Sample records for region coal type

  1. Coal-Producing Region

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization2Climate, OceanPublicationandCoal Coal.

  2. Coal Supply Region

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear JanDecade Year-0c. Real average12

  3. Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production@nmsu.edu #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth i Disclaimer This report States Government or any agency thereof. #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic

  4. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  5. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  6. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  7. Coal-bench architecture as a means of understanding regional changes in coal thickness and quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F. [Kentucy Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Hower, J.C. [Center for Applied Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of the Fire Creek (Westphalian B), Pond Creek (lower Westphalian B), and Stockton (Westphalian B) coals, three of the most heavily mined coals in the Central Appalachian Basin, shows that all have a similar multiple-bench architecture of at least two benches split by a regional clastic parting or durain. Coal benches beneath regionally extensive partings are generally less continuous, thinner, more palynologically variable, higher in ash yield, and higher in sulfur content than coal benches above regional partings in all three coals. Where thick, benches above regional partings tend to exhibit temporal palynological changes from lycopod- to fern-dominant. Where inertinite-rich/fern-dominant benches are overlain by additional benches, the upper benches are limited in extent, variable in thickness, high in sulfur content and ash yield, and split away from the coal. The multiple-bench architecture exhibited by these coals is interpreted to represent a cyclic mire succession that was common in the Middle Pennsylvanian. Peats began as planar mires infilling an irregular topography during rising base level. When the topography was infilled, unconfined flooding was possible and resulted in widespread partings. Ponding above these clay-rich flood deposits led to re-establishment of new planar mires with greater continuity than the underlying mires. The extent of these mires provided buffers to clastic influx and, in many cases, allowed domed conditions to develop. Doming resulted in thick, high-quality coal benches. In some cases, a third stage of planar peats, with similar characteristics to the planar peats at the base of the beds, developed on the unevenly distributed clastics that buried underlying mires during continued base-level rise.

  8. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G. (San Antonio, TX)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  9. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  10. Regional trends in the take-up of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Using surveys of the electricity industry taken in major OECD coal producing/coal consuming regions of North America, Europe, Southern Africa, and Asia/Pacific, this paper reports on the attitudes of power plant operators and developers toward clean coal technologies, the barriers to their use and the policies and measures that might be implemented, if a country or region desired to encourage greater use of clean coal technologies.

  11. Report Title: The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico: 2008 Update Type of Report: Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Report Title: The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico: 2008 Update Type of Report 88003-8001 At Madrid Coal Mine, New Mexico by Carl Redin 1934. * *At Madrid Coal Mine, New Mexico 1934: The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. This report is an update

  12. Report Title: The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico Type of Report: Final Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Report Title: The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico Type of Report: Final Technical The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor

  13. Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

  14. Coal investment and long-term supply and demand outlook for coal in the Asia-Pacific Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The theme of this symposium to look ahead almost a quarter century to 2020 gives one the freedom to speculate more than usual in projections for coal. It is important to attempt to take a long term look into the future of coal and energy, so that one can begin to prepare for major changes on the horizon. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the crystal ball for making long term projections is accurate for 2020. Hopefully it can suggest plausible changes that have long term strategic importance to Asia`s coal sector. This paper presents the medium scenario of long term projects of coal production, consumption, imports and exports in Asia. The second part of the paper examines the two major changes in Asia that could be most important to the long term role of coal. These include: (1) the impact of strict environmental legislation on energy and technology choices in Asia, and (2) the increased role of the private sector in all aspects of coal in Asia.

  15. Formal Type Soundness for Cyclone's Region System Dan Grossman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, Michael

    collector. To support separate compilation, Cyclone requires programmers to write some explicit regionFormal Type Soundness for Cyclone's Region System Dan Grossman Greg Morrisett Trevor Jim Mike Hicks Yanling Wang James Cheney November 2001 Abstract Cyclone is a polymorphic, type-safe programming language

  16. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    services. Power generation Coal increasingly dominates28 Thermal coal electricity generation efficiency alsostudy examines four coal-thermal generation technology types

  17. Effect of coal type, residence time, and combustion configuration on the submicron aerosol composition and size distribution from pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linak, W.P.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulverized samples of Utah bituminous, Beulah (North Dakota) low Na lignite, Deulah high Na lignite and Texas (San Miguel) lignite coals were burned at a rate of 2.5 kg/hr in a laboratory furnace under various (overall fuel lean) combustion conditions. Particle size distributions (PSD) and size segregated particle filter samples were taken at various positions within the convection section. Temperature and gas concentrations were measured throughout. The evolution of the submicron PSD within the convection section for the four coals was similar, although the location of the initial particle mode at the convection section inlet varied with coal type. While stage combustion of the Utah bituminous coal had a variable effect on the volume of submicron aerosol produced, staged combustion of two of the three lignites (Beulah low Na and Texas) caused a definite increase in the submicron aerosol volume. Chemical analysis of the size segregated particle samples show the trace elements, As, Pb, Zn, and the major elements, Na and K to be enriched in the submicron aerosol. Auger depth profiles show these small particles to be comprised of a core enriched in Fe, Si, Ca and Mg and surface layers enriched in Na and K. These results point to a mechanism of homogeneous nucleation of low vapor pressure species followed by successive layering of progressively more volatile species. Volatile species are enriched in the submicron aerosol due to the large surface areas provided. Modeling efforts show that while coagulation may be the dominant mechanism to describe the aerosol evolving within the convection section, it cannot be used solely to predict the PSD. Another mechanism, presumably surface area dependent growth (condensation) must be included.

  18. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the activities leading to the conversion of coal to electricity. Specifically, the activities consist of coal mining and beneficiation, coal transport, electric power generation, and power transmission. To enhance the usefulness of the material presented, resource requirements, energy products, and residuals for each activity area are normalized in terms of 10/sup 12/ Btus of energy produced. Thus, the total effect of producing electricity from coal can be determined by combining the residuals associated with the appropriate activity areas. Emissions from the coal cycle are highly dependent upon the type of coal consumed as well as the control technology assigned to the activity area. Each area is assumed to be equipped with currently available control technologies that meet environmental regulations. The conventional boiler, for example, has an electrostatic precipitator and a flue gas desulfurization scrubber. While this results in the removal of most of the particulate matter and sulfur dioxide in the flue gas stream, it creates other new environmental residuals -- solid waste, sludge, and ash. There are many different types of mined coal. For informational purposes, two types from two major producing regions, the East and the West, are characterized here. The eastern coal is typical of the Northern Appalachian coal district with a high sulfur and heat content. The western coal, from the Powder River Basin, has much less sulfur, but also has a substantially lower heating value.

  19. THE 3R ANTHRACITE CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY Economical Conversion of Browncoal to Anthracite Type Clean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Someus

    pac i ties. The 3R An thra cite Clean Coal end prod uct and tech nol ogy may ad van ta geously be in

  20. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  1. Search for: "coal" | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    coal" Find + Advanced Search Advanced Search All Fields: "coal" Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator Author: Name Name ORCID Search Authors Type: All Accepted...

  2. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

  3. Polish coal industry - the way ahead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swiss, M.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is given on Polish coal reserves showing the types of coal in different regions. Long-range plans for the industry have been formulated, calling for the opening of many new mines during the next 50 years. Coal exports have played an important part in the country's economy by providing hard currency. Exports were 41.4 million tons in 1979, but fell to 31 million tons in 1980 as a result of the country's domestic problems. It is hoped to recapture the export market.

  4. THE 3R ANTHRACITE CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY Economical Conversion of Browncoal to Anthracite Type Clean Coal by Low Temperature Carbonization Pre-Treatment Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Someus

    The pre ven tive pre-treat ment of low grade solid fu els is safer, faster, better, and less costly vs. the “end-of-the-pipe ” post treat ment so lu tions. The “3R ” (Re cy cle-Re duce-Re use) in te grated en vi ron-ment con trol tech nol ogy pro vides pre ven tive pre-treat ment of low grade solid fu els, such as brown coal and con tam i nated solid fu els to achieve high grade cleansed fu els with an thra cite and coke com-pa ra ble qual ity. The goal of the 3R tech nol ogy is to pro vide cost ef fi cient and en vi ron men tally sus-tain able so lu tions by pre ven tive pre-treat ment means for ex tended op er a tions of the solid fuel com-bus tion power plants with ca pac ity up to 300 MWe power ca pac i ties. The 3R An thra cite Clean Coal end prod uct and tech nol ogy may ad van ta geously be in te grated to the oxyfuel – oxy-fir ing, Fos ter Wheeler an thra cite arc-fired util ity type boiler and Heat Pipe Re former tech nol o gies in com bi na tion with CO2 cap ture and stor age pro grams. The 3R tech nol ogy is pat ented orig i nal so lu tion. Ad van tages. Feedstock flex i bil ity: ap pli ca tion of pre-treated multi fu els from wider fuel se lec tion and avail abil ity. Im proved burn ing ef fi ciency. Tech nol ogy flex i bil ity: ef fi cient and ad van ta geous inter-link to proven boiler tech nol o gies, such as oxyfuel and arc-fired boil ers. Near zero pol lut ants for haz ard ous-air-pol lut ants: pre ven tive sep a ra tion of halo gens and heavy met als into small vol ume streams prior uti li za tion of cleansed fu els. ?97 % or ganic sul phur re moval achieved by the 3R ther-

  5. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  6. Description of Wyoming coal fields and seam analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, G.B.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introductory material describe coal-bearing areas, coal-bearing rocks, and the structural geology of coal-bearing areas, discussing coal rank, proximate analyses, sulfur content, heat value, trace elements, carbonizing properties, coking coal, coking operations, in-situ gasification, coal mining, and production. The paper then gives descriptions of the coal seams with proximate analyses, where available, located in the following areas: Powder River coal basin, Green River region, Hanna field, Hams Fork coal region, and Bighorn coal basin. Very brief descriptions are given of the Wind River coal basin, Jackson Hole coal field, Black Hills coal region, Rock Creek coal field, and Goshen Hole coal field. Finally coal resources, production, and reserves are discussed. 76 references.

  7. Physical features of small disperse coal dust fraction transportation and structurization processes in iodine air filters of absorption type in ventilation systems at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research on the physical features of transportation and structurization processes by the air-dust aerosol in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal adsorbent granules in an air filter of the adsorption type in the heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system at the nuclear power plant is completed. The physical origins of the coal dust masses distribution along the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules during the air-dust aerosol intake process in the near the surface layer of absorber are researched. The quantitative technical characteristics of air filtering elements, which have to be considered during the optimization of air filters designs for the application in the ventilation systems at the nuclear power plants, are obtained.

  8. assisting type regional: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assistant Job Type: ASU GRA Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , statistics, qualitative, and semi-qualitative research methodologies is desired. Excellent...

  9. Monadic Regions: Formal Type Soundness and Correctness Matthew Fluet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fluet, Matthew

    - agement [9, 6], it is not possible to manage particular data by one scheme or the other. Cyclone [12 garbage collection and a simple type system. A separate line of research has investigated mechanisms

  10. Circumnuclear Regions of Star Formation in Early Type Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaz, Angeles I; Hagele, Guillermo F; Castellanos, Marcelo

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Circumnuclear star forming regions, also called hotspots, are often found in the inner regions of some spiral galaxies where intense processes of star formation are taking place. In the UV, massive stars dominate the observed circumnuclear emission even in the presence of an active nucleus, contributing between 30 and 50% to the H$\\beta$ total emission of the nuclear zone. Spectrophotometric data of moderate resolution (3000 < R < 11000) are presented from which the physical properties of the ionized gas: electron density, oxygen abundances, ionization structure etc. have been derived.

  11. Circumnuclear Regions of Star Formation in Early Type Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angeles I. Diaz; Elena Terlevich; Guillermo F. Hagele; Marcelo Castellanos

    2008-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Circumnuclear star forming regions, also called hotspots, are often found in the inner regions of some spiral galaxies where intense processes of star formation are taking place. In the UV, massive stars dominate the observed circumnuclear emission even in the presence of an active nucleus, contributing between 30 and 50% to the H$\\beta$ total emission of the nuclear zone. Spectrophotometric data of moderate resolution (3000 < R < 11000) are presented from which the physical properties of the ionized gas: electron density, oxygen abundances, ionization structure etc. have been derived.

  12. DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PD DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

  13. Coal resources of Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, E.R.; Bostick, N.H.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Johnson, E.A. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Harrison, C.D. [CQ Inc., Homer City, PA (United States); Huber, D.W.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The rugged, mountainous country of Kyrgyzstan contains about one-half of the known coal resources of central Asia (a geographic and economic region that also includes Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan and Turkmenistan). Coal of Jurassic age is present in eight regions in Kyrgyzstan in at least 64 different named localities. Significant coal occurrences of about the same age are present in the central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, China, and Russia. Separation of the coal-bearing rocks into individual deposits results more than earth movements before and during formation of the present-day mountains and basins of the country than from deposition in separate basins.Separation was further abetted by deep erosion and removal of the coal-bearing rocks from many areas, followed by covering of the remaining coal-bearing rocks by sands and gravels of Cenozoic age. The total resources of coal in Kyrgyzstan have been reported as about 30 billion tons. In some of the reported localities, the coal resources are known and adequately explored. In other parts of the republic, the coal resources are inadequately understood or largely unexplored. The resource and reserve inventory of Kyrgyzstan is at best incomplete; for some purposes, such as short-term local and long-range national planning, it may be inadequate. Less than 8% of the total estimated resources are categorized as recoverable reserves, and the amount that is economically recoverable is unknown. The coal is largely of subbituminous and high-volatile C bituminous rank, most has low and medium ash and sulfur contents, and coals of higher rank (some with coking qualities) are present in one region. It is recommended that appropriate analyses and tests be made during planning for utilization.

  14. Impacts of Regional Electricity Prices and Building Type on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Clark, N.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To identify the impacts of regional electricity prices and building type on the economics of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, 207 rate structures across 77 locations and 16 commercial building types were evaluated. Results for expected solar value are reported for each location and building type. Aggregated results are also reported, showing general trends across various impact categories.

  15. Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes: identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Annual report, March 20, 1979-March 19, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial phase has been completed in the project to evaluate alternative fuels for highway transportation from synthetic crudes. Three refinery models were developed for Rocky Mountain, Mid-Continent and Great Lakes regions to make future product volumes and qualities forecast for 1995. Projected quantities of shale oil and coal oil syncrudes were introduced into the raw materials slate. Product slate was then varied from conventional products to evaluate maximum diesel fuel and broadcut fuel in all regions. Gasoline supplement options were evaluated in one region for 10% each of methanol, ethanol, MTBE or synthetic naphtha in the blends along with syncrude components. Compositions and qualities of the fuels were determined for the variation in constraints and conditions established for the study. Effects on raw materials, energy consumption and investment costs were reported. Results provide the basis to formulate fuels for laboratory and engine evaluation in future phases of the project.

  16. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  17. Atmospheric mercury measurements in the Gulf ofAtmospheric mercury measurements in the Gulf of Mexico and midMexico and mid--Atlantic regions: Early resultsAtlantic regions: Early results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Mexico and midMexico and mid--Atlantic regions: Early resultsAtlantic regions: Early results from Site coal-fired power plant waste incinerator manufacturing metallurgical other fuel combustion type

  18. U.S. coal outlook in Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies.

  19. SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PH SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES By M assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  20. ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PA ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  1. Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

  2. Geology of the Hanna Formation, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanna Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) study area consists of the SW1/4 of Section 29 and the E1/2SE1/4 of Section 30 in Township 22 North, Range 81 West, Wyoming. Regionally, this is located in the coal-bearing Hanna Syncline of the Hanna Basin in southeast Wyoming. The structure of the site is characterized by beds dipping gently to the northeast. An east-west fault graben complex interrupts this basic trend in the center of the area. The target coal bed of the UCG experiments was the Hanna No. 1 coal in the Hanna Formation. Sedimentary rocks comprising the Hanna Formation consist of a sequence of nonmarine shales, sandstones, coals and conglomerates. The overburden of the Hanna No. 1 coal bed at the Hanna UCG site was divided into four broad local stratigraphic units. Analytical studies were made on overburden and coal samples taken from cores to determine their mineralogical composition. Textural and mineralogical characteristics of sandstones from local stratigraphic units A, B, and C were analyzed and compared. Petrographic analyses were done on the coal including oxides, forms of sulfur, pyrite types, maceral composition, and coal rank. Semi-quantitative spectrographic and analytic geochemical analyses were done on the overburden and coal and relative element concentrations were compared. Trends within each stratigraphic unit were also presented and related to depositional environments. The spectrographic analysis was also done by lithotype. 34 references, 60 figures, 18 tables.

  3. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2005-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2004-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal-fired power plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley Region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  7. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley Region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley Region.

  8. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2006-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by the USEPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  9. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2005-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  10. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This is accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results were compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory’s monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by the USEPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions provides critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  11. Program for large-scale underground-coal-gasification tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammesfahr, F.W.; Winter, P.L.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The continuing development of underground coal gasification technology requires extended multi-module field programs in which the output gas is linked to surface usage. This effort was to appraise whether existing surface facilities in the utility, petroleum refinery, or natural gas industries could be used to reduce the cost of such an extended multi-module test and whether regional demand in areas having underground coal gasification coal resources could support the manufacture of transportation fuels from underground coal gasification gases. To limit the effort to a reasonable level but yet to permit a fair test of the concept, effort was focused on five states, Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming, which have good underground coal gasification reserves. Studies of plant distribution located 25 potential sites within 3 miles of the underground coal gasification amenable reserves in the five states. Distribution was 44% to utilities, 44% to refineries, and 12% to gas processing facilities. The concept that existing surface facilities, currently or potentially gas-capable, might contribute to the development of underground coal gasification technology by providing a low cost industrial application for the gas produced in a multi-module test appears valid. To further test the concept, three industries were reviewed in depth. These were the electric utility, natural gas, and petroleum industries. When looking at a fuel substitution of the type proposed, each industry had its special perspective. These are discussed in detail in the report.

  12. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to the consumption of aromatic intermediates as they undergo ring cleavage. The results show that this process happens within 1 hour when using extracellular enzymes, but takes several days when using live organisms. In addition, live organisms require specific culture conditions, control of contaminants and fungicides in order to effectively produce extracellular enzymes that degrade coal. Therefore, when comparing the two enzymatic methods, results show that the process of using extracellular lignin degrading enzymes, such as laccase and manganese peroxidase, appears to be a more efficient method of decomposing bituminous coal.

  13. Design and Feasibility Assessment of a Retrospective Epidemiological Study of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in the Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Bilonick; Daniel Connell; Evelyn Talbott; Jeanne Zborowski; Myoung Kim

    2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Eighty-nine (89) percent of the electricity supplied in the 35-county Pittsburgh region (comprising parts of the states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland) is generated by coal-fired power plants making this an ideal region in which to study the effects of the fine airborne particulates designated as PM{sub 2.5} emitted by the combustion of coal. This report demonstrates that during the period from 1999-2006 (1) sufficient and extensive exposure data, in particular samples of speciated PM{sub 2.5} components from 1999 to 2003, and including gaseous co-pollutants and weather have been collected, (2) sufficient and extensive mortality, morbidity, and related health outcomes data are readily available, and (3) the relationship between health effects and fine particulates can most likely be satisfactorily characterized using a combination of sophisticated statistical methodologies including latent variable modeling (LVM) and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GLARMA) time series analysis. This report provides detailed information on the available exposure data and the available health outcomes data for the construction of a comprehensive database suitable for analysis, illustrates the application of various statistical methods to characterize the relationship between health effects and exposure, and provides a road map for conducting the proposed study. In addition, a detailed work plan for conducting the study is provided and includes a list of tasks and an estimated budget. A substantial portion of the total study cost is attributed to the cost of analyzing a large number of archived PM{sub 2.5} filters. Analysis of a representative sample of the filters supports the reliability of this invaluable but as-yet untapped resource. These filters hold the key to having sufficient data on the components of PM{sub 2.5} but have a limited shelf life. If the archived filters are not analyzed promptly the important and costly information they contain will be lost.

  14. Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system having a heavily doped n-type region

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePoy, David M. (Clifton Park, NY); Charache, Greg W. (Clifton Park, NY); Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion semiconductor device is provided which incorporates a heavily doped n-type region and which, as a consequence, has improved TPV conversion efficiency. The thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device includes an emitter layer having first and second opposed sides and a base layer in contact with the first side of the emitter layer. A highly doped n-type cap layer is formed on the second side of the emitter layer or, in another embodiment, a heavily doped n-type emitter layer takes the place of the cap layer.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Mesoscale Circulations in a Region of Contrasting Soil Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    Numerical Simulation of Mesoscale Circulations in a Region of Contrasting Soil Types SETHU RAMAN,1 AARON SIMS,1,2 ROBB ELLIS,1 and RYAN BOYLES 1 Abstract--Mesoscale processes that form due to changes on mesoscale processes are examined. Climatological analyses indicate increased convective precipitation

  16. Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

  17. An assessment of the quality of selected EIA data series: Coal data, 1983--1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to present information on the quality of some of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) coal data. This report contains discussions of data on production, direct labor hours, recoverable reserves, and prices from 1983 through 1988. Chapter 2 of this report presents a summary of the EIA coal data collection and identifies other sources providing similar data. Chapters 3 and 4 focus on data on coal production and direct labor hours, respectively. Detailed comparisons with data from the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and State mining agencies are presented. Chapter 5 examines recoverable reserves. Included are internal comparisons as well as comparisons with other published reserve-related data, namely those of BXG, Inc. Chapter 6 describes how EIA obtains estimates of coal prices and discusses the variability in the prices caused by factors such as mine type, coal rank, and region. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. (TMS, Inc., Germantown, MD (USA)); Ruether, J.A. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

  19. Great Lakes ports coal handling capacity and export coal potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, A.H. Jr.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was developed to determine the competitive position of the Great Lakes Region coal-loading ports in relation to other US coastal ranges. Due to the congestion at some US Atlantic coastal ports US coal producers have indicated a need for alternative export routes, including the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System. The study assesses the regions coal handling capacity and price competitiveness along with the opportunity for increased US flag vessel service. A number of appendices are included showing major coal producers, railroad marketing representatives, US vessel operators, and port handling capacities and throughput. A rate analysis is provided including coal price at the mine, rail rate to port, port handling charges, water transportation rates to western Europe, Great Lakes route versus the US Atlantic Coast ports.

  20. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Major Demonstrations Major Demonstrations Since 1985, we have helped fund commercial-scale clean coal technology demonstration projects. ICCS | CCPI | PPII | CCTDP | FutureGen...

  1. Energy Systems Engineering 1 Clean Coal Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Rangan

    Energy Systems Engineering 1 Clean Coal Technologies Presentation at BARC 4th December 2007 #12/kWh) 0.14 0.03 0.6 #12;Energy Systems Engineering 9 Status of Advanced Coal Technologies Types of advanced coal technologies Supercritical Pulverised Combustion Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion (CFBC

  2. Mathematical modeling of cavity growth during underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, K.S.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four two-dimensional cavity growth models are developed based on the permeation process concept in order to understand what has happened in previous field tests, and to learn better methods for future field tests and commercial scale operations. The first model considers only a wet coal region beyond the cavity. In the second model, dried coal is added to the first model, so that there are two different coal regions: the wet coal and dried coal regions. The third model includes the effect of links formed by reverse combustion, but the dried coal region is not included. Also in this model, plugging phenomenon, due to particulates carried by the injectant to the cavity wall, is introduced. The final model incorporates nonisotropic permeability, a dried coal region, links and plugging phenomenon. Considerations of a wet coal region only or of wet coal and coal drying do not explain the high recovery of coal observed in field tests. However, plugging phenomenon prevents channeling of gases down high-permeability links, and thereby the recovery of coal is increased. Also link configurations have a marked effect on the coal source recovery. Computation results from the fourth model show that coal recovery is improved greatly if a large dried coal zone exists around the cavity.

  3. Impacts of new coal-using technologies on coal markets and electric utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, C.H.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICF's Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) was used to make forecasts on the impact of new coal technologies and markets and utilities. The new technologies include the gasifier/ combined cycle (GCC), the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC), and the retrofit of synthetic coal-fluids on advanced combined cycle capacity. National production by the year 2000 will increase slightly. Impact of technology will be negligible due to the offsetting effects of GCC (it uses less coal) and synthetic coal fluids. Regional production will increase in synthetic coal fluid regions, decrease in sulphur coal regions. In utilities, coal additions by GCC are favored in the east, by AFBC in the west. SO/sub 2/ emissions will start to decline in 1995, NOx emissions will continue to rise, but not as sharply. Overall costs of utilities are expected to fall slightly by the year 2010.

  4. Precipitation of jarosite-type double salts from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, G.

    1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The precipitation of jarosite compounds to remove Na, K, Fe, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} impurities from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process was studied. Simple heating of model solutions containing Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} caused jarosite (KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}) to form preferentially to natrojarosite (NaFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}). Virtually all of the K, about 90% of the Fe, and about 30% of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} could be precipitated from those solutions at 95{degree}C, while little or no Na was removed. However, simple heating of model solutions containing only Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} up to 95{degree}C for {le}12 hours produced low yields of jarosite compounds, and the Fe concentration in the solution had to be increased to avoid the formation of undesirable Fe compounds. Precipitate yields could be increased dramatically in model solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} containing excess Fe by using either CaCO{sub 3}, Ca(OH){sub 2}, or ZnO to neutralize H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} released during hydrolysis of the Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and during the precipitation reactions. Results obtained from the studies with model solutions were applied to spent acids produced during laboratory countercurrent washing of coal which had been leached with a molten NaOH/KOH mixture. Results indicated that jarosite compounds can be precipitated effectively from spent acid solutions by heating for 6 hours at 80{degree}C while maintaining a pH of about 1.5 using CaCO{sub 3}.

  5. High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

  6. About Armstrong Coal Company In just a few short years, Armstrong Coal has grown from a start-up

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    About Armstrong Coal Company In just a few short years, Armstrong Coal has grown from a start-up to one of the leading producers of steam coal in the Illinois Basin. The company specializes in providing custom-blended coal to meet the needs of electric power plants throughout the region. Controlling

  7. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  8. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeder, W.R. [Teck Corp. (Canada); Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  9. Coal industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

  10. A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SB A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN, WYOMING assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U...........................................................................................................................SB-1 Coal Production History

  11. A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulverized Coal Installed Capacity (GW) World - subcriticalPulverized Coal Installed Capacity (GW) U.S. - subcriticalred plants’ annual installed capacity (in GW/year) by type

  12. WATER DEUTERIUM FRACTIONATION IN THE INNER REGIONS OF TWO SOLAR-TYPE PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taquet, V.; Lopez-Sepulcre, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Neri, R. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin dHeres (France); Coutens, A.; Vastel, C. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France)

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The [HDO]/[H{sub 2}O] ratio is a crucial parameter for probing the history of water formation. So far, it has been measured for only three solar-type protostars and yielded different results, possibly pointing to a substantially different history in their formation. In the present work, we report new interferometric observations of the HDO 4{sub 2,2}-4{sub 2,3} line for two solar-type protostars, IRAS2A and IRAS4A, located in the NGC 1333 region. In both sources, the detected HDO emission originates from a central compact unresolved region. A comparison with previously published interferometric observations of the H{sub 2}{sup 18}O 3{sub 1,3}-2{sub 2,0} line shows that the HDO and H{sub 2}O lines mostly come from the same region. A non-LTE large velocity gradient analysis of the HDO and H{sub 2}{sup 18}O line emissions, combined with published observations, provides an [HDO]/[H{sub 2}O] ratio of 0.3%-8% in IRAS2A and 0.5%-3% in IRAS4A. First, the water fractionation is lower than that of other molecules such as formaldehyde and methanol in the same sources. Second, it is similar to that measured in the solar-type protostar prototype, IRAS16293-2422, and, surprisingly enough, larger than that measured in NGC 1333 IRAS4B. The comparison of the measured values toward IRAS2A and IRAS4A with the predictions of our gas-grain model GRAINOBLE gives similar conclusions to those for IRAS 16293, arguing that these protostars share a similar chemical history, although they are located in different clouds.

  13. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with China's economy in its current mode of growth. Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on its current growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Broadening awareness of the environmental costs of coal mining, transport, and combustion is raising the pressure on Chinese policy makers to find alternative energy sources. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China is short of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport. Transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transport oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 mt by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets. The looming coal gap threatens to derail China's growth path, possibly undermining political, economic, and social stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages will have regional and global effects. Regarding China's role as a global manufacturing center, a domestic coal gap will increase prices and constrain growth. Within the Asia-Pacific region, China's coal gap is likely to bring about increased competition with other coal-importing countries including Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India. As with petroleum, China may respond with a government-supported 'going-out' strategy of resource acquisition and vertical integration. Given its population and growing resource constraints, China may favor energy security, competitiveness, and local environmental protection over global climate change mitigation. The possibility of a large coal gap suggests that Chinese and international policy makers should maximize institutional and financial support

  14. Statistical review of coal in Canada, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents an annual review of the coal industry, including production, exports and imports, and consumption. An overview is given, followed by more detailed statistical data for the current year and preceding decade (supply and demand, value and volume of supply by province, coal production by class or province, exports by destination, coal consumed in power generation by province, electrical energy production by fuel type, domestic demand for primary energy by type).

  15. EIS-0083: Final Northeast Regional Environmental Impact Statement; The Potential Conversion of Forty-Two Powerplants From Oil to Coal or Alternate Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Economic Regulatory Administration statement assesses the potential for cumulative and interactive environmental impacts resulting from conversion of up to 42 northeastern power plants from oil to coal and from an alternative “Voluntary Conversion” scenario for 27 power plants.

  16. COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, HANNA AND CARBON BASINS, WYOMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter HQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, HANNA AND CARBON BASINS, WYOMING By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

  17. COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, WILLISTON BASIN, NORTH DAKOTA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter WQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, WILLISTON BASIN, NORTH DAKOTA By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

  18. COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter GQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

  19. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IISolvent Refining for Clean Coal Combustion,1I Walk, R. ,at 7 percent per year. "Clean Coal: What Does it Cost at theof Equipment (Percent of Clean Coal Produced) Year Type Jigs

  20. Comparison of coal tars generated by pyrolysis of Hanna coal and UCG (underground coal gasification) Hanna IVB coal tars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, F.A.; Cummings, R.E.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compositions of coal tars produced by laboratory and pilot scale apparatus have been compared to those produced during underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments at Hanna, Wyoming. Four coal tars were generated by pyrolysis using the block reactor and the laboratory reference retort, and a fifth coal tar was composited from products produced by UCG. Coal tars were separated into chemically defined fractions and were characterized by gas chromatography. Specific compounds were not identified, but rather fingerprinting or compound-type profiling was used for identifying similarities and differences in the product tars. This permitted the evaluation of the different methods of tar production with respect to one another. The UCG coal tars appeared to have undergone more secondary cracking than the pyrolytic products. The coal tar products from the laboratory reference retort appear to be more indicative of the coal's chemical structure. Products from the block reactor contained lesser amounts of the lighter boiling material. In addition there is organic sulfur contamination as indicated by the large amount of sulfur present in the product tar from the block reactor. 11 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Hot Coal for Christmas: Dust Formation in the Swept-Up Shell Around The Peculiar Type Ib Supernova 2006jc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Nathan; Filippenko, Alexei V

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present evidence for the formation of dust grains in an unusual Type Ib SN based on late-time spectra of SN 2006jc. The progenitor suffered a giant outburst qualitatively similar to those seen in LBVs just 2 years prior to the SN, and we speculate that the dust formation we observe is an indirect consequence of that event. The key evidence for dust formation seen in our optical spectra is (1) the appearance of a strong continuum emission source at red wavelengths, and (2) fading of the redshifted sides of narrow HeI emission lines. These two observed characteristics provide the strongest case yet for dust formation in any Type Ib/c SN. Both developments occurred simultaneously between 51 and 75 days after peak brightness, which is quick compared to other dusty SNe. The high temperature of the dust implies carbon and not silicates, and we describe how infrared photometry may test this conjecture. Geometric considerations indicate dust formation occurring in the dense gas swept-up by the forward shock, and n...

  2. Continuing consolidation in the coal industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaalaas, T. [Pace Global Energy Services LLC (United States)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive consolidation has occurred in the coal industry over the past decade. The greatest degree of consolidation has occurred in Northern Appalachia, the Illinois Basin, and the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin (PRB), which are the coal supply regions where most observers expect the greatest growth in coal production over the next decade. In addition to reducing the number of alternative suppliers, high level of concentration also tend to result in higher prices, more volatile spot markets, and lower levels of reliability. Therefore, coal-fired generators purchasing in these regions need to respond proactively and strategically to these market trends. 2 figs.

  3. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  4. Effects of climate, tectonism, and variations in sea level on formation of Cretaceous coals of North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, P.J.; Brownfield, M.E.; Hansen, D.E.; Hettinger, R.D.; Kirschbaum, M.A.; Sanchez, D.

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive deposits of Cretaceous coal-bearing strata are present in western North America, extending from the North Slope of Alaska to northern Mexico. Most of the Cretaceous sediments were derived from the active Cordillera region and were deposited in foreland basins on the western margin of the Western Interior seaway. A multidisciplinary study is in progress to document and attempt to explain the temporal and spatial distribution of the Cretaceous coals. The study examines the effects of variations of paleoclimate, tectonics, and relative sea level on a continentwide scale. In addition, coal quality is related to the regional depositional settings. Many aspects of coal quality (for example, maceral composition, ash content, sulfur content) are determined by the flora and hydrology of the mire in which the original peat accumulated. The existence of Cretaceous coals throughout the length of the Western Cordillera provides a unique opportunity to determine variations in mire type with climate over a range of 50/degrees/ of paleolatitude, and to examine the effects of these variations on coal quality. The relationships between coal beds and associated clastic facies should also be expected to change with varying mire types. Recent developments in their understanding of foreland basin evolution, Cretaceous sea level changes, and peat-forming environments make this an optimal time to begin a regional synthesis of North America's Cretaceous coals. Results of this study should aid the development of better predictive models of coal quality and seam thickness. These models will take into account the effects of major controls on sedimentation (climate, tectonics, sea level changes) rather than just the local depositional environment.

  5. Directory of coal production ownership, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, B.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ownership patterns in the coal industry are highly complex. Many producers are diversified into other lines of activity. The pattern and extent of this diversification has varied through time. In the past, steel and nonferrous metals companies had major coal industry involvement. This is still true today. However, other types of enterprises have entered the industry de novo or through merger. Those of greatest significance in recent times have involved petroleum and particularly public utility companies. This report attempts to identify, as accurately as possible, production ownership patterns in the coal industry. The audience for this Directory is anyone who is interested in accurately tracing the ownership of coal companies to parent companies, or who is concerned about the structure of ownership in the US coal industry. This audience includes coal industry specialists, coal industry policy analysts, economists, financial analysts, and members of the investment community.

  6. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

  7. The key to minimizing minesite versus utility laboratory analyses on Powder River Basin coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rexin, M.G.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Powder River Basin (PRB) coals are continuing to expand their areas of use into regions previously reserved for higher ranked coals. PRB coals are subbituminous by rank. Inherent moisture values of 25 to 30 percent are the norm. PRB coals, being lower rank in nature, also tend to oxidize very easily. These factors combined produce a coal which can cause analysis problems for laboratories unaccustomed to PRB coals. In fact, even laboratories that deal with this type of coal on a daily basis can experience analytical difficulties. Special care needs to be taken by both minesite laboratory and the utility laboratory to ensure accurate analyses. Cooperation between both parties is the key to reproducible analyses. Only by working together can parties fully analyze the situation and develop analytical methods acceptable to both. This paper will describe the methods employed by the Caballo Rojo Mine (CRM) and the Georgia Power Company (GPC) to resolve laboratory analysis differences found during shipments by CRM to GPC beginning in 1994. The following topics are discussed: initial comparative results, analytical investigations, the cooperative process, recent comparative results, and conclusions.

  8. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  9. Properties of the ionized gas of circumnuclear star-forming regions in early type spirals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaz, Angeles I; Terlevich, Elena; Terlevich, Roberto

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (Abbr.) A study of cicumnuclear star-forming regions (CNSFRs) in several early type spirals has been made in order to investigate their main properties: stellar and gas kinematics, dynamical masses, ionising stellar masses, chemical abundances and other properties of the ionised gas. Both high resolution (R$ \\sim $20000) and moderate resolution (R ~ 5000) have been used. In some cases these regions, about 100 to 150 pc in size, are seen to be composed of several individual star clusters with sizes between 1.5 and 4.9 pc estimated from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. Stellar and gas velocity dispersions are found to differ by about 20 to 30 km/s with the H$\\beta$ emission lines being narrower than both the stellar lines and the [OIII] $\\lambda$ 5007 \\AA lines. The twice ionized oxygen, on the other hand, shows velocity dispersions comparable to those shown by stars. We have applied the virial theorem to estimate dynamical masses of the clusters, assuming that systems are gravitationally bounded and spheri...

  10. Properties of the ionized gas of circumnuclear star-forming regions in early type spirals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angeles I. Diaz; Guillermo F. Hagele; Elena Terlevich; Roberto Terlevich

    2008-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    (Abbr.) A study of cicumnuclear star-forming regions (CNSFRs) in several early type spirals has been made in order to investigate their main properties: stellar and gas kinematics, dynamical masses, ionising stellar masses, chemical abundances and other properties of the ionised gas. Both high resolution (R$ \\sim $20000) and moderate resolution (R ~ 5000) have been used. In some cases these regions, about 100 to 150 pc in size, are seen to be composed of several individual star clusters with sizes between 1.5 and 4.9 pc estimated from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. Stellar and gas velocity dispersions are found to differ by about 20 to 30 km/s with the H$\\beta$ emission lines being narrower than both the stellar lines and the [OIII] $\\lambda$ 5007 \\AA lines. The twice ionized oxygen, on the other hand, shows velocity dispersions comparable to those shown by stars. We have applied the virial theorem to estimate dynamical masses of the clusters, assuming that systems are gravitationally bounded and spherically symmetric, and using previously measured sizes. The measured values of the stellar velocity dispersions yield dynamical masses of the order of 10$^7$ to 10$^8$ solar masses for the whole CNSFRs. ...

  11. Kinematics of gas and stars in circumnuclear star-forming regions of early type spirals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagele, Guillermo F; Cardaci, Monica V; Terlevich, Elena; Terlevich, Roberto

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (Abbr.) We present high resolution (R~20000) spectra in the blue and the far red of cicumnuclear star-forming regions (CNSFRs) in three early type spirals (NGC3351, NGC2903 and NGC3310) which have allowed the study of the kinematics of stars and ionized gas in these structures and, for the first time, the derivation of their dynamical masses for the first two. In some cases these regions, about 100 to 150 pc in size, are seen to be composed of several individual star clusters with sizes between 1.5 and 4.9 pc estimated from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. The stellar dispersions have been obtained from the Calcium triplet (CaT) lines at $\\lambda\\lambda$ 8494,8542,8662 \\AA, while the gas velocity dispersions have been measured by Gaussian fits to the H$\\beta$ and [OIII] $\\lambda\\lambda$ 5007 \\AA lines on the high dispersion spectra. Values of the stellar velocity dispersions are between 30 and 68 km/s. We apply the virial theorem to estimate dynamical masses of the clusters, assuming that systems are grav...

  12. Kinematics of gas and stars in circumnuclear star-forming regions of early type spirals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillermo F. Hagele; Angeles I. Diaz; Monica V. Cardaci; Elena Terlevich; Roberto Terlevich

    2008-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    (Abbr.) We present high resolution (R~20000) spectra in the blue and the far red of cicumnuclear star-forming regions (CNSFRs) in three early type spirals (NGC3351, NGC2903 and NGC3310) which have allowed the study of the kinematics of stars and ionized gas in these structures and, for the first time, the derivation of their dynamical masses for the first two. In some cases these regions, about 100 to 150 pc in size, are seen to be composed of several individual star clusters with sizes between 1.5 and 4.9 pc estimated from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. The stellar dispersions have been obtained from the Calcium triplet (CaT) lines at $\\lambda\\lambda$ 8494,8542,8662 \\AA, while the gas velocity dispersions have been measured by Gaussian fits to the H$\\beta$ and [OIII] $\\lambda\\lambda$ 5007 \\AA lines on the high dispersion spectra. Values of the stellar velocity dispersions are between 30 and 68 km/s. We apply the virial theorem to estimate dynamical masses of the clusters, assuming that systems are gravitationally bounded and spherically symmetric, and using previously measured sizes. The measured values of the stellar velocity dispersions yield dynamical masses of the order of 10$^7$ to 10$^8$ solar masses for the whole CNSFRs. Stellar and gas velocity dispersions are found to differ by about 20 to 30 km/s with the H$\\beta$ emission lines being narrower than both the stellar lines and the [OIII] $\\lambda\\lambda$ 5007 \\AA lines. The twice ionized oxygen, on the other hand, shows velocity dispersions comparable to those shown by stars, in some cases, even larger. We have found indications of the presence of two different kinematical components in the ionized gas of the regions...

  13. Assessment of coal bed gas prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, T.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal bed gas is an often overlooked source of clean, methane-rich, H{sub 2}S-free natural gas. The economic development of coal bed gas requires a knowledge of coal gas reservoir characteristics and certain necessary departures from conventional evaluation, drilling, completion, and production practices. In many ways coal seam reservoirs are truly unconventional. Most coals sufficient rank have generated large volumes of gas that may be retained depth in varying amounts through adsorption. Coal gas production can take place only when the reservoir pressure is reduced sufficiently to allow the gas to desorb. Gas flow to the well bore takes place through a hierarchy of natural fractures, not the relatively impermeable coal matrix. Economic production is dependent upon critical factors intrinsic to the reservoir, including coal petrology, gas content, internal formation stratigraphy, fracture distribution, hydrogeology, in situ stress conditions, initial reservoir pressure and pressure regime, and the presence or absence of a {open_quote}free{close_quotes} gas saturation. Further, the coal bed reservoir is readily subject to formation damage through improper drilling, completion, or production techniques. This presentation will review the data types critical to the assessment of any coal seam gas prospect, suggest an outline method for screening such prospects, and point out some possible pitfalls to be considered in any coal bed gas development project.

  14. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  15. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  16. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  17. Coal contracting strategies for a deregulated market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, T.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power plants provide the most competitive source of electricity in most power markets. This presentation will identify changes that have been occurring in regional coal markets during the 1980s and the 1990s, the evolution of purchasing practices and strategies resulting from these and the impact that utility deregulation will have on future purchasing.

  18. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  19. HIGH-VELOCITY LINE FORMING REGIONS IN THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009ig

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, G. H.; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig; Silverman, Jeffrey M. [University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Brown, Peter J. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, 4242 AMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Garnavich, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Landsman, Wayne B. [Adnet Systems, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Parrent, Jerod T. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Pritchard, Tyler A.; Roming, Peter W. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: gmarion@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing 1,00084 (China)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements and analysis of high-velocity (HVF) (>20,000 km s{sup –1}) and photospheric absorption features in a series of spectra of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2009ig obtained between –14 days and +13 days with respect to the time of maximum B-band luminosity (B-max). We identify lines of Si II, Si III, S II, Ca II, and Fe II that produce both HVF and photospheric-velocity (PVF) absorption features. SN 2009ig is unusual for the large number of lines with detectable HVF in the spectra, but the light-curve parameters correspond to a slightly overluminous but unexceptional SN Ia (M{sub B} = –19.46 mag and ?m{sub 15}(B) = 0.90 mag). Similarly, the Si II ?6355 velocity at the time of B-max is greater than 'normal' for an SN Ia, but it is not extreme (v{sub Si} = 13,400 km s{sup –1}). The –14 days and –13 days spectra clearly resolve HVF from Si II ?6355 as separate absorptions from a detached line forming region. At these very early phases, detached HVF are prevalent in all lines. From –12 days to –6 days, HVF and PVF are detected simultaneously, and the two line forming regions maintain a constant separation of about 8000 km s{sup –1}. After –6 days all absorption features are PVF. The observations of SN 2009ig provide a complete picture of the transition from HVF to PVF. Most SNe Ia show evidence for HVF from multiple lines in spectra obtained before –10 days, and we compare the spectra of SN 2009ig to observations of other SNe. We show that each of the unusual line profiles for Si II ?6355 found in early-time spectra of SNe Ia correlate to a specific phase in a common development sequence from HVF to PVF.

  20. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES IN THE NORTHERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Professional Paper 1625-A 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern or on this symbol in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones......................................................................ES-8 Figures ES-1. Coal basins under study in the current resource assessment, by region. ES-2

  1. A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SN A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY), NORTH PARK BASIN, COLORADO By S assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  2. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  3. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  4. Coal production expansion: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The expeditious and economic transport of coal from producing regions to consuming regions is essential to any policy designed to increase the use of coal as an energy source. Obtaining an optimal coal transportation system, including terminal facilities, is significant in providing US coal to its users in the United States and abroad. Rail, barge, truck, slurry pipeline, and ship are the modes used to move coal from the producer to the user. Transportation costs represent a large percentage of the delivered price. This bibliography includes 138 selected citations on coal export, transport, and production. The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators. These citations and hundreds of additional citations on this subject are available for on-line searching and retrieval from the Technical Information Center's Energy Data Base using the DOE/RECON interactive system. Approximately 50,000 citations on coal and coal products are a part of this data base. Current additions to data base on this subject are announced monthly in Fossil Energy Update. DOE-sponsored work is also announced in Energy Research Abstracts. The citations in this publication are arranged in broad subject categories as shown in the table of contents. Five indexes are provided: Corporate, Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. Included as an appendix are some tables and figures from Energy Information Administration reports covering coal production and disposition.

  5. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingslag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coal liquefactionCoal (Ref. 46). COAL PREPARATION GASIFICATION 3 K·T GASI FI

  6. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  7. Evaluation of coal minerals and metal residues as coal-liquefaction catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E. N.; Schweighardt, F. K.; Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.; Huang, W. J.; Shridharani, K.; Clinton, J. H.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic activity of various minerals, metallic wastes, and transition metals was investigated in the liquefaction of various coals. The effects of coal type, process variables, coal cleaning, catalyst addition mode, solvent quality, and solvent modification on coal conversion and oil production were also studied. Coal conversion and oil production improved significantly by the addition of pyrite, reduced pyrite, speculite, red mud, flue dust, zinc sulfide, and various transition metal compounds. Impregnation and molecular dispersion of iron gave higher oil production than particulate incorporation of iron. However, the mode of molybdenum addition was inconsequential. Oil production increased considerably both by adding a stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and pyrite and by simultaneous impregnation of coal with iron and molybdenum. Hydrogenation activity of disposable catalysts decreased sharply in the presence of nitrogen compounds. The removal of heteroatoms from process solvent improved thermal as well as catalytic coal liquefaction. The improvement in oil production was very dramatic with a catalyst.

  8. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  9. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  10. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. african coal industry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey 274 The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: The Public...

  12. Competitive interstate taxation of western coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolstad, C.D.; Wolak, F.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the potential market power of western states in setting coal severance taxes. An attempt to determine the emphasis placed by the western states on the development of their coal resources is also made. Three market structures are analyzed. One involves a western regional cartel, setting taxes collectively. The other cases are noncooperative tax equilibria with Montana and Wyoming competing against each other. We study the effects on these equilibria of changes in each region's relative emphasis on development of coal resources vs tax revenue. The welfare impacts of these tax setting policies are also addressed. The analysis is based on an activity analysis of US coal markets. The results show that the taxes associated with the noncooperative competitive tax equilibria are close to present tax levels. Additionally, we conclude that western states currently are quite efficient extractors of economic rent from coal produced within their boundaries, in terms of welfare loss per dollar of tax revenue collected. 2 figures.

  13. Coal Mining (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

  14. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

  15. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  16. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenterDioxide CaptureSee the Foundry'sMcGuireNETLCareersCoal

  17. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  18. Coal systems analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, P.D. (ed.)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This collection of papers provides an introduction to the concept of coal systems analysis and contains examples of how coal systems analysis can be used to understand, characterize, and evaluate coal and coal gas resources. Chapter are: Coal systems analysis: A new approach to the understanding of coal formation, coal quality and environmental considerations, and coal as a source rock for hydrocarbons by Peter D. Warwick. Appalachian coal assessment: Defining the coal systems of the Appalachian Basin by Robert C. Milici. Subtle structural influences on coal thickness and distribution: Examples from the Lower Broas-Stockton coal (Middle Pennsylvanian), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA by Stephen F. Greb, Cortland F. Eble, and J.C. Hower. Palynology in coal systems analysis The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments by Douglas J. Nichols. A comparison of late Paleocene and late Eocene lignite depositional systems using palynology, upper Wilcox and upper Jackson Groups, east-central Texas by Jennifer M.K. O'Keefe, Recep H. Sancay, Anne L. Raymond, and Thomas E. Yancey. New insights on the hydrocarbon system of the Fruitland Formation coal beds, northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA by W.C. Riese, William L. Pelzmann, and Glen T. Snyder.

  19. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is produced via coal gasification, then, depending on thenot be amenable to coal gasification and, thus, Eastern coalto represent a coal-to- hydrogen gasification process that

  20. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?¢ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?¢ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?¢ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?¢ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?¢ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?¢ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

  1. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  2. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  3. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  4. coal | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial Technologies for Coal Storage and Feed Preparation AlternativesSupplements to Coal - Feedstock Flexibility DOE Supported R&D for CoalBiomass Feed and Gasification...

  5. Repowering with clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freier, M.D. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Buchanan, T.L.; DeLallo, M.L.; Goldstein, H.N. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Repowering with clean coal technology can offer significant advantages, including lower heat rates and production costs, environmental compliance, incremental capacity increases, and life extension of existing facilities. Significant savings of capital costs can result by refurbishing and reusing existing sites and infrastructure relative to a greenfield siting approach. This paper summarizes some key results of a study performed by Parsons Power Group, Inc., under a contract with DOE/METC, which investigates many of the promising advanced power generation technologies in a repowering application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical and economic results of applying each of a menu of Clean Coal Technologies in a repowering of a hypothetical representative fossil fueled power station. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal is used as the fuel for most of the cases evaluated herein, as well as serving as the fuel for the original unrepowered station. The steam turbine-generator, condenser, and circulating water system are refurbished and reused in this study, as is most of the existing site infrastructure such as transmission lines, railroad, coal yard and coal handling equipment, etc. The technologies evaluated in this study consisted of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, several varieties of pressurized fluid bed combustors, several types of gasifiers, a refueling with a process derived fuel, and, for reference, a natural gas fired combustion turbine-combined cycle.

  6. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  7. Basic properties of coals and other solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnett, E.M.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are reported here for the heats of immersion of samples of polyvinylpyridine and the following coals: Exxon Rawhide, Argonne Wyodak, Illinois {number sign}6, Pittsburgh {number sign}8 in solutions of twelve sulfonic and carboxylic acids and boron trichloride. Heats of immersion in the different types of acids vary considerably from one solid system to another and the simple solid base polyvinylpyridine is a poor model for the more complex coals. The coals show varying degrees of correlation with each other. An important feature of the second half of the year has been an extensive comparison of titrametric heats of reaction of the different acids with several coal liquids and the coals from which they were derived. 16 figs., 1 tab.

  8. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

  9. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  10. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  11. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

    1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  12. Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

  13. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  14. Rend Lake College celebrates the opening of a new coal miner training facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal Miner Training Center at Rend Lake College recently hosted the Illinois Mining Institute's annual conference and a regional mine rescue competition. The article gives an outline of the coal miner training and refresher course offered. 3 photos.

  15. Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , materials left after combustion of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean-coal technology combustors and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. This paper describes various coal combustion products produced (FGD) products from pulverized coal and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. Over 70% of the CCPs

  16. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  17. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  19. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  20. Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Final report. Part VI. The nature of pseudovitrinites in Kentucky coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trinkle, E.J.; Hower, J.C.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overall average pseudovitrinite content for 1055 eastern Kentucky coal samples is nearly 9% while average percentage of pseudovitrinite for 551 western Kentucky coals is approximately 4%. Examination of variation in pseudovitrinite content relative to rank changes shows uniformity in pseudovitrinite percentages within the 4 to 7 V-type interval for eastern Kentucky coals but a gradual increase in pseudovitrinite content for western Kentucky coals over the same rank interval. Coals from both coal fields show similar, distinct increases in pseudovitrinite percentage in the highest V-type categories. However, it is suggested here that these supposed increases in pseudovitrinite percentages are not real but rather, indicate distinct increase in the brightness of nitrinite resulting from increased alteration of vitrinite beginning at this stage of coalification and continuing into the higher rank stages. This conclusion is reached when it is found that differences between pseudovitrinite and vitrinite reflectance are least in coals at these high rank intervals of Kentucky and, also, when vitrinite particles are often visually observed having brightness equal to that of pseudovitrinite particles. Relation of pseudovitrinite to other sulfur forms and total sulfur in general shows no significant trends, although the relatively high pyritic sulfur content in western Kentucky coals, coupled with relatively low inert percentages suggest the existence of predominantly reducing, or at least non-oxidizing conditions in the Pennsylvanian peat swamps of western Kentucky. Initial work involving Vicker's microhardness testing of coals indicates that microhardness values for pseudovitrinite are higher than those for vitrinite within the same sample regardless of coal rank or coal field from which the sample was collected. 15 references, 9 figures, 9 tables.

  1. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  2. Autothermal coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konkol. W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test data from the Ruhrchemie/Ruhrkohle Texaco coal gasification demonstration plant at Oberhausen are reported. (5 refs.)

  3. The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

  4. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  5. Coal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  6. Selection of coals of different maturities for CO2 Storage by modelling of CH4 and CO2 adsorption isotherms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    rue de la Férollerie, 45072 Orléans Cedex, France Abstract CO2 injection in unmineable coal seams capacities on various coals for the future modelling of CO2 injection in coal seams. Keywords: CO2 storage is estimated from 3 up to 200 GtCO2 therefore CO2 storage in coal seams is one of the potential types

  7. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    anthracite, lignite and brown coal. While bituminous coal isproduction of lignite and brown coal, which also increasedtonnes. Whereas lignite and brown coal accounted for 4% of

  8. Air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: secondary pollutants and regional impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air pollutant emissions of coal-fired power plants in China:2 from control of emissions in coal- fired power plants, COin coal-fired power plants. The increased regional emission

  9. Influence of coal quality parameters on utilization of high-sulfur coals: Examples from Springfield (western Kentucky No. 9) coal bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griswold, T.B.; Hower, J.C.; Cobb, J.C. (Kentucky Energy Cabinet, Lexington (USA))

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Springfield (Western Kentucky No. 9) coal bed is the most important energy resource in the Western Kentucky coalfield (Eastern Interior coalfield), accounting for over 30 million tons of annual production from remaining resources of over 9 billion tons. For many coal quality parameters, the quality of the coal bed is relatively consistent throughout the region. For example, the Springfield has about 80-85% vitrinite, 10% ash, and 3.5-4.5% total sulfur at most sites in the coalfield. However, coal quality variation is more than just the changes in ash and sulfur. As demonstrated by the Springfield coal bed, it is a complex interaction of related and unrelated variables many of which directly affect utilization of the coal. Significant, though generally predictable, changes are observed in other parameters. Comparison of data from the Millport (Muhlenberg and Hopkins Countries), Providence (Hopkins and Webster Counties), and Waverly (Union County) 7{1/2} Quadrangles illustrated such variations.

  10. Coal: the new black

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

  11. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Kazakh National University, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  12. Coal rank trends in eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Trinkle, E.J.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Examination of coal rank (by vitrinite maximum reflectance) for eastern Kentucky coals has revealed several regional trends. Coal rank varies from high volatile C (0.5% R/sub max/) to medium volatile bituminous (1.1% R/sub max/), and generally increases to the southeast. One east-west-trending rank high and at least four north-south-trending rank highs interrupt the regional increase. The east-west-trending rank high is associated with the Kentucky River faults in northeastern Kentucky. It is the only rank high clearly associated with a fault zone. The four north-south-trending rank highs are parallel with portions of major tectonic features such as the Eastern Kentucky syncline. Overall, though, the association of north-south-trending rank highs with tectonic expression is not as marked as that with the anomaly associated with the Kentucky River faults. It is possible that the rank trends are related to basement features with subdued surface expression. Rank generally increases with depth, and regional trends observed in one coal are also seen in overlying and underlying coals. The cause of the regional southeastward increase in rank is likely to be the combined influence of greater depth of burial and proximity to late Paleozoic orogenic activity. The anomalous trends could be due to increased depth of burial, but are more likely to have resulted from tectonic activity along faults and basement discontinuities. The thermal disturbances necessary to increase the coal rank need not have been great, perhaps on the order of 10-20/sup 0/C (18-36/sup 0/F) above the metamorphic temperatures of the lower rank coals.

  13. Fire Clay coal and sandstone washouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, W.M. Jr.; Hower, J.C. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fire Clay coal bed has been studied in a portion of southeastern Kentucky. This seam is easily recognizable by a distinctive flint clay parting. Mine maps, field descriptions, and laboratory investigations were used to investigate this coal bed. Several elongate sandstone bodies cut the seam in the study area. These sandstone bodies are subparallel roughly east-west, and are typically 10[sup 1] to 10[sup 2] m wide, and 10[sup 2] m to tens of kilometers long. These sandstone washouts occur in areas overlain by a larger channel sandstone, which usually is found associated with the thickest areas of the coal seam. In south-central Perry County, a cross section of one washout area was well exposed. North of the washout, a 4 to 7 cm thick cannel coal was present at the base of the sequence. The coal on the north side of the cutout gradually thins from 2 m to 1.5 m away from the washout. On the south side of the washout, the coal thins abruptly from over 1.5 m to 1.25 m within 30 m of the channel. An island of slumped and slickensided coal is present within the washout region. Postdepositional differential compaction of the peat is inferred to be the control on placement of the channel system. The areas of thickest peat compacted the most, creating topographic lows through which the stream moved. The regions of thick coal were probably the result of several controlling factors. Predepositional differential compaction and erosion may have produced relief which influenced peat development. Lithologic and geochemical continuity across the channel is good, supporting postdepositional emplacement of the sandstone bodies.

  14. Apparatus for removing micronized coal from steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlnaty, J.

    1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Micronized coal is removed from coal-bearing steam by spraying stabilized petroleum oil into the steam and directing the resultant stream at a separation surface on which a coal-oil slurry is deposited and collected. Apparatus includes conduits which direct the resultant stream downward into a housing and normal to a surface on which the slurry is deposited by impact forces. In additional apparatus disclosed, the resultant stream is directed from a horizontal conduit circumferentially along the interior wall of a horizontally disposed cylindrical chamber at the top of the chamber and the coal-oil slurry deposited on the wall by centrifugal force is collected in a trough situated below a longitudinal slot at the bottom of the chamber. In both types of apparatus, after separation of the slurry the velocity of the steam is reduced to settle out remaining oil droplets and is then discharged to the atmosphere.

  15. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  16. Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

  17. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  18. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ - - - - - ' Gri~ing Feed Coal Slurry Feed Pump Filterused to heat a coal-solvent slurry up to the tempera- turePULVERIZED COAL DISSOLVER PRODUCT SLURRY L-. 5 TJ'OON , ~ (

  19. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal-to-hydrogen plant capital costs .Capital cost of pulverized coal plant ($/kW) Capital cost ofIGCC coal plant ($/kW) Capital cost of repowering PC plant

  20. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (Dry Basis) Installed Plant Cost,Plant Cost, MM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis)Cost increments fora 25246 ton coal per day SRC plant are

  1. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5 Figure 1: Map of U.S. coal plants and generating1: Map of U.S. coal plants and generating units (GED, 2006a)of an electric generating coal power plant that would be

  2. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Council (NCC), 2006, “Coal: America’s Energy Future”, VolumeAssessments to Inform Energy Policy, “Coal: Research andOF RAIL TRANSPORTATION OF COAL The Federal Energy Regulatory

  3. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF RAIL TRANSPORTATION OF COAL The Federal Energy RegulatoryPlants Due to Coal Shortages”, Federal Energy RegulatoryCouncil (NCC), 2006, “Coal: America’s Energy Future”, Volume

  4. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of total electricity generation is because coal plants haveplants come to play an important role in the electricity generationplants will be built in the years around 2020, thereby increasing coal’s share of electricity generation

  5. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  6. FORT UNION COAL IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA: A SYNTHESIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PS FORT UNION COAL IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA: A SYNTHESIS By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  7. A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SR A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  8. Reprint -Proceedings 2009 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference 1 GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MARSHALL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Thomas H.

    coal seam in the Northern Appalachian Basin. Researchers from CONSOL Energy Inc., West Virginia of about 27 short tons per day into an "unminable" region of the Upper Freeport coal seam located at depths into the overlying Pittsburgh coal seam, and these wells have been producing CBM since 2004. The center wells

  9. Market integration in the international coal industry: A cointegration approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warell, L. [University of Lulea, Lulea (Sweden). Dept. of Business Administration & Social Science

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis of the existence of a single economic market for the international coal industry, separated for coking and steam coal, and to investigate market integration over time. This has been conducted by applying cointegration and error-correction models on quarterly price series data in Europe and Japan over the time period 1980-2000. Both the coking and the steam coal markets show evidence of global market integration, as demonstrated by the stable long-run cointegrating relationship between the respective price series in different world regions. This supports the hypothesis of a globally integrated market. However, when analyzing market integration over time it is not possible to confirm cointegration in the 1990s for steam coal. Thus, compared to the coking coal market, the steam coal market looks somewhat less global in scope.

  10. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  11. Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kentucky Administrative Regulation Title 405 chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18 and 20 establish the laws governing coal mining in the state.

  12. Coal Development (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section provides for the development of newly-discovered coal veins in the state, and county aid for such development.

  13. Coal Market Module This

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    on fossil energy technologies. This includes 800 million to fund projects under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) program, focusing on projects that capture and sequester...

  14. Coal Market Module

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    on fossil energy technologies. This includes 800 million to fund projects under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) program, focusing on projects that capture and sequester...

  15. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  16. Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

  17. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

  18. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification of Chinese typical coal samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanping Chen; Zhiwu Luo; Haiping Yang; Fudong Ju; Shihong Zhang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper aims to understand the pyrolysis and gasification behavior of different Chinese coal samples at different pressures. First, the pyrolysis of four typical Chinese coals samples (Xiaolongtan brown coal, Shenfu bituminous coal, Pingzhai anthracite coal, and Heshan lean coal) were carried out using a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer at ambient pressure and 3 MPa, respectively. The surface structure and elemental component of the resultant char were measured with an automated gas adsorption apparatus and element analyzer. It was observed that higher pressure suppressed the primary pyrolysis, while the secondary pyrolysis of coal particles was promoted. With respect to the resultant solid char, the carbon content increased while H content decreased; however, the pore structure varied greatly with increasing pressure for different coal samples. For Xiaolongtan brown coal (XLT) char, it decreased greatly, while it increased obviously for the other three char types. Then, the isothermal gasification behavior of solid char particles was investigated using an ambient thermal analyzer with CO{sub 2} as the gasifying agent at 1000{sup o}C. The gasification reactivity of solid char was decreased greatly with increasing pyrolysis pressure. However, the extent of change displayed a vital relation with the characteristics of the original coal sample. 26 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Coal Mining Tax Credit (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coal Mining Tax Credit provides an income or insurance premium tax credit of $2.00 per ton of coal mined, produced or extracted on each ton of coal mined in Arkansas in a tax year. An...

  20. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

  1. Illinois Coal Revival Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Coal Revival Program is a grants program providing partial funding to assist with the development of new, coal-fueled electric generation capacity and coal gasification or IGCC units...

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Clean Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ManagementClean Coal Clean Coal The term clean coal refers to a number of initiatives that seek to reduce or eliminate the hazardous emission or byproducts that result from using...

  3. PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · CoalTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL · Indiana Coal Forecasting · Under-Ground Coal Gasification · Benefits of Oxyfuel Combustion · Economic

  4. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main tasks for this reporting period were to correlate well logs and refine coal property maps, evaluate methane content and gas composition of Wilcox Group coals, and initiate discussions concerning collection of additional, essential data with Anadarko. To assess the volume of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered and volume of methane that can be produced in the vicinity of the proposed Sam Seymour sequestration site, we used approximately 200 additional wells logs from Anadarko Petroleum Corp. to correlate and map coal properties of the 3 coal-bearing intervals of Wilcox group. Among the maps we are making are maps of the number of coal beds, number of coal beds greater than 5 ft thick, and cumulative coal thickness for each coal interval. This stratigraphic analysis validates the presence of abundant coal for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Wilcox Group in the vicinity of Sam Seymour power plant. A typical wellbore in this region may penetrate 20 to 40 coal beds with cumulative coal thickness between 80 and 110 ft. Gas desorption analyses of approximately 75 coal samples from the 3 Wilcox coal intervals indicate that average methane content of Wilcox coals in this area ranges between 216 and 276 scf/t, basinward of the freshwater boundary indicated on a regional hydrologic map. Vitrinite reflectance data indicate that Wilcox coals are thermally immature for gas generation in this area. Minor amounts of biogenic gas may be present, basinward of the freshwater line, but we infer that most of the Wilcox coalbed gas in the deep coal beds is migrated thermogenic gas. Analysis based on limited data suggest that sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed gas recovery should be located basinward of the Wilcox freshwater contour, where methane content is high and the freshwater aquifer can be avoided.

  5. Fuel blending with PRB coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCartney, R.H.; Williams, R.L. Jr. [Roberts and Schaefer, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Many methods exist to accomplish coal blending at a new or existing power plant. These range from a basic use of the secondary (emergency) stockout/reclaim system to totally automated coal handling facilities with segregated areas for two or more coals. Suitable choices for different sized coal plant are discussed, along with the major components of the coal handling facility affected by Powder River Basin coal. 2 figs.

  6. Solution for Coal Seam Deaasi ication Wel s =ducing Under Two-Phase Flow Conditkms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    . `E 22673 7ype-Curve ., Solution for Coal Seam Deaasi ication Wel s =ducing Under Two-Phase Flow the presenceof water in the coal seam and its co- production with gas. The developed type curves are capable dynamics of methane in coal seams. A previously developed numerical model has been instrumental

  7. 1. INTRODUCTION Unmineable coal is an important resource because of its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    on predictions from numerical modeling [2]. On the other hand, injection of CO2 will change coal properties [3 adsorption (Langmuir type), Lin [7] shows that CO2 adsorption on intact coal is described by multilayer model control the exact sorption behavior of a certain coal [3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12]. Moreover, hysteresis

  8. SNR 0104-72.3: A REMNANT OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA IN A STAR-FORMING REGION?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jae-Joon [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sangwook [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Slane, Patrick O. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burrows, David N., E-mail: leejjoon@kasi.re.kr [Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report our 110 ks Chandra observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) 0104-72.3 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The X-ray morphology shows two prominent lobes along the northwest-southeast direction and a soft faint arc in the east. Previous low-resolution X-ray images attributed the unresolved emission from the southeastern lobe to a Be/X-ray star. Our high-resolution Chandra data clearly show that this emission is diffuse, shock-heated plasma, with negligible X-ray emission from the Be star. The eastern arc is positionally coincident with a filament seen in optical and infrared observations. Its X-ray spectrum is well fit by plasma of normal SMC abundances, suggesting that it is from shocked ambient gas. The X-ray spectra of the lobes show overabundant Fe, which is interpreted as emission from the reverse-shocked Fe-rich ejecta. The overall spectral characteristics of the lobes and the arc are similar to those of Type Ia SNRs, and we propose that SNR 0104-72.3 is the first case for a robust candidate Type Ia SNR in the SMC. On the other hand, the remnant appears to be interacting with dense clouds toward the east and to be associated with a nearby star-forming region. These features are unusual for a standard Type Ia SNR. Our results suggest an intriguing possibility that the progenitor of SNR 0104-72.3 might have been a white dwarf of a relatively young population.

  9. Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

  10. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  11. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, Wendell H. (Kaysville, UT); Oblad, Alex G. (Salt Lake City, UT); Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  12. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  13. Coal in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchener, A.J. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  15. Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Geological Sciences

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Coalbed methane production enhancement by underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hettema, M.H.H.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Neumann, B.V.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The sub-surface of the Netherlands is generally underlain by coal-bearing Carboniferous strata at greater depths (at many places over 1,500 m). These coal seams are generally thinner than 3 meter, occur in groups (5--15) within several hundred meters and are often fairly continuous over many square kilometers. In many cases they have endured complex burial history, influencing their methane saturation. In certain particular geological settings, a high, maximum coalbed methane saturation, may be expected. Carboniferous/Permian coals in the Tianjin-region (China) show many similarities concerning geological settings, rank and composition. Economical coalbed methane production at greater depths is often obstructed by the (very) low permeabilities of the coal seams as with increasing depth the deformation of the coal reduces both its macro-porosity (the cleat system) and microporosity. Experiments in abandoned underground mines, as well as after underground coal gasification tests indicate ways to improve the prospects for coalbed methane production in originally tight coal reservoirs. High permeability areas can be created by the application of underground coal gasification of one of the coal seams of a multi-seam cycle with some 200 meter of coal bearing strata. The gasification of one of the coal seams transforms that seam over a certain area into a highly permeable bed, consisting of coal residues, ash and (thermally altered) roof rubble. Additionally, roof collapse and subsidence will destabilize the overburden. In conjunction this will permit a better coalbed methane production from the remaining surrounding parts of the coal seams. Moreover, the effects of subsidence will influence the stress patterns around the gasified seam and this improves the permeability over certain distances in the coal seams above and below. In this paper the effects of the combined underground coal gasification and coalbed methane production technique are regarded for a single injection well. Known geotechnical aspects are combined with results from laboratory experiments on compaction of thermally treated rubble. An axi-symmetric numerical model is used to determine the effects induced by the gasified coal seam. The calculation includes the rubble formation, rubble compaction and induced stress effects in the overlying strata. Subsequently the stress effects are related to changes in coal permeability, based on experimental results of McKee et al.

  17. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to further characterize the three areas selected as potential test sites, to begin assessing regional attributes of natural coal fractures (cleats), which control coalbed permeability, and to interview laboratories for coal sample testing. An additional objective was to initiate discussions with an operating company that has interests in Texas coalbed gas production and CO{sub 2} sequestration potential, to determine their interest in participation and cost sharing in this project. Well-log data are critical for defining depth, thickness, number, and grouping of coal seams at the proposed sequestration sites. Therefore, we purchased 15 well logs from a commercial source to make coal-occurrence maps and cross sections. Log suites included gamma ray (GR), self potential (SP), resistivity, sonic, and density curves. Other properties of the coals in the selected areas were collected from published literature. To assess cleat properties and describe coal characteristics, we made field trips to a Jackson coal outcrop and visited Wilcox coal exposures at the Sandow surface mine. Coal samples at the Sandow mine were collected for CO{sub 2} and methane sorption analyses. We contacted several laboratories that specialize in analyzing coals and selected a laboratory, submitting the Sandow Wilcox coals for analysis. To address the issue of cost sharing, we had fruitful initial discussions with a petroleum corporation in Houston. We reviewed the objectives and status of this project, discussed data that they have already collected, and explored the potential for cooperative data acquisition and exchange in the future. We are pursuing a cooperative agreement with them.

  18. APEC experts` group on clean coal technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Expert`s Group on Clean Coal Technology`s Technical Seminar held in Jakarta, Indonesia, from October 10-13, 1994 are presented. A total of 28 papers were presented at the seminar. These papers addressed issues of relevance to APEC member economies associated with the application of clean coal technologies (CCTs) and created a forum where information and ideas about CCTs and their application in the Asia-Pacific Region could be exchanged. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Optimum Design of Coal Gasification Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pohani, B. P.; Ray, H. P.; Wen, H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the optimum design of heat recovery systems using the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). TCGP uses an entrained type gasifier and produces hot gases at approximately 2500oF with high heat flux. This heat is removed...

  20. Optimum Design of Coal Gasification Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pohani, B. P.; Ray, H. P.; Wen, H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the optimum design of heat recovery systems using the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). TCGP uses an entrained type gasifier and produces hot gases at approximately 2500oF with high heat flux. This heat is removed...

  1. Consensus Coal Production Forecast for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 2009-2030 Prepared for the West Virginia Summary 1 Recent Developments 2 Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 10 Risks References 27 #12;W.Va. Consensus Coal Forecast Update 2009 iii List of Tables 1. W.Va. Coal Production

  2. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  3. Recent advances in coal geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chyi, L.L. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Akron, Akron, OH (US)); Chou, C.-L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, 615 E. Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL (US))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapters in this collection reflect the recent emphasis both on basic research in coal geochemistry and on applied aspects related to coal utilization. Geochemical research on peat and coal generates compositional data that are required for the following reasons. First, many studies in coal geology require chemical data to aid in interpretation for better understanding of the origin and evolution of peat and coal. Second, coal quality assessment is based largely on composition data, and these data generate useful insights into the geologic factors that control the quality of coal. Third, compositional data are needed for effective utilization of coal resources and to reflect the recent emphasis on both basic research in coal geochemistry and environmental aspects related to coal utilization.

  4. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  5. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  6. Clean coal today

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first issue of the Clean Coal Today publication. Each issue will provide project status reports, feature articles about certain projects and highlight key events concerning the US Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Projects described in this publication include: Colorado-Ute Electric Association Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project at Nucla, Colorado; Babcock and Wilcox coolside and limestone injection multistage burner process (dry sorbent injection); Coal Tech's Advanced Cyclone Combustor Project; and the TIDD pressurized fluidized bed combustor combined cycle facility in Brilliant, Ohio. The status of other projects is included.

  7. Coal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuildingCoal Combustion Products Coal Combustion ProductsCoal to

  8. Coal | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1AAcquisitionDevelopmentChooseCoal Coal Coal

  9. Coal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png El CER esDatasetCityFundCo-benefits EvaluationCoalCoalCoal

  10. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  11. Opportunities in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomstran, M.A.; Davis, B.E.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review is presented of the results obtained on DOE-sponsored field tests of underground coal gasification in steeply-dipping beds at Rawlins, Wyoming. The coal gas composition, process parameters, and process economics are described. Steeply-dipping coal resources, which are not economically mineable using conventional coal mining methods, are identified and potential markets for underground coal gasification products are discussed. It is concluded that in-situ gasification in steeply-dipping deposits should be considered for commercialization.

  12. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  13. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams. [DOE patent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face is given. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  14. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of deploying advanced coal power in the Chinese context,”12 2.6. International coal prices and12 III. Chinese Coal

  15. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic29 Figure 9. Sensitivity to Coal

  16. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operatingfarms with advanced coal generation facilities and operatingin the stand-alone coal generation option (IGCC+CCS plant)

  17. Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification The Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification Key Technology is advancing scientific knowledge of the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal...

  18. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generation systems. Coal energy density could be increasedfuel reserves were coal by energy content; 19% were oil, andConsumption, 2007 coal/primary energy consumption Source: BP

  19. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    19 3.4. Coking coal for iron & steels FOB export value for coking coal was relatively stables FOB export value for coking coal significantly increased

  20. Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other...

  1. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  2. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  3. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  4. Clean Coal Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's clean coal R&D is focused on developing and demonstrating advanced power generation and carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies for existing facilities and new fossil-fueled...

  5. Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A public utility may not use clean coal technology at a new or existing electric generating facility without first applying for and obtaining from the Utility Regulatory Commission a certificate...

  6. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  7. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  8. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

  9. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the effects on SRC yields of seven process variables (reactor temperature, SRT, hydrogen partial pressure, recycle ash and coal concentrations, gas velocity and coal type) predicted by second-order regression models developed from a data base containing pilot plant data with both Kentucky and Powhatan coals. The only effect of coal type in the model is a shift in each yield by a constant factor. Although some differences were found between the models developed from the Kentucky data base (1) (which we call Kentucky models) and the pooled coal models, the general conclusions of the previous report are confirmed by the new models and the assumption of similar behavior of the two coals appears to be justified. In some respects the dependence of the yields (MAF coal basis) on variables such as pressure and temperature are clearer than in the previous models. The principal trends which emerge are discussed.

  10. The relationship between policy choice and the size of the policy region: Why small jurisdictions may prefer renewable energy policies to reduce CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accordino, Megan H.; Rajagopal, Deepak

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    can be true. Either, coal generation can be sold in bothin the policy region and coal generation must be utilized inKWh) Pre-Policy Coal Generation (KWh) ? r ? g ? c Demand

  11. Jute fiber composites from coal, super clean coal, and petroleum vacuum residue-modified phenolic resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Center of Energy Studies

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jute fiber composites were prepared with novolac and coal, phenolated-oxidized super clean coal (POS), petroleum vacuum residue (XVR)-modified phenol-formaldehyde (novolac) resin. Five different type of resins, i.e., coal, POS, and XVR-modified resins were used by replacing (10% to 50%) with coal, POS, and XVR. The composites thus prepared have been characterized by tensile strength, hardness, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transfer infrared (FT-IR), water absorption, steam absorption, and thickness swelling studies. Twenty percent POS-modified novolac composites showed almost the same tensile strength as that of pure novolac composites. After 30% POS incorporation, the tensile strength decreased to 25.84MPa from 33.96MPa in the case of pure novolac resin composites. However, after 50% POS incorporation, the percent retention of tensile strength was appreciable, i.e., 50.80% retention of tensile strength to that of pure novolac jute composites. The tensile strength of coal and XVR-rnodified composites showed a trend similar to that shown by POS-modified novolac resin composites. However, composites prepared from coal and XVR-modified resin with 50% phenol replacement showed 25.4% and 42% tensile strength retention, respectively, compared to that of pure novolac jute composites. It was found that the hardness of the modified composites slightly decreased with an increase in coal, POS, and XVR incorporation in the resin. The XVR-modified composites showed comparatively lower steam absorption than did coal or POS-modified composites. The thermal stability of the POS-modified composites was the highest among the composites studied. The detailed results obtained are being reported.

  12. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

  13. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    located in Wyoming using PRB coal. These costs take intolocated in Wyoming using PRB coal and take into account the2007 forecast for coal prices for PRB coal. Transmission We

  14. Coal Problems 1. Name two examples of clean coal technology and in what manner do they clean the coal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James D.

    Coal Problems 1. Name two examples of clean coal technology and in what manner do they clean the coal? a. Coal Washing- Crushing coal then mixing it with a liquid to allow the impurities to settle. b burning coal altogether. With integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems, steam and hot

  15. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  16. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of coal sulfur K-T gasification process SRC I process U. S.flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingProduction via K-T Gasification" © CEP Aug. 78. Feed

  17. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litster, Shawn

    Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture Nicholas S. Siefert Virginia 26507, United States ABSTRACT: We present experimental results of coal gasification. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect

  18. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    application of new clean coal technologies with near zeroapplication of new clean coal technologies with near zero

  19. Composition and properties of coals from the Yurty coal occurrence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.G. Vyazova; L.N. Belonogova; V.P. Latyshev; E.A. Pisar'kova [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russia). Research Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coals from the Yurty coal occurrence were studied. It was found that the samples were brown non-coking coals with low sulfur contents (to 1%) and high yields of volatile substances. The high heat value of coals was 20.6-27.7 MJ/kg. The humic acid content varied from 5.45 to 77.62%. The mineral matter mainly consisted of kaolinite, a-quartz, and microcline. The concentration of toxic elements did not reach hazardous values.

  20. Cross flow cyclonic flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Ralph W. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Patton, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and process for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophillic tailings.

  1. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

  2. Coal combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  3. (Basic properties of coals and other solids)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses basic properties of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals. Properties of coal liquids are also investigated. Heats of immersion in strong acids are found for Pittsburgh {number sign}8, Illinois {number sign}6, and Wyodak coals. Production of coal liquids by distillation is discussed. Heats of titration of coal liquids and coal slurries are reported. (VC)

  4. Fundamental investigations of underground coal gasification. Annual report Mar 82-Mar 83

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, R.D.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal deposits in the Appalachian and Midwest Coal Regions consist primarily of thin relatively deep seams of swelling bituminous coal, but little scientific effort in the United States has been directed toward underground coal gasification in these important industrial areas. In Europe, however, major work is under way on underground coal gasification in thin, deep seams of swelling coal. The principal investigator and a graduate student are participating in field tests in Belgium and supporting laboratory experiments in Germany. Mathematical models are being developed to interpret these experimental data, and a better understanding of the underground coal gasification process is emerging. This understanding is essential for evaluating potential problems, for devising solutions to such problems and for designing field tests.

  5. Heat Recovery from Coal Gasifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, H.; Lou, S. C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with heat recovery from pressurized entrained and fixed bed coal gasifiers for steam generation. High temperature waste heat, from slagging entrained flow coal gasifier, can be recovered effectively in a series of radiant...

  6. The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a review of one of America's premier coal gasification installations. The caterpillar coal gasification facility located in York, Pennsylvania is an award winning facility. The plant was recognized as the 'pace setter plant of the year...

  7. Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Surface Coal Mining Regulations are a combination of permitting requirements and environmental regulations that limit how, where and when coal can be mined. It protects lands that are under...

  8. The world price of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A significant increase in the seaborne trade for coal over the past twenty years has unified formerly separate coal markets into a world market in which prices move in tandem. Due to its large domestic market, the United ...

  9. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  10. Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Cells, Turbines, and Carbon Capture & Sequestration #12;Production Goal for Hydrogen from Coal Central Separation System PSA Membrane Membrane Carbon Sequestration Yes (87%) Yes (100%) Yes (100%) Hydrogen

  11. Montana Coal Mining Code (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Labor and Industry is authorized to adopt rules pertaining to safety standards for all coal mines in the state. The Code requires coal mine operators to make an accurate map or...

  12. 2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  13. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  14. Hydroliquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Morgan C. (Upper Montclair, NJ); Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is catalytically hydroliquefied by passing coal dispersed in a liquefaction solvent and hydrogen upwardly through a plurality of parallel expanded catalyst beds, in a single reactor, in separate streams, each having a cross-sectional flow area of no greater than 255 inches square, with each of the streams through each of the catalyst beds having a length and a liquid and gas superficial velocity to maintain an expanded catalyst bed and provide a Peclet Number of at least 3. If recycle is employed, the ratio of recycle to total feed (coal and liquefaction solvent) is no greater than 2:1, based on volume. Such conditions provide for improved selectivity to liquid product to thereby reduce hydrogen consumption. The plurality of beds are formed by partitions in the reactor.

  15. Healy Clean Coal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

  16. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babu, Suresh P. (Willow Springs, IL); Bair, Wilford G. (Morton Grove, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  17. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  18. Ashing properties of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, D.L.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fusion properties of sulfur materials present in coals were investigated. The treatment of the samples of eleven different coals is described. Thermal treatment of low temperature ashing (LTA) concentrates of eight of the coals was performed, and raw and wash ashing curves were examined to determine what quantitative correlations, if any, exist between ashing parameters and rank of coal. The actual form of the function which describes the ashing curve is derived.

  19. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake is subjected to pressure for a short time, the free water present is released from the filter cake. Laboratory studies have shown that depending on the coal type a filter cake containing about 15% moisture could be obtained using the two-stage filtration technique. It was also noted that applying intermittent breaks in vacuum force during cake formation, which disturbed the cake structure, helped in removing moisture from the filter cakes. In this project a novel approach of cleaning coal using column flotation was also developed. With this approach the feed capacity of the column is increased significantly, and the column was also able to recover coarser size coal which usually gets lost in the process. The outcome of the research benefits the coal industry, utility industry, and indirectly the general public. The benefits can be counted in terms of clean energy, cleaner environment, and lower cost power.

  20. CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Call for Proposals Date of Issue: July 29, 2013 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of Clean Coal Utilization. The format may be a conference or workshop, or a seminar given by a leading

  1. Clean Coal Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

  2. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  3. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127byForms What'sAnnual Coal

  4. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

    1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

  5. Survey of government assistance for the world's hard-coal industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neme, L.A.; Yancik, J.J.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report investigates the existence and use of subsidies and incentives that foreign nations give their coal industries. Of particular interest are those aids that promote and facilitate the export of coal. A survey of hard coal producing countries was conducted to compile, and quantify if possible, direct and indirect financial aids given by governments for the purposes of maintaining, expanding or creating an indigenous coal industry and facilitating exports. The survey found that government measures commonly used to maintain, expand or create coal production include deficit operating grants, capital grants, preferential loan credits, labor and tax benefits, and export marketing assistance. Typical measures used to guarantee and protect domestic coal markets are long-term supply agreements, price supports, government purchases, tariffs, import licenses, and quotas. Common types of financial assistance provided by governments that do not benefit current coal production or use are research and development funds, environmental grants for restoring past mined lands, and payments to unemployed miners.

  6. Abundances of sulfur, chlorine, and trace elements in Illinois Basin coals, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Abundances of sulfur, chlorine and 52 trace elements in 220 channel and drill-core samples of high volatile bituminous coals (Pennsylvanian age) from the Illinois Basin, USA, are evaluated for the purpose of better understanding geologic processes affecting trace element variation in the coal seams. Mean elemental abundances in Illinois Basin coals are listed in a table. Most Illinois Basin coals are high-sulfur (> 3% total sulfur). Peat was influenced by seawater during early diagenesis. However, low-medium sulfur coal (<3% total sulfur) occurs in restricted areas along the Walshville Channel, which is a contemporaneous river in the peat swamp. A comparison of trace element abundances between high-sulfur and low-medium sulfur coals showed that only seven elements (boron, sulfur, iron, molybdenum, mercury, thallium, and uranium) are clearly more abundant in high-sulfur coal than in low-medium sulfur coal. Apparently, boron, sulfur, molybdenum, and uranium in high-sulfur coals were derived from seawater that inundated the peat swamp and terminated peat accumulation. Iron, mercury, and thallium had a terrestrial source and were incorporated in pyrite during diagenesis. Their enrichment in high-sulfur coal is related to pyrite formation in a reducing environment. The chlorine content in Illinois Basin coals, including channel and drill core samples, varies from 0.01% to 0.8% (on a dry basis). Coal samples from surface mines (< 50 meter depth) are usually low in chlorine content (<0.1%). Samples from underground mines (> 50 meter depth) have a chlorine content ranging between 0.1% to 0.5%. Variation of chlorine content in each of the two coal seams shows that chlorine content increases with depth because the chloride in coal is in equilibrium with the chloride in the groundwater, which is also depth dependent. A low chlorine content in shallow regions of a coal seam is a result of leaching by fresh groundwater.

  7. Fluorine in coal and coal by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorine occurs in awe amounts in most coals. It is typically associated with minerals of the apatite group, principally fluorapatite and clays, and with fluorite, tourmaline, topaz, amphiboles and micas. The average fluorine content of US coal is, according to the tabulation of Swanson, 74 {mu}g/g. In the United States, the lowest average fluorine concentration of 30 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Eastern Kentucky and the highest average value of 160 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Wyoming and New Mexico. The concentration range of fluorine in European coals is similar to that found in the US while the average fluorine content of Australian coals ranges from 15 to 500 {mu}g/g. We have determined the fluorine content in coal and fly ash standards by proton-induced gamma ray emission analysis (PIGE).

  8. Geologic structures that affect coal-mine roof stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, F.E. (Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Bureau of Mines has investigated several geologic structures that plague underground coal mining. These structures have caused numerous roof falls and, consequently, many miners have been hurt or fatally injured. Hazardous geologic anomalies that can be encountered in the eastern and western US coal fields include slips, hill seams, slickensides, sedimentary dikes, kettlebottoms, and paleochannels. Slips occur throughout the United States and are high-angled fractures in the roof rock. Typically, the rock adjacent to slips is highly slickensided and striated. Hill seams are weathered fracture zones and usually are found in areas where the overburden is shallow. Due to their nature and regional mining conditions, hill seams usually are found only in the southern Appalachian coal basin. Slickensides are lower angled planes of weakness found in coal-mine roof rock throughout the country. Slickensides usually are found in clusters and the adjacent rock is highly polished and striated. Sedimentary dikes (also clastic dikes and clay veins) are the remnants of ancient fissures that have been filled through sedimentary processes, Sedimentary dikes normally are found in coal basins that were slowly subsided. Kettlebottoms are the fossilized remains of trees that once grew in and above the swamp forest and generally are found in coal basins that were rapidly subsided. Paleochannels are the lithified remains of rivers and frequently are found in all coal basins except the Black Warrior.

  9. Adsorption of UCG organics by coal, char, activated char and ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humenick, M.J.; Morgan, J.R.; Nolan, B.T.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aqueous adsorption of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) organics generated during gas production was tested in the laboratory to determine the organic's affinity for surroundings in the region of the burn cavity. Coal from the Rosebud coal mine in Hanna, Wyoming along with char, activated char, and ash were studied during this work. Contaminated ground water was simulated by preparing a solution of Hanna IVB condensate in Hanna ground water. Adsorption isotherm studies and leaching tests were performed at 5 and 22/sup 0/C. Leaching tests using tap water showed that only the char could release organic material to water. The adsorption tests showed that all four types of media could adsorb organics from solution. Measures of organic materials in water included Total Organic Carbon (TOC), phenol, o-cresol, and p+m cresol. The experiments indicated that activated char was the most effective adsorbent, while the others were about equal in effectiveness. Adsorption behavior could be modeled in many instances by the equations of Langmuir and Freundlich. However, not all data taken followed these models.

  10. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  11. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  12. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  13. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  14. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  15. assessing coal combustion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  16. advanced coal combustion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  17. apec coal flow: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  18. alkaline coal ash: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  19. advanced slagging coal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  20. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  1. Photothermal method for in situ microanalysis of the chemical composition of coal samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amer, N.M.

    1983-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Successive minute regions along a scan path on a coal sample are individually analyzed, at a series of different depths if desired, to determine chemical composition including the locations, sizes and distributions of different maceral inclusions. A sequence of infrared light pulses of progressively changing wavelengths is directed into each minute region and a probe light beam is directed along the sample surface adjacent the region. Infrared wavelengths at which strong absorption occurs in the region are identified by detecting the resulting deflections of the probe beam caused by thermally induced index of refraction changes in the air or other medium adjacent the region. The detected peak absorption wavelengths are correlated with known characteristic peak absorption wavelengths of specific coal constituents to identify the composition of each such minute region of the sample. The method enables rapid, convenient and non-destructive analyses of coal specimens to facilitate mining, processing and utilization of coals. 2 figures.

  2. Molecular accessibility in oxidized and dried coals. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project is to determine the molecular and structural changes that occur in swelled coal as a result of oxidation and moisture loss both in the presence and absence of light using the newly developed EPR spin probe method. The proposed study will make it possible to deduce the molecular accessibility distribution in swelled, oxidized APCS coal for each rank as a function of (1) size (up to 6 nm) and shape, (2) the relative acidic/basic reactive site distributions, and (3) the role of hydrogen bonding as a function of swelling solvents. The advantage of the EPR method is that it permits molecules of selected shape, size and chemical reactivity to be used as probes of molecular accessible regions of swelled coal. From such data an optimum catalyst can be designed to convert oxidized coal into a more convenient form and methods can be devised to lessen the detrimental weathering processes.

  3. Electronic Surface Structures of Coal and Mineral Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.K. Mazumder; D.A. Lindquist; K.B. Tennal; Steve Trigwell; Steve Farmer; Albert Nutsukpul; Alex Biris

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface science studies related to tribocharging and charge separation studies were performed on electrostatic beneficiation of coal. In contrast to other cleaning methods, electrostatic beneficiation is a dry cleaning process requiring no water or subsequent drying. Despite these advantages, there is still uncertainty in implementing large scale commercial electrostatic beneficiation of coal. The electronic surface states of coal macerals and minerals are difficult to describe due to their chemical complexity and variability [1]. The efficiency in separation of mineral particles from organic macerals depends upon these surface states. Therefore, to further understand and determine a reason for the bipolar charging observed in coal separation, surface analysis studies using Ultra-violet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were performed on coal samples and several materials that are used or considered for use in tribocharging. Electrostatic charging is a surface phenomenon, so the electronic surface states of the particles, which are influenced by the environmental conditions, determine both polarity and magnitude of tribocharging. UPS was used to measure the work function of the materials as typically used in ambient air. XPS was used to determine the surface chemistry in the form of contamination and degree of oxidation under the same environmental conditions. Mineral bearing coals are those amenable to electrostatic beneficiation. Three types of coal, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Kentucky No. 9 were investigated in this study. Pulverized coal powder was tribocharged against copper. Pyritic and other ashes forming minerals in coal powders should charge with a negative polarity from triboelectrification, and organic macerals should acquire positive charge, according to the relative differences in the surface work functions between the material being charged and the charging medium. Different types of minerals exhibit different magnitudes of negative charge and some may also charge positively against copper [2]. Only the mineral sulfur fraction of the total sulfur content is accessible by the electrostatic method since organic sulfur is covalently bound with carbon in macerals. The sizes of mineral constituents in coal range from about 0.1 to 100 {micro}m, but pyrites in many coals are on the lower end of this scale necessitating fine grinding for their liberation and separation. A ready explanation for coal powder macerals to charge positively by triboelectrification is found in the large numbers of surface carbon free radicals available to release electrons to form aromatic carbocations. There is evidence that these cationic charges are delocalized over several atoms [3]. Only perhaps one in one hundred thousand of the surface atoms is charged during triboelectrification [4], making it difficult to predict charging levels since the data depends upon the surface chemical species involved in charging. Based on the high electron affinity of oxygen atoms, oxidation is expected to decrease the extent of a coal particle to charge positively. Also, ion transfer may contribute to the increasingly negative charging character of oxidized coal carbons. A variety of oxidized surface functional groups may influence charge properties. For example, carboxylic acid functions can lose protons to form carboxylate anions. The samples of coal investigated in this study showed differing degrees of beneficiation, consistent with a more extensively oxidized Illinois No. 6 coal sample relative to that of Pittsburgh No. 8. Even though oxygen in air is deleterious to coal stored prior to beneficiation, other gases might favorably influence charge properties. To this end, coal exposed to vapors of acetone, ammonia, and sulfur dioxide also were beneficiated and analyzed in this study.

  4. Identification of a 450-bp region of human papillomavirus type 1 that promotes episomal replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chattopadhyay, Anasuya [Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Room East 1240 Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Schmidt, Martin C. [Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Room East 1240 Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Khan, Saleem A. [Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Room East 1240 Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)]. E-mail: khan@pitt.edu

    2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) replicate as nuclear plasmids in infected cells. Since the DNA replication machinery is generally conserved between humans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we studied whether HPV-1 DNA can replicate in yeast. Plasmids containing a selectable marker (with or without a yeast centromere) and either the full-length HPV-1 genome or various regions of the viral long control region (LCR) and the 3' end of the L1 gene were introduced into S. cerevisiae and their ability to replicate episomally was investigated. Our results show that HPV-1 sequences promote episomal replication of plasmids although the yeast centromere is required for plasmid retention. We have mapped the autonomously replicating sequence activity of HPV-1 DNA to a 450 base-pair sequence (HPV-1 nt 6783-7232) that includes 293 nucleotides from the 5' region of the viral LCR and 157 nucleotides from the 3' end of the L1 gene. The HPV-1 ARS does not include the binding sites for the viral E1 and E2 proteins, and these proteins are dispensable for replication in S. cerevisiae.

  5. Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's University Coal Research Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has selected eight new projects to further advanced coal research under the University Coal Research Program. The selected projects will improve coal conversion and use and will help propel technologies for future advanced coal power systems.

  6. Coal gasification power generation, and product market study. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Western Research Institute (WRI) project was part of a WRI Energy Resource Utilization Program to stimulate pilot-scale improved technologies projects to add value to coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The intent of this program is to assess the application potential of emerging technologies to western resources. The focus of this project is on a coal resource near the Wyoming/Colorado border, in Colorado. Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company operates a coal mine in Jackson County, Colorado. The coal produces 10,500 Btu/lb and has very low sulfur and ash contents. Kerr Coal Company is seeking advanced technology for alternate uses for this coal. This project was to have included a significant cost-share from the Kerr Coal Company ownership for a market survey of potential products and technical alternatives to be studied in the Rocky Mountain Region. The Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company and WRI originally proposed this work on a cost reimbursable basis. The total cost of the project was priced at $117,035. The Kerr Coal Company had scheduled at least $60,000.00 to be spent on market research for the project that never developed because of product market changes for the company. WRI and Kerr explored potential markets and new technologies for this resource. The first phase of this project as a preliminary study had studied fuel and nonfuel technical alternatives. Through related projects conducted at WRI, resource utilization was studied to find high-value materials that can be targeted for fuel and nonfuel use and eventually include other low-sulfur coals in the Rocky Mountain region. The six-month project work was spread over about a three-year period to observe, measure, and confirm over time-any trends in technology development that would lead to economic benefits in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming from coal gasification and power generation.

  7. Method and apparatus for removing micronized coal from steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlnaty, J.

    1980-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Micronized coal is removed from coal-bearing steam by spraying stabilized petroleum oil into the steam and directing the resultant stream at a separation surface on which a coal-oil slurry is deposited and collected. Apparatus includes conduits which direct the resultant stream downward into a housing and normal to a surface on which the slurry is deposited by impact forces. In additional apparatus disclosed, the resultant stream is directed from a horizontal conduit circumferentially along the interior wall of a horizontally disposed cylindrical chamber at the top of the chamber and the coal-oil slurry deposited on the wall by centrifugal force is collected in a trough situated below a longitudinal slot at the bottom of the chamber. In both types of apparatus, after separation of the slurry the velocity of the steam is reduced to settle out remaining oil droplets and is then discharged to the atmosphere.

  8. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  9. Evaluation of synergy in tire rubber-coal coprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastral, A.M.; Mayoral, M.C.; Murillo, R.; Callen, M.; Garcia, T.; Tejero, M.P.; Torres, N. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica] [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tire rubber-coal synergy is evaluated through the different roles that rubber can have in coprocessing systems. For that, two different experimental designs were used: a swept fixed-bed reactor and tubing bomb minireactors. In this way, coal was coprocessed with rubber liquids from rubber pyrolysis and rubber hydrogenation, in a hydrogen atmosphere at 400 C. Coal was mixed as well with rubber in different proportions and hydrogenated at 375, 400, and 425 C, and oils obtained were characterized by thin-layer chromatography to obtain hydrocarbon type composition. Rubber behavior was compared to each of the main components of tires, and all the results indicated that the slight synergy found can be due to the small free radicals from vulcanized rubber decomposition, which are able to stabilize coal radicals to light products.

  10. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  11. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference.

  12. Quarterly review of methane from coal-seams technology. Volume 7, Number 3, July-September 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report contains: sources of coal well information; Powder River Basin, Wyoming; greater Green River coal region, Wyoming and Colorado; Piceance Basin, Colorado; San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Black Warrior Basin, Alabama; the United States coalbed methane resource; western cretaceous coal seams project; multiple coal seams project; spalling and the development of a hydraulic fracturing strategy for coal; geologic evaluation of critical production parameters for coalbed methane resources; coalbed methane opportunities in Alberta; the coalbed methane forum; eastern coalbed methane forum.

  13. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeson, Justin L. (Woodridge, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  14. Western Coal/Great Lakes Alternative export-coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference dealt with using the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway as an alternative to the East and Gulf Coasts for the exporting of coal to Europe and the potential for a piece of the European market for the subbituminous coals of Montana and Wyoming. The topics discussed included: government policies on coal exports; the coal reserves of Montana; cost of rail transport from Western mines to Lake Superior; the planning, design, and operation of the Superior Midwest Energy Terminal at Superior, Wisconsin; direct transfer of coal from self-unloading lakers to large ocean vessels; concept of total transportation from mines to users; disadvantage of a nine month season on the Great Lakes; costs of maritime transport of coal through the Great Lakes to Europe; facilities at the ice-free, deep water port at Sept Iles; the use of Western coals from an environmental and economic viewpoint; the properties of Western coal and factors affecting its use; the feasibility of a slurry pipeline from the Powder River Basin to Lake Superior; a systems analysis of the complete hydraulic transport of coal from the mine to users in Europe; the performance of the COJA mill-burner for the combustion of superfine coal; demand for steam coal in Western Europe; and the effect the New Source Performance Standards will have on the production and use of Western coal. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers for the Energy Data Base (EDB); 17 will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and 11 in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (CKK)

  15. The International Coal Statistics Data Base user's guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ICSD is a microcomputer-based system which presents four types of data: (1) the quantity of coal traded between importers and exporters, (2) the price of particular ranks of coal and the cost of shipping it in world trade, (3) a detailed look at coal shipments entering and leaving the United States, and (4) the context for world coal trade in the form of data on how coal and other primary energy sources are used now and are projected to be used in the future, especially by major industrial economies. The ICSD consists of more than 140 files organized into a rapid query system for coal data. It can operate on any IBM-compatible microcomputer with 640 kilobytes memory and a hard disk drive with at least 8 megabytes of available space. The ICSD is: 1. A menu-driven, interactive data base using Dbase 3+ and Lotus 1-2-3. 2. Inputs include official and commercial statistics on international coal trade volumes and consumption. 3. Outputs include dozens of reports and color graphic displays. Output report type include Lotus worksheets, dBase data bases, ASCII text files, screen displays, and printed reports. 4. Flexible design permits user to follow structured query system or design his own queries using either Lotus or dBase procedures. 5. Incudes maintenance programs to configure the system, correct indexing errors, back-up work, restore corrupted files, annotate user-created files and update system programs, use DOS shells, and much more. Forecasts and other information derived from the ICSD are published in EIA's Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363).

  16. Autothermal coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konkol, W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents test results of a pilot plant study of coal gasification system based on the process developed by Texaco. This process has been improved by the project partners Ruhrchenie A.G. and Ruhrkohle A.C. in West Germany and tested in a demonstration plant that operated for more than 10,000 hours, converting over 50,000 tons of coal into gas. The aim was to develop a process that would be sufficiently flexible when used at the commercial level to incorporate all of the advantages inherent in the diverse processes of the 'first generation' - fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained bed processes - but would be free of the disadvantages of these processes. Extensive test results are tabulated and evaluated. Forecast for future development is included. 5 refs.

  17. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  18. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    21 Figure 6: Map of PRB coal mines serviced by the BNSF-UPPRB.of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming. Although traffic

  19. Exploration for deep coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

  20. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  1. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: catalog of bituminous coals and site selection. Appendix A. National coal resource data system: Ecoal, Wcoal, and Bmalyt. Final report, Phase I. [Bituminous coal; by state; coal seam depth and thickness; identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Appendix A is a catalog of the bituminous coal in 29 states of the contiguous United States which contain identified bituminous coal resources.

  2. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  3. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEIYU SHEN; ROYCE ABBOTT; T.D. WHEELOCK

    1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The agglomeration of ultrafine-size coal particles in an aqueous suspension by means of microscopic gas bubbles was demonstrated in numerous experiments with a scale model mixing system. Coal samples from both the Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam and the Upper Freeport Seam were used for these experiments. A small amount of i-octane was added to facilitate the process. Microscopic gas bubbles were generated by saturating the water used for suspending coal particles with gas under pressure and then reducing the pressure. Microagglomerates were produced which appeared to consist of gas bubbles encapsulated in coal particles. Since dilute particle suspensions were employed, it was possible to monitor the progress of agglomeration by observing changes in turbidity. By such means it became apparent that the rate of agglomeration depends on the concentration of microscopic gas bubbles and to a lesser extent on the concentration of i-octane. Similar results were obtained with both Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and Upper Freeport coal.

  4. Transporting export coal from Appalachia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication is part of a series titled Market Guide for Steam Coal Exports from Appalachia. It focuses on the transportation link in the steam-coal supply chain, enabling producers to further assess their transportation options and their ability to compete in the export-coal marketplace. Transportation alternatives and handling procedures are discussed, and information is provided on the costs associated with each element in the transportation network.

  5. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, K.C.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of this proposed research are to refine further the inverse liquid chromatography technique for the study of surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals in water, to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals by inverse liquid chromatography, and to evaluate floatability of various treated coals in conjunction with surface properties of coals. Alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, heptanol, 1-hexadecanol, 2-methyl-pentanol, 4-methyl-2-penthanol (methylisobutyl carbinol), n-octanol, s-octanol, and cyclohexanol as probe compounds are utilized to evaluate hydrophilicity of coals and coal minerals. N-alkanes such as hexane, heptane and octane, and stearic acid are employed as probe compounds to evaluate hydrophobicity of coals and coal minerals. Aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene as probe compounds are used to examine aromaticity of coal surface. Aromatic acids such as o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, phenol and B-naphthol are used to detect aromatic acidic sites of coal surface. Hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and aromaticity of surfaces for either raw coals or treated coals in water are relatively determined by evaluating both equilibrium physical/chemical adsorption and dynamic adsorption of probe compounds on various raw coals and treated coals to compare affinities of coals for water.

  6. Coal Mine Safety Act (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act is the primary legislation pertaining to coal mine safety in Virginia. It contains information on safety rules, safety standards and required certifications for mine workers, prohibited...

  7. ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

  8. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  10. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  11. Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coal Bed Methane Protection Act establishes a long-term coal bed methane protection account and a coal bed methane protection program for the purpose of compensating private landowners and...

  12. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alone IGCC+CCS Coal Plant The levelized cost of electricitythan advanced coal plants and hence their cost estimates areestimates of the costs of an advanced coal plant, since they

  13. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal electricity generation efficiency also varies by plantplants. The unit water requirement of coal-fired electricity generationelectricity generation is comparatively low in China due to the prevalence of small, outdated coal-fired power plants.

  14. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycleconsists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification, combined cycleless expensive in a coal gasification, combined cycle power

  15. GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyaard, David S., E-mail: meyaad@rpi.edu; Lin, Guan-Bo; Ma, Ming; Fred Schubert, E. [Future Chips Constellation, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)] [Future Chips Constellation, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Cho, Jaehee [Future Chips Constellation, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States) [Future Chips Constellation, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Semiconductor Physics Research Center, School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang-Heon; Kim, Min-Ho; Shim, HyunWook; Sun Kim, Young [LED Business, Samsung Electronics, Yongin 446-920 (Korea, Republic of)] [LED Business, Samsung Electronics, Yongin 446-920 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A GaInN light-emitting diode (LED) structure is analyzed that employs a separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region, i.e., the AlGaN electron-blocking layer (EBL) and p-type GaN cladding layer, followed by wafer or chip bonding. Such LED structure has a polarization-inverted EBL and allows for uncompromised epitaxial-growth optimization of the p-type region, i.e., without the need to consider degradation of the quantum-well active region during p-type region growth. Simulations show that such an LED structure reduces electron leakage, reduces the efficiency droop, improves hole injection, and has the potential to extend high efficiencies into the green spectral region.

  16. Coal rank trends in western Kentucky coal field and relationship to hydrocarbon occurrence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Rimmer, S.M.; Williams, D.A.; Beard, J.G. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive oil and gas development has occurred in the high volatile C bituminous region north of the Rough Creek fault zone, but few pools are known within the Webster syncline south of the fault zone. The rank of the Middle Pennsylvanian coals can be used to estimate the level of maturation of the Devonian New Albany Shale, a likely source rock for much of the oil and gas in the coal field. Based on relatively few data points, previous studies on the maturation of the New Albany Shale, which lies about 1 km below the Springfield coal, indicate an equivalent medium volatile bituminous (1.0-1.2% R{sub max}) rank in the Fluorspar district. New Albany rank decreases to an equivalent high volatile B/C (0.6% R{sub max}) north of the Rough Creek fault zone. Whereas the shale in the latter region is situated within the oil generation window, the higher rank region is past the peak of the level of maturation of the New Albany Shale. The significance of the New Albany reflectancy is dependent on the suppression of vitrinite reflectance in organic-rich shales. The possibility of reflectance suppression would imply that the shales could be more mature than studies have indicated.

  17. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  18. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

    2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiencies greater than 50 percent (higher heating value) have been projected for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems fueled with gasified coal, even with carbon sequestration. Multiple minor and trace components are present in coal that could affect fuel cell performance, however, which vary widely depending on coal origin and type. Minor and trace components have been classified into three groups: elements with low volatility that are likely to remain in the ash, elements that will partition between solid and gas phases, and highly volatile elements that are unlikely to condense. Those in the second group are of most concern. In the following, an overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic coal gas. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  19. Arkansas Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Act (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arkansas Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Act authorizes the state to develop, adopt, issue and amend rules and regulations pertaining to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. These...

  20. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    raising transportation oil demand. Growing internationalcoal by wire could reduce oil demand by stemming coal roadEastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand

  1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, DOE. LBNL 275-E Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid:Renewable Energy Laboratory), and Ryan Wiser ( LBNL). i Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid:

  2. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis additional cost of fuelWind Hybrid: Economic Analysis Levelized Generation CostCoal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis Notes: All Cost are in

  3. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic21 Figure 6. Comparison of ACWH and CCGT-Wind

  4. Utility Generation and Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes the state's support and incentives for the development of new energy production and generating facilities implementing advanced clean coal technology, such as coal...

  5. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol.1, Issue 3 (Apr 2015) Archived Editions: Coal...

  6. University Coal Research | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Research University Coal Research University Coal Research Universities frequently win Fossil Energy research competitions or join with private companies to submit successful...

  7. Colliers in Corsets? Uncovering Stark County's Nineteenth-Century Coal Mining Women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sampson, Jason

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nineteenth-Century Coal Mining Women According to the Uniteddid not enter underground mining until four decades ago. Theis that some women in the mining region of Stark County,

  8. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  9. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubic Feet) Yeara 436 EnergyAssemblyOrderCoal

  10. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S. Energy

  11. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S. Energy0

  12. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S. Energy00

  13. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.

  14. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.1 U.S.

  15. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.1 U.S.1

  16. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.1 U.S.11

  17. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.1 U.S.111

  18. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.1

  19. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.10 U.S.

  20. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.10 U.S.0

  1. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.10 U.S.00

  2. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.10

  3. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.101 U.S.

  4. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.101 U.S.1

  5. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.101

  6. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.1011 U.S.

  7. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.1011

  8. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear JanDecade Year-0 Year-1EIA3Q 2009

  9. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear JanDecade Year-0 Year-1EIA3Q 20093Q

  10. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear JanDecade Year-0 Year-1EIA3Q 20093Q4Q

  11. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear JanDecade Year-0 Year-1EIA3Q

  12. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-1538,469 39,194Dry4,645

  13. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-1538,469 39,194Dry4,645Domestic

  14. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-1538,469

  15. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSameCommercial(Million OverviewAnnual

  16. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSameCommercial(Million

  17. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (Million Cubic 1.Year Jan Feb Mar Apr

  18. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (Million Cubic 1.Year Jan Feb Mar Apr

  19. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (Million Cubic 1.Year Jan Feb Mar

  20. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Cubic

  1. Annual Coal Report 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S. OffshoreOilAnnual Coal Report

  2. COAL & POWER SYSTEMS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r k CCLEAN9AugustCNSS PapersCOAL &

  3. WCI Case for Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1 -VisualizingVote For the# *Coal The role of as

  4. Coal: Energy for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  5. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  6. Commercialization of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharucha, N. [Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra (Australia)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

  7. Coal pile leachate treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, E C; Kimmitt, R R

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam plant located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was converted from oil- to coal-fired boilers. In the process, a diked, 1.6-ha coal storage yard was constructed. The purpose of this report is to describe the treatment system designed to neutralize the estimated 18,000 m/sup 3/ of acidic runoff that will be produced each year. A literature review and laboratory treatability study were conducted which identified two treatment systems that will be employed to neutralize the acidic runoff. The first, a manually operated system, will be constructed at a cost of $200,000 and will operate for an interim period of four years. This system will provide for leachate neutralization until a more automated system can be brought on-line. The second, a fully automated system, is described and will be constructed at an estimated cost of $650,000. This automated runoff treatment system will ensure that drainage from the storage yard meets current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Standards for pH and total suspended solids, as well as future standards, which are likely to include several metals along with selected trace elements.

  8. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckmann, H. [Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  9. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA))

    1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-BASED TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Sarma V. Pisupati; Chunshan Song; Ronald S. Wasco; Ronald T. Wincek; Xiaochun Xu; Alan W. Scaroni; Richard Hogg; Subhash Chander; M. Thaddeus Ityokumbul; Mark S. Klima; Peter T. Luckie; Adam Rose; Richard L. Gordon; Jeffrey Lazo; A. Michael Schaal

    2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The third phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for US Department of Defense (DOD) facilities was completed. The objectives of the project were to: decrease DOD's dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase III activities were focused on evaluating deeply-cleaned coals as fuels for industrial boilers and investigating emissions control strategies for providing ultra-low emissions when firing coal-based fuels. This was addressed by performing coal beneficiation and preparation studies, and bench- to demonstration-scale emissions reduction studies. In addition, economic studies were conducted focused on determining cost and market penetration, selection of incentives, and regional economic impacts of coal-based technologies.

  11. Status Report: USGS coal assessment of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Luppens; Timothy J. Rohrbacher; Jon E. Haacke; David C. Scott; Lee M. Osmonson [USGS, Reston, VA (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication reports on the status of the current coal assessment of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This slide program was presented at the Energy Information Agency's 2006 EIA Energy Outlook and Modeling Conference in Washington, DC, on March 27, 2006. The PRB coal assessment will be the first USGS coal assessment to include estimates of both regional coal resources and reserves for an entire coal basin. Extensive CBM and additional oil and gas development, especially in the Gillette coal field, have provided an unprecedented amount of down-hole geological data. Approximately 10,000 new data points have been added to the PRB database since the last assessment (2002) which will provide a more robust evaluation of the single most productive U.S. coal basin. The Gillette coal field assessment, including the mining economic evaluation, is planned for completion by the end of 2006. The geologic portion of the coal assessment work will shift to the northern and northwestern portions of the PRB before the end of 2006 while the Gillette engineering studies are finalized. 7 refs.

  12. Low-rank coal research, Task 5.1. Topical report, April 1986--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a topical progress report for Low-Rank Coal Research performed April 1986 - December 1992. Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research is described for Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains, and Hot-Gas Cleanup. Advanced Research and Technology Development was conducted on Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Combustion Research is described for Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Fuels (completed 10/31/90), Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals (completed 12/31/90), Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications (completed 10/31/90), Nitrous Oxide Emission, and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion. Liquefaction Research in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction is discussed. Gasification Research was conducted in Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coals and in Sulfur Forms in Coal.

  13. Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

  14. Model documentation, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System`s (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS). CMM provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal for NEMS. In general, the CDS integrates the supply inputs from the CPS to satisfy demands for coal from exogenous demand models. The international area of the CDS forecasts annual world coal trade flows from major supply to major demand regions and provides annual forecasts of US coal exports for input to NEMS. Specifically, the CDS receives minemouth prices produced by the CPS, demand and other exogenous inputs from other NEMS components, and provides delivered coal prices and quantities to the NEMS economic sectors and regions.

  15. Secondary economic impact of acid deposition control legislation in six coal producing states: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, M.J.; Guthrie, S.J.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the difficult policy questions on the US environmental agenda is what to do about emissions to the earth's atmosphere of pollutants that may result in ''acid rain''. The Congress has considered several pieces of legislation spelling out potential approaches to the problem and setting goals for emission reduction, mostly emphasizing the control of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Significant policy concern is the dollar costs to the nation's economy of achieving the intended effects of the legislation and the potential impacts on economic activity---in particular, losses of both coal mining and secondary service sector employment in states and regions dependent on the mining of high sulfur coal. There are several direct economic effects of regulations such as the acid rain control legislation. One of the more obvious effects was the switching from high sulfur coal to low sulfur coal. This would result in increases in employment and coal business procurements in low sulfur coal mining regions, but also would result in lower employment and lower coal business procurements in high sulfur coal mining areas. The potential negative effects are the immediate policy concern and are the focus of this report. 15 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

  16. Future Carbon Regulations and Current Investments in Alternative Coal-Fired Power Plant Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekar, Ram C.

    This paper assesses the role of uncertainty over future U.S. carbon regulations in shaping the current choice of which type of power plant to build. The pulverized coal technology (PC) still offer the lowest cost power— ...

  17. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  18. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viall, Arthur J. (Colstrip, MT); Richards, Jeff M. (Colstrip, MT)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  19. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viall, Arthur J. (Colstrip, MT); Richards, Jeff M. (Colstrip, MT)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  20. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M.

    1999-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 3 figs.

  1. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to develop new disposable catalysts for direct coal liquefaction, several types of clay-supported pyrrhotite catalysts were prepared and tested. These included iron-pillared montmorillonite, mixed iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite, iron-impregnated montmorillonite, and iron oxometallate-impregnated montmorillonite.

  2. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Technical progress report, September 1995 - March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [and others

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, the Phase I final report was completed. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included completing a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work continued on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filtering device will be used to demonstrate a smaller and more efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Work related to coal preparation and utilization, and the economic analysis was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  3. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  4. Coal combustion science: Task 1, Coal char combustion: Task 2, Fate of mineral matter. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardesty, D.R. [ed.; Hurt, R.H.; Davis, K.A.; Baxter, L.L.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) kinetics and mechanisms of pulverized coal char combustion and (2) fate of inorganic material during coal combustion. The objective of Task 1 is to characterize the combustion behavior of selected US coals under conditions relevant to industrial pulverized coal-fired furnaces. In Sandia`s Coal Combustion Laboratory (CCL), optical techniques are used to obtain high-resolution images of individual burning coal char particles and to measure, in situ, their temperatures, sizes, and velocities. Detailed models of combustion transport processes are then used to determine kinetic parameters describing the combustion behavior as a function of coal type and combustion environment. Partially reacted char particles are also sampled and characterized with advanced materials diagnostics to understand the critical physical and chemical transformations that influence reaction rates and burnout times. The ultimate goal of the task is the establishment of a data base of the high temperature reactivities of chars from strategic US coals, from which important trends may be identified and predictive capabilities developed. The overall objectives for task 2 are: (1) to complete experimental and theoretical investigation of ash release mechanisms; (2) to complete experimental work on char fragmentation; (3) to establish the extent of coal (as opposed to char) fragmentation as a function of coal type and particle size; (4) to develop diagnostic capabilities for in situ, real-time, qualitative indications of surface species composition during ash deposition, with work continuing into FY94; (5) to develop diagnostic capabilities for in situ, real-time qualitative detection of inorganic vapor concentrations; and (6) to conduct a literature survey on the current state of understanding of ash deposition, with work continuing into FY94.

  5. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Costs References . . Coal-Electric Generation Technologyon coal preparation, coal-electric generation and emissionson coal preparation, coal-electric generation and emissions

  6. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    74. Any coal application (coal gasification, coal combustionFixed-Bed Low-Btu Coal Gasification Systems for RetrofittingPower Plants Employing Coal Gasification," Bergman, P. D. ,

  7. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, J.W. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Honaker, R.Q. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin, are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles that are produced are difficult to dewater and they create problems in coal transportation as well as in its storage and handling at utility plants. The objective of this research project is to combine ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation. This will be accomplished by the use of bitumen based emulsions for dewatering and a compaction device for briquetting. During this reporting period, two types of coal samples have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. These tests were carried out in conjunction with a selected hydrophobic binder as the dewatering reagent and an uniaxial hydraulic press. The influence of compaction pressure and binder concentration (2 to 5%) on the performance of coal pellets have been evaluated in terms of their water and wear resistance. A laboratory scale ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting extruder that can be operated continuously for coal pellets fabrication, has been designed and built, and will be available for testing in the next quarter.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  9. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  10. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  11. Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and dimethyl ether) by indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Gasification of coal pro- duces a synthesis gas by coal gasification. The principal con- stituents of ``syngas'' are carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which modern coal gasification facilities in operation to make hydrogen for ammonia production. Also

  12. Coal ash utilization in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalski, S.R.; Brendel, G.F.; Gray, R.E. [GAI Consultants, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes methods of coal combustion product (CCP) management successfully employed in the US and considers their potential application in India. India produces about 66 million tons per year (mty) of coal ash from the combustion of 220 mty of domestically produced coal, the average ash content being about 30--40 percent as opposed to an average ash content of less than 10 percent in the US In other words, India produces coal ash at about triple the rate of the US. Currently, 95 percent of this ash is sluiced into slurry ponds, many located near urban centers and consuming vast areas of premium land. Indian coal-fired generating capacity is expected to triple in the next ten years, which will dramatically increase ash production. Advanced coal cleaning technology may help reduce this amount, but not significantly. Currently India utilizes two percent of the CCP`s produced with the remainder being disposed of primarily in large impoundments. The US utilizes about 25 percent of its coal ash with the remainder primarily being disposed of in nearly equal amounts between dry landfills and impoundments. There is an urgent need for India to improve its ash management practice and to develop efficient and environmentally sound disposal procedures as well as high volume ash uses in ash haulback to the coalfields. In addition, utilization should include: reclamation, structural fill, flowable backfill and road base.

  13. Low-grade coals: a review of some prospective upgrading technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan Katalambula; Rajender Gupta [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a growing need of using low-grade coals because of higher quest for power generation. In the present carbon-constrained environment, there is a need of upgrading these coals in terms of moisture, ash, and/or other trace elements. The current paper reviews technologies used mainly categorized as drying for reducing moisture and cleaning the coal for reducing mineral content of coal and related harmful constituents, such as sulfur and mercury. The earliest upgrading of high-moisture lignite involved drying and manufacturing of briquettes. Drying technologies consist of both evaporative and non-evaporative (dewatering) types. The conventional coal cleaning used density separation in water medium. However, with water being a very important resource, conservation of water is pushing toward the development of dry cleaning of coal. There are also highly advanced coal-cleaning technologies that produce ultra-clean coals and produce coals with less than 0.1% of ash. The paper discusses some of the promising upgrading technologies aimed at improving these coals in terms of their moisture, ash, and other pollutant components. It also attempts to present the current status of the technologies in terms of development toward commercialization and highlights on problems encountered. It is obvious that still the upgrading goal has not been realized adequately. It can therefore be concluded that, because reserves for low-grade coals are quite plentiful, it is important to intensify efforts that will make these coals usable in an acceptable manner in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. 68 refs., 7 figs.

  14. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. there were two main objectives for this reporting period. first, they wanted to collect wilcox coal samples from depths similar to those of probable sequestration sites, with the objective of determining accurate parameters for reservoir model description and for reservoir simulation. The second objective was to pursue opportunities for determining permeability of deep Wilcox coal to use as additional, necessary data for modeling reservoir performance during CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. In mid-summer, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation agreed to allow the authors to collect Wilcox Group coal samples from a well that was to be drilled to the Austin Chalk, which is several thousand feet below the Wilcox. In addition, they agreed to allow them to perform permeability tests in coal beds in an existing shut-in well. Both wells are in the region of the Sam K. Seymour power station, a site that they earlier identified as a major point source of CO{sub 2}. They negotiated contracts for sidewall core collection and core analyses, and they began discussions with a service company to perform permeability testing. To collect sidewall core samples of the Wilcox coals, they made structure and isopach maps and cross sections to select coal beds and to determine their depths for coring. On September 29, 10 sidewall core samples were obtained from 3 coal beds of the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group. The samples were desorbed in 4 sidewall core canisters. Desorbed gas samples were sent to a laboratory for gas compositional analyses, and the coal samples were sent to another laboratory to measure CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} sorption isotherms. All analyses should be finished by the end of December. A preliminary report shows methane content values for the desorbed coal samples ranged between 330 and 388 scf/t., on ''as received'' basis. Residual gas content of the coals was not included in the analyses, which results in an approximate 5-10% underestimation of in-situ gas content. Coal maps indicate that total coal thickness is 40-70 ft in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in the vicinity of the Sam K. Seymour power plant. A conservative estimate indicates that methane in place for a well on 160-acre spacing is approximately 3.5 Bcf in Lower Calvert Bluff coal beds. When they receive sorption isotherm data from the laboratory, they will determine the amount of CO{sub 2} that it may be possible to sequester in Wilcox coals. In December, when the final laboratory and field test data are available, they will complete the reservoir model and begin to simulate CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced CH{sub 4} production.

  15. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base.

  16. Programmer's guide to the Argonne Coal Market Model. [USA; mathematical models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guziel, K.A.; Krohm, G.C.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Macal, C.M.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Argonne Coal Market Model was developed as part of a comprehensive DOE study of coal-related environmental, health, and safety impacts. The model includes a high degree of regional detail on both supply and demand. Coal demand is input separately for industrial and utility users in each region, and coal supply in each region is characterized by a linearly increasing function relating increments of new mine capacity to the marginal cost of extraction. Rail transportation costs and control technology costs are estimated for each supply-demand link. A quadratic programming algorithm is used to optimize flow patterns for the system. This report documents the model for programmers and users interested in technical details of the computer code.

  17. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objective for this reporting period was to perform pressure transient testing to determine permeability of deep Wilcox coal to use as additional, necessary data for modeling performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. To perform permeability testing of the Wilcox coal, we worked with Anadarko Petroleum Corporation in selecting the well and intervals to test and in designing the pressure transient test. Anadarko agreed to allow us to perform permeability tests in coal beds in an existing shut-in well (Well APCT2). This well is located in the region of the Sam K. Seymour power station, a site that we earlier identified as a major point source of CO{sub 2} emissions. A service company, Pinnacle Technologies Inc. (Pinnacle) was contracted to conduct the tests in the field. Intervals tested were 2 coal beds with thicknesses of 3 and 7 feet, respectively, at approximately 4,100 ft depth in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in east-central Texas. Analyses of pressure transient test data indicate that average values for coalbed methane reservoir permeability in the tested coals are between 1.9 and 4.2 mD. These values are in the lower end of the range of permeability used in the preliminary simulation modeling. These new coal fracture permeability data from the APCT2 well, along with the acquired gas compositional analyses and sorption capacities of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}, complete the reservoir description phase of the project. During this quarter we also continued work on reservoir and economic modeling to evaluate performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery.

  18. Coal Mining on Pitching Seams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, George MacMillan

    1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 1915* App r ov e d: Department of Mining Engineering* COAL MUTING ON PITCHING SEAMS A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OP THE SCHOOL OP ENGINEERING OF THE UNIVERSITY OP KANSAS for THE DEGREE OF ENGINEER OF MINES BY GEORGE MACMILLAN BROWN 1915... PREFACE In the following dissertation on the subject of "Coal Mining in Pitching Beams" the writer desires to describe more particularly those methods of mining peculiar to coal mines in Oklahoma, with which he has been more or less familiar during...

  19. Coal conversion siting on coal mined lands: water quality issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triegel, E.K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The siting of new technology coal conversion facilities on land disturbed by coal mining results in both environmental benefits and unique water quality issues. Proximity to mining reduces transportation requirements and restores disrupted land to productive use. Uncertainties may exist, however, in both understanding the existing site environment and assessing the impact of the new technology. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently assessing the water-related impacts of proposed coal conversion facilities located in areas disturbed by surface and underground coal mining. Past mining practices, leaving highly permeable and unstable fill, may affect the design and quality of data from monitoring programs. Current mining and dewatering, or past underground mining may alter groundwater or surface water flow patterns or affect solid waste disposal stability. Potential acid-forming material influences the siting of waste disposal areas and the design of grading operations. These and other problems are considered in relation to the uncertainties and potentially unique problems inherent in developing new technologies.

  20. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EIA), 2007, Coal Transportation Rate Database, http://The EIA then organizes this information into a databaseEIA ratios to go into the BASE CASE Waybill forecast database

  1. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data from Forms FERC 423 and EIA 423, “Cost and Quality ofInformation Administration (EIA) projects that the U.S. willyear. In addition, while EIA’s estimates do not take coal-

  2. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  3. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION-A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.L. Senior; F. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; N. Shah; N. Yap; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; M.R. Ames; A.F. Sarofim; S. Swenson; J.S. Lighty; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; C.A. Palmer; S.J. Mroczkowski; J.J. Helble; R. Mamani-Paco; R. Sterling; G. Dunham; S. Miller

    2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). The work discussed in this report covers the Phase II program. Five coals were studied (three in Phase I and two new ones in Phase II). In this work UK has used XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopies to characterize elements in project coals. For coals, the principal use was to supply direct information about certain hazardous and other key elements (iron) to complement the more complete indirect investigation of elemental modes of occurrence being carried out by colleagues at USGS. Iterative selective leaching using ammonium acetate, HCl, HF, and HNO3, used in conjunction with mineral identification/quantification, and microanalysis of individual mineral grains, has allowed USGS to delineate modes of occurrence for 44 elements. The Phase II coals show rank-dependent systematic differences in trace-element modes of occurrence. The work at UU focused on the behavior of trace metals in the combustion zone by studying vaporization from single coal particles. The coals were burned at 1700 K under a series of fuel-rich and oxygen-rich conditions. The data collected in this study will be applied to a model that accounts for the full equilibrium between carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The model also considers many other reactions taking place in the combustion zone, and involves the diffusion of gases into the particle and combustion products away from the particle. A comprehensive study has been conducted at UA to investigate the post-combustion partitioning of trace elements during large-scale combustion of pulverized coal combustion. For many coals, there are three distinct particle regions developed by three separate mechanisms: (1) a submicron fume, (2) a micron-sized fragmentation region, and (3) a bulk (>3 {micro}m) fly ash region. The controlling partitioning mechanisms for trace elements may be different in each of the three particle regions. A substantial majority of semi-volatile trace elements (e.g., As, Se, Sb, Cd, Zn, Pb) volatilize during combustion. The most common partitioning mechanism for semi-volatile elements is reaction with active fly ash surface sites. Experiments conducted under this program at UC focused on measuring mercury oxidation under cooling rates representative of the convective section of a coal-fired boiler to determine the extent of homogeneous mercury oxidation under these conditions. In fixed bed studies at EERC, five different test series were planned to evaluate the effects of temperature, mercury concentration, mercury species, stoichiometric ratio of combustion air, and ash source. Ash samples generated at UA and collected from full-scale power plants were evaluated. Extensive work was carried out at UK during this program to develop new methods for identification of mercury species in fly ash and sorbents. We demonstrated the usefulness of XAFS spectroscopy for the speciation of mercury captured on low-temperature sorbents from combustion flue gases and dev

  4. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

    1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

  5. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szymocha, Kazimierz (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Kulik, Conrad (Newark, CA); Lebowitz, Howard E. (Mountain View, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

  6. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szymocha, Kazimierz (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Kulik, Conrad (Newark, CA); Lebowitz, Howard E. (Mountain View, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

  7. Healy clean coal project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and a heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Resulting emission levels of SO[sub 2], NO[sub x], and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New source Performance standards. During this past quarter, engineering and design continued on the boiler, combustion flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and turbine/generator systems. Balance of plant equipment procurement specifications continue to be prepared. Construction activities commenced as the access road construction got under way. Temporary ash pond construction and drilling of the supply well will be completed during the next quarter.

  8. Coal gasification vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  9. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SUBMICRON PARTICULATES FROM PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennucci, J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry of Coal during Combustion and the Emissions fromParticulates Generated by Combustion of Pulverized Coal,Particles from Coal Combustion, presented at the Eighteenth

  10. National Coal Council Presentation/Prepared Remarks | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Coal Council PresentationPrepared Remarks National Coal Council PresentationPrepared Remarks National Coal Council PresentationPrepared Remarks More Documents &...

  11. COMBUSTION OF COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION BURNER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, W.K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TABLE 1. Pittsburgh seam coal properties, Grosshandler (content of the Pittsburgh seam coal. As the ash layer beginsfrom Pittsburgh seam pulverized coal, screened through a 35

  12. MULTIPHASE REACTOR MODELING FOR ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYZED COAL LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joyce, Peter James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ix Introduction. A. Coal Liquefaction Overview B.L ZnCl 2-catalyzed Coal Liquefaction . . . . . . . . . • ,Results. . . • . ZnC1 2/MeOH Coal liquefaction Process

  13. Southern Coal finds value in the met market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Justice family launches a new coal company (Southern Coal Corp.) to serve metallurgical and steam coal markets. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  14. Utilization of coal-associated minerals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under contract number DE-AS21-77ET10533 with the US-DOE several methods of utilizing coal associated by-products were examined for potential commercial use. Such use could transform a costly waste disposal situation into new materials for further use and could provide incentive for the adoption of new coal utilization processes. Several utilization processes appear to have merit and are recommended for further study. Each process is discussed separately in the text of this report. Common coal cleaning processes were also examined to determine the effect of such processes on the composition of by-products. Data obtained in this portion of the research effort are reported in the Appendix. Information of this type is required before utilization processes can be considered. A knowledge of the mineral composition of these materials is also required before even simple disposal methods can be considered.

  15. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Grimes, R. William (Laramie, WY); Tweed, Robert E. (Laramie, WY)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  16. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  17. Surface Coal Mining Law (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law aims to provide for the regulation of coal mining in order to minimize or prevent its adverse effects, protect the environment to the extent possible, protect landowner rights, and...

  18. Coal Mining Reclamation (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Reclamation Division of the Public Service Commission is tasked with administering the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation. Specific regulations can be found in article 69-05.2 of...

  19. MS_Coal_Studyguide.indd

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    atmosphere. Many of these technologies belong to a family of energy systems called "clean coal technologies." Since the mid-1980s, the U.S. Government has invested more than 3...

  20. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

    2000-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  1. The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ' in 1981 and won the 'energy conservation award' for 1983. The decision to install and operate a coal gasification plant was based on severe natural gas curtailments at York with continuing supply interruptions. This paper will present a detailed...

  2. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  3. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  4. Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 46.96 39.34...

  5. Photothermal method of determining calorific properties of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amer, N.M.

    1983-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Predetermined amounts of heat are generated within a coal sample by directing pump light pulses of predetermined energy content into a small surface region of the sample. A beam of probe light is directed along the sample surface and deflection of the probe beam from thermally induced changes of index of refraction in the fluid medium adjacent the heated region are detected. Deflection amplitude and the phase lag of the deflection, relative to the initiating pump light pulse, are indicative of the calorific value and the porosity of the sample. The method provides rapid, accurate and nondestructive analysis of the heat producing capabilities of coal samples. In the preferred form, sequences of pump light pulses of increasing durations are directed into the sample at each of a series of minute regions situated along a raster scan path enabling detailed analysis of variations of thermal properties at different areas of the sample and at different depths.

  6. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the ninth quarter, electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were done to characterize the morphology and composition of the surface of as-received coal, oxidized coal and coal pyrite. In addition, electrokinetic tests were done on Upper Freeport coal pyrite.

  7. The International Coal Statistics Data Base operations guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Coal Statistics Data base (ICSD) is a micro- computer based system which contains informations related to international coal trade. This includes coal production, consumption, imports and exports information. The ICSD is a secondary data base, meaning that information contained therein is derived entirely from other primary sources. It uses dBase 3+ and Lotus 1-2-3 to locate, report and display data. The system is used for analysis in preparing the Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363) publication. The ICSD system is menu driven, and also permits the user who is familiar with dBase and Lotus operations to leave the menu structure to perform independent queries. Documentation for the ICSD consists of three manuals -- the User's Guide, the Operations Manual and the Program Maintenance Manual. This Operations Manual explains how to install the programs, how to obtain reports on coal trade, what systems requirements apply, and how to update the major data files. It also explains file naming conventions, what each file does, and the programming procedures used to make the system work. The Operations Manual explains how to make the system respond to customized queries. It is organized around the ICSD menu structure and describes what each selection will do. Sample reports and graphs generated from individual menu selection are provided to acquaint the user with the various types of output. 17 figs.

  8. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platt, Robert J. (Dover, NJ); Shadbolt, Edward A. (Basking Ridge, NJ)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces.

  9. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

    1983-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

  10. Development of catalyst free carbon nanotubes from coal and waste plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosodia, A.; Lal, C.; Singh, B.P.; Mathur, R.B.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DC-Arc technique has been used to synthesize carbon nanotubes from super clean coal, chemically cleaned coal, original coal and waste plastics instead of using high purity graphite in the presence of metal catalysts. The results obtained are compared in terms of yield, purity and type of carbon nanotubes produced from different types of raw material used. In the present study different types of raw materials have been prepared i.e. chemically cleaned coal and super clean coal, and the carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by DC Arc discharge method. Taking in account the present need of utilizing coal as a cheaper raw material for bulk production of carbon nanotubes and utilization of waste plastics (which itself is a potential environmental threat) for production of such an advance material the present work was undertaken. Since the process does not involve presence of any kind of metal catalyst, it avoids the cost intensive process of removal of these metal particles. The residual coal obtained after refining has major fuel potential and can be utilized for various purposes.

  11. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  12. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

  13. Geology in coal resource utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, D.C. (ed.)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country`s coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently.

  15. Quarterly Review of Methane from Coal Seams Technology. Volume 8, Number 3, April 1991. Rept. for Jul-Sep 90

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBane, R.A.; Schwochow, S.D.; Stevens, S.H.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contents include reports on: Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana; Greater Green River Coal Region, Wyoming and Colorado; Uinta Basin, Utah; Piceance Basin, Colorado; San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Black Warrior Basin, Alabama; Experimental Fracturing and Propping of Coal-Implications for Hydraulic Fracture Design; Western Cretaceous Coal Seams Project; Multiple Coal Seams Project; Coalbed Methane Technology Development in the Appalachian Basin; Reservoir Engineering and Analysis and Geologic Evaluation of Critical Production Parameters for Coalbed Methane Resources.

  16. Making coal burnable: preparation and use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rittenhouse, R.C.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper offers several different views on the tools available to boost the burnability of coal. One view of making coal burnable and for better emissions control lies in the combustion process. One approach is fluidized bed combustion and the two choices within this technology are atmospheric (AFBC) and pressurized (PFBC). Several tests are being conducted to develop the slagging combustor technology for direct conversion from oil to coal. Some advantages listed for this method are a simple retrofit, low particulate, NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/ emissions, no modification for burning pulverized coal or coal/water slurry, no ash and no moving parts. Another method discussed is coal blending. The industrial and utility coal burning demand, combined with vacillating regulatory situations, reveals a need for coal users to be ever more alert to fuel price and availability. Technologies in the three areas of application -- coal preparation/cleaning, combustion, and emissions control -- offer an endless array of combinations.

  17. Sensor for Individual Burner Control of Coal Firing Rate, Fuel-Air Ratio and Coal Fineness Correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Demler

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate, cost-efficient monitoring instrumentation has long been considered essential to the operation of power plants. Nonetheless, for the monitoring of coal flow, such instrumentation has been sorely lacking and technically difficult to achieve. With more than half of the electrical power in the United States currently supplied by coal, energy generated by this resource is critical to the US economy. The demand for improvement in this area has only increased as a result of the following two situations: First, deregulation has produced a heightened demand for both reduced electrical cost and improved grid connectivity. Second, environmental concerns have simultaneously resulted in a need for both increased efficiency and reduced carbon and NOx emissions. A potential approach to addressing both these needs would be improvement in the area of combustion control. This would result in a better heat rate, reduced unburned carbon in ash, and reduced NOx emissions. However, before feedback control can be implemented, the ability to monitor coal flow to the burners in real-time must be established. While there are several ''commercially available'' products for real-time coal flow measurement, power plant personnel are highly skeptical about the accuracy and longevity of these systems in their current state of development. In fact, following several demonstration projects of in-situ coal flow measurement systems in full scale utility boilers, it became obvious that there were still many unknown influences on these instruments during field applications. Due to the operational environment of the power plant, it has been difficult if not impossible to sort out what parameters could be influencing the various probe technologies. Additionally, it has been recognized for some time that little is known regarding the performance of coal flow splitters, even where rifflers are employed. Often the coal flow distribution from these splitters remains mal-distributed. There have been mixed results in the field using variable orifices in coal pipes. Development of other coal flow control devices has been limited. An underlying difficulty that, to date, has hindered the development of an accurate instrument for coal flow measurements is the fact that coal flow is characterized by irregular temporal and spatial variation. However, despite the inherent complexity of the dynamic system, the system is in fact deterministic. Therefore, in principle, the coal flow can be deduced from the dynamics it exhibits. Nonetheless, the interactions are highly nonlinear, rendering standard signal processing approaches, which rely on techniques such as frequency decomposition, to be of little value. Foster-Miller, Inc. has developed a methodology that relates the complex variation in such systems to the information of interest. This technology will be described in detail in Section 2. A second concern regarding the current measurement systems is installation, which can be labor-intensive and cost-prohibitive. A process that does not require the pulverizer to be taken off line would be highly desirable. Most microwave and electrostatic methods require drilling up to 20 holes in the pipe, all with a high degree of precision so as to produce a proper alignment of the probes. At least one electrostatic method requires a special spool piece to be fitted into each existing coal pipe. Overall, these procedures are both difficult and very expensive. An alternative approach is pursued here, namely the development of an instrument that relies on an acoustic signal captured by way of a commercial accelerometer. The installation of this type of sensor is both simpler and less invasive than other techniques. An accelerometer installed in a pipe wall need not penetrate through the wall, which means that the system may be able to remain on line during the installation. Further, due to the fact that the Dynamical Instruments technology, unlike other systems, does not rely on uniformity of the air or coal profile, the installation location need not be on a long, straight run

  18. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  19. Multi-parameter on-line coal bulk analysis. Technical progress report, March 16, 1995--June 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research continued on multi-parameter on-line coal bulk analysis. The thermal neutron flux distribution in coal and free air for two types of neutron sources was performed. The MCNP code was used to calculate the gamma ray response function and to determine the thermal neutron flux in coal when a lead collimator was used and when paraffin blocks were placed in front of the sample. The identification of chlorine in coal is discussed along with the analysis of the gamma spectra.

  20. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  1. Coal Transportation Issues (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the coal delivered to U.S. consumers is transported by railroads, which accounted for 64% of total domestic coal shipments in 2004. Trucks transported approximately 12% of the coal consumed in the United States in 2004, mainly in short hauls from mines in the East to nearby coal-fired electricity and industrial plants. A number of minemouth power plants in the West also use trucks to haul coal from adjacent mining operations. Other significant modes of coal transportation in 2004 included conveyor belt and slurry pipeline (12%) and water transport on inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and tidewater areas (9%).

  2. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane McVay; Walter Ayers, Jr.; Jerry Jensen; Jorge Garduno; Gonzola Hernandez; Rasheed Bello; Rahila Ramazanova

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of CO{sub 2} in coalbeds is a plausible method of reducing atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2}, and it can have the additional benefit of enhancing methane recovery from coal. Most previous studies have evaluated the merits of CO{sub 2} disposal in high-rank coals. The objective of this research was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery from, low-rank coals in the Texas Gulf Coast area. Our research included an extensive coal characterization program, including acquisition and analysis of coal core samples and well transient test data. We conducted deterministic and probabilistic reservoir simulation and economic studies to evaluate the effects of injectant fluid composition (pure CO{sub 2} and flue gas), well spacing, injection rate, and dewatering on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery in low-rank coals of the Calvert Bluff formation of the Texas Wilcox Group. Shallow and deep Calvert Bluff coals occur in two, distinct, coalbed gas petroleum systems that are separated by a transition zone. Calvert Bluff coals < 3,500 ft deep are part of a biogenic coalbed gas system. They have low gas content and are part of a freshwater aquifer. In contrast, Wilcox coals deeper than 3,500 ft are part of a thermogenic coalbed gas system. They have high gas content and are part of a saline aquifer. CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Calvert Bluff low-rank coals of East-Central Texas must be located in the deeper, unmineable coals, because shallow Wilcox coals are part of a protected freshwater aquifer. Probabilistic simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection into 20 feet of Calvert Bluff coal in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicates that these coals can store 1.27 to 2.25 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with an ECBM recovery of 0.48 to 0.85 Bcf. Simulation results of flue gas injection (87% N{sub 2}-13% CO{sub 2}) indicate that these same coals can store 0.34 to 0.59 Bcf of CO{sub 2} with an ECBM recovery of 0.68 to 1.20 Bcf. Economic modeling of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery indicates predominantly negative economic indicators for the reservoir depths (4,000 to 6,200 ft) and well spacings investigated, using natural gas prices ranging from $2 to $12 per Mscf and CO{sub 2} credits based on carbon market prices ranging from $0.05 to $1.58 per Mscf CO{sub 2} ($1.00 to $30.00 per ton CO{sub 2}). Injection of flue gas (87% N{sub 2} - 13% CO{sub 2}) results in better economic performance than injection of 100% CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} sequestration potential and methane resources in low-rank coals of the Lower Calvert Bluff formation in East-Central Texas are significant. The potential CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of the coals ranges between 27.2 and 49.2 Tcf (1.57 and 2.69 billion tons), with a mean value of 38 Tcf (2.2 billion tons), assuming a 72.4% injection efficiency. Estimates of recoverable methane resources range between 6.3 and 13.6 Tcf, with a mean of 9.8 Tcf, assuming a 71.3% recovery factor. Moderate increases in gas prices and/or carbon credits could generate attractive economic conditions that, combined with the close proximity of many CO{sub 2} point sources near unmineable coalbeds, could enable commercial CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Texas low-rank coals. Additional studies are needed to characterize Wilcox regional methane coalbed gas systems and their boundaries, and to assess potential of other low-rank coal beds. Results from this study may be transferable to other low-rank coal formations and regions.

  3. Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B. [BlueScope Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Topical report: Analytical methods for application to coal-derived resids, A literature survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandes, S.D.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This literature survey was conducted to address an important question: What are the methods available in the realm of analytical chemistry that may have potential usefulness to the development of coal liquefaction technology? In an attempt to answer to that question, the emphasis of this survey was directed at analytical techniques which would be applicable to the high molecular weight, non-distillable residue of coal-derived liquids. It is this material which is most problematic to the analytical investigator and the developer of direct coal liquefaction processes. A number of comprehensive analytical reviews of literature dealing with coal and other fossil fuels are available. This literature survey will (1) be limited to articles published between 1980--1991, with some exceptions; (2) be limited to the use of analytical methods for high molecular weight, primarily nondistillable, fossil fuel-derived materials, except where the application of an analytical method to coals or distillates may show promise for application to non-distillable coal-derived materials; and (3) demonstrate the potential usefulness of an analytical method by showing how the method has been applied to high molecular weight, non-distillable materials, if not specifically to coal liquids. The text is divided by type of methodology, i.e. spectroscopy, microscopy, etc. Each section will be essentially free-standing. An historical background is provided.

  5. Chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ash from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje Coal Field, Serbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.; Rajakovic, L.J. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical compositions and trace element contents (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, B, Hg, Sr, Se, Be, Ba, Mn, Th, V, U) in coal and coal ash samples from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje coal field in Serbia were studied. The coal from this field belongs to lignite. This high volatility coal has high moisture and low S contents, moderate ash yield, and high calorific value. The coal ash is abundant in alumosilicates. Many trace elements such as Ni > Cd > Cr > B > As > Cu > Co > Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal and Ni > Cr > As > B > Cu > Co = Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal ash are enriched in comparison with Clarke concentrations.

  6. Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Final report. Part IV. A petrographic and chemical model for the evolution of the Tradewater Formation coals in Western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graese, A.M.; Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A depositional model for the coals of the Tradewater Formation and associated rock units was constructed as a predictive device for the occurrence of economically important low sulfur coal. Twenty-one cores were examined and ninety-eight coal samples were analyzed for maceral, ash, and sulfur contents. These data were then analyzed to determine regional variation as well as vertical variation in single coal columns. Core data indicate that the majority of the Tradewater rocks consist of irregularly distributed, coarsening-upward, fine-grained detrital material which was deposited in shallow bodies of water. Minor fossiliferous shales and limestones suggest a marine influence. Less common coarse-grained, fining-upward sequences appear to be deposits of meandering channels. Like the detrital rocks, the coal seams are also irregularly distributed and exhibit variable petrographic and chemical properties reflecting changes in the Eh and pH of the coal swamp waters as well as detrital influx into the swamps. These swamps were relatively limited in extent and probably occupied the upper reaches of the tidal zone. The lack of significant stratigraphic and geographic trends in the regional data suggests that this mode of deposition was widespread and continued for a long period of time. 42 references, 19 figures, 9 tables.

  7. COMBUSTION OF COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION BURNER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, W.K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Methanol and a Methanol/Coal Slurry," Lawrence Berkeleyweight polymer of glucose. A coal slurry consisting of 80%

  8. Preliminary report on LLNL mine seismicity deployment at the Twentymile Coal Mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, W.R.; Hunter, S.L.; Glenn, L.A.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a just completed experiment at the Twentymile Coal Mine, operated by the Cyprus Amax Coal Company near Oak Creek, CO. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data from roof caves associated with long-wall mining activities and to use this data to help determine the effectiveness with which these events can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions under a future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  9. PROSPECTS FOR CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES.... 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vicente Solano Arrieia

    coal technologies (CCTs) to meet increasingly demanding environmental requirements while simultaneously remaining competitive in both international and domestic markets. Conference speakers assessed environmental, economic, and technical issues and identified approaches that will help enable CCTs to be deployed in an era of competing, interrelated demands for energy, economic growth, and environmental protection. Recognition was given to the dynamic changes that will result from increasing competition in electricity and fuel markets and industry restructuring, both domestically and internationally. Energy use, critical to economic growth, is growing quickly in many regions of the world. Much of this increased demand can be met by coal with technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost per unit of energy competitive. Private sector experience and results from the CCT Demonstration Program are providing information on economic, environmental, and market issues that will enable conclusions to be drawn about the competitiveness of the CCTs domestically and internationally., The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 11 years, is

  10. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  11. Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Set of Coal Plant Sites for Repowering with Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Copinger, Donald A [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the approach that ORNL developed for screening a sample set of small coal stations for possible repowering with SMRs; the methodology employed, including spatial modeling; and initial results for these sample plants. The objective in conducting this type of siting evaluation is to demonstrate the capability to characterize specific sample coal plant sites to identify any particular issues associated with repowering existing coal stations with SMRs using OR-SAGE; it is not intended to be a definitive assessment per se as to the absolute suitability of any particular site.

  12. Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank The Argonne Premium Coal (APC) Sample Bank can supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maranas, Costas

    Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank Background Overview T The Argonne Premium Coal (APC) Sample Bank can supply researchers with highly uniform, well-protected coal samples unexposed to oxygen. Researchers investigating coal structure, properties, and behavior can benefit greatly from these samples

  13. EFFECT OF COAL DUST ONEFFECT OF COAL DUST ON RAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTHRAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    1 EFFECT OF COAL DUST ONEFFECT OF COAL DUST ON RAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTHRAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTH for Laboratory StudyFouling Mechanism / Need for Laboratory Study Mechanical Properties of Coal DustMechanical Properties of Coal Dust Grain Size AnalysisGrain Size Analysis AtterbergAtterberg LimitsLimits Specific

  14. Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    permits. To improve the aesthetic qualities of the effluent, coal ash (from local power plants_mill_discharge.jpg 2. Coal Power Plant http://www.csmonitor.com/var/ezflow_site/storage/images/media/images/2008Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power

  15. Proceedings of Office of Surface Mining Coal Combustion By-product Government/Regulatory Panel: University of Kentucky international ash utilization symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vories, K.C. (ed.)

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Short papers are given on: the Coal Combustion Program (C2P2) (J. Glenn); regional environmental concerns with disposal of coal combustion wastes at mines (T. FitzGerald); power plant waste mine filling - an environmental perspective (L.G. Evans); utility industry perspective regarding coal combustion product management and regulation (J. Roewer); coal combustion products opportunities for beneficial use (D.C. Goss); state perspective on mine placement of coal combustion by-products (G.E. Conrad); Texas regulations provide for beneficial use of coal combustion ash (S.S. Ferguson); and the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act - a response to concerns about placement of CCBs at coal mine sites (K.C. Vories). The questions and answers are also included.

  16. Climate VISION: Events - Advanced Clean Coal Workshop

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Secretary Kyle McSlarrow, DOE, and Jim Rogers, CEO Chairman, Cinergy 10:15 Break 10:30 Case Studies on Clean Coal Projects Case StudiesLessons Learned on Clean Coal Plants (to...

  17. February 21 -22, 2014 Coast Coal Harbour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Todd C.

    February 21 - 22, 2014 Coast Coal Harbour 1180 W Hastings St Vancouver, BC Healthy Mothers contact by phone: +1 604-822- 7708 or by e-mail: melissa.ipce@ubc.ca. Location The Coast Coal Harbour

  18. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  19. Ohio Coal Research and Development Program (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Ohio Coal Development Office invests in the development and implementation of technologies that can use Ohio's vast reserves of coal in an economical, environmentally sound manner. Projects are...

  20. Integrated Coal Gasification Power Plant Credit (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Integrated Coal Gasification Power Plant Credit states that an income taxpayer that makes a qualified investment in a new integrated coal gasification power plant or in the expansion of an existing...

  1. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  2. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  3. Clean Coal Incentive Tax Credit (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clean Coal Incentive Tax Credit provides for a property tax credit for new clean coal facilities constructed at a cost exceeding $150 million and used for the purposes of generating electricity....

  4. coal feeding | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE Supported R&D for CoalBiomass Feed and Gasification Gasification Systems Program R&D The Department of Energy is currently developing technology for high pressure dry coal...

  5. Black Thunder Coal Mine and Los Alamos National Laboratory experimental study of seismic energy generated by large scale mine blasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.L.; Gross, D. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Anderson, D.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In an attempt to better understand the impact that large mining shots will have on verifying compliance with the international, worldwide, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT, no nuclear explosion tests), a series of seismic and videographic experiments has been conducted during the past two years at the Black Thunder Coal Mine. Personnel from the mine and Los Alamos National Laboratory have cooperated closely to design and perform experiments to produce results with mutual benefit to both organizations. This paper summarizes the activities, highlighting the unique results of each. Topics which were covered in these experiments include: (1) synthesis of seismic, videographic, acoustic, and computer modeling data to improve understanding of shot performance and phenomenology; (2) development of computer generated visualizations of observed blasting techniques; (3) documentation of azimuthal variations in radiation of seismic energy from overburden casting shots; (4) identification of, as yet unexplained, out of sequence, simultaneous detonation in some shots using seismic and videographic techniques; (5) comparison of local (0.1 to 15 kilometer range) and regional (100 to 2,000 kilometer range) seismic measurements leading to determine of the relationship between local and regional seismic amplitude to explosive yield for overburden cast, coal bulking and single fired explosions; and (6) determination of the types of mining shots triggering the prototype International Monitoring System for the CTBT.

  6. 4th Annual Clean Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferriter John P

    Proceedings he emphasis of the Fourth Clean Coal Technology Conference wm the marketability of clean coal projects both domestically and abroad. The success rate of clean coal projects in the U.S. for coalfired electricity generation is a beacon to foreign governments that are working toward effectively using advanced NO, and SO2 technology to substantially reduce flue-gas emissions for a cleaner environment. There is a continuing dialogue between U.S. Government, North American private industry, and the electricity producing governmental ministries and the private sector abroad. The international community was well represented at this conference. The Administration is determined to move promising, near-term technologies from the public to the private sector a ~ well a8 into the international marketplace.

  7. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Lignite Research Council, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO combustion systems, and new power generation x plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1998 through 30 September 1998. During this period distribution of all three Phase II coals was completed. Standard analyses for the whole coal samples were also completed. Mössbauer analysis of all project coals and fractions received to date has been completed in order to obtain details of the iron mineralogy. The analyses of arsenic XAFS data for two of the project coals and for some high arsenic coals have been completed. Duplicate splits of the Ohio 5,6,7 and North Dakota lignite samples were taken through all four steps of the selective leaching procedure. Leaching analysis of the Wyodak coal has recently commenced. Preparation of polished coal/epoxy pellets for probe/SEM studies is underway. Some exploratory mercury LIII XAFS work was carried out during August at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the new synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL. Further analysis of small-scale combustion experiments conducted at PSI in Phase I was completed this quarter. The results of these experiments for the first time suggest almost complete vaporization of certain trace elements (Se, Zn) from coal combustion in the flame zone, in accordance with theoretical equilibrium predictions. Other elements (As, Sb, Cr) appeared considerably less volatile and may react with constituents in the bulk ash at combustion temperatures. The combustion section of the University of Arizona's Downflow Combustor was completely rebuilt. The University of Utah worked on setting up EPA Method 26A to give the capability to measure chlorine in flue gas. The chlorine kinetic calculations performed as part of the Phase I program were found to have an error in the initial conditions. Therefore, the calculations were re-done this quarter with the correct starting conditions. Development of a quasi-empirical emissions model based on reported emissions of particulate matter from field measurements was continued this quarter. As a first step in developing the ToPEM, we developed a sub-model that calculates the evaporation of major elements (Na, K, Fe, Si, Al, Ca and Mg) from both inherent and extraneous minerals of coal. During this quarter, this sub-model was included into EMAF, which formed the ToPEM. Experimental data from the Phase I program were used to test and modify the sub-model and the ToPEM.

  8. Canada's coal industry: full swing ahead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, K. [Natural Resources Canada (Canada). Minerals and Metals Sector

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article presents facts and figures about Canada's coal industry in 2006 including production, exports, imports, mines in operation, the Genesee 3 coal-fired generation unit, the Dodds-Roundhill Gasification Project, and new coal mine development plans. The outlook for 2007 is positive, with coal production expected to increase from 67 Mt in 2006 to 70 Mt in 2007 and exports expected to increase from 28 Mt in 2006 to 30 Mt in 2007.

  9. Cokemaking from coals of Kuzbas and Donbas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umansky, R.Z. [Resourcecomplect, Donetsk (Ukraine); Kovalev, E.T.; Drozdnik, I.D. [UKHIN, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses features of Donetsk and Kuznetsk coals, the export capability of Ukraine coking industry, the selection of coal blends involving coals from different basins, and practical recommendations and techno-economic considerations. It is concluded that by raising the share of low-sulfur Kuznetsk coal in the blend to 50%, coke produced will meet all the requirements of European and American consumers.

  10. National Coal celebrates its fifth anniversary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth and activities of the National Coal Corp since its formation in 2003 are described. 5 photos.

  11. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu [Xiamen University, Xiamen (China). China Center for Energy Economics Research (CCEER)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this technology could be used to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of IGCC plants. The study goes beyond the systems-level analyses and initial lab work that formed the bases of previous studies and includes the following tasks: performing laboratory tests to quantify slurry properties; developing an engineering design of a liquid CO{sub 2} slurry preparation and feed system; conducting a full IGCC plant techno-economic analysis for Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and North Dakota lignite in both water and liquid CO{sub 2} slurries; and identifying a technology development plan to continue the due diligence to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of this technology. The initial task included rheology tests and slurry data analyses that would increase the knowledge and understanding of maximum solids loading capability for both PRB and lignite. Higher coal concentrations have been verified in liquid CO{sub 2} over water slurries, and a coal concentration of 75% by weight in liquid CO{sub 2} has been estimated to be achievable in a commercial application. In addition, lower slurry viscosities have been verified in liquid CO{sub 2} at the same solids loading, where the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry viscosity has been measured to be about a factor of 10 lower than the comparable water slurry and estimated to be less than 100 centipoise in a commercial application. In the following task, an engineering design of a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and mixing system has been developed for both a batch and continuous system. The capital cost of the design has also been estimated so that it could be used in the economic analysis. An industry search and survey has been conducted to determine if essential components required to construct the feed system are available from commercial sources or if targeted R&D efforts are required. The search and survey concluded that commercial sources are available for selected components that comprise both the batch and continuous type systems. During normal operation, the fuel exits the bottom of the coal silo and is fed to a rod mill fo

  13. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  14. Demonstration of coal mine illumination systems. Open file report (final) October 1977-June 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szpak, A.D.; Hahn, W.F.; Skinner, C.S.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of illuminating various types of underground coal mining machinery as required by the Federal Coal Mine Illumination Standards Part 75.1719 to 75.1719-4 Code of Federal Regulations Title 30. Nine various machines were illuminated and the illumination systems were evaluated for a 3-month period. Factors evaluted were ease of implementation, reliability, ease of maintenance, acceptance by mine workers and operations, illumination degradation, and durability.

  15. Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

  16. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  17. Consensus Coal Production And Price Forecast For

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Consensus Coal Production And Price Forecast For West Virginia: 2011 Update Prepared for the West December 2011 © Copyright 2011 WVU Research Corporation #12;#12;W.Va. Consensus Coal Forecast Update 2011 i Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 Recent Developments 3 Consensus Coal Production And Price Forecast

  18. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  19. Energy Center Center for Coal Technology Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    Energy Center Center for Coal Technology Research http://www.purdue.edu/dp/energy/CCTR/ Consumption Production Gasification Power Plants Coking Liquid Fuels Environment Oxyfuels Byproducts Legislation, 500 Central Drive West Lafayette, IN 47907-2022 #12;INDIANA COAL REPORT 2009 Center for Coal

  20. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  1. Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Kenneth J. (Floreffe, PA); Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow.

  2. Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, K.J.; Wen, Wu-Wey

    1988-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Chlorine in coal and boiler corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Liu, L. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Ho, K.K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of superheaters in the United Kingdom has been attributed to the high level of chlorine (Cl) in British coals. On the other hand, similar high-Cl Illinois coals have not caused boiler corrosion. This suggests that the extent of boiler corrosion due to Cl may not be directly related to the amount of Cl in the coal but to how the Cl occurs in the coal or to other factors. In this study, both destructive temperature-programmed Thermogravimetry with Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR) and non-destructive X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) techniques were used to examine the thermal evolution characteristics and the forms of Cl in four Illinois and four British coals. The TGA-FTIR results indicate that under oxidizing conditions, both British and Illinois coals release hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas. Maximum evolution of HCl gas from Illinois coals occurs near 425 C, whereas, the temperature of maximum HCl release from British coals occurs between 210 and 280 C. The XANES results indicate that Cl in coal exists in ionic forms including a solid salt form. The HCl evolution profiles of the Illinois and British coals suggests that the way in which Cl ions are associated in Illinois coals is of different from the way they are associated in British coals.

  4. 2011 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference Pittsburgh, PA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    and simultaneous carbon dioxide sequestration in an unmineable coal seam in the Northern Appalachian Basin collaboration. Introduction This paper reports on continued activities at the CONSOL Energy carbon sequestration Sequestration in Unmineable Coal with Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery: The Marshall County Project James E

  5. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Robert F. (Allentown, PA); Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  6. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  7. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1996--March 27, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Pisupati, S.V. [and others

    1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. Preliminary pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction catalyst tests were conducted when firing natural gas in Penn State`s down-fired combustor. This is the first step in the scale-up of bench-scale results obtained in Phase II to the demonstration boiler scale when firing coal. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included installing a ribbon mixer into Penn State`s micronized coal-water mixture circuit for reentraining filter cake. In addition, three cleaned coals were received from CQ Inc. and three cleaned coals were received from Cyprus-Amax.

  8. HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holten, R.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or gaseous fuels, coal gasification has advanced furthestrapidly. While coal gasification may reach commercializa-5272 (1976). COal Processing - Gasification, Liguefaction,

  9. Association of coal metamorphism and hydrothermal mineralization in Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District, Western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Fiene, F.L.; Trinkle, E.J.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ambient coal rank (metamorphism) of the Carboniferous coals in the Western Kentucky coalfield ranges from high volatile A bituminous (vitrinite maximum reflectance up to 0.75% R/sub max/) in the Webster syncline (Webster and southern Union Counties) to high volatile C bituminous (0.45 to 0.60% R/sub max/) over most of the remainder of the area. Anomalous patterns of metamorphism, however, have been noted in coals recovered from cores and mines in fault blocks of the Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District. Coals in Gil-30 borehole (Rough Creek faults, Bordley Quadrangle, Union County) vary with no regard for vertical position, from high volatile C(0.55% R/sub max/) to high volatile A (0.89%R/sub max) bituminous. Examination of the upper Sturgis Formation (Missourian/Virgilian) coals revealed that the higher rank (generally above 0.75% R/sub max/) coals had vein mineral assemblages of sphalerite, twinned calcite, and ferroan dolomite. Lower rank coals had only untwinned calcite. Several sites in Webster County contain various coals (Well (No. 8) to Coiltwon (No. 14)) with vitrinite reflectances up to 0.83% R/sub max/ and associated sphalerite mineralization. Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian (Caseyville Formation Gentry coal) coals in the mineralized Fluorspar District have ranks to nearly medium volatile bituminous (1.03% R/sub max/). The regional rank trend exhibited by the fualt zones is generally higher rank than the surrounding areas. Sphalerite mineralization in itself is not unique within Illinois basin coals, but if it was partly responsible for the metamorphism of these coals, then the fluid temperature must have been higher within the above mentioned fault complexes.

  10. A study of ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated coal water slurry droplet using digital image processing technique 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhadra, Tanmoy

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diameter and ambient oxygen concentrations. Simplified phenomen ological type models are presented in order to determine the number of particles. interparticle spacing and density of coal water slurry droplet. Finally qualitative relations between ignition...

  11. Process for selective grinding of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venkatachari, Mukund K. (San Francisco, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  12. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

  13. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  14. Potential applications of microscopy for steam coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVanney, K.F.; Clarkson, R.J.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical microscopy has been an extremely useful tool for many industrial sectors in the past. This paper introduces some of the potential applications of using coal and fly ash carbon microscopy for the combustion process and steam coal industry. Coal and fly ash carbon microscopic classification criteria are described. Plant sample data are presented which demonstrate that these techniques can be useful for coal selection and for problem solving in the coal-fired power plant environment. Practical recommendations for further study are proposed.

  15. Coal taking it on the chin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, J.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A personal view of the short-term energy market with the emphasis firmly on coal. The demand for coal is considered likely to fall as consumption falls and stockpiles continue to grow. The low price of coal, and increasing transport costs are likely to reduce the number of coal operations. The relative abundance of alternative energy sources is considered unlikely to encourage the growth of industrial coal markets, nuclear power is far too costly as a competitor, however. The current tidewater port facilities are believed to be adequate, and the shelving of many existing plans is thought likely.

  16. Pulverized coal burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sivy, Jennifer L. (Alliance, OH); Rodgers, Larry W. (Canton, OH); Koslosy, John V. (Akron, OH); LaRue, Albert D. (Uniontown, OH); Kaufman, Keith C. (Canton, OH); Sarv, Hamid (Canton, OH)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A burner having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO.sub.x burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO.sub.x back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing.

  17. Pulverized coal burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sivy, J.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Koslosy, J.V.; LaRue, A.D.; Kaufman, K.C.; Sarv, H.

    1998-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A burner is described having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO{sub x} burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO{sub x} back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing. 8 figs.

  18. Navajo Coal Combustion and Respiratory Health Near Shiprock, New Mexico

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bunnell, Joseph E.; Garcia, Linda V.; Furst, Jill M.; Lerch, Harry; Olea, Ricardo A.; Suitt, Stephen E.; Kolker, Allan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Indoor air pollution has been identified as a major risk factor for acute and chronic respiratory diseases throughout the world. In the sovereign Navajo Nation, an American Indian reservation located in the Four Corners area of the USA, people burn coal in their homes for heat. To explore whether/how indoor coal combustion might contribute to poor respiratory health of residents, this study examined respiratory health data, identified household risk factors such as fuel and stove type and use, analyzed samples of locally used coal, and measured and characterized fine particulate airborne matter inside selected homes. In twenty-five percent of homesmore »surveyed coal was burned in stoves not designed for that fuel, and indoor air quality was frequently found to be of a level to raise concerns. The average winter 24-hourPM2.5concentration in 20 homes was 36.0??g/m3. This is the first time thatPM2.5has been quantified and characterized inside Navajo reservation residents' homes.« less

  19. The International Coal Statistics Data Base program maintenance guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Coal Statistics Data Base (ICSD) is a microcomputer-based system which contains information related to international coal trade. This includes coal production, consumption, imports and exports information. The ICSD is a secondary data base, meaning that information contained therein is derived entirely from other primary sources. It uses dBase III+ and Lotus 1-2-3 to locate, report and display data. The system is used for analysis in preparing the Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363) publication. The ICSD system is menu driven and also permits the user who is familiar with dBase and Lotus operations to leave the menu structure to perform independent queries. Documentation for the ICSD consists of three manuals -- the User's Guide, the Operations Manual, and the Program Maintenance Manual. This Program Maintenance Manual provides the information necessary to maintain and update the ICSD system. Two major types of program maintenance documentation are presented in this manual. The first is the source code for the dBase III+ routines and related non-dBase programs used in operating the ICSD. The second is listings of the major component database field structures. A third important consideration for dBase programming, the structure of index files, is presented in the listing of source code for the index maintenance program. 1 fig.

  20. REDUCTION OF NO{sub x} VIA COAL COMBUSTION CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Hare; George Ford; Stephanie Black; Bing Zhou; Stan Harding

    2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Air pollution is a growing concern for both the US government and its citizens. Current legislation is moving in the direction of lower emissions standards for the major pollutants, SO{sub x} and NO{sub x}. The work performed under this DOE grant focused on finding a catalyst that, when added to coal, will effectively reduce the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. The test program was divided into four major tasks: (1) evaluating the impact of a combustion catalyst on nitrogen release; (2) optimizing catalyst formulation; (3) preparing a preliminary economic evaluation; and (4) outlining future test plans, costs and schedule. More than 100 bench-scale, proof-of-concept tests were completed with more than 30 different catalysts, using two different coal types, River Hill Pittsburgh 8 (River Hill) and PRB, under oxidizing and reducing conditions. The results showed that catalysts were effective in increasing, by more than 30%, the nitrogen gas (N{sub 2}) release in River Hill Pittsburgh 8 coal and more than 20% in the PRB coal. Preliminary economics suggest this technology is comparable with current combustion NO{sub x} control technologies such as overfire air addition, SNCR and reburning. Pilot-scale tests are planned in a system with low-NO{sub x} burners to further evaluate the technology.