Linda Vatteroni Mauro Bendinelli Retrovirus Center and Virology Section Department of Biomedicine...

Mauro Pistello; Fabrizio Maggi; Claudia Fornai; Alessandro Leonildi; Antonietta Morrica; Maria Linda Vatteroni; Mauro Bendinelli

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Upgrading low-rank coals using the liquids from coal (LFC) process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three unmistakable trends characterize national and international coal markets today that help to explain coal`s continuing and, in some cases, increasing share of the world`s energy mix: the downward trend in coal prices is primarily influenced by an excess of increasing supply relative to increasing demand. Associated with this trend are the availability of capital to expand coal supplies when prices become firm and the role of coal exports in international trade, especially for developing nations; the global trend toward reducing the transportation cost component relative to the market, preserves or enhances the producer`s profit margins in the face of lower prices. The strong influence of transportation costs is due to the geographic relationships between coal producers and coal users. The trend toward upgrading low grade coals, including subbituminous and lignite coals, that have favorable environmental characteristics, such as low sulfur, compensates in some measure for decreasing coal prices and helps to reduce transportation costs. The upgrading of low grade coal includes a variety of precombustion clean coal technologies, such as deep coal cleaning. Also included in this grouping are the coal drying and mild pyrolysis (or mild gasification) technologies that remove most of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter, including organic sulfur, while producing two or more saleable coproducts with considerable added value. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) process falls into this category. In the following sections, the LFC process is described and the coproducts of the mild pyrolysis are characterized. Since the process can be applied widely to low rank coals all around the world, the characteristics of coproducts from three different regions around the Pacific Rim-the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, the Beluga Field in Alaska near the Cook Inlet, and the Bukit Asam region in south Sumatra, Indonesia - are compared.

Nickell, R.E.; Hoften, S.A. van

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

134

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IISolvent Refining for Clean Coal Combustion,1I Walk, R. ,of Equipment (Percent of Clean Coal Produced) Year Type Jigs$1.50-$2.00 per ton of clean coal. In comparison, the cost

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Hot Coal for Christmas: Dust Formation in the Swept-Up Shell Around The Peculiar Type Ib Supernova 2006jc  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present evidence for the formation of dust grains in an unusual Type Ib SN based on late-time spectra of SN 2006jc. The progenitor suffered a giant outburst qualitatively similar to those seen in LBVs just 2 years prior to the SN, and we speculate that the dust formation we observe is an indirect consequence of that event. The key evidence for dust formation seen in our optical spectra is (1) the appearance of a strong continuum emission source at red wavelengths, and (2) fading of the redshifted sides of narrow HeI emission lines. These two observed characteristics provide the strongest case yet for dust formation in any Type Ib/c SN. Both developments occurred simultaneously between 51 and 75 days after peak brightness, which is quick compared to other dusty SNe. The high temperature of the dust implies carbon and not silicates, and we describe how infrared photometry may test this conjecture. Geometric considerations indicate dust formation occurring in the dense gas swept-up by the forward shock, and n...

Smith, Nathan; Filippenko, Alexei V

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Weak economy and politics worry US coal operators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A potential decrease in demand, a new administration, and production constraints have coal operators worried about prospects for 2009. This and other interesting facts are revealed in this 2009 forecast by the journal Coal Age. Results are presented of the survey answered by 69 of the 646 executives contacted, on such questions about expected coal production, coal use, attitude in the coal industry, capital expenditure on types of equipment and productive capacity. Coal Age forecasts a 2.3% decline in coal production in 2009, down to 1.145 billion tons from 1.172 billion tons. 8 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

THE EXTENDED NARROW-LINE REGION OF TWO TYPE-I QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the narrow-line region (NLR) of two radio-quiet QSOs, PG1012+008 and PG1307+085, using high signal-to-noise spatially resolved long-slit spectra obtained with FORS1 at the Very Large Telescope. Although the emission is dominated by the point-spread function of the nuclear source, we are able to detect extended NLR emission out to several kiloparsec scales in both QSOs by subtracting the scaled central spectrum from outer spectra. In contrast to the nuclear spectrum, which shows a prominent blue wing and a broad line profile of the [O III] line, the extended emission reveals no clear signs of large-scale outflows. Exploiting the wide wavelength range, we determine the radial change of the gas properties in the NLR, i.e., gas temperature, density, and ionization parameter, and compare them with those of Seyfert galaxies and type-II QSOs. The QSOs have higher nuclear temperature and lower electron density than Seyferts, but show no significant difference compared to type-II QSOs, while the ionization parameter decreases with radial distance, similar to the case of Seyfert galaxies, For PG1012+008, we determine the stellar-velocity dispersion of the host galaxy. Combined with the black hole mass, we find that the luminous radio-quiet QSO follows the local M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation of active galactic nuclei.

Oh, Semyeong; Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Bennert, Vardha N. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Jungwiert, Bruno [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bocni II 1401/1a, CZ-141 31 Prague (Czech Republic); Haas, Martin [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Leipski, Christian [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Albrecht, Marcus, E-mail: smoh@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: vbennert@calpoly.edu, E-mail: bruno@ig.cas.cz, E-mail: haas@astro.rub.de, E-mail: leipski@mpia-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: malbrecht@astro.uni-bonn.de [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

138

Continuing consolidation in the coal industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive consolidation has occurred in the coal industry over the past decade. The greatest degree of consolidation has occurred in Northern Appalachia, the Illinois Basin, and the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin (PRB), which are the coal supply regions where most observers expect the greatest growth in coal production over the next decade. In addition to reducing the number of alternative suppliers, high level of concentration also tend to result in higher prices, more volatile spot markets, and lower levels of reliability. Therefore, coal-fired generators purchasing in these regions need to respond proactively and strategically to these market trends. 2 figs.

Gaalaas, T. [Pace Global Energy Services LLC (United States)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Paleocene benthonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy, paleobiogeography and paleoecology of Atlantic—Tethyan regions: Midway-type fauna  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The stratigraphic, geographic and bathymetric distribution of some Paleocene benthonic foraminiferal assemblages have been studied in the Tethyan and circum-Atlantic regions within the framework of planktonic foraminiferal zones. Although some species appear to be restricted to either the Tethyan-European area or to the western Atlantic, the majority of species are amphi-Atlantic and Tethyan in distribution. The cosmopolitan distribution is attributed to more equitable climatic conditions (lower polar—equatorial thermal gradient) and warmer, more uniform thermal structure of the oceans and different paleogeographic and paleo-oceanographic conditions. Two main distinct depth-controlled benthonic foraminiferal assemblages (exclusive of the shallow-warm water Tethyan carbonate assemblage) have been recognized in the Paleocene. The continental shelf fauna, termed here the “Midway-type fauna” (MF) is characterized by species of Cibicidoides alleni (Plummer) = propria Brotzen, howelli (Toulmin), succedens (Brotzen), Anomalinoides [acuta (Plummer), midwayensis (Plummer)], Gavelinella [danica (Brotzen), neelyi (Jennings)], and Osangularia plummerae Brotzen, as well as various lagenids (nodosariids, lenticulinids, vaginulinids), polymorphinids and textulariids. A lower continental slope and abyssal plain fauna, termed here the “Velasco-type fauna” (VF), is characterized by, amongst others, Gavalinella [beccariiformis (White), rubiginosa (Cushman), velascoensis (Cushman)], Nuttallides truempy (Nuttall), Nuttallinella florealis (Cushman), velascoensisZ (Cushman)], (Cushman), Aragonia velascoensis (Cushman), nodosariids (N. velascoensis Cushman, Dentalina limbata d'Orbigny), various agglutinated forms [Gaudryina pyramidata Cushman, Tritaxia aspera (Cushman), Dorothia ex. gr. oxycona trinitatensis (Cushman and Renz)], and various gyroidinids and buliminids. Pleuriostomellids and stilostomellids are quantitatively rare and unimportant until the Middle—Late Eocene. This paper discusses the biostratigraphy and biogeography of the “Midway-type fauna”.

W.A. Berggren; Jane Aubert

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Planning the future of Botswana's coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Botswana has vast proven deposits of steam coal, which, for a long time, the government has wanted to develop but without much success. The main objectives of this study are: to forecast possible coal exports from Botswana and the land routes for these exports; to determine the competitiveness of Botswana's coal in world steam coal trade; to make recommendations on the appropriate policy for the exploitation of this coal. To accomplish these objectives, we construct a model of the global steam coal trade and apply this model to forecast the likely optimal size of mine, timing of capacity, and choice of export port for the years 2005 and 2010 from a 2000 base forecast year. The results of our regional analysis suggest that Botswana's coal exports are competitive in Asia and Western Europe. These results are shown to be least sensitive to changes in rail transportation costs and marginal supply costs but more sensitive to changes in capital costs for mine development.

Khaulani Fichani; Walter C. Labys

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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141

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Coal-Biomass to Liquids News Gasifipedia Coal-Biomass Feed Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses International Activity Project Information Project Portfolio Publications...

143

Annual Energy Outlook with Projections to 2025-Market Trends - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal Index (click to jump links) Coal Production and Prices Coal Mining Labor Productivity Coal Consumption Coal Production and Prices Emissions Caps Lead to More Use of Low-Sulfur Coal From Western Mines Continued improvements in mine productivity (which have averaged 5.9 percent per year since 1980) are projected to cause falling real minemouth prices throughout the forecast relative to historical levels. Higher electricity demand and lower prices, in turn, are projected to yield increasing coal demand, but the demand is subject to the overall sulfur emissions cap in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which encourages progressively greater reliance on the lowest sulfur coals (from Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Utah). Figure 106. Coal production by region, 1970-2025 (million short tons). Having problems, call our National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 for help.

144

Coal cutting research slashes dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US Bureau of Mines' research projects aimed at the reduction of coal dust during coal cutting operations are described. These include an investigation of the effects of conical bit wear on respirable dust generation, energy and cutting forces; the determination of the best conical bit mount condition to increase life by enhancing bit rotation; a comparison between chisel- and conical-type cutters. In order to establish a suitable homogeneous reference material for cutting experiments, a synthetic coal with a plaster base is being developed.

Roepke, W.W.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Directory of coal production ownership, 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ownership patterns in the coal industry are highly complex. Many producers are diversified into other lines of activity. The pattern and extent of this diversification has varied through time. In the past, steel and nonferrous metals companies had major coal industry involvement. This is still true today. However, other types of enterprises have entered the industry de novo or through merger. Those of greatest significance in recent times have involved petroleum and particularly public utility companies. This report attempts to identify, as accurately as possible, production ownership patterns in the coal industry. The audience for this Directory is anyone who is interested in accurately tracing the ownership of coal companies to parent companies, or who is concerned about the structure of ownership in the US coal industry. This audience includes coal industry specialists, coal industry policy analysts, economists, financial analysts, and members of the investment community.

Thompson, B.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Abstract 2322: The KIAA1549:BRAF fusion gene regulates mTOR signaling and gliomagenesis in a cell type- and brain region-specific manner.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The KIAA1549:BRAF fusion gene regulates mTOR...gliomagenesis in a cell type- and brain region-specific...region- and cell type-specific growth...also observed in fusion BRAF-associated...The KIAA1549:BRAF fusion gene regulates mTOR...gliomagenesis in a cell type- and brain region-specific...

Aparna Kaul; Yi-Hsien Chen; Ryan J. Emnett; Sonika Dahiya; and David Gutmann

2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

148

EIA - The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003-Coal Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003 Coal Market Module Figure 19. Coal Market Module Demand Regions. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 20. Coal Market Module Supply Regions. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 21. Coal Market Module Structure. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Coal Market Module Table. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. The coal market module (CMM) represents the mining, transportation, and pricing of coal, subject to end–use demand. Coal supplies are differentiated by heat and sulfur content. CMM also determines the minimum cost pattern of coal supply to meet exogenously defined U.S. coal

149

Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

Miller, M.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

Coal preparation: The essential clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter is a brief introduction to a broad topic which has many highly specialized areas. The aim is to summarize the essential elements of coal preparation and illustrate its important role in facilitating the clean use of coal. Conventional coal preparation is the essential first step in ensuring the economic and environmentally acceptable use of coal. The aim of coal preparation is to produce saleable products of consistent, specified quality which satisfy customer requirements while optimizing the utilization of the coal resource. Coal preparation covers all aspects of preparing coal for the market. It includes size reduction, blending and homogenization and, most importantly, the process of physical beneficiation or washing, which involves separation of undesirable mineral matter from the coal substance itself. Coal preparation can be performed at different levels of sophistication and cost. The degree of coal preparation required is decided by considering the quality of the raw coal, transport costs and, in particular, the coal quality specified by the consumer. However, the cost of coal beneficiation rises rapidly with the complexity of the process and some coal is lost with the waste matter because of process inefficiencies, therefore each situation requires individual study to determine the optimum coal preparation strategy. The necessary expertise is available within APEC countries such as Australia. Coals destined for iron making are almost always highly beneficiated. Physical beneficiation is mostly confined to the higher rank, hard coals, but all other aspects of coal preparation can be applied to subbituminous and lignitic coals to improve their utilization. Also, there are some interesting developments aimed specifically at reducing the water content of lower rank coals.

Cain, D.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

151

Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium. Annual report and selected publications, 1 July 1992--30 June 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced cars), formerly the Western Fly Ash Research, Development, and Data Center (WFARDDC), has continued fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research focused on promoting environmentally safe, economical use of coal combustion fly ash. The research tasks selected for the year included: (1) Coal Ash Properties Database Maintenance and Expansion, (2) Investigation of the High-Volume Use of Fly Ash for Flowable Backfill Applications, (3) Investigation of Hydrated Mineralogical Phases in Coal Combustion By-Products, (4) Comparison of Department of Transportation Specifications for Coal Ash Utilization, (5) Comparative Leaching Study of Coal Combustion By-Products and Competing Construction Materials, (6) Application of CCSEM for Coal Ash Characterization, (7) Determination of Types and Causes of Efflorescence in Regional Concrete Products, and (8) Sulfate Resistance of Fly Ash Concrete: A Literature Review and Evaluation of Research Priorities. The assembly of a database of information on coal fly ash has been a focus area for CARRC since its beginning in 1985. This year, CARRC members received an updated run time version of the Coal Ash Properties Database (CAPD) on computer disk for their use. The new, user-friendly database management format was developed over the year to facilitate the use of CAPD by members as well as CARRC researchers. It is anticipated that this direct access to CAPD by members as well as CARRC researchers. It is anticipated that this direct access to CAPD by members will be beneficial to each company`s utilization efforts, to CARRC, and to the coal ash industry in general. Many additions and improvements were made to CAPD during the year, and a three-year plan for computer database and modeling related to coal ash utilization was developed to guide both the database effort and the research effort.

Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Dockter, B.A.; Eylands, K.E.; Hassett, D.J.; O`Leary, E.M.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Kinetics of coal pyrolysis and devolatilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimentally based, conceptual model of the devolatilization of a HV bituminous coal is outlined in this report. This model contends that the relative dominance of a process type-chemical kinetic, heat transport, mass transport -- varies with the extent of reaction for a given set of heating conditions and coal type and with experimental conditions for a given coal type and extent of reaction. The rate of devolatilization mass loss process is dominated initially by heat transfer processes, then coupled mass transfer and chemical kinetics, and finally by chemical processes alone. However, the chemical composition of the initial tars are determined primarily by the chemical characteristics of the parent coal. Chemically controlled gas phase reactions of the initial tars and coupled mass transfer and chemically controlled reactions of heavy tars determine the bulk of the light gas yields. For a HV bituminous coal this conceptual model serves to quantify the Two-Component Hypothesis'' of volatiles evolution. The model postulates that the overall rates of coal devolatilization should vary with coal type insofar as the characteristics of the parent coal determine the potential tar yield and the chemical characteristics of the initial tars. Experimental evidence indicates chemical characteristics and yields of primary'' tars vary significantly with coal type. Consequently, the conceptual model would indicate a shift from transport to chemical dominance of rate processes with variation in coal type. Using the conceptual model, United Technologies Research Center has been able to correlate initial mass loss with a heat transfer index for a wide range of conditions for high tar yielding coals. 33 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Coal Ash and Clean Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IT is the normal view that the incombustible part of coal is not only a useless but even objectionable diluent. At times in the past, ... , familiar with the theory of contact catalysis of gas reactions, have speculated that the ash constituents might well play an active role in the processes of carbonisation and combustion. ...

H. J. HODSMAN

1926-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

154

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

156

Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 Market Share of Western Coal Continues To Increase U.S. coal production has remained near 1,100 million tons annually since 1996. In the AEO2006 reference case, increasing coal use for electricity generation at existing plants and construction of a few new coal-fired plants lead to annual production increases that average 1.1 percent per year from 2004 to 2015, when total production is 1,272 million tons. The growth in coal production is even stronger thereafter, averaging 2.0 percent per year from 2015 to 2030, as substantial amounts of new coal-fired generating capacity are added, and several CTL plants are brought on line. Figure 97. Coal production by region, 1970-2030 (million short tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 for help.

157

A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY),  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter SN A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY), NORTH PARK BASIN, COLORADO By S assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

158

Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Clean coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

FE Clean Coal News  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

clean-coal-news Office of Fossil Energy Forrestal clean-coal-news Office of Fossil Energy Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585202-586-6503 en NETL Innovations Recognized with R&D 100 Awards http://energy.gov/fe/articles/netl-innovations-recognized-rd-100-awards NETL Innovations Recognized with R&D 100 Awards

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Retail Supplier Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Kentucky Department for Energy Development and Independence Kentucky Administrative Regulation Title 405 chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18 and 20 establish the laws governing coal mining in the state. The Department of Natural Resources under the authority of the Energy and Environment Cabinet is responsible for enforcing these laws and assuring compliance with the 1977 Federal Surface Mining Control Act (SMCRA). The Division of Mine Reclamation and Enforcement is responsible for inspecting

162

Catalytic Effects of Main Metals in Coal Ash on Advanced Reburning of Pulverized Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalytic Effects of Main Metals in Coal Ash on Advanced Reburning of Pulverized Coal ... To further reduce the NOx emission from power plants, an experimental study on the NO reduction during advanced reburning with reburning fuel of raw coal and coals loaded with four kinds of main metals in coal ash (Na, K, Fe, Ca) was performed in a two-staged drop flow reactor (TSDFR). ... By comparing the conversion of five main products during the reactions when using raw coal and coals loaded with different metals as reburning fuel, it is found that some types of metals can improve the NO reduction in reburning via increasing the concentration of CH4 and CO during the reactions. ...

Penghua Qiu; Hui Huang; Jianqiang Zhang; Li Liu; Yuqing Chen

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Coal industry annual 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

165

Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Competitive interstate taxation of western coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the potential market power of western states in setting coal severance taxes. An attempt to determine the emphasis placed by the western states on the development of their coal resources is also made. Three market structures are analyzed. One involves a western regional cartel, setting taxes collectively. The other cases are noncooperative tax equilibria with Montana and Wyoming competing against each other. We study the effects on these equilibria of changes in each region's relative emphasis on development of coal resources vs tax revenue. The welfare impacts of these tax setting policies are also addressed. The analysis is based on an activity analysis of US coal markets. The results show that the taxes associated with the noncooperative competitive tax equilibria are close to present tax levels. Additionally, we conclude that western states currently are quite efficient extractors of economic rent from coal produced within their boundaries, in terms of welfare loss per dollar of tax revenue collected. 2 figures.

Kolstad, C.D.; Wolak, F.A. Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

168

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

"Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants.

169

Coal Mining (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

170

Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Coal cutting research slashes dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal-Cutting Technology Group at the Bureau of Mine's Twin Cities Research Center is investigating ways to reduce primary dust generated by coal cutting. The progression of research within the program is from fundamental laboratory research, to fundamental field research, to field concept verification. Then the Bureau recommends warranted changes and/or prototype development to industry. Currently the Cutting Technology Group has several projects in each phase of research. The Bureau's current fundamental studies of bit characteristics are directed to determining the effects of conical bit wear on primary respirable dust generation, energy, and cutting forces; establishing best conical bit mount condition to increase life by enhancing bit rotation; and comparing chisel-type cutters to conical-type cutters. Additionally, to establish a suitable homogeneous reference material for cutting experiments, a synthetic coal with a plaster base is being developed.

Roepke, W.W.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Coal cutting research slashes dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal-Cutting Technology Group at the Bureau of Mines Twin Cities (MN) Research Center is investigating ways to reduce primary dust generated by coal cutting. The progression of research within the program is from fundamental laboratory research, to fundamental field research, to field concept verification. Then the Bureau recommends warranted changes and/or prototype development to industry. Currently the group has several projects in each phase of research. The Bureau's current fundamental studies of bit characteristics are directed toward determining the effects of conical bit wear on primary respirable dust generation, energy, and cutting forces; establishing best conical bit mount condition to increase life by enhancing bit rotation; and comparing chisel-type cutters to conical-type cutters. Additionally, to establish a suitable homogeneous reference material for cutting experiments, a synthetic coal with a plaster base is being developed.

Roepke, W.W.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

American Coal Council American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum Dallas, Texas May 17-19, 2004 Thomas J. Feeley, III Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Presentation Outline * Background * Power plant-water issues * DOE/NETL R&D program * Conclusion/future plans ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Global Water Availability Ocean 97% Fresh Water 2.5% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ice Groundwater Lakes and Rivers ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Three Things Power Plants Require 1) Access to transmission lines 2) Available fuel, e.g., coal or natural gas 3) Water ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Freshwater Withdrawals and Consumption Mgal / Day Irrigation 81,300 Irrigation 81,300 Thermoelectric 3,310 Consumption Sources: "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995," USGS Circular 1200, 1998

174

Coal Characterization in Relation to Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most coals are used worldwide for combustion today. Generally all kinds of coals are applicable for combustion. The major methods of burning are fixed bed firing, fluidized bed firing and suspension firing. Th...

Harald Jüntgen

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal 101 Lesson 2: The Clean Coal Technology Program The Clean Coal Technology Program began in 1985 when the United States and Canada decided that something had to be done about the "acid rain" that was believed to be damaging rivers, lakes, forests, and buildings in both countries. Since many of the pollutants that formed "acid rain" were coming from big coal-burning power plants in the United States, the U.S. Government took the lead in finding a solution. One of the steps taken by the U.S. Department of Energy was to create a partnership program between the Government, several States, and private companies to test new methods developed by scientists to make coal burning much cleaner. This became the "Clean Coal Technology Program."

176

Use of coal liquefaction catalysts for coal/oil coprocessing and heavy oil upgrading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The catalytic hydrogenation of coal and model solvents using dispersed or supported catalysts at different pressures has been the focus of several recent studies at PETC. The effectiveness of these catalysts has been studied in coal liquefaction and coal-oil coprocessing. Coal-oil coprocessing involves the co-reaction of coal and petroleum-derived oil or resid. The results of these studies have indicated that both dispersed and supported catalysts are effective in these systems at elevated H{sub 2} pressures ({approximately}2,500 psig). Attempts to reduce pressure indicated that a combination of catalyst concentration and solvent quality could be used to compensate for reductions in H{sub 2} pressure. Comparison of the coal and coprocessing systems reveals many similarities in the catalytic requirements for both systems. Both hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis activities are required and the reactive environments are similar. Also, the use of catalysts in the two systems shares problems with similar types of inhibitors and poisons. The logical extension of this is that it may be reasonable to expect similar trends in catalyst activity for both systems. In fact, many of the catalysts selected for coal liquefaction were selected based on their effectiveness in petroleum systems. This study investigates the use of supported and dispersed coal liquefaction catalysts in coal-oil coprocessing and petroleum-only systems. The focus of the study was delineating the effects of coal concentration, pressure, and catalyst type.

Cugini, A.V.; Krastman, D.; Thompson, R.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center; Gardner, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ciocco, M.V.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Coal Bed Methane Primer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

178

Coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

The relationship between coal quality and coal resource parameters of Powder River and Williston Basin coal, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clean, compliant coal from mines in the Northern Rocky Mountain and Great Plains region is utilized as fuel for coal-fired power plants in 26 states. More than 30 percent of the nation`s 1997 production was from Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming. Production of clean, compliant coal from the region is estimated to increase to 415 million short tons by the year 2015. Studies in this region indicate a relationship between percent sulfur and ash and pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu and the resource parameters of coal thickness and overburden. The trends that the authors have observed indicate that both coal quality and the thickness of the coal and associated rocks are controlled by paleoenvironment and depositional setting.

Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Gunther, G.; Ochs, A.M.; Flores, R.M.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

180

Chapter 5 - Technologies for Coal Utilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter deals with the technologies for coal utilization. Coal use in the United States had been primarily for iron and steel production, locomotives for transportation, and household heat. In addition, many chemicals, including medicines, dyes, flavorings, ammonia, and explosives were produced from coal. Coal is used in the industrial sector for producing steam and to a lesser extent electricity, and some chemicals are produced from coal. The chapter explores the technologies used for generating power, heat, coke, and chemicals and includes combustion, carbonization, gasification, and liquefaction, which have been referred to as the four “grand processes” of coal utilization. Advances in materials of construction, system designs, and fuel firing have led to increasing capacity and higher steam operating temperatures and pressures. In the United States, utilities typically choose between two basic pulverized coal-fired watertube steam generators: subcritical drum-type boilers with nominal operating pressures of either 1900 or 2600 psig or once-through supercritical units operating at 3800 psig advances. The chapter concludes by emphasizing on coal combustion, as this technology is the single largest user of coal.

Bruce G. Miller

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Evidence of two different types of short term solar modulation of regional surface temperature and cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent work indicates that 27 day variations in cosmic ray flux during 2007 2009 are phase locked to 27 day variations in cloud and surface temperature at Shetland. Here we extend the study to other regions including Central England, US and Australia and to several other annual intervals that exhibit strong 27 day variation in cosmic ray flux and sunspot area. Band pass filtering was used to obtain 27 day components of daily maximum temperature in each region and 27 day components of cloud variation were determined, in Australia only, from solar exposure records. When cosmic ray flux is the dominant influence phase locked variations in surface temperature occur in each of the regions with, however, in phase or anti phase variation in different regions. Similar phase locking of 27 day variation in surface temperature to sunspot area variation occurs when sunspot activity is the dominant influence with indications that changes from in phase to anti phase variation are linked to flipping of sunspot activity from...

Edmonds, Ian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transportation component of coal price should also increase;investment. Coal costs and prices are functions of a numberto forecast coal demand, supply, and prices from now to

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Distribution Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: June 27, 2013 Next Release Date: September 2013 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf October-December pdf xls pdf 2010 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf xls

184

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A "Bed" for Burning Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal Clean Coal 101 Lesson 4: A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with government and college officials on the campus of Georgetown University to celebrate the completion of one of the world's most advanced coal combustors. It was a small coal burner by today's standards, but large enough to provide heat and steam for much of the university campus. But the new boiler built beside the campus tennis courts was unlike most other boilers in the world. A Fluidized Bed Boiler A Fluidized Bed Boiler In a fluidized bed boiler, upward blowing jets of air suspend burning coal, allowing it to mix with limestone that absorbs sulfur pollutants.

185

Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Oxy-coal Combustion Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?¢ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?¢ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?¢ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?¢ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?¢ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?¢ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

" Level: National Data and Regional...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" "...

188

" Level: National Data and Regional...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" "...

189

Genomic Imprinting Variations in the Mouse Type 3 Deiodinase Gene Between Tissues and Brain Regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, tissues were dissected, immediately frozen on dry ice and stored at –70 C until further use. Brain regions were identified and harvested according to the mouse atlas by Paxinos (30). Animal procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use... paternal, allele. This suggests that expression and associated alterations in chromatin facil- itate homologous recombination. The result is also con- sistent with observations that suggest the existence of epi- genetic boundaries that are associated with a...

Martinez, M. Elena; Charalambous, Marika; Saferali, Aabida; Fiering, Steven; Naumova, Anna K.; St. Germain, Donald; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C.; Hernandez, Arturo

2014-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

190

Coal - Data - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Find statistics on coal production, consumption, exports, imports, stocks, Find statistics on coal production, consumption, exports, imports, stocks, mining, and prices. + EXPAND ALL Summary Additional formats Coal overview: PDF CSV XLS Monthly PDF XLS Annual Coke overview PDF XLS Coal-fired power plants Existing generating units in the U.S. by state, company and plant 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 Go Prices Additional formats Weekly spot prices (Coal News and Markets) Coal futures near-month contract final settlement price (weekly NYMEX) Average sales price: PDF XLSBy state and mine type PDF XLSBy state and disposition PDF XLSBy state and underground mining method PDF XLSBy state, county, and number of mines PDF XLSBy state and coal rank PDF XLSBy mine production range and mine type Average consumer prices by end use sector, Census division, and state,

191

Coal consumption and economic growth in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to re-examine the relationship between coal consumption and real GDP of China with the use of panel data. This paper applies modern panel data techniques to help shed light on the importance of the heterogeneity among different regions within China. Empirical analyses are conducted for the full panel as well as three subgroups of the panel. The empirical results show that coal consumption and GDP are both I(1) and cointegrated in all regional groupings. Heterogeneity is found in the GDP equation of the full panel. The regional causality tests reveal that the coal consumption–GDP relationship is bidirectional in the Coastal and Central regions whereas causality is unidirectional from GDP to coal consumption in the Western region. Thus, energy conservation measures will not adversely affect the economic growth of the Western region but such measures will likely encumber the economy of the Coastal and Central regions, where most of the coal intensive industries are concentrated.

Raymond Li; Guy C.K. Leung

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

FMI NewCoal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NewCoal NewCoal Jump to: navigation, search Name FMI NewCoal Place Denver, Colorado Sector Efficiency Product FMI NewCoal is a coal technology developer focused on upgrading low rank coals to improve combustion efficiency and reduce production of greenhouse emissions for coal fired utility and industrial power generation worldwide. Coordinates 39.74001°, -104.992259° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.74001,"lon":-104.992259,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

193

Lead contents of coal, coal ash and fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flameless atomic absorption spectrometry is applied for the determination of Pb in coal, coal ash and fly ash. Lead concentrations in coal and coal ash ranging from respectively 7 to 110 µg...?1 and 120 to 450 µg...

C. Block; R. Dams

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys

196

Hydrogen from Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U.S. Department of Energy DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies September 8, 2004 Presentation Outline ƒ Hydrogen Initiatives ƒ Hydrogen from Coal Central Production Goal ƒ Why Coal ƒ Why Hydrogen Separation Membranes ƒ Coal-based Synthesis Gas Characteristics ƒ Technical Barriers ƒ Targets ƒ Future Plans 2 3 Hydrogen from Coal Program Hydrogen from Coal Program FutureGen FutureGen Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Supports the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative and FutureGen * The Hydrogen Fuel Initiative is a $1.2 billion RD&D program to develop hydrogen

197

Chapter 10 - Coal and Coalbed Gas: Outlook  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The future of coal and coalbed gas future is intertwined as source and reservoir rocks. Coal generates coalbed gas during coalification (e.g. thermogenic gas) and methanogenesis (biogenic gas). These gas types occur as singular and mixed accumulations. Accumulation of biogenic coalbed gas has received worldwide research and development interests on sustaining production. The new coal-to-biogenic coalbed gas technology centers on stimulating indigenous microbes in coal and associated groundwater with bioengineered nutrients and amendments to “farm” gas from abandoned wells and non-gas-producing coals. Coal mainly as a basic fuel for electric power generation since the Industrial Revolution continues to be utilized despite environmental concerns. The outlook of coal is dimmed in the United States where natural gas has replaced power generation. However, in Asia and Europe continued economic growth is going to be fueled by coal and coalbed gas as liquefied natural gas will rely on combustion from more efficient, high-temperature power plants in the future.

Romeo M. Flores

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

199

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

200

Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Coal availability and coal recoverability studies of the Matewan 7.5-minute quadrangle, Kentucky -- A USGS National Coal Resources Data System (NCRDS) CD-ROM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Availability Study program was initiated in 1987 by the US Geological survey (USGS) and State Geological Surveys of the major coal-bearing regions. The purpose of the program is to identify areas of societal and technologic restrictions to mining and to estimate the amount of coal remaining in the ground that may be available for development under current regulatory and general economic and technologic conditions. In 1990, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) began a follow-on Coal Recoverability Study program to determine the recoverability and marketability of the coal within these same study areas. The Matewan, Kentucky, study area was the first of the Coal Availability and Coal Recoverability Studies to be completed. Coal bed crop lines, mined areas, and restrictions to mining were plotted on 1:24,000-scale maps and geographic information system (GIS) analytical techniques provided by the NCRDS were applied to delineate coal availability. This CD-ROM contains both graphical images of the original GIS files created during the project and the original GIS files. Thickness and geochemical data for the coal beds that were utilized for the study are also included. The CD-ROM will be part of the USGS Digital Data Series and will be available from the USGS Branch of Coal Geology. Ultimately it will be available on Internet. The CD-ROM will be on both MSDOS and Macintosh platforms.

Carter, M.D.; Levine, M.J. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Teeters, D.D. [Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States); Sergeant, R.E. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

203

Rend Lake College celebrates the opening of a new coal miner training facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Miner Training Center at Rend Lake College recently hosted the Illinois Mining Institute's annual conference and a regional mine rescue competition. The article gives an outline of the coal miner training and refresher course offered. 3 photos.

Buchsbaum, L.

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 1997 Review  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Western Western Interior Appalachian Energy Information Administration/ U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 1997 Review 1 Figure 1. Coal-Producing Regions Source: Energy Information Administration, Coal Industry Annual 1996, DOE/EIA-0584(96) (Washington, DC, November 1997). U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 1997 Review by B.D. Hong Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy Overview U.S. coal production totaled a record high of 1,088.6 million short tons in 1997, up by 2.3 percent over the 1996 production level, according to preliminary data from the Energy Information Administration (Table 1). The electric power industry (utilities and independent power producers)-the dominant coal consumer-used a record 922.0 million short tons, up by 2.8 percent over 1996. The increase in coal use for

206

Advanced spectroscopic analysis of coal surfaces during beneficiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary FTIR spectra are reported on coals undergoing flotation where enhanced recovery was achieved by ultrasonic or chemical treatments. The spectra of sonicated coals indicate that ultrasonic treatment (10 kHz Swen Sonic) reduces the surface oxidation of heavily oxidized coal. Spectra of chemically treated coal indicate that a higher mineral concentration is present on or near the surface of float coal suggesting that a slime might be present. Spectra are reported for coal-, mineral-, and crystal-derived pyrite which show a strong absorbance band at 420 cm{sup {minus}1}. Spectra of eight Argonne Premium Coal Library specimens have been examined in the 420 cm{sup {minus}1} spectral region and are found to have numerous overlapping bands. 4 figs.

McClelland, J.F.; Oh, J.S.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 State / Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 14,828 4,508 19,336 Alaska 825 698 1,524 Arizona 13,143 - 13,143 Arkansas 13 - 13 Colorado 32,427 894 33,321 Illinois 33,997 285 34,283 Indiana 36,714 - 36,714 Kansas 176 - 176 Kentucky Total 131,546 2,821 134,367 East 107,000 2,707 109,706 West 24,547 114 24,660 Louisiana 3,746 - 3,746 Maryland 4,671 319 4,990 Mississippi 475 - 475 Missouri 366 - 366 Montana 38,459 485 38,944 New Mexico 28,949 - 28,949 North Dakota 30,449 - 30,449 Ohio 25,463 12 25,475 Oklahoma 1,710 - 1,710 Pennsylvania Total 64,392 6,005 70,397 Anthracite 2,852 205 3,057 Bituminous 61,540 5,800 67,340 Tennessee 3,346 28 3,374 Texas 45,019 31 45,050 Utah 24,761 2,144 26,905 Virginia 25,685 7,071 32,756 Washington 4,623 - 4,623 West Virginia Total 144,584

208

The First Coal Plants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Plants Coal Plants Nature Bulletin No. 329-A January 25, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE FIRST COAL PLANTS Coal has been called "the mainspring" of our civilization. You are probably familiar, in a general way, with the story of how it originated ages ago from beds of peat which were very slowly changed to coal; and how it became lignite or brown coal, sub-bituminous, bituminous, or anthracite coal, depending on bacterial and chemical changes in the peat, how much it was compressed under terrific pressure, and the amount of heat involved in the process. You also know that peat is formed by decaying vegetation in shallow clear fresh-water swamps or bogs, but it is difficult to find a simple description of the kinds of plants that, living and dying during different periods of the earth's history, created beds of peat which eventually became coal.

209

Coal gasification: Belgian first  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... hope for Europe's coal production came with the announcement this month that the first gasification of coal at depths of nearly 1,000 metres would take place this May in ... of energy.

Jasper Becker

1982-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

210

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

“From Coal to Coke”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IN the Sixth Coal Science Lecture, organized by the British ... Science Lecture, organized by the British Coal Utilization Research Association, and given at the Institution of Civil Engineers on October 16, ...

1957-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

212

Coal Production 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

Not Available

1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

213

Chemicals from coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

215

Indonesian coal mining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

Not Available

1993-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

217

Development of a coal combustion product (CCP) database system. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nearly 90 million tons of coal combustion products (CCPs) are produced annually in the United States. The value of CCPs is well established by research and commercial practice; however, only 25% of these products are utilized. The objective of this project was to develop a computer program containing a database of advanced analytical and comprehensive engineering information on CCPs, accessible through a user-friendly interface. Version 1.0 of the ACAA CCP Data Manager was specifically designed to: perform multiple-criteria queries to produce a set of sample for in-depth study; view and print standard test reports, such as C618 reports; compare and contrast analytical results in graphs and tables; graph utilization information by application and region; and save data to a file for use in other computer applications, such as spreadsheet programs. The program was designed to contain descriptive information about a given CCP sample, including sample formation data (material type, sample location, fuel type, collection device etc.), combustion system design data (steam generator type, furnace type, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control information, ash-handling configurations), test data (chemical, mineralogical, and physical characterization data), and utilization potential of the CCP. The location of the plant is identified by region. The database has been initially populated with information on over 800 CCP samples, taken from the Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC). An installation package and user`s guide was developed for unlimited distribution by the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA).

O`Leary, E.M.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Coal gasification apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

NETL: Coal Gasification Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Gasification Systems News Gasifipedia Gasifier Optimization Feed Systems Syngas Processing Systems Analyses Gasification Plant Databases International Activity Program Plan...

220

Coal gasification development intensifies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal gasification development intensifies ... Three almost simultaneous developments in coal gasification, although widely divergent in purpose and geography, rapidly are accelerating the technology's movement into an era of commercial exploitation. ... A plant to be built in the California desert will be the first commercialsize coal gasification power plant in the U.S. In West Germany, synthesis gas from a coal gasification demonstration plant is now being used as a chemical feedstock, preliminary to scaleup of the process to commercial size. ...

1980-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Ore components in coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dependence of the mineral content in coal and concentrates on the degree of metamorphism is analyzed.

Kh.A. Ishhakov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Economic evaluation of the efficiency of technologies for the manufacture of gas and briquetted fuel from coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The technical feasibility of the production of new types of fuel from coal, which most fully meet the requirements of ... influence of the new types of fuel from coals on the economic indices of the production of...

I. P. Krapchin; T. I. Kuz’mina

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Clean Coal Incentive Tax Credit (Kentucky) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Clean Coal Incentive Tax Credit (Kentucky) Clean Coal Incentive Tax Credit (Kentucky) Clean Coal Incentive Tax Credit (Kentucky) < Back Eligibility Developer Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Utility Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Property Tax Incentive Provider Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development Clean Coal Incentive Tax Credit provides for a property tax credit for new clean coal facilities constructed at a cost exceeding $150 million and used for the purposes of generating electricity. Before the credit is given, the Environmental and Public Protection Cabinet must certify that a facility is reducing emissions of pollutants released during electric generation through the use of clean coal equipment and technologies. The amount of the allowable credit is $2 per ton of eligible coal purchased that is used to

224

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Institutional Fuel Distributor Program Info State Montana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation The Coal Bed Methane Protection Act establishes a long-term coal bed methane protection account and a coal bed methane protection program for the purpose of compensating private landowners and water right holders for damage to land and to water quality and availability that is attributable to the development of coal bed methane wells. The Act aims to provide for

225

Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Utility Program Info State Mississippi Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality The Surface Coal Mining Regulations are a combination of permitting requirements and environmental regulations that limit how, where and when coal can be mined. It protects lands that are under special regulation due to their nature, and applies only to state lands. When applied to Coal with Carbon Capture and Storage projects the rules that would apply to a normal coal-mining project still apply. In addition to these measures, a CCS plant would need to adhere to all waste disposal requirements, water usage

226

Neutralization Efficiency Is Greatly Enhanced by Bivalent Binding of an Antibody to Epitopes in the V4 Region and the Membrane-Proximal External Region within One Trimer of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Glycoproteins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...External Region within One Trimer of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Glycoproteins Published ahead of print on 12 May 2010. Pengcheng Wang Present address: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong...

Pengcheng Wang; Xinzhen Yang

2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

227

Coal Study Guide for Elementary School  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Focuses on the basics of coal, history of coal use, conversion of coal into electricity, and climate change concerns.

228

Combustion characteristics of coal fuels in adiabatic diesel engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the combustion characteristics of coal fuels in adiabatic diesel engines. For this purpose engine testing was carried out by the fumigation of fine coal powder to the intake of an insulated and uncooled single cylinder diesel engine. The engine tests conducted include three types of fuels - Diesel fuel No. 2 (DF-2), Dual fuel (DF-2 + Coal), and Coal fuel. Excellent combustion characteristics of coal fuels were obtained in the present work in an adiabatic engine operating at high temperatures. The ''thermal ignition'' concept uncovered in this investigation led to a hot ''ignition chamber'' which provided ignition of the coal fuel. The high temperature engine with the ''ignition chamber'' permitted engine operation on 100% coal fuel without any external ignition aids or compression ignition. With the addition of a glow plug, the coal fueled engine was successfully cold started. For the coal fueled engine tests, analysis of cylinder pressure data showed rapid heat release rates, shorter combustion duration and very fast burning of coal powder fuel. Preliminary results of the apparent indicated cycle efficiency calculated from the heat release data, indicate that 100% coal powder fueled engine has higher cycle efficiency than DF-2 fueled engine in an adiabatic configuration. The problems encountered during the engine tests include: variation in the engine speed and load due to non-uniform coal flow rate by the coal feed system, contamination of the lubricating oil with fine coal powder, and wear of conventional piston rings. However, these problems can be solved with an improved coal feed system and wear resistant ceramic materials for the piston rings. 33 refs.

Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Woods, M.E.; Valdmanis, E.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Number of Employees at Underground and Surface Mines by State and Mine Production Range, 2012 Number of Employees at Underground and Surface Mines by State and Mine Production Range, 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 19. Average Number of Employees at Underground and Surface Mines by State and Mine Production Range, 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Mine Production Range (thousand short tons) Coal-Producing State, Region 1 and Mine Type Above 1,000 Above 500 to 1,000 Above 200 to 500 Above 100 to 200 Above 50 to 100 Above 10 to 50 Above 0 to 10 Zero 2 Total Number of Employees Alabama 3,415 97 655 317 160 224 54 105 5,041 Underground 2,981 - - - 36 88 - 81 3,190 Surface 434 97 655 317 124 136 54 24 1,851 Alaska 143 - - - - - - - 143 Surface 143 - - - - - - - 143 Arizona 432 - - - - - - - 432 Surface 432 - - - - - - - 432 Arkansas

230

Coal recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal Prices..AEO 2007 forecast for coal prices for PRB coal. Transmissionregimes. Sensitivity to Coal Prices Figure 9 is similar to

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Distribution Patterns of Metals Contamination in Sediments Based on Type Regional Development on the Intertidal Coastal Zones of the Persian Gulf, Iran  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study was performed to determine the variation of metals concentrations (Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu) in surface sediments based on type region development from ten sites on the intertidal coastal zone of the Persian

Ali Kazemi; Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Process for separating anthracite coal from impurities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for separating a first mixture including previously mined anthracite coal, klinker-type cinder ash and other refuse consisting of: a. separating the first mixture to produce a refuse portion and a second mixture consisting of anthracite and klinker-type cinder ash, b. reducing the average particle size in the second mixture to a uniform size, c. subjecting the second mixture to a separating magnetic field to produce a klinker-type cinder ash portion and an anthracite coal portion.

Stiller, D.W.; Stiller, A.H.

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

234

Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

5 - Introduction to Coal Utilization Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary The primary applications for coal use became electricity generation and the production of iron and steel. Coal has varied uses in the industrial sector for producing steam and electricity and also some chemicals are produced from coal. This chapter introduces the technologies and explains the processes for generating power, heat, coke, and chemicals including carbonization, combustion, liquefaction and gasification. These are referred to as “grand processes” in coal utilization and are explained in detail under separate sections. A brief history on the history of the processes and designs are provided with figures. The modern designs and processes are explained further with diagrams and the different boiler types and their relevance in technologies are available. The chemical processes involved in coal combustion, the involved and characteristics are summarized in table. Emphasis is also made on coal combustion and sets the stage for further reading on clean coal technologies in later portion of the book. Several direct liquefaction processes are introduced in this chapter. Although these are important, however, there are other processes conceived and researched.

Bruce G. Miller

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Trends, 2001 - 2010 Trends, 2001 - 2010 Transportation infrastructure overview In 2010, railroads transported over 70 percent of coal delivered to electric power plants which are generally concentrated east of the Mississippi River and in Texas. The U.S. railroad market is dominated by four major rail companies that account for 99 percent of U.S. coal rail shipments by volume. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by mode Rail Barge Truck Figure 2. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by rail, 2010 figure data Figure 3. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by barge, 2010 figure data Figure 4. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by truck, 2010 figure data The Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, where coal is extracted in

237

Coal | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant chunk of our nation's electricity. The Energy Department is working to develop technologies that make coal cleaner, so we can ensure it plays a part in our clean energy future. The Department is also investing in development of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies, also referred to as carbon capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured Energy Secretary Moniz Visits Clean Coal Facility in Mississippi On Friday, Nov. 8, 2013, Secretary Moniz and international energy officials toured Kemper, the nation's largest carbon capture and storage facility, in Liberty, Mississippi. A small Mississippi town is making history with the largest carbon capture

238

Chemical comminution of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the present research is to study the chemical reactivity of a mixture of methyl alcohol and aqueous sodium hydroxide solution in the temperature range 298 to 363 K, and a caustic concentration of 0 to 10 wt. %, on an Iowa bituminous coal. The sample studied was collected from coal zone 4, equivalent to most historical references to Laddsdale coal. The coals in this zone are typical high-sulfur, high-ash middle Pennsylvania Cherokee group coals. The apparent rank is high-volatile C bituminous coal. The relatively high content of sulfur and 23 other elements in these coals is related to near neutral (6-8) pH conditions in the depositional and early diagenetic environments, and to postdepositional sphalerite/calcite/pyrite/kaolinite/barite mineralization.

Mamaghani, A.H.; Beddow, J.K.; Vetter, A.F.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Coal dust explosibility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports US Bureau of Mines (USBM) research on the explosibility of coal dusts. The purpose of this work is to improve safety in mining and other industries that process or use coal. Most of the tests were conducted in the USBM 20 litre laboratory explosibility chamber. The laboratory data show relatively good agreement with those from full-scale experimental mine tests. The parameters measured included minimum explosible concentrations, maximum explosion pressures, maximum rates of pressure rise, minimum oxygen concentrations, and amounts of limestone rock dust required to inert the coals. The effects of coal volatility and particle size were evaluated, and particle size was determined to be at least as important as volatility in determining the explosion hazard. For all coals tested, the finest sizes were the most hazardous. The coal dust explosibility data are compared to those of other hydrocarbons, such as polyethylene dust and methane gas, in an attempt to understand better the basics of coal combustion.

Kenneth L. Cashdollar

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Coal: the new black  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007-Coal Graphic Data  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Figure 54. World Coal Consumption by Region, 1980-2030 Figure 54 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 55. Coal share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2004, 2015, and 2030 Figure 55 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 56. OECD Coal Consumption by Region, 1980, 2004, 2015, and 2030 Figure 56 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 57. Non-OECD Coal Consumption by Region, 1980, 2004, 2015, and 2030 Figure 57 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 58. Coal Consumption in China by Sector, 2004, 2015, and 2030 Figure 58 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

242

The status of coal briquetting technology in Korea  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anthracite is the only indigenous fossil fuel resource produced in Korea and is an important main source of residential fuel. Due to its particular characteristics, the best way to use Korean coal is in the form of briquettes, called {open_quotes}Yontan.{close_quotes} The ability to use this coal as briquettes was a great discovery made nearly 50 years ago and since then, has made a great contribution to the energy consumption of low and middle income households. Korean anthracite in coal briquette form has been used widely for household heating purposes. Collieries in Korea produced no more than one million tons of anthracite annually in the 1960s. Production, however, increased substantially up to about 17 million tons per year in the mid-1970s. In 1986, Korea succeeded in raising its coal production to 24.2 million tons, which was the maximum production level achieved by the Korean coal industrial sector. Since then, anthracite production has fallen. In 1991, coal output dropped to 15.1 million tons, a decrease of 12.2 percent from the 17.2 million tons produced in 1990, due to falling coal demand and rising labor costs. The role of coal as an energy source will be more important in the future to meet projected economic growth in Korea. While the production of indigenous Korean anthracite is expected to decrease under a coal mining rationalization policy, imports of bituminous coal will increase rapidly and will be used as an oil substitute in industry and power generation. In this chapter, general aspects of the Korean coal industry and coal utilization for residential uses, especially the Yontan coal briquetting techniques, are discussed. In addition, coal briquetting technology applications suitable for the APEC region will be presented.

Choi, Woo-Zin

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

243

Introduction Potato Types and Uses The potato is native to the Andean region of South Potato varieties vary according to shape, flesh color  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction Potato Types and Uses The potato is native to the Andean region of South Potato, tuber type similar to the following examples: potatoes are the fourth most important food crop are planted each year for commercial production. The LongIWhite Skin: White Rose, Shepody potato is a member

Douches, David S.

244

Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Coal Storage and Transportation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal preparation, storage, and transportation are essential to coal use. Preparation plants, located near to the mine, remove some inorganic minerals associated with raw coal. Coal is transported from the mines to the point of consumption, often an electric generating plant, by rail, barge and trucks. Railroads are the predominant form of coal transportation within a country. Global coal trade, movement by large ocean-going vessels, continues to increase. At the end use site, the coal is crushed, ground, and the moisture content reduced to the proper specifications for end use. Coal is stored at various points in the supply chain. Processed coal will weather and oxidize, changing its properties; it can self-ignite, unless precautions are taken. Technology in use today is similar to that used in previous decades. Performance improvements have come from improved software and instruments that deliver real-time data. These improve management of sub-processes in the coal supply chain and reduce costs along the supply chain.

J.M. Ekmann; P.H. Le

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

Not Available

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

FORT UNION COAL IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA: A SYNTHESIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

...................................................................................PS-18 Coal-Bed Methane ResourceChapter PS FORT UNION COAL IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA: A SYNTHESIS By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U

249

Outlook and challenges to coal in Asia: 1994--2015  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two key threats to coal`s long term dominance in Asia are: (1) its uneven distribution of reserves and lack of adequate rail transportation infrastructure, and (2) growing environmental concerns about coal-related pollution. Even with increased attention to emissions control for coal, continued growth in coal consumption is expected to result in further deterioration of the environment in Asia for another one to two decades. China will remain the largest polluter in Asia, but it`s believed it will become Asia`s largest user of emissions control technology by 2015. The authors have subjectively weighed the above constraints to increased coal use in preparing the projections of the future role of coal in the Asian region. This paper shows past trends in coal production and consumption, plus projections of coal production, consumption and trade over the 1994--2015 period. The projections in this paper are useful as a general indicator of long term patterns in Asia. However, there are too many uncertainties about economic growth rates and energy and environmental policies to suggest that the projections will be accurate for every economy. This paper concludes with the preliminary results of research under way, which suggests that increasing economic wealth in China is the most important factor in solving China`s coal-related pollution problems.

Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Effects of structural rearrangements on sorption capacity of coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently, the problems in practical application of experimental data and modeling to the sequestration of carbon dioxide in coal seams and the concurrent enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery have underscored the need for new approaches that take into account the ability of coal for structural rearrangements. Areas of interest include plasticization of coal due to CO2 dissolution, the effect of coal swelling on estimation of the capacity of a coal-seam to adsorb CO2 (adsorption isotherm), and the stability of the CO2 saturated phase once formed, especially with respect to how it might be affected by changes in the post-sequestration environment (environmental effects). Coals are organic macromolecular systems well known to imbibe organic liquids and carbon dioxide. CO2 dissolves in coals and swells them. The problems become more prominent in the region of supercritical CO2. We investigated the effects of moisture content and pressure cycling history on temporal changes in the coal sorptive capacity for a set of Argonne premium coals. The samples were tested as received, dried at 80oC for 36 hours, and moisture equilibrated at 96-97% RH and 30oC for 48 hours. The powders were compared to core samples. Additionally, plasticization of coal powders was studied by high pressure dilatometer.

Romanov, Vyacheslav; Soong, Yee; Warzinski, R.P.; Lynn, R.J.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Determination of Coal Permeability Using Pressure Transient Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coalbed methane is a significant natural resource in the Appalachian region. It is believed that coalbed methane production can be enhanced by injection of carbon dioxide into coalbeds. However, the influence of carbon dioxide injection on coal permeability is not yet well understood. Competitive sorption of carbon dioxide and methane gases onto coal is a known process. Laboratory experiments and limited field experience indicate that coal will swell during sorption of a gas and shrink during desorption of a gas. The swelling and shrinkage may change the permeability of the coal. In this study, the permeability of coal was determined by using carbon dioxide as the flowing fluid. Coal samples with different dimensions were prepared for laboratory permeability tests. Carbon dioxide was injected into the coal and the permeability was determined by using pressure transient methods. The confining pressure was variedto cover a wide range of depths. The permeability was also determined as a function of exposure time of carbon dioxide while the confining stress was kept constant. CT scans were taken before and after the introduction of carbon dioxide. Results show that the porosity and permeability of the coal matrix was very low. The paper presents experimental data and theoretical aspects of the flow of carbon dioxide through a coal sample during pressure transient tests. The suitability of the pressure transient methods for determining permeability of coal during carbon dioxide injection is discussed in the paper.

McLendon, T.R.; Siriwardane, H. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Haljasmaa, I.V.; Bromhal, G.S.; Soong, Y.; Irdi, G.A.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fixation in slag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coallimestone and coal that form little fly ash and trap sulfurSulfate Organic Ash (%) "Organic Sulfur", in Wheelock, Coal

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Industrial coking of coal batch without bituminous coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For many years, Kuznetsk-coal batch has always included bituminous coal. Depending on the content of such coal, the batch may be characterized as lean ... classification was adopted by specialists of the Eastern

P. V. Shtark; Yu. V. Stepanov; N. K. Popova; D. A. Koshkarov…

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Market integration in the international coal industry: A cointegration approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis of the existence of a single economic market for the international coal industry, separated for coking and steam coal, and to investigate market integration over time. This has been conducted by applying cointegration and error-correction models on quarterly price series data in Europe and Japan over the time period 1980-2000. Both the coking and the steam coal markets show evidence of global market integration, as demonstrated by the stable long-run cointegrating relationship between the respective price series in different world regions. This supports the hypothesis of a globally integrated market. However, when analyzing market integration over time it is not possible to confirm cointegration in the 1990s for steam coal. Thus, compared to the coking coal market, the steam coal market looks somewhat less global in scope.

Warell, L. [University of Lulea, Lulea (Sweden). Dept. of Business Administration & Social Science

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Number of Employees by State and Mine Type, 2012 and 2011 Average Number of Employees by State and Mine Type, 2012 and 2011 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 18. Average Number of Employees by State and Mine Type, 2012 and 2011 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 2012 2011 Percent Change Coal-Producing State and Region 1 Underground Surface Total Underground Surface Total Underground Surface Total Alabama 3,190 1,851 5,041 3,138 1,618 4,756 1.7 14.4 6.0 Alaska - 143 143 - 136 136 - 5.1 5.1 Arizona - 432 432 - 419 419 - 3.1 3.1 Arkansas 70 3 73 67 3 70 4.5 - 4.3 Colorado 2,032 473 2,505 1,927 478 2,405 5.4 -1.0 4.2 Illinois 3,938 574 4,512 3,563 542 4,105 10.5 5.9 9.9 Indiana 2,054 1,881 3,935 1,880 1,660 3,540 9.3 13.3 11.2 Kansas - 6 6 - 8 8 - -25.0 -25.0 Kentucky Total 11,181 5,170 16,351 12,071 6,563 18,634 -7.4 -21.2 -12.3 Kentucky (East)

256

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4Q 2009 4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by transportation mode. The data sources beginning with the 2008 Coal Distribution Report

257

WCI Case for Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Coal The role of as an energy source The role of coal as an energy source Key Messages * Energy demand has grown strongly and will continue to increase, particularly in developing countries where energy is needed for economic growth and poverty alleviation. * All energy sources will be needed to satisfy that demand by providing a diverse and balanced supply mix. * Coal is vital for global energy security. It is abundantly available, affordable, reliable and easy and safe to transport. * In an energy hungry world the challenge for coal, as for other fossil fuels, is to further substantially reduce its greenhouse gas and other emissions, while continuing to make a major contribution to economic and social development and energy security. * Coal is part way down a technology pathway that has already delivered major

258

Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These two coals represent the two main types of non-lignite coals currently used in the U.S.: a medium-sulfur eastern bituminous coal and a low-sulfur western sub-bituminous coal. ... At a commercial scale, this would likely mean that there could be a roughly 3-fold decrease in the size of the gasifier compared to the case of dry mixing coal and the regenerated calcium oxide. ...

Nicholas S. Siefert; Dushyant Shekhawat; Shawn Litster; David A. Berry

2013-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

259

Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation (Indiana) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation (Indiana) Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation (Indiana) Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation (Indiana) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Indiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Natural Resources The Indiana Department of Natural Resources implements and enforces the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, as well as a statewide program to protect society and the environment from the adverse effects of mining operations, and regulates coal mining operations to

260

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main tasks for this reporting period were to correlate well logs and refine coal property maps, evaluate methane content and gas composition of Wilcox Group coals, and initiate discussions concerning collection of additional, essential data with Anadarko. To assess the volume of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered and volume of methane that can be produced in the vicinity of the proposed Sam Seymour sequestration site, we used approximately 200 additional wells logs from Anadarko Petroleum Corp. to correlate and map coal properties of the 3 coal-bearing intervals of Wilcox group. Among the maps we are making are maps of the number of coal beds, number of coal beds greater than 5 ft thick, and cumulative coal thickness for each coal interval. This stratigraphic analysis validates the presence of abundant coal for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Wilcox Group in the vicinity of Sam Seymour power plant. A typical wellbore in this region may penetrate 20 to 40 coal beds with cumulative coal thickness between 80 and 110 ft. Gas desorption analyses of approximately 75 coal samples from the 3 Wilcox coal intervals indicate that average methane content of Wilcox coals in this area ranges between 216 and 276 scf/t, basinward of the freshwater boundary indicated on a regional hydrologic map. Vitrinite reflectance data indicate that Wilcox coals are thermally immature for gas generation in this area. Minor amounts of biogenic gas may be present, basinward of the freshwater line, but we infer that most of the Wilcox coalbed gas in the deep coal beds is migrated thermogenic gas. Analysis based on limited data suggest that sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed gas recovery should be located basinward of the Wilcox freshwater contour, where methane content is high and the freshwater aquifer can be avoided.

Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Clinkering properties of rammed coking coal and coal batches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The clinkering properties of rammed coking coal and coal batches are investigated. There is a close relation between the clinkering properties and coke quality.

V. M. Shmal’ko; M. A. Solov’ev

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Credit Extra Fuel Oil Coal to gasifier Na cost· Na processoiL Replace res. with coal as gasifier feed. 543 ton/day @$

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Catalytic steam gasification of coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalytic steam gasification of coals ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ...

P. Pereira; G. A. Somorjai; H. Heinemann

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Coal Mining Tax Credit (Arkansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Coal Mining Tax Credit provides an income or insurance premium tax credit of $2.00 per ton of coal mined, produced or extracted on each ton of coal mined in Arkansas in a tax year. An...

267

Illinois Coal Revival Program (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Illinois Coal Revival Program is a grants program providing partial funding to assist with the development of new, coal-fueled electric generation capacity and coal gasification or IGCC units...

268

Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio...

269

Sandia National Laboratories: Clean Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ManagementClean Coal Clean Coal The term clean coal refers to a number of initiatives that seek to reduce or eliminate the hazardous emission or byproducts that result from using...

270

COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

Wrathall, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Environmental aspects of coal production in the Applachian Region. Progress report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1980. [New River Basin, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall project focus is on damage agent flow resulting from strip mining. Attention has focused on (1) field work related to quantifying sediment yield from control plots that have been reclaimed back to contour including surface runoff water quality; (2) continued measurement of water quality in six primary watersheds, 5 mined and 1 control, to follow the long term behavior of changes in water quality that results from mining activity; (3) continued measurement of biological changes that result from mining activity, the time required for recovery and the nature of recovery, i.e., changes in post mining community structure; and (4) application of simulation models for stream hydrographs, sediment detention basins and hydrologic assessments. Although field study plots had a uniform heavy grass and conformed to current state and federal reclamation standards, suspended sediment concentrations leaving the site consistently exceeded federal and state allowable concentration during all storms. Water quality changes that occur very soon after mining commences in a watershed, that is elevated calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and sulfate, do not return to premining levels even after 5 years. Mining disturbance produces long term water quality changes in dissolved constituents, even in alkaline systems, which may have an economic impact on downstream water users. The major impact of strip mining on water quality is the continued production of suspended sediment in drainage streams. Significant biological changes occur in watershed streams after surface mining is initiated and are strongly related to suspended sediment. Recovery is observed and seems related to type of mining practiced and condition of tributary stream. A mathematical model for simulating stormwater response and pollutant yield in strip mined watersheds was developed.

Minear, R.A.; Overton, D.E.; Vaughn, G.L.; Tschantz, B.A.

1980-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Coal extraction process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sub-divided coal is extracted under non-thermally destructive conditions with a solvent liquid containing a compound having the general formula:

Hammack, R. W.; Sears, J. T.; Stiller, A. H.

1981-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

273

Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

274

Coal Development (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This section provides for the development of newly-discovered coal veins in the state, and county aid for such development.

275

Clean coal technology applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

{open_quotes}Coal is a stratified rock formed of the more or less altered remains of plants (together with associated mineral matter) which flourished in past ages{hor_ellipsis} The problem of the origin and maturing of coal is complicated by the fact that every coal contains, in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, variable proportions of nitrogen and sulfur which are combined in unknown ways in the organic molecules...{close_quotes}. The challenge with coal has always been the management of its mineral matter, sulfur and nitrogen contents during use. The carbon content of fuels, including coal, is a more recent concern. With clean coal technologies, there are opportunities for ensuring the sustained use of coal for a very long time. The clean coal technologies of today are already capable of reducing, if not eliminating, harmful emissions. The technologies of the future will allow coal to be burned with greatly reduced emissions, thus eliminating the necessity to treat them after they occur.

Bharucha, N.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

276

Spitsbergen Tertiary Coal Fossils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... grains and spores to be observed in coal deposits of Tertiary age in west Spitsbergen (Norsk Polarinstitutt, Med. 79, pp. 1-9; 1954; English summary).

1955-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

277

Coal Gasification Systems Solicitations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low Cost Coal Conversion to High Hydrogen Syngas; FE0023577 Alstom's Limestone Chemical Looping Gasification Process for High Hydrogen Syngas Generation; FE0023497 OTM-Enhanced...

278

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Handbook of coal analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Handbook deals with the various aspects of coal analysis and provides a detailed explanation of the necessary standard tests and procedures that are applicable to coal in order to help define usage and behavior relative to environmental issues. It provides details of the meaning of various test results and how they might be applied to predict coal behavior during use. Emphasis is on ASTM standards and test methods but ISO and BSI standards methods are included. Chapter headings are: Coal analysis; Sampling and sample preparation; Proximate analysis; Ultimate analysis; Mineral matter; Physical and electrical properties; Thermal properties; Mechanical properties; Spectroscopic properties; Solvent properties; and Glossary.

James G. Speight

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

US coal market softens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operators table some near term expansion plans, meanwhile long-term fundamentals look strong. This is one of the findings of the Coal Age Forecast 2007 survey of readers predictions on production and consumption of coal and attitudes in the coal industry. 50% of respondents expected product levels in 2007 to be higher than in 2006 and 50% described the attitude in the coal industry to be more optimistic in 2007 than in 2006. Most expenditure is anticipated on going on new equipment but levels of expenditure will be less than in 2006. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Annual Coal Distribution Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Distribution Report Release Date: December 19, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 12, 2014 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report...

282

Self-Reported Cancer Rates in Two Rural Areas of West Virginia with and Without Mountaintop Coal Mining  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mountaintop coal mining in the Appalachian region in the United ... health disparities exist for people who live in coal mining portions of Appalachia, but little previous research has examined disparities specif...

Michael Hendryx; Leah Wolfe; Juhua Luo; Bo Webb

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Surface Coal Mining Law (Missouri) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Surface Coal Mining Law (Missouri) Surface Coal Mining Law (Missouri) Surface Coal Mining Law (Missouri) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Missouri Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Missouri Department of Natural Resources This law aims to provide for the regulation of coal mining in order to minimize or prevent its adverse effects, protect the environment to the extent possible, protect landowner rights, and prohibit coal mining in locations where reclamation is not feasible. The law aims to strike a balance between protection of the environment and agricultural productivity and the need for coal as an energy source. This law addresses the powers of

284

Texas Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Act (Texas) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Texas Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Act (Texas) Texas Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Act (Texas) Texas Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Act (Texas) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Program Info State Texas Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Railroad Commission of Texas The Railroad Commission of Texas regulates all surface mining activities for the extraction of coal. The Commission acts with the authority of the Texas Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Act, which establishes that the state of Texas has exclusive jurisdiction over the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations in the state, in accordance with the

285

Coal-derived promoters for the liquefaction of Illinois coal. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the use of liquids derived from coal either by mild gasification or supercritical extraction (SCE) to promote direct liquefaction of Illinois coal. Some organic sulfur-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-containing compounds have been found to enhance liquefaction reactions. The use of Illinois coal to produce liquid fractions rich in these types of compounds could increase the rates of liquefaction reactions, thus improving the process economics. An integrated process combining direct liquefaction with mild gasification or SCE of coal is being developed by IGT.

Carty, R.H.; Knight, R.A.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Stability of Appalachian coal shipments under policy variation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A quadratic programming transportation model and a nonparametric statistical procedure are used to investigate how Appalachian coal-supply flows vary in response to changes in national coal markets and policies, with emphasis on the relative stability of traditional flows. The results show that the relative stability of coal shipments is preserved under small and moderate random shocks, suggesting that coal-shipment patterns remain relatively stable despite changes in the absolute level. The tendency for traditional routes to continue has occurred because of the region's access to transportation networks and its low fixed mining costs. Environmental restriction could change shipment patterns by terminating coal production in some regions. Some areas of instability may require freight subsidies. Increased taxes or changes in mining capital or generating costs could also alter the pattern. Policies to stabilize freight rates and production costs are indicated. 10 references, 8 tables.

Yang, C.W. (Clarion State Coll., PA); Labys, W.C.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Coal combustion science. Quarterly progress report, April 1993--June 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a quarterly status report of the Coal Combustion Science Project that is being conducted at the Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories. The information reported is for Apr-Jun 1993. The objective of this work is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This project consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the PETC Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. The objective of the kinetics and mechanisms of pulverized coal char combustion task is to characterize the combustion behavior of selected US coals under conditions relevant to industrial pulverized coal-fired furnaces. Work is being done in four areas: kinetics of heterogeneous fuel particle populations; char combustion kinetics at high carbon conversion; the role of particle structure and the char formation process in combustion and; unification of the Sandia char combustion data base. This data base on the high temperature reactivities of chars from strategic US coals will permit identification of important fuel-specific trends and development of predictive capabilities for advanced coal combustion systems. The objective of the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion task is the establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of inorganic material during coal combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of inorganic species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition. In addition, optical diagnostic capabilities are being developed for in situ, real-time detection of inorganic vapor species and surface species during ash deposition. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Hardesty, D.R. [ed.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

291

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Clean Coal Today Newsletter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Demonstrations Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Today is a quarterly newsletter of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Office of Clean Coal. Among other things, Clean Coal Today highlights progress under the Clean Coal Power Initiative, the Power Plant Improvement Initiative, and the few remaining projects of the original Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Reporting on coal R&D performed at government laboratories, as well as in conjunction with stakeholders, it provides key information on FE's coal-related activities, most of which are directed toward near-zero emissions, ultra-efficient technologies of the future. Subscriptions are free – to have your name placed on the mailing list, contact the Editor at Phoebe.Hamill@hq.doe.gov.

292

Iron Minerals in Coal, Weathered Coal and Coal Ash – SEM and Mössbauer Results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of the present investigation was to identify and quantify the iron mineral phases present in South African coal from various coal fields and in coal ash, after industrial and laboratory combustion process...

F. B. Waanders; E. Vinken; A. Mans; A. F. Mulaba-Bafubiandi

293

Effects of Surface Chemistry on the Porous Structure of Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, 129 Xe nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of xenon gas adsorbed in coal is used to describe some poorly understood features of coal microporous structure, particularly in establishing that a connected network exists, the type of connectivity, and its changes with the rank of coal. Micropore size scale and distribution are also considered. Two methods are developed which are new and versatile tools for the investigation of porous structure. Both utilize xenon gas that is in motion, while undergoing diffusion or exchange in coal, to describe the connectivity of the micropore structure of coal. Time tracking of the adsorption process by NMR, selective saturation, and saturation transfer techniques were used to obtain new information on the coal rank dependence of porous structure. In addition, an existing 129 Xe chemical shift-pore diameter model was used to calculate micropore diameters for coals, as well as for a microporous carbon, before and after pore-size alteration. In the initial study performed, straightforward 129 Xe NMR spectra at equilibrium xenon adsorption at a series of pressures were acquired for a rank-varied set of six coals. Acquisition of the NMR signal as an echo was tested and found to improve spectral quality. The spectra were used to calculate micropore diameters for the six coals. These range from 5.6 to 7.5 ? and exhibit a minimum value for the intermediate coal rank. The smallest pores occur in coals of about 82-85% carbon; at both lower and higher coal ranks, the average micropore size tends to be larger. The changes in the spectra with coal rank and surface area were explored. Signal linewidths were found to decrease with increasing coal rank and were interpreted in terms of increasing chemical or physical homogeneity of the coal as rank increases. The packing density of powdered coal was found to alter the spectral appearance in a high volatile bituminous coal, which is preliminary evidence that exchange affects the chemical shift of xenon in this coal.

Ljubisa R. Radovic; Patrick G. Hatcher

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Resource targets for advanced underground coal-extraction systems. [Identification of location and geology of deposit for which greatest savings can be realized by advanced mining systems in 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report identifies resource targets appropriate for federal sponsorship of research and development of advanced underground coal mining systems. In contrast to previous research, which focused on a particular resource type, this study made a comprehensive examination of both conventional and unconventional coals, with particular attention to exceptionally thin and thick seams, steeply dipping beds, and multiple seam geometry. The major thrust of the targeting analysis was forecasting which coals would be of clear commercial significance at the beginning of the 21st century under three widely different scenarios for coal demand. The primary measure of commercial importance was an estimate of the aggregate dollar savings realized by consumers if advanced technology were available to mine coal at prices at or below the price projected for conventional technology in the year 2000. Both deterministic and probabilistic savings estimates were prepared for each demand scenario. The results indicate that the resource of primary importance is flat-lying bituminous coal of moderate thickness, under moderate cover, and located within the lower 48 states. Resources of secondary importance are the flat-lying multiple seams and thin seams (especially those in Appalachia). The rather substantial deposits of bituminous coal in North Alaska and the deeply buried lignites of the Gulf Coast present transportation and ground control problems which appear to postpone their commercial importance well beyond 2000. Steeply dipping coals, abandoned pillars, and exceptionally thick western coals may be important in some regions or sub-regions, but the limited tonnage available places them in a position of tertiary importance.

Hoag, J.H.; Whipple, D.W.; Habib-Agahi, H.; Lavin, M.L.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Hydrogen from Coal | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquids » Hydrogen Liquids » Hydrogen from Coal Hydrogen from Coal Technicians make adjustments to equipment in the hydrogen membrane testing unit at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory. NETL researchers in the Office of Research and Development are testing different types of materials that might be used to separate hydrogen from other gases. Photo courtesy of NETL. Technicians make adjustments to equipment in the hydrogen membrane testing unit at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory. NETL researchers in the Office of Research and Development are testing different types of materials that might be used to separate hydrogen from other gases. Photo courtesy of NETL. Hydrogen from coal research supports goals of increasing energy security, reducing environmental impact of energy use, promoting economic

296

Geologic considerations in underground coal mining system design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geologic characteristics of coal resources which may impact new extraction technologies are identified and described to aid system designers and planners in their task of designing advanced coal extraction systems for the central Appalachian region. These geologic conditions are then organized into a matrix identified as the baseline mine concept. A sample region, eastern Kentucky is analyzed using both the developed baseline mine concept and the traditional geologic investigative approach.

Camilli, F.A.; Maynard, D.P.; Mangolds, A.; Harris, J.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Coal Gasification in Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... P. S. Andrews gave a full account of the Federal project for the pressure gasification of non-coking coals for the combined purpose of town's gas ' and the ... of town's gas ' and the production of synthetic liquid fuel. Work on the gasification of brown coal in. Victoria was commenced in 1931 by the technical staff of ...

1955-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

298

Chemicals from Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Mas-sachusetts Institute of Technology, 1974; J. B. Howard...Petras, in Coal Pro-cessing Technology (American Institute of Chem-ical...with the solidifcation of a fluid bituminous coal as it undergoes...Policy Analyst, Science and Technology Policy Office (Staff to the...

Arthur M. Squires

1976-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

299

Incentives boost coal gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Higher energy prices are making technologies to gasify the USA's vast coal reserves attractive again. The article traces the development of coal gasification technology in the USA. IGCC and industrial gasification projects are now both eligible for a 20% investment tax credit and federal loan guarantees can cover up to 80% of construction costs. 4 photos.

Hess, G.

2006-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

300

Regional University Alliance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Alliance Alliance Developed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory in collaboration with NETL-Regional University Alliance WVU National Research Center for Coal and Energy Fossil Consulting Services, Inc. The AVESTAR(tm) Center provides a state-of- the-art, highly realistic, dynamic simulator for a coal-fired power plant using Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology with CO 2 capture. The system is based on Invensys' DYNSIM ® software

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

STEO November 2012 - coal supplies  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to decline in 2013, primarily because of continuing economic weakness in Europe, lower international coal prices, and higher coal production in Asia. However, U.S. coal exports next year are still expected to top 100 million tons for the third year in a row

302

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Origin State, Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

303

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report April-June 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of B.D. Hong, Leader, Coal Infor- mation Team, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the Appendix A, U.S. Coal Imports section should be directed to Paulette Young at (202) 426-1150, email

304

By Coal Destination State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 7,906 821 1,242 - 9,969 Alabama Railroad 3,604 49 285 - 3,938 Alabama River 3,979 - - - 3,979 Alabama Truck 322 773 957 - 2,051 Colorado Total 2,113 - - - 2,113 Colorado Railroad 2,113 - - - 2,113 Illinois Total 336 - - - 336 Illinois River 336 - - - 336 Indiana Total 1,076

305

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report January-March 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of B.D. Hong, Leader, Coal Infor- mation Team, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the Appendix A, U.S. Coal Imports section should be directed

306

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Destination State, Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

307

Coal in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Minchener, A.J. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

By Coal Origin State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 7,906 821 1,242 - 9,969 Alabama Railroad 3,604 49 285 - 3,938 Alabama River 3,979 - - - 3,979 Alabama Truck 322 773 957 - 2,051 Florida Total - - 15 - 15 Florida Railroad - - 11 - 11 Florida Truck - - 3 - 3 Georgia Total 196 - 15 - 211 Georgia Railroad 189 - 1 - 190 Georgia Truck

309

Coalbed methane production enhancement by underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sub-surface of the Netherlands is generally underlain by coal-bearing Carboniferous strata at greater depths (at many places over 1,500 m). These coal seams are generally thinner than 3 meter, occur in groups (5--15) within several hundred meters and are often fairly continuous over many square kilometers. In many cases they have endured complex burial history, influencing their methane saturation. In certain particular geological settings, a high, maximum coalbed methane saturation, may be expected. Carboniferous/Permian coals in the Tianjin-region (China) show many similarities concerning geological settings, rank and composition. Economical coalbed methane production at greater depths is often obstructed by the (very) low permeabilities of the coal seams as with increasing depth the deformation of the coal reduces both its macro-porosity (the cleat system) and microporosity. Experiments in abandoned underground mines, as well as after underground coal gasification tests indicate ways to improve the prospects for coalbed methane production in originally tight coal reservoirs. High permeability areas can be created by the application of underground coal gasification of one of the coal seams of a multi-seam cycle with some 200 meter of coal bearing strata. The gasification of one of the coal seams transforms that seam over a certain area into a highly permeable bed, consisting of coal residues, ash and (thermally altered) roof rubble. Additionally, roof collapse and subsidence will destabilize the overburden. In conjunction this will permit a better coalbed methane production from the remaining surrounding parts of the coal seams. Moreover, the effects of subsidence will influence the stress patterns around the gasified seam and this improves the permeability over certain distances in the coal seams above and below. In this paper the effects of the combined underground coal gasification and coalbed methane production technique are regarded for a single injection well. Known geotechnical aspects are combined with results from laboratory experiments on compaction of thermally treated rubble. An axi-symmetric numerical model is used to determine the effects induced by the gasified coal seam. The calculation includes the rubble formation, rubble compaction and induced stress effects in the overlying strata. Subsequently the stress effects are related to changes in coal permeability, based on experimental results of McKee et al.

Hettema, M.H.H.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Neumann, B.V.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

310

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal ... Ash with a low melting point causes slagging and fouling problems in pulverized coal combustion boilers. ... The ash composition in coal and operational conditions in boilers such as heat load greatly affect the ash deposition behavior. ...

Katsuya Akiyama; Haeyang Pak; Toshiya Tada; Yasuaki Ueki; Ryo Yoshiie; Ichiro Naruse

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

311

CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to further characterize the three areas selected as potential test sites, to begin assessing regional attributes of natural coal fractures (cleats), which control coalbed permeability, and to interview laboratories for coal sample testing. An additional objective was to initiate discussions with an operating company that has interests in Texas coalbed gas production and CO{sub 2} sequestration potential, to determine their interest in participation and cost sharing in this project. Well-log data are critical for defining depth, thickness, number, and grouping of coal seams at the proposed sequestration sites. Therefore, we purchased 15 well logs from a commercial source to make coal-occurrence maps and cross sections. Log suites included gamma ray (GR), self potential (SP), resistivity, sonic, and density curves. Other properties of the coals in the selected areas were collected from published literature. To assess cleat properties and describe coal characteristics, we made field trips to a Jackson coal outcrop and visited Wilcox coal exposures at the Sandow surface mine. Coal samples at the Sandow mine were collected for CO{sub 2} and methane sorption analyses. We contacted several laboratories that specialize in analyzing coals and selected a laboratory, submitting the Sandow Wilcox coals for analysis. To address the issue of cost sharing, we had fruitful initial discussions with a petroleum corporation in Houston. We reviewed the objectives and status of this project, discussed data that they have already collected, and explored the potential for cooperative data acquisition and exchange in the future. We are pursuing a cooperative agreement with them.

Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Adsorption Behavior of CO2 in Coal and Coal Char  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coals of diverse characteristics have been chosen to provide a better understanding on the influence of various coal properties, such as maceral, volatile matter, and ash contents. ... In addition, char samples from two of these coals (a non-coking coal A and a coking coal B) were prepared by pyrolysis at 800 and 1000 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere and were tested for CO2 adsorption capacity. ... As stated earlier, virgin coal samples considered for the adsorption measurements include coals A, C, and D, which are of low-, high-, and medium-volatile sub-bituminous rank, respectively. ...

Shanmuganathan Ramasamy; Pavan Pramod Sripada; Md Moniruzzaman Khan; Su Tian; Japan Trivedi; Rajender Gupta

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Optical properties of ??-CoAl  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The optical absorptance of ??-CoAl in the (0.1-2.5)-eV region was measured and analyzed by the Kramers-Kronig method. The optical conductivity shows interband features beginning below 0.1 eV, with several structures below 2 eV. These structures agree with those calculated from the energy bands of Moruzzi, Williams, and Gelatt. The experimentally observed systematics in CoAl and NiAl confirm our previous interpretation of the spectra of ??-NiAl, and disagree with other experimental and theoretical attempts to understand the optical properties of these compounds.

D. W Lynch; B. R. Boeke; D. J. Peterman

1982-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

APEC experts` group on clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Expert`s Group on Clean Coal Technology`s Technical Seminar held in Jakarta, Indonesia, from October 10-13, 1994 are presented. A total of 28 papers were presented at the seminar. These papers addressed issues of relevance to APEC member economies associated with the application of clean coal technologies (CCTs) and created a forum where information and ideas about CCTs and their application in the Asia-Pacific Region could be exchanged. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

315

Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program December 18, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Uncovering Coal’s Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program The challenges confronting the environmentally sound use of our country's fossil energy resources are best addressed through collaborative research and development. That's why this approach, which stretches federal dollars, is at the heart of the Office of Fossil Energy's University Coal Research (UCR) Program. Managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UCR program funds university research to improve understanding of the chemical and physical properties of coal, one of our nation's most abundant

316

U.S. Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of origin, 2010 (thousand short tons) Coal Exports Coal Origin State and Region Domestic Distribution By Coal Mines By Brokers & Traders* Total Exports Total Distribution Alabama 10,679.56 9,223.70 408.00 9,631.70 20,311.26 Alaska 920.68 1,080.60 88.05 1,168.65 2,089.33 Arizona 7,761.18 - - - 7,761.18 Arkansas 0.43 - - - 0.43 Colorado 21,831.81 748.98 1,446.25 2,195.23 24,027.04 Illinois 33,176.21 2,505.51

317

Table 17. Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing U.S. Mines by Mine Production Range and Mine Type, 2012 (million short tons) U.S. Energy Information...

318

Coal combustion by-products: State regulatory overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal combustion by-products (CCBs) are generated from the combustion of coal for energy production. Approximately 82 million tons of CCBs are produced each year by electric utilities. (1991 Coal Combustion By-Product Production and Use, American Coal Ash Association, 1992.) There are several common types of CCBs produced by coal combustion--fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, flue gas desulfurization material (FGD) and fluidized bed combustion byproducts (FBC). Some CCBs, such as fly ash, have pozzolanic properties and may have cementitious properties, both of which are advantageous for engineering, construction and waste remediation applications. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) in ASTM C-618 has created two classifications of useful and quality coal ash, Class F ash and Class C ash. Each class of coal ash has different pozzolanic and cementitious characteristics. Coal ash can be utilized in many manufacturing, mining, agricultural, engineering, construction and waste remediation applications. This is a review by state of regulations concerning coal combustion by-products.

Jagiella, D. [Howard and Howard Attorneys, Peoria, IL (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Optimum Design of Coal Gasification Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper deals with the optimum design of heat recovery systems using the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). TCGP uses an entrained type gasifier and produces hot gases at approximately 2500oF with high heat flux. This heat is removed...

Pohani, B. P.; Ray, H. P.; Wen, H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced ?cars?) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993?1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High-Calcium Coal Combustion By-Products, 5) Development of an Environmentally Appropriate Leaching Procedure for Coal Combustion By-Products, 6) Set Time of Fly Ash Concrete, 7) Coal Ash Properties Database (CAPD), 8) Development of a Method for Determination of Radon Hazard in CCBs, 9) Development of Standards and Specifications, 10) Assessment of Fly Ash Variability, and 11) Development of a CCB Utilization Workshop. The primary goal of CARRC is to work with industry to solve CCB-related problems and promote the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economical utilization and disposal of these highly complex materials. CARRC 1993?1998 accomplishments included: C Updating the CAPD to a user-friendly database management system, and distributing it to CARRC members. C ASTM standard preparation for a guide to using CCBs as waste stabilization agents. C Preliminary identification of specific mineral transformations resulting from fly ash hydration. C Limited determination of the effects of fly ash on the set time of concrete. C Statistical evaluation of a select set of fly ashes from several regional coal-fired power plants. C Development and presentation of a workshop on CCB utilization focused on government agency representatives and interested parties with limited CCB utilization experience. C Participation in a variety of local, national, and international technical meetings, symposia, and conferences by presenting and publishing CCB-related papers.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Conditioner for flotation of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for recovering coal is described which comprises the steps of floating coal in an aqueous frothing medium containing an amount of a condensation product of an alkanolamine and naphthenic acid sufficient to increase the recovery of coal as compared to the recovery of coal in an identical process using none of the condensation product.

Nimerick, K.H.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

322

Coal market momentum converts skeptics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Coal Science: Basic Research Opportunities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...carbon is arranged in coal becomes real. What...NMR experiments at high temperatures. This...of characterizing high-boiling coal "liquids" which...reactions. Coal mineral matter. Most U.S. coals...burned is called ash. Techniques are...

Martin L. Gorbaty; Franklin J. Wright; Richard K. Lyon; Robert B. Long; Richard H. Schlosberg; Zeinab Baset; Ronald Liotta; Bernard G. Silbernagel; Dan R. Neskora

1979-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

324

Structure and thermoplasticity of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chapters cover: molecular structure and thermoplastic properties of coal; {sup 1}H-nmr study of relaxation mechanisms of coal aggregate; structural changes of coal macromolecules during softening; quantitative estimation of metaplsat in heat-treated coal by solvent extraction; effects of surface oxidation on thermoplastic properties of coal; analysis of dilatation and contraction of coal during carbonization; formation mechanisms of coke texture during resolidification; modified CPD model for coal devolatilization; mathematical modelling of coke mechanical structure; and simulating particulate dynamics in the carbonization process based on discrete element treatment.

Komaki, I.; Itagaki, S.; Miura, T. (eds.)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

326

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES IN THE NORTHERN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES IN THE NORTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS AND GREAT PLAINS REGION RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625-A Click here in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625-A #12;ES

327

MS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

COAL-OUR MOST ABUNDANT FUEL COAL-OUR MOST ABUNDANT FUEL America has more coal than any other fossil fuel resource. Th e United States also has more coal reserves than any other single country in the world. In fact, 1/4 of all the known coal in the world is in the United States. Th e United States has more energy in coal that can be mined than the rest of the world has in oil that can be pumped from the ground. Currently, coal is mined in 25 of the 50 states. Coal is used primarily in the United States to generate electricity. In fact, it is burned in power plants to produce nearly half of the electricity we use. A stove uses about half a ton of coal a year. A water heater uses about two tons of coal a year. And a refrigerator, that's another half-ton a year. Even though you

328

Method for analyzing the potential feasibility of coal brokerage operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is one major prerequisite for unit train service. High volumes of coal are needed to make the operation both practical and economical. Many existing or potential coal users are too small to directly benefit from the cost savings and reliability of unit train service. If the demand for coal by a number of small users in a region could be aggregated so that the resulting volume was high enough to justify a unit train service, the users of the region could well be served through a single unit train receiving facility. Thus, coal users individually too small to receive unit train shipments could capture cost savings associated with a larger volume operation. It is the intent of this thesis to study the feasibility of such an operation, hereafter referred to as a coal brokerage. The specific purpose is to develop and present an analytical framework for evaluating the long-run economic feasibility of a coal brokerage for a region. The analysis views the brokerage operator, or broker, as a firm, and focuses on the relationships between its long-run cost function and market demand function for coal.

Wilkie, K.; Vezeris, S.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Process for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 914 12 66 - 992 Alabama River 949 - - - 949 Alabama Truck 78 189 237 - 504 Alabama Total 1,941 201 303 - 2,445 Colorado Railroad 575 - - - 575 Illinois River 99 - - - 99 Indiana River 241 - - - 241 Kentucky Railroad 827 - 12 - 839 Kentucky (East) Railroad 76 - - - 76 Kentucky (West) Railroad

331

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 839 11 83 - 933 Alabama River 1,347 - - - 1,347 Alabama Truck 118 216 236 - 571 Alabama Total 2,304 227 320 - 2,850 Colorado Railroad 514 - - - 514 Illinois River 99 - - - 99 Indiana River 172 - - - 172 Kentucky Railroad 635 - 11 - 647 Kentucky (East) Railroad 45 - - - 45 Kentucky (West)

332

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 944 16 77 - 1,037 Alabama River 781 - - - 781 Alabama Truck 77 224 220 - 521 Alabama Total 1,802 240 298 - 2,340 Colorado Railroad 385 - - - 385 Illinois River 15 - - - 15 Indiana Railroad 1 - - - 1 Indiana River 350 - - - 350 Indiana Total 351 - - - 351 Kentucky Railroad 682 - 2 - 685 Kentucky (East)

333

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

June 2010 DOE/EIA-0121 (2010/01Q) June 2010 DOE/EIA-0121 (2010/01Q) Revised: July 2012 Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2010 June 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.gov/coal/production/quarterly/ _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

334

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 907 10 59 - 975 Alabama River 903 - - - 903 Alabama Truck 150 144 253 - 546 Alabama Total 1,960 153 311 - 2,424 Colorado Railroad 640 - - - 640 Illinois River 123 - - - 123 Indiana River 312 - - - 312 Kentucky Railroad 622 - 36 - 658 Kentucky (East) Railroad 96 - 36 - 132 Kentucky (West)

335

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,896 182 327 - 2,405 Alabama Railroad 1,192 2 74 - 1,268 Alabama River 655 - - - 655 Alabama Truck 50 180 253 - 482 Colorado Total 468 - - - 468 Colorado Railroad 468 - - - 468 Illinois Total 90 - 26 - 116 Illinois River 90 - 26 - 116 Indiana Total 181 - - - 181 Indiana River 181 -

336

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2012 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,407 184 231 - 1,822 Alabama Railroad 801 9 49 - 859 Alabama River 519 - - - 519 Alabama Truck 87 175 182 - 444 Colorado Total 82 - - - 82 Colorado Railroad 82 - - - 82 Illinois Total 149 - 14 - 163 Illinois Railroad 44 - - - 44 Illinois River 105 - 14 - 119 Indiana Total 99 - - - 99

337

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2008 July 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

338

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2009 September 2009 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

339

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7/01Q) 7/01Q) Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2007 June 2007 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

340

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 914 12 66 - 992 Alabama River 949 - - - 949 Alabama Truck 78 189 237 - 504 Alabama Total 1,941 201 303 - 2,445 Georgia Railroad 23 - - - 23 Georgia Truck s - - - s Georgia Total 23 - - - 23 Indiana Railroad - 115 - - 115 Indiana Truck - 71 - - 71 Indiana Total - 186 - - 186 Tennessee Railroad - - 1 - 1 Tennessee Truck

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3Q) 3Q) Quarterly Coal Report July - September 2008 December 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

342

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2008 September 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

343

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8/04Q) 8/04Q) Quarterly Coal Report October - December 2008 March 2009 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

344

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 1,040 18 80 - 1,138 Alabama River 668 - - - 668 Alabama Truck 52 164 223 - 438 Alabama Total 1,760 181 303 - 2,244 Colorado Railroad 600 - - - 600 Illinois River 203 - 13 - 217 Indiana River 180 - - - 180 Kentucky Railroad 465 - 10 - 475 Kentucky (West) Railroad 465 - 10 - 475 Utah Railroad 18 - - -

345

Coal combustion products (CCPs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

combustion products (CCPs) combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an important contribution in this regard. Fossil Energy Research Benefits Coal Combustion Products Fossil Energy Research Benefits

346

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

Wright, C.H.

1986-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

347

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,486 155 328 - 1,970 Alabama Railroad 1,020 - 75 - 1,095 Alabama River 417 - - - 417 Alabama Truck 49 155 253 - 458 Colorado Total 195 - - - 195 Colorado Railroad 195 - - - 195 Illinois Total 127 - 18 - 145 Illinois Railroad 20 - - - 20 Illinois River 107 - 18 - 125 Indiana Total

349

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2012 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,407 184 231 - 1,822 Alabama Railroad 801 9 49 - 859 Alabama River 519 - - - 519 Alabama Truck 87 175 182 - 444 Georgia Total s - s - s Georgia Truck s - s - s Indiana Total - 98 - - 98 Indiana Railroad - 98 - - 98 Kentucky Total - - 12 - 12 Kentucky Truck - - 12 - 12 Ohio Total - 30 - - 30 Ohio

350

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,942 160 335 - 2,437 Alabama Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 Alabama River 741 - - - 741 Alabama Truck 52 160 278 - 490 Colorado Total 621 2 - - 623 Colorado Railroad 621 2 - - 623 Illinois Total 113 - 11 - 123 Illinois River 113 - 11 - 123 Indiana Total 265 - - - 265 Indiana Railroad

351

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,896 182 327 - 2,405 Alabama Railroad 1,192 2 74 - 1,268 Alabama River 655 - - - 655 Alabama Truck 50 180 253 - 482 Georgia Total s - - - s Georgia Truck s - - - s Indiana Total - 72 - - 72 Indiana Railroad - 72 - - 72 Tennessee Total - - 7 - 7 Tennessee Truck - - 7 - 7 Origin State Total 1,896

352

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal ... Studies of the reactions of coal in electric discharges by two chemists at the U.S. Bureau of Mines' Pittsburgh Coal Research Center may lead to improved ways of producing acetylene and other useful chemicals from coal. ... Other workers have produced high yields of acetylene from coal by extremely rapid pyrolysis using energy sources such as plasma jets, laser beams, arc-image reactors, and flash heaters. ...

1968-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

353

Year Average Transportation Cost of Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

delivered costs of coal, by year and primary transport mode Year Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton) Average Delivered Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)...

354

A Stoichiometric Analysis of Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Stoichiometric Analysis of Coal Gasification ... Gasification of New Zealand Coals: A Comparative Simulation Study ... Gasification of New Zealand Coals: A Comparative Simulation Study ...

James Wei

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Pore Structure of the Argonne Premium Coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pore Structure of the Argonne Premium Coals ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ...

John W. Larsen; Peter Hall; Patrick C. Wernett

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Density Measurements of Argonne Premium Coal Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Density Measurements of Argonne Premium Coal Samples ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ...

He Huang; Keyu Wang; David M. Bodily; V. J. Hucka

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other...

358

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12 2.6. International coal prices and18 International coal prices and trade In parallel with the2001, domestic Chinese coal prices moved from stable levels

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

19 3.4. Coking coal for iron & steels FOB export value for coking coal was relatively stables FOB export value for coking coal significantly increased

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of deploying advanced coal power in the Chinese context,”12 2.6. International coal prices and12 III. Chinese Coal

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

WEAR RESISTANT ALLOYS FOR COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of the Conference on Coal Feeding Systems, HeldWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equipment", proposalWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equi pment". The

Bhat, M.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic29 Figure 9. Sensitivity to Coal

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to have indicated economic coal reserves of at least 15tonnes of indicated economic coal reserves. Map 1: Chinaand economic assessment of deploying advanced coal power in

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Small boiler uses waste coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Fort Union coals of the northern Rockies and Great Plains: A linchpin toward a new approach to national coal resource assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Geological Survey recently initiated a 5-year program to assess the Nation`s coal resources, which emphasizes a new approach relating coal quantity and quality. One assessment region includes the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains of Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota, which contains a vast expanse of Paleocene Fort Union coal-bearing rocks that yielded about 30% (>299 million short tons) of the total coal produced (1.03 billion short tons) in the U.S. for 1994. Production is from 14 coal beds/zones (Wyodak-Anderson, Anderson-Dietz, Rosebud, Beulah-Zap, Hagel, Harmon, Ferris Nos. 23, 24, 25, 31, 38, 39, Hanna No. 80, and Deadman seams) mined in the Hanna, Green River, Powder River, and Williston Basins. About 254 million short tons produced from 25 mines are from the Wyodak-Anderson, Anderson-Dietz, and Rosebud coal beds/zones in the Powder River Basin (PRB). These coals are considered as clean and low contaminant compliance coals containing less sulfur and ash (arithmetic mean for sulfur is 0.58% and ash is 7%, as-received basis) than coals produced from other regions in the conterminous U.S. Preliminary elemental analysis of coal samples from the PRB for those hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) named in the Amendments to the 1990 Clean Air Act (including Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Se, and U), indicates that PRB coals are lower in HAPs contents than other coals from within the region and also other regions in the U.S. Arithmetic means of HAPs contents of these coals are: Sb=0.35, As=3.4, Be=0.6, Cd=0.08, Cr=6.1, Co=1.6, Pb=3.6, Mn=23.5, Hg=0.09, Ni=4.6, Se=0.9, and U=1.1 (in ppm, as-received, and on a whole-coal basis). These coal-quality parameters will be used to delineate coal quantity of the 14 Fort Union coal beds/zones defined in the resource assessment for expanded utilization of coals into the next several decades as controlled by present and future environmental constraints.

Flores, R.M.; Stricker, G.D. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 December 2008 2007 Changes in Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources The changes in the coal distribution data sources made in 2006 are carried over to the 2007 tables. As in 2006, EIA used data from the EIA-3 survey to distribute synfuel to the electric generation sector on a state level, aggregated with all of the other coal (such as bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal) sent to electric generating plants. EIA supplemented the EIA-3 data with previously collected information to determine the mode of transportation from the synfuel plant to the electric generating consumer, which was not reported on the EIA-3A survey form. Although not contained in the EIA-6A master file, this information has been documented in an ancillary spreadsheet in the EIA

367

Coal Utilization Science Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Utilization SCienCe Program Coal Utilization SCienCe Program Description The Coal Utilization Science (CUS) Program sponsors research and development (R&D) in fundamental science and technology areas that have the potential to result in major improvements in the efficiency, reliability, and environmental performance of advanced power generation systems using coal, the Nation's most abundant fossil fuel resource. The challenge for these systems is to produce power in an efficient and environmentally benign manner while remaining cost effective for power providers as well as consumers. The CUS Program is carried out by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program supports DOE's Strategic Plan to:

368

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Methodology Methodology EIA uses the confidential version of the STB Waybill data, which includes actual revenue for shipments that originate and terminate at specific locations. The STB Waybill data are a sample of all rail shipments. EIA's 2011 report describes the sampling procedure. EIA aggregates the confidential STB data to three different levels: national, coal-producing basin to state, and state to state. EIA applies STB withholding rules to the aggregated data to identify records that must be suppressed to protect business-sensitive data. Also, EIA adds additional location fields to the STB data, identifying the mine from which the coal originates, the power plant that receives the coal, and, in some cases, an intermediate delivery location where coal is terminated by the initial carrier but then

369

Entrainment Coal Gasification Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Entrainment Coal Gasification Modeling ... Equivalent Reactor Network Model for Simulating the Air Gasification of Polyethylene in a Conical Spouted Bed Gasifier ... Equivalent Reactor Network Model for Simulating the Air Gasification of Polyethylene in a Conical Spouted Bed Gasifier ...

C. Y. Wen; T. Z. Chaung

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

On Coal-Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1860-1862 research-article On Coal-Gas W. R. Bowditch The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. www.jstor.org

1860-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Aqueous coal slurry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A public utility may not use clean coal technology at a new or existing electric generating facility without first applying for and obtaining from the Utility Regulatory Commission a certificate...

373

Quarterly coal report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

Young, P.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Survey data. Each plant receiving CAPP or PRB coal in 2007 and 2010 were mapped and their data used to estimate costs for other cells by interpolating values based on inverse...

375

Clean Coal Research  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE's clean coal R&D is focused on developing and demonstrating advanced power generation and carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies for existing facilities and new fossil-fueled...

376

Proximate analysis of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

WCI Case for Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with the steam cycle of coal-fired power plants offers the potential to convert 40% of solar energy into electricity. This compares to 13% for large-scale photovoltaic systems,...

378

Coal to Liquids Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By the mid-1940s, natural gas and oil production had become more developed and cost-competitive with coal, and technology for production of synthetic transportation fuels was not considered economic after the Sec...

Marianna Asaro; Ronald M. Smith

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Coal to Liquids Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By the mid-1940s, natural gas and oil production had become more developed and cost-competitive with coal, and technology for production of synthetic transportation fuels was not considered economic after the Sec...

Marianna Asaro; Ronald M. Smith

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Sales Price of Coal by Mine Production Range and Mine Type, 2012 Average Sales Price of Coal by Mine Production Range and Mine Type, 2012 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 32. Average Sales Price of Coal by Mine Production Range and Mine Type, 2012 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Mine Production Range (thousand short tons) Underground Surface Total Over 1,000 58.86 19.50 31.70 Over 500 to 1,000 84.65 66.80 74.74 Over 200 to 500 95.31 73.29 84.14 Over 100 to 200 98.00 68.97 82.69 Over 50 to 100 81.53 75.99 78.61 50 or Under 92.87 63.12 73.78 U.S. Total 66.56 26.43 39.95 Note: An average sales price is calculated by dividing the total free on board (f.o.b) rail/barge value of the coal sold by the total coal sold. Excludes mines producing less than 25,000 short tons, which are not

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The natural radioactivity contents in feed coals from the lignite-fired power plants in Western Anatolia, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......mineral matter contents than other Tertiary coals. Therefore, they have been consumed...total capacity of 1680 MW. The Soma coal basin is one of the largest economic lignite basins of western Turkey. Coal mining has been practised in this region......

N. Füsun Çam; Günseli Yaprak; Elif Eren

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Utility Generation and Clean Coal Technology (Indiana) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Utility Generation and Clean Coal Technology (Indiana) Utility Generation and Clean Coal Technology (Indiana) Utility Generation and Clean Coal Technology (Indiana) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Utility Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Indiana Program Type Corporate Tax Incentive Industry Recruitment/Support Performance-Based Incentive Rebate Program Grant Program Provider Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission This statute establishes the state's support and incentives for the development of new energy production and generating facilities implementing advanced clean coal technology, such as coal gasification. The statute also supports the development of projects using renewable energy sources as well

384

Arkansas Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Act (Arkansas) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Arkansas Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Act (Arkansas) Arkansas Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Act (Arkansas) Arkansas Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Act (Arkansas) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Quality The Arkansas Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Act authorizes the state to develop, adopt, issue and amend rules and regulations pertaining to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. These regulations are consistent with, but no more restrictive that the federal regulations set forth in the Surface Mining and Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) Surface Mining and Reclamation Division (SMRD) is the authority under this act. Regulation No. 20 from the

385

Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Utility Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Louisiana Department of Natural Resources In order to prevent waste and to avoid the drilling of unnecessary wells and to encourage the development of coal seam natural gas producing areas in Louisiana, the commissioner of conservation is authorized, as provided in this law, to establish a single unit to be served by one or more wells for a coal seam natural gas producing area. Without in any way modifying the authority granted to the commissioner to establish a drilling unit or

386

Ohio Coal Research and Development Program (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ohio Coal Research and Development Program (Ohio) Ohio Coal Research and Development Program (Ohio) Ohio Coal Research and Development Program (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Schools Program Info Funding Source Ohio Development Services Agency State Ohio Program Type Grant Program Provider Ohio Development Services Agency The Ohio Coal Development Office invests in the development and implementation of technologies that can use Ohio's vast reserves of coal in an economical, environmentally sound manner. Projects are identified through public solicitations and may include technologies that improve combustion efficiencies, remove various pollutants from emissions, develop productive uses for the by-products of combustion, and investigate new uses

387

Groundwater Protection Rules Coal Mining Operations (West Virginia) |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Protection Rules Coal Mining Operations (West Virginia) Protection Rules Coal Mining Operations (West Virginia) Groundwater Protection Rules Coal Mining Operations (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Institutional Nonprofit Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Protection These rules establish a series of practices for the protection of groundwater which are to be followed by any person who conducts coal mining operations subject to the provisions of West Virginia Groundwater Protection Act and subject to regulation under the West Virginia Coal Mining and Reclamation Act and/or under West Virginia Water Pollution

388

Analysis of coal-firing modes shows pulverized least costly  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A plant owner opting to build a new coal-fired facility has several processes from which to choose. Among the most common are the spreader-stoker- and the pulverized-coal-fired boiler. Since pollution control is now an integral part of any coal-fired operation, fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is becoming increasingly popular. Reason: This process does not require auxiliary equipment to control SO/sub 2/. Comparing the operation and economics of four coal-burning processes can help make this selection a somewhat easier one. This analysis examines four types of combustion: spreader stoker, pulverized coal, bubbling fluidized bed, and circulating fluidized bed. The descriptions are for a 200,000-lb/hr unit operating under like conditions.

Lutwen, R.C.; Fitzpatrick, T.J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Development of a Coal Quality Expert  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABB Power Plant Laboratories Combustion Engineering, Inc., (ABB CE) and CQ Inc. completed a broad, comprehensive program to demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of using higher quality U.S. coals for electrical power generation and developed state-of-the-art user-friendly software--Coal Quality Expert (CQE)-to reliably predict/estimate these benefits in a consistent manner. The program was an essential extension and integration of R and D projects performed in the past under U.S. DOE and EPRI sponsorship and it expanded the available database of coal quality and power plant performance information. This software will permit utilities to purchase the lowest cost clean coals tailored to their specific requirements. Based on common interest and mutual benefit, the subject program was cosponsored by the U.S. DOE, EPRI, and eight U.S. coal-burning utilities. In addition to cosponsoring this program, EPN contributed its background research, data, and computer models, and managed some other supporting contracts under the terms of a project agreement established between CQ Inc. and EPRI. The essential work of the proposed project was performed under separate contracts to CQ Inc. by Electric Power Technologies (El?'T), Black and Veatch (B and V), ABB Combustion Engineering, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Decision Focus, Inc. Although a significant quantity of the coals tied in the United States are now cleaned to some degree before firing, for many of these coals the residual sulfur content requires users to install expensive sulfur removal systems and the residual ash causes boilers to operate inefficiently and to require frequent maintenance. Disposal of the large quantities of slag and ash at utility plant sites can also be problematic and expensive. Improved and advanced coal cleaning processes can reduce the sulfur content of many coals to levels conforming to environmental standards without requiring post-combustion desulfurization systems. Also, some coals may be beneficiated or blended to a quality level where significantly less costly desulfurization systems are needed. Coal cleaning processes may also be used to remove the precursors of other troublesome emissions that can be identified now or in the future. An added benefit of coal cleaning and blending is the reduction in concentrations of mineral impurities in the fuel leading to improved performance and operation of the'' boiler in which it is fired. The ash removed during the pre-combustion cleaning process can be more easily and safely disposed of at the mine than at the utility plant after combustion. EPRI's Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM) has shown that improved fuel quality can result in savings in unit capital and operating costs. This project produced new and improved software to select coal types and specifications resulting in the best quality and lowest cost fuel to meet specific environmental requirements.

None

1998-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

390

Coal science for the clean use of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal will need to be retained as a major source of energy in the next century. It will need to be used more effectively and more cleanly. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to introduce new technology supported by a local community of science and technology. Only in this way can the full benefits of international advances in coal utilization be fully achieved. It is important that full advantage be taken of the advances that have been achieved in laboratory techniques and in the better understanding of fundamental coal science. This paper reviews available technologies in power generation, industrial process heat, coal combustion, coal gasification, and coal analytical procedures.

Harrison, J.S. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Coal cooperative efficiency program: small mine operations. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study researched the concept of small coal operators combining to form a coal cooperatives as a means of providing services and to improve their economic position in coal markets. A small coal operators attitude survey was completed in Appalachia, along with actual interviews of numerous operators in two case study areas--Clearfield, Pennsylvania, and Beckley, West Virginia. A profile of small operator facilities and operations was developed along with suggested coal cooperative configurations in the two case study areas. A general administrative services co-op was suggested for the Beckley area and a capital intensive coal processing/transloading co-op for the Clearfield area. From a review of the vast experience in U.S. agricultural cooperatives a step-by-step procedure for forming a coal co-op is detailed from the idea stage to the first Board of Director's meeting. An extensive economic analysis is included to demonstrate potential member benefit-costs. Recommendations are made to operator, state, regional and federal sectors to develop demonstration coal cooperatives to further prove out the concept.

Multcher, J.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Jute fiber composites from coal, super clean coal, and petroleum vacuum residue-modified phenolic resin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Jute fiber composites were prepared with novolac and coal, phenolated-oxidized super clean coal (POS), petroleum vacuum residue (XVR)-modified phenol-formaldehyde (novolac) resin. Five different type of resins, i.e., coal, POS, and XVR-modified resins were used by replacing (10% to 50%) with coal, POS, and XVR. The composites thus prepared have been characterized by tensile strength, hardness, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transfer infrared (FT-IR), water absorption, steam absorption, and thickness swelling studies. Twenty percent POS-modified novolac composites showed almost the same tensile strength as that of pure novolac composites. After 30% POS incorporation, the tensile strength decreased to 25.84MPa from 33.96MPa in the case of pure novolac resin composites. However, after 50% POS incorporation, the percent retention of tensile strength was appreciable, i.e., 50.80% retention of tensile strength to that of pure novolac jute composites. The tensile strength of coal and XVR-rnodified composites showed a trend similar to that shown by POS-modified novolac resin composites. However, composites prepared from coal and XVR-modified resin with 50% phenol replacement showed 25.4% and 42% tensile strength retention, respectively, compared to that of pure novolac jute composites. It was found that the hardness of the modified composites slightly decreased with an increase in coal, POS, and XVR incorporation in the resin. The XVR-modified composites showed comparatively lower steam absorption than did coal or POS-modified composites. The thermal stability of the POS-modified composites was the highest among the composites studied. The detailed results obtained are being reported.

Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Center of Energy Studies

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Weekly Coal Production by State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Weekly Coal Production Weekly Coal Production Data for week ended: December 14, 2013 | Release date: December 19, 2013 | Next release date: December 30, 2013 For the week ended December 14, 2013: U.S. coal production totaled approximately 18.9 million short tons (mmst) This production estimate is 3.1% higher than last week's estimate and 2.9% lower than the production estimate in the comparable week in 2012 Coal production east of the Mississippi River totaled 8.2 mmst Coal production west of the Mississippi River totaled 10.8 mmst U.S. year-to-date coal production totaled 957.1 mmst, 1.9% lower than the comparable year-to-date coal production in 2012 EIA revises its weekly estimates of state-level coal production using Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) quarterly coal production data.

394

Influence of combustion conditions and coal properties on physical properties of fly ash generated from pulverized coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To develop combustion technology for upgrading the quality of fly ash, the influences of the coal properties, such as the size of pulverized coal particles and the two-stage combustion ratio during the combustion, on the fly ash properties were investigated using our test furnace. The particle size, density, specific surface area (obtained by the Blaine method), and shape of fly ash particles of seven types of coal were measured. It was confirmed that the size of pulverized coal particles affects the size of the ash particles. Regarding the coal properties, the fuel ratio affected the ash particle size distribution. The density and shape of the ash particles strongly depended on their ash size. Our results indicated that the shape of the ash particles and the concentration of unburned carbon affected the specific surface area. The influence of the two-stage combustion ratio was limited. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Hiromi Shirai; Hirofumi Tsuji; Michitaka Ikeda; Toshinobu Kotsuji [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

Prevention of trace and major element leaching from coal combustion products by hydrothermally-treated coal ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The most important structural components of coal ash obtained by coal combustion in 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant located near Belgrade (Serbia) are amorphous alumosilicate, alpha-quartz, and mullite. The phase composition of coal ash can be altered to obtain zeolite type NaA that crystallizes in a narrow crystallization field (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2}; H{sub 2}O/Na{sub 2}O ratios). Basic properties (crystallization degree, chemical composition, the energy of activation) of obtained zeolites were established. Coal ash extracts treated with obtained ion-exchange material showed that zeolites obtained from coal ash were able to reduce the amounts of iron, chromium, nickel, zinc, copper, lead, and manganese in ash extracts, thus proving its potential in preventing pollution from dump effluent waters.

Adnadjevic, B.; Popovic, A.; Mikasinovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

397

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/this operational mode, the gasifiers and other parts of the

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Definition: Anthracite coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Anthracite coal A hard, brittle, and black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal; contains 86-97% carbon, and generally has...

399

Combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of two kinds of swirl burners in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements were performed in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler. Enhanced ignition-dual register (EI-DR) burners and centrally fuel rich (CFR) swirl coal combustion burners were installed in the bottom row of the furnace during experiments. Local mean concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx gas species, gas temperatures, and char burnout were determined in the region of the two types of burners. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners, local mean CO concentrations, gas temperatures and the temperature gradient are higher and mean concentrations of O{sub 2} and NOx along the jet flow direction in the burner region are lower than for the enhanced ignition-dual register burners. Moreover, the mean O{sub 2} concentration is higher and the gas temperature and mean CO concentration are lower in the side wall region. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners in the bottom row, the combustion efficiency of the boiler increases from 96.73% to 97.09%, and NOx emission decreases from 411.5 to 355 ppm at 6% O{sub 2} compared to enhanced ignition-dual register burners and the boiler operates stably at 110 MWe without auxiliary fuel oil.

Li, Z.Q.; Jing, J.P.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F.; Xu, B.; Wei, H.D.; Ge, Z.H. [Harbin Institute for Technology, Harbin (China). School for Energy Science & Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Coaling, Alabama: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coaling, Alabama: Energy Resources Coaling, Alabama: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 33.1590078°, -87.340834° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.1590078,"lon":-87.340834,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/5/2013 1 Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium Regional GHG Emissions ­ Status June 4, 2013 Gillian Charles A few clarifications This presentation and ½ Valmy coal plants) 2 #12;6/5/2013 2 GHG Emissions by Economic Sector in the Pacific Northwest (2010

402

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of coal sulfur K-T gasification process SRC I process U. S.flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingProduction via K-T Gasification" © CEP Aug. 78. Feed

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Natural radioactivity of Zambian coal and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

226Ra and232Th specific activities in coal from Maamba Collieries in Zambia have been...?1..., respectively. These values are nearly two and a half times larger than the world average for coal an...

P. Hayumbu; M. B. Zaman; S. S. Munsanje

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Coking properties of coal pitch in coal batch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coking properties of coal pitch depend significantly on its fractional composition, ... : 2: 2. This is typical of coal pitch with a softening temperature of 75– ... Such pitch is the best clinkering additive...

S. G. Gagarin; Yu. I. Neshin

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

application of new clean coal technologies with near zeroapplication of new clean coal technologies with near zero

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Cross flow cyclonic flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and process for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophillic tailings.

Lai, Ralph W. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Patton, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

Szpunar, C.B.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Composition and properties of coals from the Yurty coal occurrence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coals from the Yurty coal occurrence were studied. It was found that the samples were brown non-coking coals with low sulfur contents (to 1%) and high yields of volatile substances. The high heat value of coals was 20.6-27.7 MJ/kg. The humic acid content varied from 5.45 to 77.62%. The mineral matter mainly consisted of kaolinite, a-quartz, and microcline. The concentration of toxic elements did not reach hazardous values.

N.G. Vyazova; L.N. Belonogova; V.P. Latyshev; E.A. Pisar'kova [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russia). Research Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Major Coal-Exporting States and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Major Coal-Exporting States and Destination, 2001 Coal-Exporting State and Destination Metallurgical Steam Total Alaska - 761 761 South Korea - 761 761 Alabama 4,667 167 4,834 Argentina 155 - 155 Belgium 989 - 989 Brazil 1,104 - 1,104 Bulgaria 82 - 82 Egypt 518 - 518 Italy 115 - 115 Netherlands 56 83 139 Spain 412 84 496 Turkey 581 - 581 United Kingdom 654 - 654 Kentucky 2,130 - 2,130 Canada 920 - 920 France 22 - 22 Iceland 9 - 9 Italy 430 - 430 Netherlands 417 - 417 Spain 9 - 9 United Kingdom 323 - 323 Pennsylvania 1,086 14,326 15,722 Belgium - 203 203 Brazil 372 - 373 Canada - 12,141 12,418 France - 84 84 Germany 495 165 661 Ireland - 136 136 Netherlands 219 879 1,097 Norway - - 7 Peru - - 21 Portugal - 634 634 United Kingdom - 85 85 Venezuela - - 3 Utah - 1,420 1,420 Japan - 1,334 1,334 Taiwan - 86 86 Virginia 4,531

411

Coal combustion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

NPDES Rule for Coal Mining Facilities (West Virginia) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NPDES Rule for Coal Mining Facilities (West Virginia) NPDES Rule for Coal Mining Facilities (West Virginia) NPDES Rule for Coal Mining Facilities (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Protection This rule establishes requirements implementing the powers, duties, and responsibilities of State's Water Pollution Control Act with respect to all

413

Montana Coal Mining Code (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Labor and Industry is authorized to adopt rules pertaining to safety standards for all coal mines in the state. The Code requires coal mine operators to make an accurate map or...

414

Low-rank coal research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

NONE

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

2008 Coal Age buyers guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

NONE

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Cells, Turbines, and Carbon Capture & Sequestration #12;Production Goal for Hydrogen from Coal Central Separation System PSA Membrane Membrane Carbon Sequestration Yes (87%) Yes (100%) Yes (100%) Hydrogen

418

The Asia-Pacific coal technology conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Asia-Pacific coal technology conference was held in Honolulu, Hawaii, November 14--16, 1989. Topics discussed included the following: Expanded Horizons for US Coal Technology and Coal Trade; Future Coal-Fired Generation and Capacity Requirements of the Philippines; Taiwan Presentation; Korean Presentation; Hong Kong Future Coal Requirements; Indonesian Presentation; Electric Power System in Thailand; Coal in Malaysia -- A Position Paper; The US and Asia: Pacific Partners in Coal and Coal Technology; US Coal Production and Export; US Clean Coal Technologies; Developments in Coal Transport and Utilization; Alternative/Innovative Transport; Electricity Generation in Asia and the Pacific: Power Sector Demand for Coal, Oil and Natural Gas; Role of Clean Coal Technology in the Energy Future of the World; Global Climate Change: A Fossil Energy Perspective; Speaker: The Role of Coal in Meeting Hawaii's Power Needs; and Workshops on Critical Issues Associated with Coal Usage. Individual topics are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Tissue site-specific enhancer function of the upstream regulatory region of human papillomavirus type 11 in cultured keratinocytes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in cultured cells after microinjection with DNA constructsa T-antigen expression with constructs: Cell type No. of pPT-1 pPPl pPT-11R % Positive Intensityb % Positive Intensity % Positive Intensity Host Larynx 3 4.7 ? 3.1 NDc 44.0 ? 22.1 30...

B M Steinberg; K J Auborn; J L Brandsma; L B Taichman

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake is subjected to pressure for a short time, the free water present is released from the filter cake. Laboratory studies have shown that depending on the coal type a filter cake containing about 15% moisture could be obtained using the two-stage filtration technique. It was also noted that applying intermittent breaks in vacuum force during cake formation, which disturbed the cake structure, helped in removing moisture from the filter cakes. In this project a novel approach of cleaning coal using column flotation was also developed. With this approach the feed capacity of the column is increased significantly, and the column was also able to recover coarser size coal which usually gets lost in the process. The outcome of the research benefits the coal industry, utility industry, and indirectly the general public. The benefits can be counted in terms of clean energy, cleaner environment, and lower cost power.

B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Moon Dust and Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SIR,-The similarity of the description of moon dust particles and that of pulverized coal ...coalash ...

D. J. THORNE; J. D. WATT

1969-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

422

Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Coal Report 2012 Annual Coal Report 2012 December 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. iii U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Contacts This publication was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). General information about the data in this report can be obtained from:

423

Coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal Coal Jump to: navigation, search Click to return to AEO2011 page AEO2011 Data From AEO2011 report Full figure data for Figure 101. Reference Case Tables Table 1. Total Energy Supply, Disposition, and Price Summary Table 15. Coal Supply, Disposition and Price Table 21. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - New England Table 22. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source- Middle Atlantic Table 23. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East North Central Table 24. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West North Central Table 25. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - South Atlantic Table 26. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East South Central Table 27. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West South

424

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

reports reports Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector With Data through 2010 | Release Date: November 16, 2012 | Next Release Date: December 2013 | Correction Previous editions Year: 2011 2004 Go Figure 1. Deliveries from major coal basins to electric power plants by rail, 2010 Background In this latest release of Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) significantly expands upon prior versions of this report with the incorporation of new EIA survey data. Figure 1. Percent of total U.S. rail shipments represented in data figure data Previously, EIA relied solely on data from the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (STB), specifically their confidential Carload Waybill Sample. While valuable, due to the statistical nature of the Waybill data,

425

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process Catalytic Coal Gasification Process for the Production of Methane-Rich Syngas Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Production of Methane-Rich Syngas from Fuels Using Multi-functional Catalyst/Capture Agent." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Reducing pollution emitted by coal and waste power plants in an economically viable manner and building power plants that co-generate fuels and chemicals during times of low electricity demand are pressing goals for the energy industry. One way to achieve these goals in an economically viable manner is through the use of a catalytic gasifier that

426

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 907 10 59 - 975 Alabama River 903 - - - 903 Alabama Truck 150 144 253 - 546 Alabama Total 1,960 153 311 - 2,424 Florida Truck - - 3 - 3 Georgia Railroad 105 - 1 - 106 Georgia Truck s - 4 - 4 Georgia Total 105 - 5 - 110 Indiana Railroad - 106 - - 106 Tennessee Railroad - - 1 - 1 Origin State Total 2,065 259 321 - 2,644

427

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 839 11 83 - 933 Alabama River 1,347 - - - 1,347 Alabama Truck 118 216 236 - 571 Alabama Total 2,304 227 320 - 2,850 Georgia Railroad 9 - - - 9 Georgia Truck 7 - 5 - 12 Georgia Total 16 - 5 - 21 Indiana Railroad - 126 - - 126 Tennessee Truck - - 1 - 1 Origin State Total 2,320 353 325 - 2,998 Railroad 848 137 83 - 1,068

428

coal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

coal coal Dataset Summary Description This dataset is from the report Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature (J. Macknick, R. Newmark, G. Heath and K.C. Hallett) and provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released August 28th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords coal consumption csp factors geothermal PV renewable energy technologies Water wind withdrawal Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies (xlsx, 32.3 KiB)

429

COAL & POWER SYSTEMS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

COAL & POWER SYSTEMS COAL & POWER SYSTEMS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY GREENER, SOONER... THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION .......... i-1 STRATEGIC PLAN ........ 1-1 PROGRAM PLANS Vision 21 .......................... 2-1 Central Power Systems ...... 3-1 Distributed Generation ..... 4-1 Fuels ................................ 5-1 Carbon Sequestration ....... 6-1 Advanced Research ........... 7-1 TABLE OF CONTENTS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS STRENGTH THROUGH SCIENCE... A "GREENER, SOONER" PHILOSOPHY Coal, natural gas, and oil fuel about 70 percent of the electricity generated in the United States. As promising as renewable and other alternative fuels are, it will be several decades before they can make significant energy contributions to the Nation's

430

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 944 16 77 - 1,037 Alabama River 781 - - - 781 Alabama Truck 77 224 220 - 521 Alabama Total 1,802 240 298 - 2,340 Florida Railroad - - 11 - 11 Georgia Railroad 52 - - - 52 Georgia Truck s - 5 - 5 Georgia Total 52 - 5 - 57 Indiana Railroad - 65 - - 65 Origin State Total 1,855 304 313 - 2,472 Railroad 996 81 89 - 1,165

431

Pyrolysis of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

Babu, Suresh P. (Willow Springs, IL); Bair, Wilford G. (Morton Grove, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Healy Clean Coal Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

None

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

433

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,942 160 335 - 2,437 Alabama Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 Alabama River 741 - - - 741 Alabama Truck 52 160 278 - 490 Georgia Total s - 3 - 3 Georgia Truck s - 3 - 3 Ohio Total - 3 - - 3 Ohio River - 3 - - 3 Origin State Total 1,942 163 338 - 2,443 Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 River 741 3 - - 745 Truck 52 160

434

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 1,040 18 80 - 1,138 Alabama River 668 - - - 668 Alabama Truck 52 164 223 - 438 Alabama Total 1,760 181 303 - 2,244 Georgia Truck s - 2 - 2 Indiana Railroad - 148 - - 148 Ohio Railroad - 25 - - 25 Ohio River - 18 - - 18 Ohio Total - 43 - - 43 Origin State Total 1,760 373 305 - 2,438 Railroad 1,040 191 80 - 1,311 River

435

Case Studies in Sustainable Development in the Coal Industry | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Studies in Sustainable Development in the Coal Industry Studies in Sustainable Development in the Coal Industry Jump to: navigation, search Name Case Studies in Sustainable Development in the Coal Industry Agency/Company /Organization International Energy Agency Sector Energy Focus Area Conventional Energy Topics Implementation Resource Type Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices Website http://www.iea.org/papers/2006 Program Start 2006 References Case Studies in Sustainable Development in the Coal Industry[1] Summary "Widely held attitudes to coal's use have evolved greatly in the past five years - from those that largely dismissed a role for coal in sustainable development to a wider appreciation of coal's continuing role in providing a foundation for energy security and in meeting growing world energy

436

POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

437

Coal Gasification Report.indb  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Integrated Coal Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle: Market Penetration Recommendations and Strategies Produced for the Department of Energy (DOE)/ National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Gasification Technologies Council (GTC) September 2004 Coal-Based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle: Market Penetration Strategies and Recommendations Final Report Study Performed by:

438

Gasification of Coal and Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... , said the Gas Council is spending £120,000 this year on research into coal gasification, and the National Coal Board and the Central Electricity Generating Board £680,000 and ... coal utilization. The Gas Council is spending about £230,000 on research into the gasification of oil under a programme intended to contribute also to the improvement of the economics ...

1960-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

439

Underground Gasification of Coal Reported  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Underground Gasification of Coal Reported ... RESULTS of a first step taken toward determining the feasibility of the underground gasification of coal were reported recently to the Interstate Oil Compact Commission by Milton H. Fies, manager of coal operations for the Alabama Power Co. ...

1947-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

440

Problems of Expanding Coal Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...metallurgical or coking coal marketed widely here and abroad. Appalachian coal generally has a high...are characteristic of Appalachia, al-though there has also been extensive strip mining including destructive...Mid-western bituminous coal has a large market as...

John Walsh

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal type" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Call for Proposals Date of Issue: July 29, 2013 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of Clean Coal Utilization. The format may be a conference or workshop, or a seminar given by a leading

Subramanian, Venkat

442

Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

0 Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy...

443

Solvent–Coal–Mineral Interaction during Solvent Extraction of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solvent extraction of Poplar lignite coal was studied with three model solvents (tetralin, quinoline, and 1-naphtol) and one industrial coal liquid derived solvent. ... Thanks to its wide distribution and large reserves, coal is a feasible local substitute feed material for conventional crude oil in many countries. ... Physical dissolution dominates at lower temperature, around 200 °C and lower temperatures for lignites; the role of the solvent is to relax the coal matrix and drag soluble molecules from the coal into the bulk solvent phase. ...

Mariangel Rivolta Hernández; Carolina Figueroa Murcia; Rajender Gupta; Arno de Klerk

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

444

Petroleum and Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bettinelli and others (A5) presented a method for the determination of arsenic, selenium, and mercury in coals based on a partial solublization of the coal sample in a microwave oven with aqua regia and the subsequent determination of As, Se, and Hg by flow injection hydride generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-HG-ICPMS); comparisons with other techniques are presented. ... Measures used to tackle environmental problems related to global warming and climate change were discussed in a review with 8 references by Hoppe (A40). ...

Cliff T. Mansfield; Bhajendra N. Barman; Jane V. Thomas; Anil K. Mehrotra; James M. McCann

1999-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

445

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

446

PNNL Coal Gasification Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

447

A procedure for producing maps and resource tables of coals assessed during the US Geological Survey`s National Coal Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the Colorado Plateau region of the US, more than 20 coal zones in 5 formations are currently being assessed for the US Geological Survey (USGS) National Coal Resource Assessment. Certain steps in the process of calculating coal resource estimates and producing the numerous accompanying maps for each assessment unit must therefore, be automated. Through trial and error the authors have established an accurate, reliable, and time-efficient method of taking an ASCII formatted file containing location (x,y) and coal thickness data, combining this with multiple layers of digital spatial data pertaining to coal distribution and coal resource reporting parameters, to ultimately arrive at high quality end products. They utilize as many as six commercially available software packages in conjunction with three custom programs to process the digital data. These programs range from simple conversion programs to highly sophisticated Geographic Information Systems (GIS), 2-dimensional modeling programs, graphics packages, and spread sheet software. The method is explained.

Roberts, L.N.R.; Mercier, T.J.; Biewick, L.R.H.; Blake, D. [Geological Survey (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

448

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Production by Coalbed Thickness and Mine Type, 2012 Coal Production by Coalbed Thickness and Mine Type, 2012 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 4. Coal Production by Coalbed Thickness and Mine Type, 2012 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Coal Thickness (inches) Underground Surface Total Under 7 - 17 17 7 - Under 13 - 2,108 2,108 13 - Under 19 429 6,688 7,117 19 - Under 25 111 14,107 14,217 25 - Under 31 4,147 12,913 17,060 31 - Under 37 15,128 19,022 34,150 37 - Under 43 23,868 17,285 41,153 43 - Under 49 26,035 15,597 41,632 49 - Under 55 18,909 22,544 41,453 55 - Under 61 36,946 11,285 48,231 61 - Under 67 43,146 15,074 58,220 67 - Under 73 40,983 8,783 49,766 73 - Under 79 32,914 10,193 43,107 79 - Under 85 27,011 3,554 30,565 85 - Under 91 11,997

449

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Mine Type, 2012 and 2011 Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Mine Type, 2012 and 2011 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 28. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Mine Type, 2012 and 2011 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 2012 2011 Percent Change Coal-Producing State Underground Surface Total Underground Surface Total Underground Surface Total Alabama 107.73 104.51 106.57 100.17 108.71 102.69 7.6 -3.9 3.8 Alaska - w w - w w - w w Arizona - w w - w w - w w Arkansas w - w w - w w - w Colorado w w 37.54 w w 39.88 w w -5.9 Illinois 54.18 45.12 53.08 51.43 46.60 50.80 5.4 -3.2 4.5 Indiana 52.94 51.33 52.01 51.77 44.91 47.96 2.3 14.3 8.4 Kansas - - - - w w - w w Kentucky Total 62.24 64.70 63.12 63.38 64.01 63.63 -1.8 1.1 -0.8 Kentucky (East) 79.23 72.04 75.62

450

Coal distribution, January-March 1985. [By district; 1981 to 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US coal distribution to domestic and foreign markets totaled 210.8 million short tons in the first quarter of 1985. This was 5.1% below coal shipments in the first quarter of 1984, but 10.7% above the depressed levels of the comparable period in 1983. Coal shipments to various regions of the United States and abroad showed mixed trends during the first 3 months of 1985. This is attributable primarily to large inventory buildups by eastern and midwestern consumers during the first 9 months of 1984 in preparation for a possible strike by the United Mine Workers of America in October of last year. Coal inventories at producers and distributors rose by 3.1% during the first quarter of 1985, reaching 35.2 million short tons on March 31, 1985, compared to 34.1 million short tons on December 31, 1984. Compared with the first quarter of 1984: Coal shipments from mines in Appalachia were 12.6% lower, while shipments from western mines were up by 9.7%, reaching another record first-quarter high. Export shipments moved ahead of their 1984 pace by 9.9% despite a 30.0% decline in shipments to Canada. Major markets in the West continued to enlarge their coal requirements as eastern markets curtailed shipments while working off excess stocks. Texas expanded its lead as the Nation's top state to receive coal, and North Dakota experienced an upsurge in coal receipts due to the startup of the Great Plains coal gasification project. Coal production and purchases were 211.5 million short tons, 5.0% below last year's level. The reduction in shipments reflected a substantial decline in coal originating in the Appalachian Region, notably District 8, and to a lesser extent in the Interior Region. In contrast, shipments of coal from the Western Region reached another first-quarter high. 5 figs., 33 tabs.

McNair, M.B.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

NETL: Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

C&CBTL C&CBTL Coal and Power Systems Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids program effort is focused on technologies to foster the commercial adoption of coal and coal/biomass gasification and the production of affordable liquid fuels and hydrogen with excellent environmental performance. U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness Advanced Fuels Synthesis U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits

452

Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8, 2013 8, 2013 Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program The challenges confronting the environmentally sound use of our country's fossil energy resources are best addressed through collaborative research and development. That's why this approach, which stretches federal dollars, is at the heart of the Office of Fossil Energy's University Coal Research (UCR) Program. Managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UCR program funds university research to improve understanding of the chemical and physical properties of coal, one of our nation's most abundant resources. The program has forged partnerships between academia and the private sector that have led to advances not only in how we use coal, but

454

Origin of coal seam structures, Sullivan County, Indiana  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Structures of Pennsylvanian coal seams in Sullivan County, Indiana, reflect deeper structural components, of which regional dip is dominant. Other components of structure result form differential compaction. The effects of these components are characterized by their closure, size, shape, and orientation. (1) The Mississippian unconformity surface is characterized by parallel valley with up to 300 ft (91 m) of local relief. (2) The composite lower Pennsylvanian section below the Seelyville Coal has variable sandstone content. Some paleovalleys are filled with multistory sandstones, and others with claystone. (3) Silurian pinnacle reefs from small, circular features with a diameter of 1 to 2 mi (1.5 to 3 km) and closures of 25 tio 50 ft (8 to 15 m) on Pennsylvanian coal seams, 50 ft (15 m) on the Aux Vases Shale, and 150 ft (45 m) on the New Albany Shale. (4) The distributions and standard deviations of thicknesses, dips, and grain size of the sedimentary rocks between the coal seams demonstrate that seams above the Seelyville Coal were deposited in parallel and have concordant modern structures. Specific facies between seams have limited influence on the overall structure. Coal structures in the Illinois basin can be defined by a drilling program that penetrates only 150 ft (45 m) of Pennsylvanian strata. Below the Seelyville Coal, units examined demonstrate basin-margin convergence.

Adams, S.C.; Kullerud, G.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Chapter 8 - Coal Seam Degasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The chapter discusses various techniques for coal seam degasification. All coal seams are gassy but they differ in their degree of gassiness. Pre-mining and post-mining techniques for underground coal mines are discussed. With good planning, 50–80% of in-situ gas in coal can be removed before mining improving both safety and productivity. Similarly, 50–80% of gas from mined-out areas (gobs) can be removed to minimize ventilation air requirements. Gas transport in underground mines and economics of coal seam degasification are also discussed.

Pramod Thakur

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

4 - Coal resources and reserves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Coal resources still make up a significant proportion of the world’s energy supplies. Coal resources are estimated to be 860 billion tonnes. These resources are geographically well distributed and current production provides fuel for 29% of the world’s primary energy consumption. The classification of coal resources and reserves has been redefined in recent years, with the standards and codes of practice adopted by the principal coal-producing countries being equated on a global basis. Details of the principal classifications are given, together with their international equivalents. Reporting of resources and reserves plus methods of calculation are also given, together with recent assessments of global coal reserves.

L.P. Thomas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Coal Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High School Coal Study Guide - High School Coal Study Guide - High School More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide for Elementary School...

459

Coal Study Guide - Middle School | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Middle School Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide - Middle School More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Coal Study Guide - High School...

460

Photothermal method for in situ microanalysis of the chemical composition of coal samples  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Successive minute regions along a scan path on a coal sample are individually analyzed, at a series of different depths if desired, to determine chemical composition including the locations, sizes and distributions of different maceral inclusions. A sequence of infrared light pulses of progressively changing wavelengths is directed into each minute region and a probe light beam is directed along the sample surface adjacent the region. Infrared wavelengths at which strong absorption occurs in the region are identified by detecting the resulting deflections of the probe beam caused by thermally induced index of refraction changes in the air or other medium adjacent the region. The detected peak absorption wavelengths are correlated with known characteristic peak absorption wavelengths of specific coal constituents to identify the composition of each such minute region of the sample. The method enables rapid, convenient and non-destructive analyses of coal specimens to facilitate mining, processing and utilization of coals. 2 figures.

Amer, N.M.

1983-10-25T23:59:59.000Z