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1

Electricity generation from coal and natural gas both increased ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal generation shares declined in some regions ... the share of natural gas-fired power generation is most influenced by the availability of hydroelectric power, ...

2

Changes related to "Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Special page Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Changes related to "Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana)" Coal seam natural gas producing areas...

3

Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In order to prevent waste and to avoid the drilling of unnecessary wells and to encourage the development of coal seam natural gas producing areas in Louisiana, the commissioner of conservation is...

4

Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Geological Sciences

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

2009-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

6

Electricity generation from coal and natural gas both increased ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Historically, the average fuel cost of operating a combined-cycle natural gas generator exceeded that for a coal-fired generator. Until 2010, ...

7

Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Data Page Edit with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) This is the approved revision of this...

8

Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 Hydrogen Resource Assessment Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power Anelia Milbrandt and Margaret Mann National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617...

9

Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

Andrew Lucero

2009-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

10

Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Utility Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Louisiana Department of Natural Resources In order to prevent waste and to avoid the drilling of unnecessary wells and to encourage the development of coal seam natural gas producing areas in Louisiana, the commissioner of conservation is authorized, as provided in this law, to establish a single unit to be served by one or more wells for a coal seam natural gas producing area. Without in any way modifying the authority granted to the commissioner to establish a drilling unit or

11

Pages that link to "Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Pages that link to "Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana)" Coal seam natural gas producing areas...

12

Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M. [Texas A& amp; M Univ, College Station, TX (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Economics of producing substitute natural gas from coal. Occasional pub  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the cost levelization approach, the economics of producing substitute natural gas (SNG) are examined under different assumptions regarding conversion technologies, coal types and plant financing. A comparison of levelized constant dollar cost-of-service price estimated for Westinghouse and dry bottom Lurgi processes for 1990-2019 shows that SNG from coal produced at western sites is competitive with natural gas and fuel oils.

Rosenberg, J.I.; Ashby, A.B.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

Orndorff, R.C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

AEO2011: World Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

World Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries

17

Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies -- Addressing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Resources Regional effoRt to Deploy Clean Coal teChnologies Addressing the Water-Energy Interface Background Recent water shortages in various parts of the United States have...

18

Comparative Assessment of Coal-and Natural Gas-fired Power Plants under a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparative Assessment of Coal- and Natural Gas-fired Power Plants under a CO2 Emission Performance standard (EPS) for pulverized coal (PC) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants; · Evaluate · Coal-fired Power Plant: Supercritical pulverized coal (SC PC) Illinois #6 Coal Capacity Factor 75

19

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Northeast Region  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Northeast Region Northeast Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Northeast Region Overview | Domestic Gas | Canadian Imports | Regional Pipeline Companies & Links Overview Twenty interstate natural gas pipeline systems operate within the Northeast Region (Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia, and West Virginia). These interstate pipelines deliver natural gas to several intrastate natural gas pipelines and at least 50 local distribution companies in the region. In addition, they also serve large industrial concerns and, increasingly, natural gas fired electric power generation facilities.

20

Potential Prediction of Favorable Regions about Coal Resources Based on MapGIS in Taiqian Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

MapGIS has been widely applied to many fields in geological discipline as a maturely GIS. Its powerful graphic editing and comprehensive snalysis of spatial data functions make it possible to applied to potential prediction of coal. This paper mainly ... Keywords: MapGIS, Taiqian Region, coal resources, potential prediction

Chen Kuikui; Zhang Chong

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Coos Bay Field Gulf Coast Coal Region Williston Basin Illinois  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

San Juan Basin C e n t r a l A p p a l a c h i a n B a s i n Michigan Basin Greater Green River Basin Black Warrior Basin North Central Coal Region Arkoma Basin Denver Basin...

22

California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,...

23

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Midwest Region  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas Pipelines in the Midwest Region Overview | Domestic Gas | Canadian Imports | Regional Pipeline Companies & Links. Overview Twenty-six interstate and at ...

24

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Western Region  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Western Region Western Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Western Region Overview | Transportation South | Transportation North | Regional Pipeline Companies & Links Overview Ten interstate and nine intrastate natural gas pipeline companies provide transportation services to and within the Western Region (Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington), the fewest number serving any region (see Table below). Slightly more than half the capacity entering the region is on natural gas pipeline systems that carry natural gas from the Rocky Mountain area and the Permian and San Juan basins. These latter systems enter the region at the New Mexico-Arizona and Nevada-Utah State lines. The rest of the capacity arrives on natural gas pipelines that access Canadian natural gas at the Idaho and Washington State border crossings with British Columbia, Canada.

25

APPENDIX E: METHANE EMISSIONS FROM NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, OIL PRODUCTION, COAL MINING, AND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPENDIX E: METHANE EMISSIONS FROM NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, OIL PRODUCTION, COAL MINING, AND OTHER PRODUCTION, COAL MINING, AND OTHER SOURCES An Appendix to the Report "A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM of natural gas, which is mostly CH4, occurs through natural gas production, oil production, and coal mining

Delucchi, Mark

26

Clean Coal Technology: Region 4 Market Description, South Atlantic. Summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Region 4 Market Description Summary provides information that can be used in developing an understanding of the potential markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs) in the South Atlantic Region. This region (which geographically is Federal Region 4) consists of the following eight states: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. In order to understand the potential market. A description is provided of the region`s energy use, power generation capacity, and potential growth. Highlights of state government activities that could have a bearing on commercial deployment of CCTs are also presented. The potential markets characterized in this summary center on electric power generation by investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal electric utilities and involve planned new capacity additions and actions taken by utilities to comply with Phases I and II of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Regulations, policies, utility business strategies, and organizational changes that could impact the role of CCTs as a utility option are identified and discussed. The information used to develop the Region 4 Market Description is based mainly on an extensive review of plans and annual reports of 29 investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal coal-using electric utilities and public information on strategies and actions for complying with the CAAA of 1990.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Thermal dissolution of brown and hard coals with the addition of natural and organosilicon compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The addition of activators (natural compounds and their mixtures with organo-silicates) was found to double the yield of liquid products from the thermal solvent extraction of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal, and increase by 20% the yield from Kuzbass bituminous coal. High concentrations of sulphur in the natural additives reduced the extractability of the coal.

Vol-Ehpshtein, A.B.; Gorlov, E.G.; Shataeva, T.A.; Shpil'berg, M.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Southwest Region  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Southwest Region Southwest Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Southwest Region Overview | Export Transportation | Intrastate | Connection to Gulf of Mexico | Regional Pipeline Companies & Links Overview Most of the major onshore interstate natural gas pipeline companies (see Table below) operating in the Southwest Region (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) are primarily exporters of the region's natural gas production to other parts of the country and Mexico, while an extensive Gulf of Mexico and intrastate natural gas pipeline network is the main conduit for deliveries within the region. More than 56,000 miles of natural gas pipeline on more than 66 intrastate natural gas pipeline systems (including offshore-to-onshore and offshore Gulf of Mexico pipelines) deliver natural gas to the region's local natural gas distribution companies and municipalities and to the many large industrial and electric power facilities located in the region.

29

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Central Region  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Central Region Central Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Central Region Overview | Domestic Gas | Exports | Regional Pipeline Companies & Links Overview Twenty-two interstate and at least thirteen intrastate natural gas pipeline companies (see Table below) operate in the Central Region (Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming). Twelve interstate natural gas pipeline systems enter the region from the south and east while four enter from the north carrying Canadian supplies. The average utilization rates on those shipping Canadian natural gas tend to be higher than those carrying domestic supplies.

30

Natural Gas Market Regionalization and Implications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural gas producers, pipeline companies, electric utilities, and other end users all have a stake in understanding the dynamics of regional gas prices. This is especially true with evolving linkages between natural gas and power prices. This report addresses problems that appeared in the natural gas market during the winter of 1995/96 and again in 1996/97 when regional gas prices departed dramatically from their historic norms. Are regional gas price relationships becoming increasingly unpredictable?

1998-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

31

,"California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,...

32

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Southeast Region  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Southeast Region Southeast Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Southeast Region Overview | Transportation to Atlantic & Gulf States | Gulf of Mexico Transportation Corridor | Transportation to the Northern Tier | Regional Pipeline Companies & Links Overview Twenty-three interstate, and at least eight intrastate, natural gas pipeline companies operate within the Southeast Region (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee). Fifteen of the twenty-one interstate natural gas pipelines originate in the Southwest Region and receive most of their supplies from the Gulf of Mexico or from the States of Texas and/or Louisiana.

33

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regional Definitions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Definitions Map Definitions Map About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Regional Definitions The regions defined in the above map are based upon the 10 Federal Regions of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The State groupings are as follows: Northeast Region - Federal Region 1: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Federal Region 2: New Jersey, and New York. Federal Region 3:Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. Southeast Region - Federal Region 4: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Midwest Region - Federal Region 5: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and

34

The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil pollution sources. A field of strong hydrocarbon seepage offshore of Coal Oil Point near Santa Barbara in the Coal Oil Point field to measure directly the atmospheric gas flux from three seeps of varying size

California at Santa Barbara, University of

35

Future power market shares of coal, natural gas generators depend ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural gas combined-cycle capacity represented only 7% of total capacity in the region in 2011, but is projected to rise to 11% in 2040 in the Reference Case.

36

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated April 28, 2004) Spot coal prices in the East rose steadily since Labor Day 2003, with rapid escalations ...

37

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated September 26) The average spot prices for reported coal purchases rose once again ...

38

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices and Earnings (updated August 12) According to Platts Coal Outlooks Weekly Price Survey (August 11), the ...

39

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices and Earnings (updated September 2) The average spot prices for coal traded last week were relatively ...

40

Modeling of a coal-fired natural circulation boiler  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of a natural circulation boiler for a coal-fired thermal power station is presented here. The boiler system is divided into seven subcomponents, and for each section, models based on conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are formulated. The pressure drop at various sections and the heat transfer coefficients are computed using empirical correlations. Solutions are obtained by using SIMULINK. The model is validated by comparing its steady state and dynamic responses with the actual plant data. Open loop responses of the model to the step changes in the operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, steam flow, feed water flow, are also analyzed. The present model can be used for the development and design of effective boiler control systems.

Bhambare, K.S.; Mitra, S.K.; Gaitonde, U.N. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas -BACKGROUND: In December 2009, the Combined Heat and Power Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas University began operating with natural gas, instead of the coal-fired generators of the coal that had been stockpiled, the Plant is running completely on natural gas

Keinan, Alon

42

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated July 7, 2004) In the trading week ended July 2, the average spot coal prices tracked by EIA were mixed.

43

Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas/Electricity Via Catalytic Coal Gasification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Co-ProduCtion of SubStitute natural GaS / eleCtriCity via CatalytiC Coal GaSifiCation Description The United States has vast reserves of low-cost coal, estimated to be sufficient for the next 250 years. Gasification-based technology, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), is the only environmentally friendly technology that provides the flexibility to co-produce hydrogen, substitute natural gas (SNG), premium hydrocarbon liquids including transportation fuels, and electric power in desired combinations from coal and other carbonaceous feedstocks. Rising costs and limited domestic supply of crude oil and natural gas provide a strong incentive for the development of coal gasification-based co-production processes. This project addresses the co-production of SNG and electricity from coal via gasification

44

California--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)...

45

AEO2011: World Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 143, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into Metallurgical coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO coal EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries- Reference Case (xls, 103.8 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

46

AEO2011: World Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 144, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into total coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO coal EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries - Reference Case (xls, 104 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035

47

AEO2011: World Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 142, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into steam coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal flows countries EIA exporting importing Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries- Reference Case (xls, 103.7 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

48

DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam March 10, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- A U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) team of regional partners has begun injecting CO2 into a deep lignite coal seam in Burke County, North Dakota, to demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of geologic CO2 storage in the U.S. Great Plains region. Ultimately, geologic carbon sequestration is expected to play an important role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and combating climate change. The Lignite Field Validation Test is being conducted by the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, one of seven regional partnerships under DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program. The seven

49

How much coal, natural gas, or petroleum is used to generate a ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

How much coal, natural gas, or petroleum is used to generate a kilowatt-hour of electricity? The amount of fuel used to generate electricity depends on the efficiency ...

50

The competition between coal and natural gas : the importance of sunk costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper explores the seeming paradox between the predominant choice of natural gas for capacity additions to generate electricity in the United States and the continuing large share of coal in meeting incremental ...

Ellerman, A. Denny

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

AEO2011: World Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries

52

AEO2011: World Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries

53

California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

54

Turmoil in U.S. Coal Markets: Integrating Pressures from Environmental Regulations, Renewables, Natural Gas and Globalization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

U.S. coal markets are changing due to intensifying domestic and international forces. This report reviews the extent of these changes, examines recent trends in supply and demand for coals from each major U.S. coal-producing region, and delineates the principal forces of change and their impacts now and in the future. The report quantifies changes due to environmental regulations, coal plant retirements, and power plant installation environmental controls that reduce the need for the lowest sulfur coals....

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

55

International Energy Outlook - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2004 Coal Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2025. Coal continues to dominate fuel markets in developing Asia. Figure 52. World Coal Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 53. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2001 and 2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 54. Coal Share of Regional Energy Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since

56

A Perspective of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane on the energy security of India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global energy requirement has grown at a phenomenal rate and the consumption of primary energy sources has been a very high positive growth. This article focuses on the consumption of different primary energy sources and it identifies that coal will continue to remain as the prime energy in the foreseeable future. It examines energy requirement perspectives for India and demands of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane in the foreseeable future. It discusses the state of present day petroleum and petrochemical industries in the country and the latest advances in them to take over in the next few years. The regional pattern of consumption of primary energy sources shows that oil remains as the largest single source of primary energy in most parts of the world. However, gas dominates as the prime source in some parts of the world. Economic development and poverty alleviation depend on securing affordable energy sources and for the country's energy security; it is necessary to adopt the latest technological advances in petroleum and petrochemical industries by supportive government policies. But such energy is very much concerned with environmental degradation and must be driven by contemporary managerial acumen addressing environmental and social challenges effectively. Environmental laws for the abatement of environmental degradation are discussed in this paper. The paper concludes that energy security leading to energy independence is certainly possible and can be achieved through a planned manner.

Ghose, M.K.; Paul, B. [Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad (India)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade...

58

Outlook for Regional Generation Capacity Balances: Report Series on Natural Gas and Power Reliability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States is in the midst of a power plant expansion boom, achieving record additions of natural gas-fired combustion turbines and combined-cycle units over the past two years, with 68,000 MW already added since 1998 and 17,000 MW more slated for completion by the end of 2001. This report provides a region-by-region accounting of how this new capacity -- plus hundreds of megawatts of possible additional natural gas and coal capacity -- may change reserve margins and result in many other impacts a...

2002-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

59

Novel carbons from Illinois coal for natural gas storage. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Goal is to develop a technology for producing microengineered adsorbent carbons from Illinois coal and to evaluate their potential application for storing natural gas for use in emerging low pressure, natural gas vehicles (NGVs). Focus is to design and engineer adsorbents that meet or exceed performance and cost targets established for low-pressure natural gas storage materials. Potentially, about two million tons adsorbent could be consumed in NGVs by year 2000. If successful, the results could lead to use of Illinois coal in a market that could exceed 6 million tons per year. Activated carbon samples were prepared from IBC-106 coal by controlling both the preoxidation temperature and time, and the devolatilization temperature in order to eliminate coal caking. A 4.6 cc pressurized vessel was constructed to measure the Vm/Vs methane adsorption capacity (volume of stored methane at STP per volume storage container). Several IBC-106 derived activated carbons showed methane adsorption capacities comparable to that of a 1000 m{sup 2}/g commercial activated carbon. Results indicated that surface area and micropore volume of activated carbons are important for natural gas storage. Work is in progress to synthesize samples from IBC-106 coal with optimum pore diameter for methane adsorption.

Rostam-Abadi, M.; Sun, Jian; Lizzio, A.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

60

Coal - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas. Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, ... Regional totals do not include refuse recovery: Sections. Introduction; Coal Prices ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Region To Region System ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Natural Gas > About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines ... The EIA has determined that the informational map displays here do not raise security ...

62

Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper estimates the quantity of hydrogen that could be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power by county in the United States. The study estimates that more than 72 million tonnes of hydrogen can be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power per year in the country (considering only 30% of their total annual production). The United States consumed about 396 million tonnes of gasoline in 2007; therefore, the report suggests the amount of hydrogen from these sources could displace about 80% of this consumption.

Milbrandt, A.; Mann, M.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

International Energy Outlook 1999 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal.jpg (1776 bytes) coal.jpg (1776 bytes) Coal’s share of world energy consumption falls slightly in the IEO99 forecast. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia, but it is projected to lose market share to natural gas in some other areas of the world. Historically, trends in coal consumption have varied considerably by region. Despite declines in some regions, world coal consumption has increased from 84 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1985 to 93 quadrillion Btu in 1996. Regions that have seen increases in coal consumption include the United States, Japan, and developing Asia. Declines have occurred in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. In Western Europe, coal consumption declined by 30

64

International Energy Outlook 2000 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2020. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia. Historically, trends in coal consumption have varied considerably by region. Despite declines in some regions, world coal consumption has increased from 84 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1985 to 93 quadrillion Btu in 1997. Regions that have seen increases in coal consumption include the United States, Japan, and developing Asia. Declines have occurred in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU). In Western Europe, coal consumption declined by 33 percent between 1985 and 1997, displaced in considerable measure by

65

Coal regains some electric generation market share from natural ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... a combination of higher prices for natural gas and increased demand for electricity during the summer months led electric systems across much of the country to ...

66

Electricity generation from coal and natural gas both ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy use in homes, commercial buildings, ... the share of natural gas-fired power generation is most influenced by the availability of hydroelectric power, ...

67

System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

Hobbs, Raymond (Avondale, AZ)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

68

AEO2011: Coal Production and Minemouth Prices by Region This...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Minemouth Prices by Region This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is...

69

Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan  

SciTech Connect

With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

Tegen, S.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power, and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

Tegen, S.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

72

,"California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

73

,"California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

74

,"California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

75

,"California--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million...

76

Regional Precipitation Trends: Distinguishing Natural Variability from Anthropogenic Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the nature and causes for observed regional precipitation trends during 19772006 are diagnosed. It is found that major features of regional trends in annual precipitation during 19772006 are consistent with an atmospheric ...

Martin Hoerling; Jon Eischeid; Judith Perlwitz

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

AEO2011: Primary Natural Gas Flows Entering NGTDM Region from...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Primary Natural Gas Flows Entering NGTDM Region from Neighboring Regions

78

AEO2011: Coal Minemouth Prices by Region and Type | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Minemouth Prices by Region and Type Minemouth Prices by Region and Type Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is Table 141, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons and the US Dollar. The data is broken down into northern Appalachia, central Appalachia, southern Appalachia, eastern interior, western interior, Gulf, Dakota medium, western Montana, Wyoming, Rocky Mountain, Arizona/New Mexico and Washington/Alaska. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal Minemouth Prices EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Coal Minemouth Prices by Region and Type- Reference Case (xls, 121.6 KiB)

79

AEO2011: Coal Production and Minemouth Prices by Region | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Minemouth Prices by Region and Minemouth Prices by Region Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 139, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons and the US Dollar. The data is broken down into production and minemouth prices. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal Production EIA Minemouth Prices Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Coal Production and Minemouth Prices by Region- Reference Case (xls, 41.5 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

80

AEO2011: Coal Production by Region and Type | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

by Region and Type by Region and Type Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is Table 140, and contains only the reference case. The unit of measurement in this dataset is million short tons. The data is broken down into northern Appalachia, central Appalachia, southern Appalachia, eastern interior, western interior, gulf, Dakota medium, western montana, Wyoming, Rocky Mountain, Arizona/New Mexico and Washington/Alaska. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal Production EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AE2011: Coal Production by Region and Type- Reference Case (xls, 122.3 KiB)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Novel carbons from Illinois coal for natural gas storage. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop a technology for producing microengineered adsorbent carbons from Illinois coal and to evaluate the potential application of these novel materials for storing natural gas for use in emerging low pressure, natural gas vehicles (NGV). Potentially, about two million tons of adsorbent could be consumed in natural gas vehicles by year 2000. If successful, the results obtained in this project could lead to the use of Illinois coal in a growing and profitable market that could exceed 6 million tons per year. During this reporting period, a pyrolysis-gasification reactor system was designed and assembled. Four carbon samples were produced from a {minus}20+100 mesh size fraction of an Illinois Basin Coal (IBC-106) using a three-step process. The three steps were: coal oxidation in air at 250 C, oxicoal (oxidized coal) devolatilization in nitrogen at 425 C and char gasification in 50% steam-50% nitrogen at 860 C. These initial tests were designed to evaluate the effects of pre-oxidation on the surface properties of carbon products, and to determine optimum reaction time and process conditions to produce an activated carbon with high surface area. Nitrogen-BET surface areas of the carbon products ranged from 700--800 m{sup 2}/g. Work is in progress to further optimize reaction conditions in order to produce carbons with higher surface areas. A few screening tests were made with a pressurized thermogravimetric (PTGA) to evaluate the suitability of this instrument for obtaining methane adsorption isotherms at ambient temperature and pressures ranging from one to 30 atmospheres. The preliminary results indicate that PTGA can be used for both the adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies.

Rostam-Abadi, M.; Sun, J.; Lizzio, A.A. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Fatemi, M. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

82

The Spatial Scales, Distribution, and Intensity of Natural Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps near Coal Oil Point, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

marine hydrocarbon seeps (Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara,marine hydrocarbon seepage near Coal Oil Point, California,source areas such as near Coal Oil Point. Furthermore,

Washburn, Libe; Clark, Jordan F.; Kyriakidis, Phaedon

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Existing and proposed surface and undergoing coal mines region VIII summary. [In CO, MT, ND, UT, WY, SD  

SciTech Connect

Coal mining is expected to increase three-fold between 1978 and about 1985 in the EPA Region VIII States (Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming). This report provides detailed information on existing, proposed, and speculative mines. The information includes location, mine operator, quantity of coal mined, and type of mine.

Kimball, D.B.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

The relationship between policy choice and the size of the policy region: Why small jurisdictions may prefer renewable energy policies to reduce CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generation (KWh) Pre-Policy Natural Gas Generation (KWh)of coal and natural gas within the policy region. For anfrom coal and natural gas from the policy region to other

Accordino, Megan H.; Rajagopal, Deepak

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regional Overview and Links  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Overview and Links Overview and Links About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Regional Overviews and Links to Pipeline Companies Through a series of interconnecting interstate and intrastate pipelines the transportation of natural gas from one location to another within the United States has become a relatively seamless operation. While intrastate pipeline systems often transports natural gas from production areas directly to consumers in local markets, it is the interstate pipeline system's long-distance, high-capacity trunklines that supply most of the major natural gas markets in the United States. Of the six geographic regions defined in this analysis, the Southwest Region contains the largest number of individual natural gas pipeline systems (more than 90) and the highest level of pipeline mileage (over 106,000).

87

California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 334 350 365 1980's 299 306 362 381 265 256 255 238 215 222 1990's 217 216 203 189 194 153 156 164 106 192 2000's 234 177 190 167 189 268 206 205 146 163 2010's 173 165 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 CA, Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of 12/31 (Summary)

88

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regional/State Underground Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Regional/State Underground Natural Gas Storage Table Regional/State Underground Natural Gas Storage Table About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Regional Underground Natural Gas Storage, Close of 2007 Depleted-Reservoir Storage Aquifer Storage Salt-Cavern Storage Total Region/ State # of Sites Working Gas Capacity (Bcf) Daily Withdrawal Capability (MMcf) # of Sites Working Gas Capacity (Bcf) Daily Withdrawal Capability (MMcf) # of Sites Working Gas Capacity (Bcf) Daily Withdrawal Capability (MMcf) # of Sites Working Gas Capacity (Bcf) Daily Withdrawal Capability (MMcf) Central Region Colorado 8 42 1,088 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 42 1,088 Iowa 0 0 0 4 77 1,060 0 0 0 4 77 1,060

89

Novel carbons from Illinois coal for natural gas storage. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop a technology for producing microengineered adsorbent carbons from Illinois coal and to evaluate the potential application of these novel materials for storing natural gas for use in emerging low pressure, natural gas vehicles (NGV). The focus of the project is to design and engineer adsorbents that meet or exceed the performance and cost targets established for low-pressure natural gas storage materials. Potentially, about two million tons of adsorbent could be consumed in natural gas vehicles by year 2000. If successful, the results obtained in this project could lead to the use of Illinois coal in a sowing and profitable market that could exceed 6 million tons per year. During this reporting period, a series of experiments were made to evaluate the effect of coal pre-oxidation, coal pyrolysis, and char activation on the surface area development and methane adsorption capacity of activated carbons/chars made from IBC-102. The optimum production conditions were determined to be: coal oxidation in air at 225C, oxicoal (oxidized coal); devolatilization in nitrogen at 400C; and char gasification in 50% steam in nitrogen at 850C. Nitrogen BET surface areas of the carbon products ranged from 800--1100 m{sup 2}/g. Methane adsorption capacity of several Illinois coal derived chars and a 883 m{sup 2}/g commercial activated carbon were measured using a pressurized thermogaravimetric analyzer at pressures up to 500 psig. Methane adsorption capacity (g/g) of the chars were comparable to that of the commercial activated carbon manufactured by Calgon Carbon. It was determined that the pre-oxidation is a key processing step for producing activated char/carbon with high surface area and high methane adsorption capacity. The results to date are encouraging and warrant further research and development in tailored activated char from Illinois coal for natural gas storage.

Rostam-Abadi, M.; Sun, Jian; Lizzio, A.A. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States); Fatemi, M. [Sperry Univac, St. Paul, MN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar Lett (2010) 30:331338 Fig. 3 Coal Oil Point seep field,hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California. Marhydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field,

Leifer, Ira; Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers advantages compared to burning coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals or low volatile chars derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use due to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary ``volatiles`` to enhance the combustion. Additionally, natural gas provides a clean cofiring fuel source which can enhance the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. Addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emissions through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. This research program seeks to clarify the contributions and to identify the controlling mechanisms of coining natural gas with Illinois coal through studies of particle ignition, burning rates and ash characterization. The first two quarters focused on the ignition delay measurements and their analysis, along with the incorporation of particle porosity into the burning rate model. The emphasis of the third quarter was on a more detailed understanding of the burning rate process, as well as understanding of cofiring`s effects on sulfur retention. The contributions of particle burning area to the quantification of the particle burning mechanisms have been shown to be important and continue to be investigated. Ash samples for various methane concentrations under similar other conditions have shown positive trends in reducing S0{sub 2} emission through increased sulfur capture in the ash.

Buckius, R.O.; Peters, J.E.; Krier, H.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Sustainable Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas (H{sub 2}), Coal and Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This research program is focused primarily on the conversion of coal, natural gas (i.e., methane), and biomass to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), with minimum production of carbon dioxide. A complementary topic also under investigation is the development of novel processes for the production of hydrogen with very low to zero production of CO{sub 2}. This is in response to the nation?s urgent need for a secure and environmentally friendly domestic source of liquid fuels. The carbon neutrality of biomass is beneficial in meeting this goal. Several additional novel approaches to limiting carbon dioxide emissions are also being explored.

Huffman, Gerald

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

93

The Spatial Scales, Distribution, and Intensity of Natural Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps near Coal Oil Point, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

marine hydrocarbon seeps (Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara,marine hydrocarbon seepage near Coal Oil Point, California,associated with offshore oil production", Geology, 27(11),

Washburn, Libe; Clark, Jordan F.; Kyriakidis, Phaedon

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

International Energy Outlook 2001 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal picture of a printer Printer Friendly Version (PDF) Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2020. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia. World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since the late 1980s, a trend that is expected to continue. Although 1999 world consumption, at 4.7 billion short tons,9 was 15 percent higher than coal use in 1980, it was lower than in any year since 1984 (Figure 51). The International Energy Outlook 2001 (IEO2001) reference case projects some growth in coal use between 1999 and 2020, at an average annual rate of 1.5 percent, but with considerable variation among regions.

95

Coal investment and long-term supply and demand outlook for coal in the Asia-Pacific Region  

SciTech Connect

The theme of this symposium to look ahead almost a quarter century to 2020 gives one the freedom to speculate more than usual in projections for coal. It is important to attempt to take a long term look into the future of coal and energy, so that one can begin to prepare for major changes on the horizon. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the crystal ball for making long term projections is accurate for 2020. Hopefully it can suggest plausible changes that have long term strategic importance to Asia`s coal sector. This paper presents the medium scenario of long term projects of coal production, consumption, imports and exports in Asia. The second part of the paper examines the two major changes in Asia that could be most important to the long term role of coal. These include: (1) the impact of strict environmental legislation on energy and technology choices in Asia, and (2) the increased role of the private sector in all aspects of coal in Asia.

Johnson, C.J.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

The LANL/LLNL/AFTAC Black Thunder Coal Mine regional mine monitoring experiment  

SciTech Connect

Cast blasting operations associated with near surface coal recovery provide relatively large explosive sources that generate regional seismograms of interest in monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This paper describes preliminary results of a series of experiments currently being conducted at the Black Thunder Coal Mine in northeast Wyoming as part of the DOE CTBT Research and Development Program. These experiments are intended to provide an integrated set of near-source and regional seismic data for the purposes of quantifying the coupling and source characterization of the explosions. The focus of this paper is on the types of data being recovered with some preliminary implications. The Black Thunder experiments are designed to assess three major questions: (1) how many mining explosions produce seismograms at regional distances that will have to be detected, located and ultimately identified by the National Data Center and what are the waveform characteristics of these particular mining explosions; (2) can discrimination techniques based on empirical studies be placed on a firm physical basis so that they can be applied to other regions where there is little monitoring experience; (3) can large scale chemical explosions (possibly mining explosions) be used to calibrate source and propagation path effects to regional stations, can source depth of burial and decoupling effects be studied in such a controlled environment? With these key questions in mind and given the cooperation of the Black Thunder Mine, a suite of experiments have been and are currently being conducted. This paper will describe the experiments and their relevance to CTBT issues.

Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W.; Baker, D.F.; Edwards, C.L.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/31 341 1994-Jan 01/07 331 01/14 316 01/21 303 01/28 290 1994-Feb 02/04 266 02/11 246 02/18 228 02/25 212 1994-Mar 03/04 206 03/11 201 03/18 205 03/25 202 1994-Apr 04/01 201 04/08 201 04/15 202 04/22 210 04/29 215 1994-May 05/06 225 05/13 236 05/20 242 05/27 256

99

Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2006-Dec 12/29 841 2007-Jan 01/05 823 01/12 806 01/19 755 01/26 716 2007-Feb 02/02 666 02/09 613 02/16 564 02/23 538 2007-Mar 03/02 527 03/09 506 03/16 519 03/23 528 03/30 550 2007-Apr 04/06 560 04/13 556 04/20 568 04/27 590 2007-May 05/04 610 05/11 629 05/18 648 05/25 670

100

Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/31 570 1994-Jan 01/07 532 01/14 504 01/21 440 01/28 414 1994-Feb 02/04 365 02/11 330 02/18 310 02/25 309 1994-Mar 03/04 281 03/11 271 03/18 284 03/25 303 1994-Apr 04/01 287 04/08 293 04/15 308 04/22 334 04/29 353 1994-May 05/06 376 05/13 399 05/20 429 05/27 443

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Regional Supply Outlook for Market Driver Coals: A New Set of Fundamentals?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal prices have peaked twice since 2000 and have yet to return to pre-2000 levels. In the wake of this volatility, this report examines how coal supply fundamentals are changing for key "market-driver" coals and how these changes impact future markets for coal. Many believe the power industry will be able to use a broader range of cheaper, more abundant coals once tighter environmental requirements force additional technology controls around the country. Contrary to this belief, this report provides evi...

2003-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

102

California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 395 1980's 330 325 384 405 284 277 275 255 232 238 1990's 232 231 215 201 205 163 168 176 118 233 2000's 244 185 197 174 196 277 214 212 151 169 2010's 180 173 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 CA, Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec.

103

California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 307 1980's 265 265 325 344 256 254 261 243 220 233 1990's 228 220 196 135 145 109 120 129 116 233 2000's 244 185 197 173 188 269 208 211 150 168 2010's 178 172 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

104

Watershed Transformation Based Identification of the Combustion Region in an Oxy-coal Flame Image  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To meet the increasingly stringent standards on pollutant emissions, oxy-coal combustion technologies are being proposed for both existing and new coal-fired power plants. However, there is lack of research to characterize this new type of combustion ... Keywords: edge detection, image enhancement, wavelet transformation, oxy-coal flame, watershed transformation, image segmentation

Tian Qiu; Yong Yan; Gang Lu

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Use of coal-fired generators in the Southeast has been ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The region with the largest shift between coal and natural gas in terms of both the overall generation levels and the relative fuel mix has been in ...

106

Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2006-Dec 12/29 101 2007-Jan 01/05 109 01/12 107 01/19 96 01/26 91 2007-Feb 02/02 78 02/09 63 02/16 52 02/23 54 2007-Mar 03/02 59 03/09 58 03/16 64 03/23 70 03/30 78 2007-Apr 04/06 81 04/13 80 04/20 80 04/27 83 2007-May 05/04 85 05/11 88 05/18 92 05/25 97 2007-Jun 06/01 100 06/08 101 06/15 102 06/22 102 06/29 102

107

Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/31 1,411 1994-Jan 01/07 1,323 01/14 1,199 01/21 1,040 01/28 958 1994-Feb 02/04 838 02/11 728 02/18 665 02/25 627 1994-Mar 03/04 529 03/11 531 03/18 462 03/25 461 1994-Apr 04/01 465 04/08 475 04/15 494 04/22 541 04/29 593 1994-May 05/06 636 05/13 690 05/20 731 05/27 795

108

Adsorption of anionic and cationic surface-active agents by natural coals  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption isotherms were measured in terms of isopropyl-, butyl- and pentyl-amine and isopropyl alcohol for gas coals and anthracite. It was shown that the amount of adsorption depends on the type of coal and the structure of the adsorbate molecules. Cationic surfactants tend to be adsorbed better than anionic. The paper calculates the standard reduction in free energy during adsorption of amines by coal. It was found that the amine adsorption process leads to an increase in pH.

Butuzova, L.F.; Isaeva, L.N.; Saranchuk, V.I.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Losses and Costs Associated with Coal vs. Natural Gas Firing at Hanes Dye and Finishing.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Due to decreasing production and rising coal prices, the engineering and management staff at Hanes Dye and Finishing in Winston Salem, NC have been investigating (more)

Gibides, Justin Tyler

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Where Appalachia Went Right: White Masculinities, Nature, and Pro-Coal Politics in an Era of Climate Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impacts of the Appalachian Coal Industry and Its Future inCommunity Economic Identity: The Coal Industry and IdeologyPress, 1882. Citizens for Coal. Facebook. Accessed March

Schwartzman, Gabe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost  

SciTech Connect

We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining, and other counties in the nation. We converted mortality estimates to VSL estimates and compared the results with the economic contribution of coal mining. We also conducted a discount analysis to estimate current benefits relative to future mortality costs. The heaviest coal mining areas of Appalachia had the poorest socioeconomic conditions. Before adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual age-adjusted deaths in coal mining areas ranged from 3,975 to 10,923, depending on years studied and comparison group. Corresponding VSL estimates ranged from $18.563 billion to $84.544 billion, with a point estimate of $50.010 billion, greater than the $8.088 billion economic contribution of coal mining. After adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual deaths in mining areas ranged from 1,736 to 2,889, and VSL costs continued to exceed the benefits of mining. Discounting VSL costs into the future resulted in excess costs relative to benefits in seven of eight conditions, with a point estimate of $41.846 billion.

Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Natural Gas and Power in the Marcellus Super-Region: Regional and National Implications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dramatic increases in shale gas production across the United States have fundamentally changed the outlook for gas markets in the near term, and perhaps for decades. The Marcellus shale has emerged in just a few years as the second largest gas field in the nation. The Marcellus region, which has historically been a large natural gas importer, is now poised to be a significant exporter, and a large producer of natural gas liquids. This report explores the resource base and cost ranges of production, ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

113

NETL: News Release - DOE Regional Partner Initiates CO2 Injection...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

storage in coal seams as a safe and permanent method to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions while enhancing production of natural gas. DOE's Southeast Regional Carbon...

114

Cheaper natural gas alters generation dispatch in Southeast ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

While coal-fired power plants continue to generate more than half of electricity in the region, ... and production from natural gas-fired plants has increased.

115

Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regional/State ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates

117

Coal News and Markets - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

"Coal News and Markets Report" summarizes spot coal prices by coal commodity regions (i.e., Central Appalachia (CAPP), Northern Appalachia (NAPP), Illinois Basin (ILB ...

118

EVALUATION OF NATURAL AND IN-SITU REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR A COAL-RELATED METALS PLUME  

SciTech Connect

Metals contamination exceeding drinking water standards (MCLs) is associated with acidic leachate generated from a coal pile runoff basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The metals plume extends over 100 acres with its' distal boundary about onehalf mile from the Savannah River. Based on the large plume extent and high dissolved iron and aluminum concentrations, conventional treatment technologies are likely to be ineffective and cost prohibitive. In-situ bioremediation using existing groundwater microbes is being evaluated as a promising alternative technology for effective treatment, along with consideration of natural attenuation of the lower concentration portions of the plume to meet remedial goals. Treatment of the high concentration portion of the groundwater plume by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is being evaluated through laboratory microcosm testing and a field-scale demonstration. Organic substrates are added to promote SRB growth. These bacteria use dissolved sulfate as an electron acceptor and ultimately precipitate dissolved metals as metal sulfides. Laboratory microcosm testing indicate SRB are present in groundwater despite low pH conditions, and that their growth can be stimulated by soybean oil and sodium lactate. The field demonstration consists of substrate injection into a 30-foot deep by 240-foot long permeable trench. Microbial activity is demonstrated by an increase in pH from 3 to 6 within the trench. Downgradient monitoring will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of SRB in reducing metal concentrations. Natural attenuation (NA) is being evaluated for the low concentration portion of the plume. A decrease in metal mobility can occur through a variety of abiotically and/or biotically mediated mechanisms. Quantification of these mechanisms is necessary to more accurately predict contaminant attenuation using groundwater transport models that have historically relied on simplified conservative assumptions. Result s from matched soil/porewater samples indicate higher soil/water partition coefficients (Kds) with increasing distance from the source. In addition, site-specific metals availability is being assessed using sequential extraction techniques, which more accurately represent environmental conditions as compared to default EPA extraction methods. Due to elevated sulfate levels in the plume, SRB are most likely to be the dominant biotic contributor to NA processes.

Ross, Jeffrey A.; Bayer, Cassandra L.; Socha, Ronald P.; Sochor,Cynthia S.; Fliermans, Carl B.; McKinsey, Pamela C.; Millings, Margaret R.; Phifer, Mark A.; Powell, Kimberly R.; Serkiz, Steven M.; Sappington, Frank C.; Turick, Charles E.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

119

Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with China's economy in its current mode of growth. Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on its current growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Broadening awareness of the environmental costs of coal mining, transport, and combustion is raising the pressure on Chinese policy makers to find alternative energy sources. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China is short of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport. Transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transport oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 mt by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets. The looming coal gap threatens to derail China's growth path, possibly undermining political, economic, and social stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages will have regional and global effects. Regarding China's role as a global manufacturing center, a domestic coal gap will increase prices and constrain growth. Within the Asia-Pacific region, China's coal gap is likely to bring about increased competition with other coal-importing countries including Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India. As with petroleum, China may respond with a government-supported 'going-out' strategy of resource acquisition and vertical integration. Given its population and growing resource constraints, China may favor energy security, competitiveness, and local environmental protection over global climate change mitigation. The possibility of a large coal gap suggests that Chinese and international policy makers should maximize institutional and financial support

Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

120

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal prices have been far less volatile than natural gas prices.Coal Prices Figure 9 is similar to Figure 8 except the natural gas pricesCoal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis interested in natural gas prices

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 888,010 816,597 813,746 830,132 876,457 908,444 941,985 966,686 1,002,402 1,021,144 997,644 956,234 1995 902,782 884,830 865,309 860,012 897,991 945,183 975,307 986,131 1,011,948 1,032,357 1,033,363 982,781 1996 896,744 853,207 837,980 849,221 885,715 916,778 929,559 928,785 946,748 949,983 939,649 899,689 1997 833,239 796,139 788,601 801,955 844,880 890,703 923,845 947,277 969,170 980,388 967,286 880,627 1998 828,658 780,476 768,264 773,053 823,311 872,913 900,181 925,287 965,846 1,001,548 1,009,978 953,379

122

AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 7,862 17,834 34,190 160,946 247,849 262,039 269,285 244,910 208,853 134,234 47,094 16,471 1995 13,614 4,932 36,048 85,712 223,991 260,731 242,718 212,493 214,385 160,007 37,788 12,190 1996 12,276 39,022 32,753 130,232 233,717 285,798 303,416 270,223 247,897 166,356 39,330 28,875 1997 16,058 14,620 25,278 93,501 207,338 258,086 250,776 252,129 233,730 152,913 53,097 10,338 1998 21,908 13,334 48,068 139,412 254,837 234,427 234,269 207,026 178,129 144,203 52,518 28,342

123

AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 280,414 208,968 200,997 216,283 261,894 293,909 326,049 349,274 387,670 405,477 381,931 342,394 1995 288,908 270,955 251,410 246,654 284,291 328,371 362,156 372,718 398,444 418,605 419,849 366,944 1996 280,620 236,878 221,371 232,189 268,812 299,619 312,736 313,747 330,116 333,134 322,501 282,392 1997 216,113 179,067 171,563 184,918 227,756 273,507 306,641 330,075 351,975 363,189 350,107 263,455 1998 211,982 163,084 150,923 155,766 206,048 254,643 281,422 305,746 346,135 379,917 388,380 330,906

124

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Comparison of coal-based systems: marketability of medium-Btu gas and SNG (substitute natural gas) for industrial applications. Final report, July 1979-March 1982  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In assessing the marketability of synthetic fuel gases from coal, this report emphasizes the determination of the relative attractiveness of substitute natural gas (SNG) and medium-Btu gas (MBG) for serving market needs in eight industrial market areas. The crucial issue in predicting the marketability of coal-based synthetic gas is the future price level of competing conventional alternatives, particularly oil. Under a low oil-price scenario, the market outlook for synthetic gases is not promising, but higher oil prices would encourage coal gasification.

Olsen, D.L.; Trexel, C.A.; Teater, N.R.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2,026,828 2,068,220 2,068,220 2,068,428 2,068,428 2,068,428 2,074,428 2,082,928 2,082,928 2,082,928 2,082,928 2,082,928 1995 2,082,928 2,096,611 2,096,611 2,096,176 2,096,176 2,096,176 2,090,331 2,090,331 2,090,331 2,090,331 2,090,331 2,090,331 1996 2,095,131 2,106,116 2,110,116 2,108,116 2,110,116 2,127,294 2,126,618 2,134,784 2,140,284 2,140,284 2,144,784 2,144,784 1997 2,143,603 2,149,088 2,170,288 2,170,288 2,170,178 2,170,178 2,189,642 2,194,242 2,194,242 2,194,242 2,194,242 2,194,242 1998 2,194,242 2,194,242 2,194,242 2,194,242 2,194,242 2,205,540 2,205,540 2,205,540 2,205,540 2,205,540 2,205,540 2,197,859

127

AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 1,226,103 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1995 1,232,392 1,233,637 1,233,637 1,233,637 1,233,637 1,243,137 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1996 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,228,208 1,270,505 1,270,505 1,270,505 1,270,505 1,270,505 1,270,505 1997 1,228,395 1,228,395 1,228,076 1,228,076 1,228,076 1,228,076 1,228,076 1,228,076 1,228,076 1,228,076 1,228,076 1,228,076 1998 1,228,076 1,228,076 1,228,076 1,228,076 1,228,076 1,122,586 1,122,586 1,122,586 1,122,586 1,122,586 1,122,586 1,122,586

128

AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 58,880 70,469 16,774 11,878 2,078 1,522 2,158 2,524 1,024 3,314 29,483 47,719 1995 56,732 27,801 27,857 15,789 4,280 2,252 3,265 11,858 5,401 6,025 14,354 53,469 1996 89,320 52,624 24,847 9,346 4,785 4,298 12,886 21,661 6,866 14,578 24,096 48,438 1997 73,240 41,906 22,756 15,182 4,297 3,613 5,381 8,030 7,770 12,343 22,625 88,975 1998 54,800 50,704 27,864 16,746 3,265 2,619 6,278 6,049 5,822 4,599 14,013 62,377 1999 54,762 45,467 35,081 31,196 7,773 3,792 4,982 14,342 6,642 10,488 15,128 54,531

129

AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2,449 542 13,722 29,089 48,055 33,801 35,146 27,858 45,903 22,113 5,766 6,401 1995 2,960 9,426 8,840 10,680 42,987 47,386 37,349 22,868 31,053 25,873 15,711 3,003 1996 2,819 8,696 9,595 20,495 41,216 36,086 25,987 20,787 24,773 17,795 13,530 9,122 1997 6,982 4,857 15,669 28,479 47,040 49,438 38,542 31,080 29,596 23,973 10,066 1,975 1998 5,540 1,847 14,429 21,380 49,816 48,423 30,073 34,243 31,710 34,744 26,456 6,404 1999 4,224 3,523 10,670 17,950 41,790 42,989 40,381 26,942 30,741 20,876 18,806 4,642

130

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 201,567 147,250 61,339 23,149 9,789 29,178 13,371 19,352 10,151 24,102 52,809 137,962 1995 166,242 120,089 100,955 31,916 17,279 19,712 35,082 62,364 16,966 33,762 102,735 181,097 1996 223,932 157,642 141,292 36,788 27,665 26,393 32,861 27,599 20,226 34,000 116,431 142,519 1997 204,601 103,715 43,894 54,285 24,898 34,122 65,631 42,757 30,579 32,257 113,422 180,582 1998 143,042 69,667 97,322 25,555 30,394 38,537 33,314 37,034 51,903 17,812 60,078 168,445 1999 189,816 77,848 104,690 44,930 22,829 26,085 58,109 60,549 25,888 43,790 66,980 165,046

131

AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 530,741 349,007 159,102 30,353 9,093 4,218 8,493 5,462 6,537 22,750 119,120 256,340 1995 419,951 414,116 196,271 76,470 8,845 14,449 13,084 9,496 3,715 25,875 247,765 398,851 1996 435,980 333,314 236,872 66,149 12,958 4,261 2,804 5,141 5,152 24,515 213,277 269,811 1997 474,777 267,717 218,640 76,956 11,974 4,401 7,277 5,503 5,269 39,662 165,807 309,399 1998 339,858 244,813 256,560 37,278 8,764 11,317 14,830 15,207 16,026 23,854 94,110 287,801 1999 437,182 261,305 244,041 43,642 13,904 11,738 17,499 14,984 9,984 37,822 122,731 385,958

132

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 20,366 29,330 55,297 93,538 129,284 83,943 104,001 98,054 88,961 65,486 49,635 27,285 1995 24,645 25,960 57,833 78,043 101,019 100,926 77,411 54,611 94,759 84,671 40,182 33,836 1996 34,389 48,922 38,040 76,100 98,243 88,202 88,653 109,284 125,616 91,618 37,375 48,353 1997 45,327 35,394 89,625 83,137 107,821 99,742 71,360 95,278 116,634 117,497 49,750 33,170 1998 41,880 59,324 73,582 119,021 128,323 96,261 107,136 94,705 87,920 129,117 58,026 47,924 1999 35,830 50,772 49,673 80,879 110,064 100,132 72,348 67,286 103,587 79,714 66,465 32,984

133

AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 3,605,263 3,281,694 3,164,033 3,297,696 3,531,074 3,786,195 4,043,225 4,279,875 4,477,279 4,588,167 4,522,088 4,292,649 1995 3,905,789 3,514,201 3,360,765 3,369,823 3,576,559 3,812,014 3,968,751 4,159,006 4,362,855 4,483,271 4,279,539 3,905,710 1996 3,483,209 3,190,123 2,987,233 3,052,606 3,272,105 3,557,334 3,859,973 4,122,060 4,364,848 4,508,821 4,334,814 4,094,033 1997 3,630,708 3,381,047 3,190,271 3,205,661 3,398,322 3,660,850 3,905,985 4,151,456 4,379,374 4,493,802 4,383,068 4,084,339 1998 3,774,740 3,544,699 3,335,505 3,436,983 3,680,419 3,909,517 4,166,130 4,309,452 4,461,762 4,580,963 4,542,742 4,295,021

134

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 393,598 297,240 289,617 356,360 461,202 516,155 604,504 678,168 747,928 783,414 775,741 673,670 1995 549,759 455,591 416,294 457,969 533,496 599,582 638,359 634,297 713,319 766,411 700,456 552,458 1996 369,545 263,652 195,447 224,002 279,731 339,263 391,961 474,402 578,991 638,500 562,097 466,366 1997 314,140 248,911 297,362 326,566 401,514 471,824 478,925 532,982 617,733 705,879 642,254 494,485 1998 391,395 384,696 362,717 457,545 550,232 610,363 684,086 748,042 784,567 893,181 888,358 768,239 1999 611,978 585,458 530,610 568,307 653,498 728,071 744,307 750,460 826,493 858,836 849,011 718,513

135

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 1,433,462 1,329,400 1,322,914 1,388,877 1,498,496 1,553,493 1,643,445 1,714,361 1,785,350 1,819,344 1,810,791 1,716,773 1995 1,601,428 1,510,175 1,467,414 1,509,666 1,586,445 1,662,195 1,696,619 1,688,515 1,768,189 1,818,098 1,757,160 1,613,046 1996 1,436,765 1,325,994 1,223,139 1,264,513 1,334,894 1,395,779 1,443,970 1,525,797 1,631,006 1,686,652 1,614,154 1,519,539 1997 1,379,108 1,303,888 1,356,678 1,385,616 1,461,221 1,536,339 1,542,480 1,596,011 1,683,987 1,770,002 1,707,810 1,559,636 1998 1,456,136 1,442,993 1,420,644 1,515,050 1,610,474 1,666,304 1,739,745 1,803,097 1,840,984 1,950,772 1,945,897 1,807,163

136

AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 905,018 584,386 467,210 599,207 831,273 1,086,355 1,342,894 1,578,648 1,775,994 1,885,465 1,819,517 1,589,500 1995 1,206,116 814,626 663,885 674,424 850,290 1,085,760 1,300,439 1,487,188 1,690,456 1,811,013 1,608,177 1,232,901 1996 812,303 520,053 341,177 397,770 612,572 890,243 1,192,952 1,456,355 1,695,873 1,838,842 1,664,539 1,423,793 1997 965,310 711,444 521,508 539,750 735,527 985,803 1,230,970 1,474,855 1,702,601 1,816,709 1,706,526 1,416,580 1998 1,108,737 878,420 669,205 772,790 1,017,260 1,248,564 1,462,360 1,644,247 1,797,048 1,918,157 1,878,225 1,630,559

137

AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 4,737,921 4,727,501 4,727,501 4,727,501 4,727,501 4,727,501 4,727,501 4,727,501 4,727,446 4,727,446 4,727,446 4,727,509 1995 4,730,109 4,647,791 4,647,791 4,647,791 4,647,791 4,647,791 4,593,948 4,593,948 4,593,948 4,593,948 4,593,948 4,593,948 1996 4,593,948 4,600,548 4,603,048 4,603,048 4,607,048 4,740,509 4,740,509 4,742,309 4,743,309 4,743,309 4,743,309 4,743,309 1997 4,681,090 4,574,740 4,586,024 4,578,486 4,586,024 4,582,146 4,582,146 4,582,146 4,585,702 4,585,702 4,585,702 4,585,702 1998 4,585,702 4,585,702 4,585,702 4,585,702 4,585,702 4,799,753 4,799,753 4,799,753 4,799,753 4,799,753 4,799,753 4,805,622

138

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" 2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

139

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

140

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Coal supply/demand, 1980 to 2000. Task 3. Resource applications industrialization system data base. Final review draft. [USA; forecasting 1980 to 2000; sector and regional analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of data and forecasts resulting from an analysis of the coal market and the factors influencing supply and demand. The analyses performed for the forecasts were made on an end-use-sector basis. The sectors analyzed are electric utility, industry demand for steam coal, industry demand for metallurgical coal, residential/commercial, coal demand for synfuel production, and exports. The purpose is to provide coal production and consumption forecasts that can be used to perform detailed, railroad company-specific coal transportation analyses. To make the data applicable for the subsequent transportation analyses, the forecasts have been made for each end-use sector on a regional basis. The supply regions are: Appalachia, East Interior, West Interior and Gulf, Northern Great Plains, and Mountain. The demand regions are the same as the nine Census Bureau regions. Coal production and consumption in the United States are projected to increase dramatically in the next 20 years due to increasing requirements for energy and the unavailability of other sources of energy to supply a substantial portion of this increase. Coal comprises 85 percent of the US recoverable fossil energy reserves and could be mined to supply the increasing energy demands of the US. The NTPSC study found that the additional traffic demands by 1985 may be met by the railways by the way of improved signalization, shorter block sections, centralized traffic control, and other modernization methods without providing for heavy line capacity works. But by 2000 the incremental traffic on some of the major corridors was projected to increase very significantly and is likely to call for special line capacity works involving heavy investment.

Fournier, W.M.; Hasson, V.

1980-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

142

Chemicals from coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Effects of metal cations present naturally in coal on the fate of coal-bound nitrogen in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of 25 coals with different ranks: correlation between inherent Fe cations and N{sub 2} formation from low-rank coals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fate of coal-N in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of 25 coals with 62-81 wt % (daf) C has been studied with a quartz reactor at 1000 C under ambient pressure to examine the effects of metal cations present naturally in these coals on the partitioning of coal-N into N{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, HCN, tar-N, and char-N. Nitrogen mass balances for all runs fall within the reasonable range of 100 {+-} 5%, and N{sub 2} is the predominant product for all of the coals. As the N{sub 2} yield increases, the sum of NH{sub 3}, HCN, and tar-N is unchanged significantly, whereas the char-N yield decreases almost linearly, showing that most of N{sub 2} originates from char-N. When eight kinds of inherent metals, such as Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Fe, and Ti, are determined by the conventional method and related with the N{sub 2} yield, there exists a strong, direct correlation between the Fe content and N{sub 2} formation for low-rank coals with less than 75 wt % (daf) C. Transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays (TEM-EDAX) measurements after pyrolysis at 1000{sup o}C of a German brown coal, which provides the highest N{sub 2} yield of about 60%, reveal the existence of lamella structures because of graphitized carbon as well as nanoscale Fe particles with different sizes and shapes. The mechanism for conversion reactions of char-N to N{sub 2} is discussed in terms of the catalysis by nanoparticles of metallic Fe formed from inherent Fe cations. 34 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

Yasuo Ohtsuka; Zhiheng Wu [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Research Center of Sustainable Materials Engineering

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regional Overview and Links  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Regional Overviews and Links to Pipeline Companies Through a series of interconnecting interstate and intrastate pipelines the...

145

Marcellus region to provide 18% of total U.S. natural gas ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Production of natural gas in the Marcellus region, located in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, is expected to exceed 13 billion cubic feet per day ...

146

A Note of Zipf's Law, Natural Languages, and Noncoding DNA Regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Phys. Rev. Letters (73:2), Mantegna et al. conclude on the basis of Zipf rank frequency data that noncoding DNA sequence regions are more like natural languages than coding regions. We argue on the contrary that an ...

Niyogi, Partha

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Northern Cheyenne Reservation Coal Bed Natural Resource Assessment and Analysis of Produced Water Disposal Options  

SciTech Connect

Coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is currently one of the most active gas plays in the United States. Monthly production in 2002 reached about 26 BCF in the Wyoming portion of the basin. Coalbed methane reserves for the Wyoming portion of the basin are approximately 25 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Although coal beds in the Powder River Basin extend well into Montana, including the area of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the only CBM development in Montana is the CX Field, operated by the Fidelity Exploration, near the Wyoming border. The Northern Cheyenne Reservation is located on the northwest flank of the PRB in Montana with a total land of 445,000 acres. The Reservation consists of five districts, Lame Deer, Busby, Ashland, Birney, and Muddy Cluster and has a population of 4,470 according to the 2000 Census. The CBM resource represents a significant potential asset to the Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe. Methane gas in coal beds is trapped by hydrodynamic pressure. Because the production of CBM involves the dewatering of coalbed to allow the release of methane gas from the coal matrix, the relatively large volume of the co-produced water and its potential environmental impacts are the primary concerns for the Tribe. Presented in this report is a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) in partnership with the Northern Cheyenne Tribe to assess the Tribes CBM resources and evaluate applicable water handling options. The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Native American Initiative of the National Petroleum Technology Office, under contract DEAC07- 99ID13727. Matching funds were granted by the MBMG in supporting the work of geologic study and mapping conducted at MBMG.

Shaochang Wo; David A. Lopez; Jason Whiteman Sr.; Bruce A. Reynolds

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 153 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2011, DOE/EIA-M060(2011) (Washington, DC, 2011). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

149

Coal Market Module This  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

51 51 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2012, DOE/EIA-M060(2012) (Washington, DC, 2012). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

150

Disaggregating regional energy supply/demand and flow data to 173 BEAs in support of export coal analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the procedures and results of a study sponsored jointly by the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy. The study was conducted to provide, Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)-level production/consumption data for energy materials for 1985 and 1990 in support of an analysis of transportation requirements for export coal. Base data for energy forecasts at the regional level were obtained from the Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. The forecasts selected for this study are described in DOE/EIA's 1980 Annual Report to Congress, and are: 1985 Series, B, medium oil import price ($37.00/barrel); and 1990 Series B, medium oil import price ($41.00/barrel). Each forecast period is extensively described by approximately forty-three statistical tables prepared by EIA and made available to TERA for this study. This report provides sufficient information to enable the transportation analyst to appreciate the procedures employed by TERA to produce the BEA-level energy production/consumption data. The report presents the results of the procedures, abstracts of data tabulations, and various assumptions used for the preparation of the BEA-level data. The end-product of this effort was the BEA to BEA energy commodity flow data by more which serve as direct input to DOT's transportation network model being used for a detailed analysis of export coal transportation.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

American Coal Council American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum Dallas, Texas May 17-19, 2004 Thomas J. Feeley, III Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Presentation Outline * Background * Power plant-water issues * DOE/NETL R&D program * Conclusion/future plans ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Global Water Availability Ocean 97% Fresh Water 2.5% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ice Groundwater Lakes and Rivers ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Three Things Power Plants Require 1) Access to transmission lines 2) Available fuel, e.g., coal or natural gas 3) Water ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Freshwater Withdrawals and Consumption Mgal / Day Irrigation 81,300 Irrigation 81,300 Thermoelectric 3,310 Consumption Sources: "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995," USGS Circular 1200, 1998

152

Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power From Western Coals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Daniel C. Cicero Daniel C. Cicero Hydrogen & Syngas Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-285-4826 daniel.cicero@netl.doe.gov Gary J. stiegel Gasification Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236 412-386-4499 gary.stiegel@netl.doe.gov Elaine Everitt Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-285-4491 elaine.everitt@netl.doe.gov 4/2009 Hydrogen & Syngas Technologies Gasification Technologies Development of a HyDrogasification process for co-proDuction of substitute natural gas (sng) anD electric power from western coals Description In the next two decades, electric utilities serving the Western United States must install

153

Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost and Performance Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia July 5, 2011 DOE/NETL- 2010/1402 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or

154

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation, the primary source of petroleum hydrocarbons inPetroleum Geologists, Tulsa Clark JF, Washburn L, Hornafius JS, Luyendyk BP (2000) Natural marine hydrocarbon seep source

Leifer, Ira; Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

How much coal, natural gas, or petroleum is used to generate a ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Reserves, production, prices, employ- ment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports. ... How much does it cost to produce crude oil and natural gas?

156

Monthly coal- and natural gas-fired generation equal for first ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Recently published electric power data show that, for the first time since EIA began collecting the data, generation from natural gas-fired plants is ...

157

Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6/5/2013 1 Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium Natural Gas Prices 6. Potential Federal CO2 regulatory cost policy Two basic CO2 Cost 10 20 30 40 Million Generation Coal 19 % 15 % 13 % Natural Gas 10 % 10 % 14 % Wind & Other Renewables 8 % 12 % 13 % Emission

158

Where Appalachia Went Right: White Masculinities, Nature, and Pro-Coal Politics in an Era of Climate Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ID=54. ATVs For Sale. Facebook. Accessed May 6, 2013.Citizens for Coal. Facebook. Accessed March 18, 2013.Citizens for Coal. Facebook. Photo. Accessed May 4, 2013.

Schwartzman, Gabe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Natural resource prices: will they ever turn up?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

real price* Resource Aluminum Coal Copper Iron Natural gasprice * Resource Aluminum Coal Copper Iron Natural gasast price* RMS% error Aluminum Coal Copper Iron Natural gas

Berck, Peter; Roberts, Mike

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Direct Use of Natural Gas: Economic Fuel Choices from the Regional Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct Use of Natural Gas: Economic Fuel Choices from the Regional Power System and Consumer's Perspective Council document 2012-01 Background Is it better to use natural gas directly in water heaters; total-energy efficiency, fuel switching, direct use of gas, and others. The natural gas companies

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsena  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsena , Sigurd little attention. this paper addresses optimal operation of a simple natural gas liquefaction process at all times. Keywords: Self-optimizing control, liquefied natural gas, LNG, PRICO, disturbances, optimal

Skogestad, Sigurd

162

Coal - Analysis & Projections - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

"Coal News and Markets Report" summarizes spot coal prices by coal commodity regions (i.e., Central Appalachia (CAPP), Northern Appalachia (NAPP), ...

163

Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece  

SciTech Connect

West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 232}Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose.

Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R. [Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of West Macedonia, Department of Pollution Control Technologies, Koila, Kozani, 50100 (Greece)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

164

Initiators of coal hydrogenation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results are given of an investigation of the influence of additions of certain organosilicon compounds of cyclic and linear nature on the coal hydrogenation process.

Krichko, A.A.; Dembovskaya, E.A.; Gorlov, E.G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Hydrogen and Clean Fuels...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Strategies Central Hydrogen Production Coal Supply Regions CLICK ON IMAGE TO SEE LARGER VIEW Coal is a plentiful domestic resource, and is available in several major regions of the...

166

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hybrid combined cycle power plant natural gas combined cyclePower Plants study, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Analysis of Markets for Coal Combustion By-Products Use in Agriculture and Land Reclamation: Summary Report of Four Regional Marketi ng Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sites for the disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBP) are becoming more difficult to acquire, license, and develop. Since CCBP production may increase in the foreseeable future, reducing the reliance on disposal makes economic and environmental sense. This report summarizes the findings of four regional marketing studies, which examined barriers--both economic and regulatory-- to the land application of CCBP.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

AEO2011: Primary Natural Gas Flows Entering NGTDM Region from Neighboring  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Primary Natural Gas Flows Entering NGTDM Region from Neighboring Primary Natural Gas Flows Entering NGTDM Region from Neighboring Regions Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is Table 138, and contains only the reference case. This dataset is in billion cubic feet per year. The data is broken down into New England, Middle Atlantic, East North Central, West Central, South Atlantic, East South Central, West South Central, Mountain, Pacific, Florida, Arizona/New Mexico, California. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO EIS Natural Gas Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Primary Natural Gas Flows Entering NGTDM Region from Neighboring Regions- Reference Case (xls, 60 KiB)

169

AEO2011: Coal Production by Region and Type This dataset comes...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

by Region and Type This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is Table 140,...

170

Great Plains coal gasification project. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, September 12, 1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hearing was called to review the announcement by the Department of Energy that it has selected Basin Electric Power Cooperative of Bismarck, North Dakota, as the preferred buyer for the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant. The plant produces 142 billion standard cubic feet of synthetic natural gas per day from lignite coal plus several byproducts which are marketed. The hearing examines the bids of the finalists, the composition of the trust funds, the status of the siting permits, questions of air quality, employee retirement funds and employee benefits, and the ability of the successful bidder to pursue byproduct development and marketing. Testimony was heard from 7 witnesses.

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

The mobile phase in coals: Its nature and modes of release: Final report: Part 1, Structural inferences from dry catalytic hydrogenation of a subbituminous coal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a study to provide insight into the two component structural model of coal and the mechanisms of coal liquefaction, an approach was adopted in which a subbituminous coal was reacted with hydrogen in the presence of an impregnated molybdenum sulphide catalyst and in the absence of solvent. Reactions were conducted at temperatures between 300 and 400/sup 0/C and for reaction times up to 180 min. The composition and yields of gaseous products, chloroform-soluble liquids and insoluble residues were followed as a function of the reaction conditions by means of different analytical and characterization techniques: gas chromatography; /sup 1/H NMR; elemental analysis; FTIR; solvent swelling in pyridine. 105 refs., 20 figs., 12 tabs.

Terrer, M.T.; Derbyshire, F.J.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

,"AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)" Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5030882m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5030882m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

173

,"AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)" Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5030892m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5030892m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

174

,"AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)" Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5030872m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5030872m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

175

Coal market momentum converts skeptics  

SciTech Connect

Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

JEDI II: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts from Coal, Natural Gas, and Wind Power (Poster)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using economic multipliers, JEDI II measures the potential employment (job and earnings) and economic development impacts (output) from new power plants by calculating the dollar flow from construction and annual operations. In its default form, JEDI II conducts state-specific analyses. County or regional analyses require additional multipliers.

Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

The First Coal Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Plants Coal Plants Nature Bulletin No. 329-A January 25, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE FIRST COAL PLANTS Coal has been called "the mainspring" of our civilization. You are probably familiar, in a general way, with the story of how it originated ages ago from beds of peat which were very slowly changed to coal; and how it became lignite or brown coal, sub-bituminous, bituminous, or anthracite coal, depending on bacterial and chemical changes in the peat, how much it was compressed under terrific pressure, and the amount of heat involved in the process. You also know that peat is formed by decaying vegetation in shallow clear fresh-water swamps or bogs, but it is difficult to find a simple description of the kinds of plants that, living and dying during different periods of the earth's history, created beds of peat which eventually became coal.

178

Coal News and Markets - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices and Earnings (updated May 16, 2005) Of the five regional coal commodities indexed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA ...

179

STEO November 2012 - coal supplies  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to decline in 2013, primarily because of continuing economic weakness in Europe, lower international coal prices, and higher coal production in Asia. However, U.S. coal exports next year are still expected to top 100 million tons for the third year in a row

180

Pelletization of fine coals  

SciTech Connect

The present research project attempts to provide a basis to determine the pelletizability of fine coals, to ascertain the role of additives and binders and to establish a basis for binder selection. Currently, there are no established techniques for determining the quality of coal pellets. Our research is intended to develop a series of tests on coal pellets to measure their storage characteristics, transportability, ease of gasification and rate of combustion. Information developed from this research should be valuable for making knowledgeable decisions for on-time plant design, occasional binder selection and frequent process control during the pelletization of coal fines. During the last quarter, we continued the batch pelletization studies on Upper Freeport coal. The results as presented in that last quarterly report (April 1991) indicated that the surface conditions on the coal particle influenced the pelletizing growth rates. For example, a fresh (run of mine) sample of coal will display different pelletizing growth kinetics than a weathered sample of the same coal. Since coal is a heterogeneous material, the oxidized product of coal is equally variable. We found it to be logistically difficult to consistently produce large quantities of artificially oxidized coal for experimental purposes and as such we have used a naturally weathered coal. We have plans to oxidize coals under controlled oxidizing conditions and be able to establish their pelletizing behavior. The next phase of experiments were directed to study the effect of surface modification, introduced during the coal cleaning steps, on pelletizing kinetics. Accordingly, we initiated studies with two additives commonly used during the flotation of coal: dextrin (coal depressant) and dodecane (coal collector).

Sastry, K.V.S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Determination of Coal Permeability Using Pressure Transient Methods  

SciTech Connect

Coalbed methane is a significant natural resource in the Appalachian region. It is believed that coalbed methane production can be enhanced by injection of carbon dioxide into coalbeds. However, the influence of carbon dioxide injection on coal permeability is not yet well understood. Competitive sorption of carbon dioxide and methane gases onto coal is a known process. Laboratory experiments and limited field experience indicate that coal will swell during sorption of a gas and shrink during desorption of a gas. The swelling and shrinkage may change the permeability of the coal. In this study, the permeability of coal was determined by using carbon dioxide as the flowing fluid. Coal samples with different dimensions were prepared for laboratory permeability tests. Carbon dioxide was injected into the coal and the permeability was determined by using pressure transient methods. The confining pressure was variedto cover a wide range of depths. The permeability was also determined as a function of exposure time of carbon dioxide while the confining stress was kept constant. CT scans were taken before and after the introduction of carbon dioxide. Results show that the porosity and permeability of the coal matrix was very low. The paper presents experimental data and theoretical aspects of the flow of carbon dioxide through a coal sample during pressure transient tests. The suitability of the pressure transient methods for determining permeability of coal during carbon dioxide injection is discussed in the paper.

McLendon, T.R.; Siriwardane, H. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Haljasmaa, I.V.; Bromhal, G.S.; Soong, Y.; Irdi, G.A.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Plants of the Coal Age  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Age Nature Bulletin No. 330-A February 1, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation PLANTS OF THE COAL...

183

Coal Bed Methane Primer  

SciTech Connect

During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

184

System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines  

SciTech Connect

Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Investigations into coal coprocessing and coal liquefaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conversion of coal to liquid suitable as feedstock to a petroleum refinery is dependent upon several process variables. These variables include temperature, pressure, coal rank, catalyst type, nature of the feed to the reactor, type of process, etc. Western Research Institute (WRI) has initiated a research program in the area of coal liquefaction to address the impact of some of these variables upon the yield and quality of the coal-derived liquid. The principal goal of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. Two different approaches are currently being investigated. These include the coprocessing of a heavy liquid, such as crude oil, and coal using a dispersed catalyst and the direct liquefaction of coal using a supported catalyst. Another important consideration in coal liquefaction is the utilization of hydrogen, including both externally- and internally-supplied hydrogen. Because the incorporation of externally-supplied hydrogen during conversion of this very aromatic fossil fuel to, for example, transportation fuels is very expensive, improved utilization of internally-supplied hydrogen can lead to reducing processing costs. The objectives of this investigation, which is Task 3.3.4, Coal Coprocessing, of the 1991--1992 Annual Research Plan, are: (1) to evaluate coal/oil pretreatment conditions that are expected to improve the liquid yield through more efficient dispersion of an oil-soluble, iron-based catalyst, (2) to characterize the coke deposits on novel, supported catalysts after coal liquefaction experiments and to correlate the carbon skeletal structure parameters of the coke deposit with catalyst performance as measured by coal liquefaction product yield, and (3) to determine the modes of hydrogen utilization during coal liquefaction and coprocessing. Experimental results are discussed in this report.

Guffey, F.D.; Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Thomas, K.P. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Zhang, Tiejun; Haynes, H.W. Jr. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Coal: the new black  

SciTech Connect

Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

face of oil and natural gas price rises, coals share may becoal consumption declined from 1996 to 2006, but rebounded in 2006; unless residential natural gas prices

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update / Regional  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Regional Analysis Regional Analysis Rocky Mountain States and California Rocky Mountain States and California The Rocky Mountain States, which include all of the States west of the Great Plains and Texas and those east of California, have seen significant natural gas production increases over the last decade. With the development of new production basins, including the San Juan Basin, Powder River Basin, and Green River Basin, natural gas processing capacity in this region has expanded significantly. In 2009, California and Rocky Mountain States accounted for a total of 16.9 Bcf per day or about 22 percent of total U.S. capacity. Since 2004, only California and New Mexico noted a decrease in overall processing capacity, falling by 17 and 12 percent, respectively. Processing capacity in all of the remaining States (Colorado, Montana, New

189

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Alternate Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deepwater Technology Enhanced Oil Recovery Gas Hydrates Natural Gas Resources Contacts Coal & Power Systems Major Demonstrations Innovations for Existing Plants Gasification...

190

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Hydrogen and Clean Fuels...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deepwater Technology Enhanced Oil Recovery Gas Hydrates Natural Gas Resources Contacts Coal & Power Systems Major Demonstrations Innovations for Existing Plants Gasification...

191

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Systems Studies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deepwater Technology Enhanced Oil Recovery Gas Hydrates Natural Gas Resources Contacts Coal & Power Systems Major Demonstrations Innovations for Existing Plants Gasification...

192

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Reference Shelf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deepwater Technology Enhanced Oil Recovery Gas Hydrates Natural Gas Resources Contacts Coal & Power Systems Major Demonstrations Innovations for Existing Plants Gasification...

193

U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2006 Review  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This article provides and overview of the year 2006 in the coal industry and covers coal production, consumption, exports, imports, stocks, and delivered coal prices. It provides a detailed regional and State level coal production and national coal consumption along with industry developments that occurred in 2006. A brief discussion of coal-synfuel plants is included

Fred Freme

2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

194

U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2007 Review  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This article provides and overview of the year 2007 in the coal industry and covers coal production, consumption, exports, imports, stocks, and delivered coal prices. It provides a detailed regional and State level coal production and national coal consumption along with industry developments that occurred in 2007. A brief discussion of coal-synfuel plants is included

Fred Freme

2008-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

195

NETL: Clean Coal Power Initiative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deepwater Technology Enhanced Oil Recovery Gas Hydrates Natural Gas Resources Contacts Coal & Power Systems Major Demonstrations Innovations for Existing Plants Gasification...

196

Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes: identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Annual report, March 20, 1979-March 19, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The initial phase has been completed in the project to evaluate alternative fuels for highway transportation from synthetic crudes. Three refinery models were developed for Rocky Mountain, Mid-Continent and Great Lakes regions to make future product volumes and qualities forecast for 1995. Projected quantities of shale oil and coal oil syncrudes were introduced into the raw materials slate. Product slate was then varied from conventional products to evaluate maximum diesel fuel and broadcut fuel in all regions. Gasoline supplement options were evaluated in one region for 10% each of methanol, ethanol, MTBE or synthetic naphtha in the blends along with syncrude components. Compositions and qualities of the fuels were determined for the variation in constraints and conditions established for the study. Effects on raw materials, energy consumption and investment costs were reported. Results provide the basis to formulate fuels for laboratory and engine evaluation in future phases of the project.

Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Coal sector profile  

SciTech Connect

Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

1990-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

198

DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter PD DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

199

Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of the CO{sub 2} in the original process as converted to methane. The process could under another option avoid emissions following the conversion to SNG through an adjunct algae conversion process. The algae would then be converted to fuels or other products. An additional application of the algae process at the end use natural gas fired plant could further reduce emissions. The APS team fully recognizes the competition facing the process from natural gas and imported liquid natural gas. While we expect those resources to set the price for methane in the near-term, the team's work to date indicates that the AHP process can be commercially competitive, with the added benefit of assuring long-term energy supplies from North American resources. Conversion of coal to a more readily transportable fuel that can be employed near load centers with an overall reduction of greenhouses gases is edging closer to reality.

Raymond Hobbs

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

Coal News and Markets - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal News and Markets Coal News and Markets Release Date: December 16, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 24, 2013 "Coal News and Markets Report" summarizes spot coal prices by coal commodity regions (i.e., Central Appalachia (CAPP), Northern Appalachia (NAPP), Illinois Basin (ILB), Powder River Basin (PRB), and Uinta Basin (UIB)) in the United States. The report includes data on average weekly coal commodity spot prices, total monthly coal production, eastern monthly coal production, electric power sector coal stocks, and average cost of metallurgical coal at coke plants and export docks. The historical data for coal commodity spot market prices are proprietary and not available for public release. Average weekly coal commodity spot prices (dollars per short ton)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Summary of the APEC coal trade and investment liberalization and facilitation workshop: Facilitating trade and investment in Indonesia`s coal energy sector  

SciTech Connect

The Workshop brought together experts from APEC economies to discuss important issues related to coal development, trade and consumption in the APEC region, with a focus on Indonesia. Papers ranged from broad regional coal-related issues to specific policy and contract terms. The host, Indonesia, was selected as the focus of the workshop because it: (a) has APEC`s fastest growing electricity sector, (b) is in the process of switching from oil based electricity generation to coal and natural gas-based generation, (c) is among the fastest growing coal exporters in APEC, and (d) has a contract system for coal development that has been widely accepted by foreign investors. In addition, Indonesia is in the process of revising its coal policies, and might benefit from the timely discussions in this workshop. The papers presented in the workshop spanned the coal chain from coal resources and reserves, conversion technologies, economics and markets, legal and policy issues, to community and cultural concerns. Participants represented government, industry and academic interests, and provided perspectives of coal and technology suppliers, consumers, energy policy makers and legal experts.

Johnson, C.J.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

A study of coal formation  

SciTech Connect

Coal is a solid, brittle, more or less distinctly stratified, combustible, carbonaceous rock. It is being rediscovered as a reliable energy source, which, historically provided the resource base for the industrialization of the United States economy. A firm understanding of growth in coal development is important to the national energy scene so that the implications of factors influencing coal growth upon the industry`s ability to realize national energy objectives may be determined. As a result, the future of coal development will be facilitated by compiling basic facts on coal reserves, production, and utilization. In view of this, a review and assessment of facts pertaining to the nature and origin of coal is presented. The various properties and uses of coal are then described, followed by a discussion of the process of coal formation.

Jubert, K.; Stevens, G.; Masudi, H.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Coal's share of total U.S. electricity generation falls below 40% ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural gas combined-cycle units operate at higher efficiency than do older, coal-fired units, which increases the competitiveness of natural gas relative to coal.

204

Dry cleaning of Turkish coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 1999 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal.gif (4423 bytes) coal.gif (4423 bytes) The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Model Documentation: Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System, DOE/EIA-MO60. Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions, and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves addresses the relationship between the minemouth price of coal and corresponding levels of coal production, labor productivity, and the cost of factor inputs (mining equipment, mine labor, and fuel requirements).

206

EIA - AEO2010 - Coal projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Projections Coal Projections Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Coal Projections Figure 88. Coal production by region, 1970-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 89. U.S. coal production in six cases, 2008, 2020, and 2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 90. Average annual minemouth coal prices by region, 1990-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 91. Average annual delivered coal prices in four cases, 1990-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 92. Change in U.S. coal consumption by end use in two cases, 2008-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Coal production increases at a slower rate than in the past In the AEO2010 Reference case, increasing coal use for electricity generation, along with the startup of several CTL plants, leads to growth in coal production averaging 0.2 percent per year from 2008 to 2035. This is significantly less than the 0.9-percent average growth rate for U.S. coal production from 1980 to 2008.

207

Anthropogenic and natural contributions to regional trends in aerosol optical depth, 1980-2006.  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the roles of human and natural sources in contributing to aerosol concentrations around the world is an important step toward developing efficient and effective mitigation measures for local and regional air quality degradation and climate change. In this study we test the hypothesis that changes in aerosol optical depth (AOD) over time are caused by the changing patterns of anthropogenic emissions of aerosols and aerosol precursors. We present estimated trends of contributions to AOD for eight world regions from 1980 to 2006, built upon a full run of the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model for the year 2001, extended in time using trends in emissions of man-made and natural sources. Estimated AOD trends agree well (R > 0.5) with observed trends in surface solar radiation in Russia, the United States, south Asia, southern Africa, and East Asia (before 1992) but less well for Organization for Economic Co-operative Development (OECD) Europe (R < 0.5). The trends do not agree well for southeast Asia and for East Asia (after 1992) where large-scale inter- and intraannual variations in emissions from forest fires, volcanic eruptions, and dust storms confound our approach. Natural contributions to AOD, including forest and grassland fires, show no significant long-term trends (<1%/a), except for a small increasing trend in OECD Europe and a small decreasing trend in South America. Trends in man-made contributions to AOD follow the changing patterns of industrial and economic activity. We quantify the average contributions of key source types to regional AOD over the entire time period.

Streets, D. G.; Yan, F.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Mahowald, N.; Schultz, M.; Wild, M.; Wu, Y.; Yu, C.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois; NASA; Cornell Univ.; Forschungszentrum; Inst.for Atmospheric and Climate Science; Tsinghua Univ.

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

208

Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update / Regional  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Regional Analysis Regional Analysis Alaska Alaska The State of Alaska had the third-largest processing capacity, trailing only Texas and Louisiana. While much of the natural gas processed in Alaska does not enter any transmission system and is instead re-injected into reservoirs, its processing capability is nonetheless significant. At 9.5 Bcf per day of processing capacity, the State of Alaska accounted for about 12 percent of total U.S. capacity. As of 2009, there were a total of 4 plants in the State, with the largest one reporting a capacity of 8.5 Bcf per day. Average plant size of 2.4 Bcf per day far exceeded any other State, with Illinois noting the next largest average plant size of 1.1 Bcf per day. In addition to the significant processing total capacity, plants in

209

EIA - 2010 International Energy Outlook - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2010 Coal In the IEO2010 Reference case, world coal consumption increases by 56 percent from 2007 to 2035, and coal's share of world energy consumption grows from 27 percent in 2007 to 28 percent in 2035. Figure 60. World coal consumption by country grouping, 1980-2035. Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 61. Coal share of world energy consumption by sector, 2007, 2020, and 2035. Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 62. OECD coal consumption by region, Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 63. Non-OECD coal consumption by region, 1980,2007,2020, and 2035. Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 64. Coal consumption in China by sector, 2007, 2020, and 2035.

210

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley Region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley Region.

Kevin Crist

2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

211

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2005-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

212

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2004-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

213

Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2005-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

214

Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This is accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results were compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratorys monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by the USEPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions provides critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal-fired power plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley Region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2004-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

216

Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by the USEPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2006-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

217

Fluvial sedimentology and basin analyses of the Permian Fairchild and Buckley formations, Beardmore Glacier region, and the Weller Coal Measures, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

The Beardmore Glacier region contains a 1-km-thick Permian fluvial sequence that was deposited in an elongate basin along the margin of the East Antarctica craton. Fluvial architecture, sandstone composition and paleocurrents within the basin record a change from an early Permian cratonic to a late Permian foreland basin. The Lower Permian Fairchild Formation consists entirely of overlapping channel-form sandstone bodies deposited by braided streams. Arkosic sandstone was deposited by SE flowing streams. Fairchild strata record slow subsidence within a broad cratonic basin. The Lower to Upper Permian Buckley Formation consists of an arkosic lower member and a volcaniclastic upper member. Paleocurrents which consist of transverse and longitudinal paleocurrents, suggest a cratonward migration of the basin axis through time. The Buckley Formation was deposited within a braided stream setting and is an important unit because it contains interstratified channel-sandstone sheets, shale and coal, along with evidence of channel-belt avulsions. Sandstone sheets predominate at the base of the formation, while flood-plain deposits thicken and increase in abundance upward. The interaction between fluvial processes and subsidence rates produced this alluvial stratigraphy. The Lower Permian Weller Coal Measures in southern Victoria Land were deposited within a narrow basin located cratonward of the foreland basin. Basin geometry and depositional patterns are similar to those of fault-bounded basins. Although basin formation is not constrained, deposition of the Weller was contemporaneous with the development of the foreland basin. This suggests a relationship between subsidence within the two basins.

Isbell, J.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Permits handbook for coal development  

SciTech Connect

This coal permits handbook was prepared for Region VIII comprised of the states of Colorado, Utah, Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, and South Dakota. The first part of the handbook provides the background and overview of information on coal with emphasis on federal and state regulatory authority and includes a status report on litigation affecting the coal industry. A discussion on specific analyses of the majority of environmental permits required to operate and develop coal mines comprises the second part of the book. Significant supportive information including the content of state regulations and standards, sample forms, guidelines, and a discussion of coal severance taxation are included on the appendices. (BLM)

Wayman, C.H.; Genasci, G.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Underground gasification of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

Pasini, III, Joseph (Morgantown, WV); Overbey, Jr., William K. (Morgantown, WV); Komar, Charles A. (Uniontown, PA)

1976-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

220

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2009 - Coal Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Production Coal Production Annual Energy Outlook 2009 with Projections to 2030 Coal Production Figure 78. Coal production by region, 1970-2030 (quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 79. U.S. coal production in four cases, 2007, 2015, and 2030 (quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 80. Average minemouth coal prices by regionCoal production by region, 1970-2030 (quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Total Coal Production Increases at a Slower Rate Than in the Past In the AEO2009 reference case, increasing coal use for electricity generation at both new and existing plants and the startup of several CTL

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Cost and Performance Comparison Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 3 Executive Summary: Low Rank Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Baseline Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 3 Executive Summary: Low Rank Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity September 2011 DOE/NETL-2010/1399 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring

222

Abstract-Coal and hydro will be the main sources of electric energy in Chile for the near future, given that natural gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract- Coal and hydro will be the main sources of electric energy in Chile for the near future and the environmental dilemma faced by the country, where both coal and hydro produce some kind of impact. The role

Rudnick, Hugh

223

Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians.

Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Large methane emission upon spring thaw from natural wetlands in the northern permafrost region  

SciTech Connect

The permafrost carbon climate feedback is one of the major mechanisms in controlling the climate ecosystem interactions in northern high latitudes. Of this feedback, methane (CH4) emission from natural wetlands is critically important due to its high warming potential. The freeze thaw transition has been confirmed to play an important role in annual CH4 budget, yet the magnitude of this effect is uncertain. An intensive field campaign was carried out in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China to estimate the CH4 emission in the spring freeze thaw transition period. The observation concluded that a large CH4 source was caused by spring thaw; the maximum hourly emission rate was 48.6 g C m 2 h 1, more than three orders of the regularly observed CH4 emission rate in the growing season. In some sporadically observed 'hot spots', the spring thawing effect contributed to a large CH4 source of 31.3 10.1 g C m 2, which is approximately 80% of the previously calculated annual CH4 emission in the same study area. If our results are typical for natural wetlands in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region, we estimate a global CH4 source strength of 0.5 1.0 Tg C (1 Tg =1012 g) caused by spring thaw in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region in the year 2011. Combining with available satellite and flask data, a regional extrapolation reaches a temporal pattern of CH4 emission during 2003 2009 which is consistent with recently observed changes in atmospheric CH4 concentration in the high latitudes. This suggests that the CH4 emission upon spring thaw in the high latitudes might be enhanced by the projected climate warming. These findings indicate that the spring thawing effect is an important mechanism in the permafrost carbon climate feedback and needs to be incorporated in Earth system models.

Song, Changchun [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Xu, Xiaofeng [ORNL; Sun, Xiaoxin [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tian, Hanqin [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Sun, Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Miao, Yuqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Wang, Xianwei [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Guo, Yuedong [Chinese Academy of Sciences

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

A Life Cycle Comparison of Coal and Natural Gas for Electricity Generation and the Production of Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, compressed natural gas (CNG), criteria emissions, demographic, E85, Energy Commission, environmental justice Category: Natural Gas for School Fleets, CNG Station, LNG or L/CNG Station · Bear Valley Unified School to the wholesale or retail distribution and sales stations. The projects will be assessed in two separate rounds

226

U.S. coal outlook in Asia  

SciTech Connect

Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies.

Johnson, C.J.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter PA ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

228

SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter PH SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES By M assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

229

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Furnace Coke Oven (excluding or LPG and Natural Gas

230

American coal imports 2015  

SciTech Connect

As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and imports on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: Import growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter imports from being railed far inland and that the great majority of imports will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing import facilities and other plants making investments to add imports to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal import market; and Geographic analysis.

Frank Kolojeski [TransGlobal Ventures Corp. (United States)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal 101 Lesson 1: Cleaning Up Coal Clean Coal COAL is our most abundant fossil fuel. The United States has more coal than the rest of the world has oil. There is still...

232

Coal pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update / Regional  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Midwestern and Eastern States Midwestern and Eastern States Midwestern and Eastern States Midwestern and Eastern States combined accounted for about 13 percent of total U.S. processing capacity in 2009, accounting for the smallest portion of any region in the lower 48 States. The combined processing capacity in these States more than doubled, although a few of the States saw decreased capacity compared with 2004. Processing capacity in Illinois, Kansas, North Dakota, and Pennsylvania fell since 2004, with the highest decrease occurring in Kansas, which saw a 65 percent drop in processing capacity. At the same time, the number of plants in Kansas decreased by four. The decrease was likely the result of falling natural gas proved reserves, which decreased in this State between 1995 and 2005. While the proved reserves have

234

Thallium in Coal Combustion Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thallium is a naturally occurring trace element that is present in coal and coal combustion products (CCPs). Thallium is of interest because it has a relatively low maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water. This Technical Brief provides EPRI data on thallium in CCPs, along with general information on its occurrence, health effects, and treatment. Most of the information presented is summarized from the 2008 EPRI Technical Report 1016801, Chemical Constituents in Coal Combustion Product Leachate: ..

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

235

Coal - Analysis & Projections - U.S. Energy Information Administration  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Most Requested Most Requested Change category... Most Requested Consumption Environment Imports & Exports Industry Characteristics Prices Production Projections Reserves Stocks All Reports Filter by: All Data Analysis Projections Weekly Reports Today in Energy - Coal Short, timely articles with graphs about recent coal issues and trends Coal News & Markets Summarizes spot coal prices by coal commodity regions (i.e., Central Appalachia (CAP), Northern Appalachia (NAP), Illinois Basin (ILB), Power River Basin (PRB), and Uinta Basin (UIB)) in the United States. Weekly Coal Production Estimates of U.S. coal production by State based on railroad car loadings data. (archived versions) Archived Versions Weekly Coal Production - Archive Weekly NYMEX Coal Futures

236

Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Design and economics of a lignite-to-SNG (substitute natural gas) facility using Lurgi gasifiers for lignite gasification with KRW gasifiers for gasification of coal fines. Topical report (Final), April 1985-January 1986  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A first-pass design and cost estimate was prepared for a plant to convert lignite to substitute natural gas (SNG) using Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers to gasify the coal and the KRW fluid-bed gasifiers to gasify the coal fines. The overall plant thermal efficiency is between that of the Lurgi and KRW base case designs. The study-case design is of commercial interest compared to a Lurgi plant when the Lurgi plant coal fines cannot be sold. The study case is more capital-intensive because it requires more-expensive boilers and more of different types of process units than either base case. There is no advantage over a KRW plant design that provides a 30% lower cost of gas.

Smelser, S.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Great Plains Coal Gasification Project:  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This progress report on the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project discusses Lignite coal, natural gas, and by-products production as well as gas quality. A tabulation of raw material, product and energy consumption is provided for plant operations. Capital improvement projects and plant maintenance activities are detailed and summaries are provided for environmental, safety, medical, quality assurance, and qualtiy control activities.

Not Available

1988-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

239

EIA - Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal...

240

Oil and natural gas production is growing in Caspian Sea region ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Pennsylvania's use of natural gas for power generation has grown ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Changes in relative fuel prices. Prices of coal and natural gas are key input costs at electric power ... Pennsylvania coal and natural gas generation additions were ...

242

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2001 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2001, DOE/EIA-M060(2001) January 2001. Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions, and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves

243

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2002 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2002, DOE/EIA-M060(2002) (Washington, DC, January 2002). Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves

244

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Project Performance Summaries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deepwater Technology Enhanced Oil Recovery Gas Hydrates Natural Gas Resources Contacts Coal & Power Systems Major Demonstrations Innovations for Existing Plants Gasification...

245

The Political Economy of Clean Coal .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation investigates the nature of the political economy of Clean Coal. It begins by reviewing the literature of global warming and the current usage (more)

Wu, Hao Howard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Optimized Pathways for Regional H2 Infrastructure Transitions: A Case Study for Southern California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production technologies including biomass gasification,coal gasification, natural gas reforming, and waterby biomass central gasification and then coal gasification

Lin, Zhenhong; Fan, Yueyue; Ogden, Joan M; Chen, Chien-Wei

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Optimized Pathways for Regional H2 Infrastructure Transitions: The Least-Cost Hydrogen for Southern California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production technologies including biomass gasification,coal gasification, natural gas reforming, and waterby biomass central gasification and then coal gasification

Lin, Zhenhong; Chen, Chien-Wei; Fan, Yueyue; Ogden, Joan M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is a review of one of America's premier coal gasification installations. The caterpillar coal gasification facility located in York, Pennsylvania is an award winning facility. The plant was recognized as the 'pace setter plant of the year' in 1981 and won the 'energy conservation award' for 1983. The decision to install and operate a coal gasification plant was based on severe natural gas curtailments at York with continuing supply interruptions. This paper will present a detailed description of the equipment used in the coal gasification system and the process itself. It also includes operating and gas production information along with an economic analysis. The characteristics of producer gas and its use in the various plant applications will be reviewed and compared with natural gas. In summary, this paper deals with caterpillar's experience with coal gasification to date. Caterpillar concludes that the coal gas system has the potential to favorably affect the corporation's commitment to stimulate coal utilization. The three years' operating experience at the York plant has demonstrated the practical use of coal gas as well as the economics associated with producing gas from coal.

Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

World coal outlook to the year 2000  

SciTech Connect

The 1983 edition of the World Coal Outlook to the Year 2000 examines the worldwide impact of lower oil prices and lower economic activity on the demand, production, and international trade in coal. The report includes detailed regional forecasts of coal demand by end-use application. Regions include the US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Other Asia, Latin America, Africa, Australia/New Zealand, Communist Europe, and Communist Asia. In addition, regional coal production forecasts are provided with a detailed analysis of regional coal trade patterns. In all instances, the changes relative to Chase's previous forecasts are shown. Because of the current situation in the oil market, the report includes an analysis of the competitive position of coal relative to oil in the generation of electricity, and in industrial steam applications. The report concludes with an examination of the impact of an oil price collapse on the international markets for coal.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Challenges and Opportunities for the Illinois Coal Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

brought natural gas prices down, which compounded the problem for coal producers27 (see Appendix F. The use of natural gas requires contracts to be made well in advance, while coal reserves can be stored. Furthermore, the growth of wind, nuclear, and natural gas sectors could chip away at coal's 45% market share

Illinois at Chicago, University of

251

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Furnace

252

AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 905,018 584,386 467,210 599,207 831,273 1,086,355 1,342,894 1,578,648 1,775,994 1,885,465 1,819,517 1,589,500 1995 301,098 230,240 196,675 75,216 19,017 -596 -42,455 -91,460 -85,538 -74,452 -211,340 -356,599 1996 -393,813 -294,573 -322,708 -276,653 -237,719 -195,517 -107,487 -30,832 5,418 27,829 56,363 190,892 1997 151,925 190,812 179,512 141,118 121,384 95,560 38,018 18,500 6,728 -22,132 41,987 -7,213 1998 141,659 165,790 146,881 232,098 280,479 261,197 229,504 167,031 91,649 98,416 168,658 213,013

253

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 393,598 297,240 289,617 356,360 461,202 516,155 604,504 678,168 747,928 783,414 775,741 673,670 1995 156,161 158,351 126,677 101,609 72,294 83,427 33,855 -43,870 -34,609 -17,003 -75,285 -121,212 1996 -180,213 -191,939 -220,847 -233,967 -253,766 -260,320 -246,398 -159,895 -134,327 -127,911 -138,359 -86,091 1997 -55,406 -14,740 101,915 102,564 121,784 132,561 86,965 58,580 38,741 67,379 80,157 28,119 1998 77,255 135,784 65,355 130,979 148,718 138,540 205,160 215,060 166,834 187,302 246,104 273,754

254

AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 280,414 208,968 200,997 216,283 261,894 293,909 326,049 349,274 387,670 405,477 381,931 342,394 1995 8,494 61,987 50,414 30,372 22,397 34,462 36,108 23,444 10,774 13,127 37,918 24,549 1996 -8,287 -34,078 -30,040 -14,465 -15,479 -28,752 -49,420 -58,971 -68,328 -85,471 -97,348 -84,552 1997 -64,507 -57,811 -49,808 -47,271 -41,056 -26,112 -6,095 16,328 21,859 30,055 27,605 -18,937 1998 -4,131 -15,983 -20,640 -29,152 -21,709 -18,864 -25,220 -24,329 -5,839 16,729 38,273 67,451

255

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

Dai, Pengcheng

256

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2008 - Coal Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Production Coal Production Annual Energy Outlook 2008 with Projections to 2030 Coal Production Figure 93. Coal production by region, 1970-2030 (quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 94. U.S. coal production, 2006, 2015, and 2030 (quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Western Coal Production Continues To Increase Through 2030 In the AEO2008 reference case, increasing coal use for electricity generation at existing plants and construction of a few new coal-fired plants lead to annual production increases that average 0.3 percent per year from 2006 to 2015, when total production is 24.5 quadrillion Btu. In the absence of restrictions on CO2 emissions, the growth in coal production

257

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 4 - Coal In the IEO2008 reference case, world coal consumption increases by 65 percent and international coal trade increases by 53 percent from 2005 to 2030, and coal’s share of world energy consumption increases from 27 percent in 2005 to 29 percent in 2030. Figure 46. World Coal Consumption by Country Grouping, 1980-2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 47. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2005, 2015, and 2030 (Percent). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 48. OECD Coal Consumption by Region, 1980, 2005, 2015, and 2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

258

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2007 Chapter 5 - Coal In the IEO2007 reference case, world coal consumption increases by 74 percent from 2004 to 2030, international coal trade increases by 44 percent from 2005 to 2030, and coal’s share of world energy consumption increases from 26 percent in 2004 to 28 percent in 2030. Figure 54. World Coal Consumption by Region, 1980-2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 55. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2004, 2015, and 2030 (Percent). Need help, contact the National Energy at 202-586-8800. Figure Data In the IEO2007 reference case, world coal consumption increases by 74 percent over the projection period, from 114.4 quadrillion Btu in 2004 to

259

Effects of Varying RedoxConditions on Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (U)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide geochemical parameters to characterize the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) sediment as a potential source term. It is anticipated that the measured values will be used in risk calculations and will provide additional technical support for imposing Monitored Natural Attenuation at D-Area. This study provides a detailed evaluation of the DCPRB sediment and is part of another study that quantified the Monitored Natural Attenuation of inorganic contaminants more broadly at the D-Area Expanded Operable Unit, which includes the DCPRB (Powell et al. 2004). Distribution coefficients (K{sub d} values; a solid to liquid contaminant concentration ratio) and the Potentially Leachable Fraction (the percent of the total contaminant concentration in the sediment that can likely contribute to a contaminant plume) were measured in a DCPRB sediment as a function of redox conditions. Redox conditions at the DCPRB are expected to vary greatly as the system undergoes varying drying and flooding conditions. Conservative values; K{sub d} values that err on the side of being too low and Potentially Leachable Fraction values that err on the side of being too high, are presented. The K{sub d} values are high compared to conservative literature values, and underscores the importance of measuring site-specific values to provide estimates of sediments natural attenuation/sorption capacities. The Potentially Leachable Fraction indicates that as little as 27% of the As, but all of the Cu and Tl will be part of the source term. In the case of the As, the remaining 83% will likely never leach out of the sediment, thereby providing a form of natural attenuation. Importantly, Be, Cr, Cu, Ni, and V concentrations in the sediment were less-than twice background levels, indicating this sediment was not a potential source for these contaminants. K{sub d} values generally increased significantly (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se, and Tl) when the sediment was flooded and after 36 days biostimulated through the addition of molasses. However, the contaminants that were newly sorbed tended to bind to weaker binding sites as the system was converted from an oxidizing to a reducing system. This redistribution of contaminants resulted in increased Potentially Leachable Fractions. In conclusion, these tests clearly indicate that the DCPRB sediment has a relatively high affinity to sorb most of the contaminants and that when evaluating the risk associated with this as a source term that only the Potentially Leachable Fraction of the total sediment contaminants concentration be used as the actual source term.

Kaplan, D

2004-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

260

U.S. coal exports at highest levels since 1992 - Today in Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Biofuels: Ethanol & Biodiesel ... Disruptions in the global coal supply chain from natural disasters, such as typhoons and flooding in Australia's key coal mining ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cleanest Coal Technology Clean Coal 101 Lesson 5: The Cleanest Coal Technology-A Real Gas Don't think of coal as a solid black rock. Think of it as a mass of atoms. Most of the...

262

Natural Gas Prices Forecast Comparison--AEO vs. Natural Gas Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal supply. The natural gas supply covers six categories:renewables, oil supply, natural gas supply, natural gasnation-wide natural gas market, equalizing supply with

Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Lekov, Alex; Dale, Larry

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2,700,245 2,697,308 2,696,823 2,698,489 2,699,802 2,699,840 2,700,331 2,701,227 2,701,285 2,702,703 2,702,571 2,703,149 1995 2,699,674 2,699,575 2,696,880 2,695,400 2,726,268 2,726,255 2,668,312 2,671,818 2,672,399 2,672,258 2,671,362 2,672,808 1996 2,670,906 2,670,070 2,646,056 2,654,836 2,659,533 2,667,092 2,667,020 2,665,705 2,668,975 2,669,980 2,670,274 2,670,239 1997 2,665,398 2,669,603 2,668,763 2,665,910 2,662,796 2,675,047 2,675,015 2,676,601 2,676,773 2,677,093 2,676,542 2,667,760 1998 2,666,003 2,666,279 2,666,299 2,664,193 2,663,159 2,660,954 2,703,770 2,665,205 2,664,714 2,662,805 2,664,518 2,664,462

264

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 -32.80 -42.10 -53.10 -51.10 -47.60 -43.40 -38.60 -25.20 -18.80 -16.70 -19.80 -15.60 1997 -15.00 -5.60 52.10 45.80 43.50 39.10 22.20 12.30 6.70 10.60 14.30 6.00 1998 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 38.30 55.40 1999 56.40 52.20 46.30 24.20 18.80 19.30 8.80 0.30 5.30 -3.80 0.00 0.00 2000 -14.80 -32.50 -28.30 -30.80 -35.70 -34.40 -30.70 -30.60 -28.40 -22.30 -28.90 -46.70 2001 -38.30 -35.20 -37.70 -12.80 9.80 25.20 31.70 43.40 46.40 30.90 52.60 127.30 2002 127.50 140.90 136.10 82.90 59.20 34.80 18.30 10.40 3.10 -0.50 -14.40 -23.90

265

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 1,039,864 1,032,160 1,033,297 1,032,517 1,037,294 1,037,338 1,038,940 1,036,193 1,037,422 1,035,931 1,035,050 1,043,103 1995 1,051,669 1,054,584 1,051,120 1,051,697 1,052,949 1,062,613 1,058,260 1,054,218 1,054,870 1,051,687 1,056,704 1,060,588 1996 1,067,220 1,062,343 1,027,692 1,040,511 1,055,164 1,056,516 1,052,009 1,051,395 1,052,015 1,048,151 1,052,057 1,053,173 1997 1,064,968 1,054,977 1,059,316 1,059,050 1,059,706 1,064,515 1,063,554 1,063,029 1,066,254 1,064,123 1,065,557 1,065,151 1998 1,064,741 1,058,297 1,057,927 1,057,506 1,060,241 1,055,941 1,055,660 1,055,056 1,056,417 1,057,591 1,057,539 1,038,925

266

AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 -32.70 -36.20 -48.60 -41.00 -28.00 -18.00 -8.30 -2.10 0.30 1.50 3.50 15.50 1997 18.80 36.80 52.90 35.70 20.10 10.70 3.20 1.30 0.40 -1.20 2.50 -0.50 1998 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.10 15.10 1999 6.40 4.40 -1.40 -6.50 -7.30 -8.50 -9.70 -7.10 -3.20 -3.60 0.00 0.00 2000 -17.00 -24.70 -13.90 -19.40 -18.90 -15.40 -9.60 -9.00 -8.10 -5.20 -14.70 -25.50 2001 -17.00 -21.80 -33.80 -12.20 2.10 7.30 7.80 8.30 8.40 7.20 22.40 51.40 2002 71.20 82.00 97.70 55.40 23.00 15.30 7.90 5.20 2.40 -2.20 -10.20 -18.10

267

Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

Somasundaran, P.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " 6 Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Million Kilowatthours." ,,"Electricity Receipts",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Natural","Distillate","Residual",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Receipts(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Gas","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(d)"," "

269

Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Study Guide: WHAT IS COAL? Coal looks like a shiny black rock. Coal has lots of energy in it. When it is burned, coal makes heat and light energy. Th e cave men used coal for...

270

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2000, DOE/EIA-M060(2000) January 2000. The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2000, DOE/EIA-M060(2000) January 2000. Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions, and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves addresses the relationship between the minemouth price of coal and corresponding levels of coal production, labor productivity, and the cost of factor inputs (mining equipment, mine labor, and fuel requirements).

271

REGIONAL ASSESSMENT PROGRAM MASTER Regional Issue Identification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from these Federal Region totals. Energy sources addressed were coal, nuclear, oil, oil shale, gas, geothermal, . - - - hydroelectric and solar. Six of the national laboratories,...

272

High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Clean Coal Technology and the Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Coal Technology and the Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Technology and the Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy...

274

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2000 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal market module (CMM) represents the mining, transportation, and pricing of coal, subject to end-use demand. Coal supplies are differentiated by heat and sulfur content. CMM also determines the minimum cost pattern of coal supply to meet exogenously defined U.S. coal export demands as a part of the world coal market. Coal supply is projected on a cost-minimizing basis, constrained by existing contracts. Twelve different coal types are differentiated with respect to thermal grade, sulfur content, and underground or surface mining. The domestic production and distribution of coal is forecast for 13 demand regions and 11 supply regions (Figures 19 and 20). coal market module (CMM) represents the mining, transportation, and pricing of coal, subject to end-use demand. Coal supplies are differentiated by heat and sulfur content. CMM also determines the minimum cost pattern of coal supply to meet exogenously defined U.S. coal export demands as a part of the world coal market. Coal supply is projected on a cost-minimizing basis, constrained by existing contracts. Twelve different coal types are differentiated with respect to thermal grade, sulfur content, and underground or surface mining. The domestic production and distribution of coal is forecast for 13 demand regions and 11 supply regions (Figures 19 and 20). Figure 19. Coal Market Module Demand Regions Figure 20. Coal Market Module Supply Regions

275

U.S. coals share of total net generation continues to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Amid historically low natural gas prices and the warmest March ever recorded in much of the United States, coal's share of total net generation ...

276

U.S. coals share of total net generation continues to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Amid historically low natural gas prices and the warmest March ever recorded in much of the United States, coal's share of total net generation dropped to 34%the ...

277

Table A5. Approximate Heat Content of Coal and Coal Coke, 1949 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This Week in Petroleum Weekly Petroleum Status Report Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report ... coal obtained from a refuse bank or slurry dam, anthracite culm,

278

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

reports reports Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector With Data through 2010 | Release Date: November 16, 2012 | Next Release Date: December 2013 | Correction Previous editions Year: 2011 2004 Go Figure 1. Deliveries from major coal basins to electric power plants by rail, 2010 Background In this latest release of Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) significantly expands upon prior versions of this report with the incorporation of new EIA survey data. Figure 1. Percent of total U.S. rail shipments represented in data figure data Previously, EIA relied solely on data from the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (STB), specifically their confidential Carload Waybill Sample. While valuable, due to the statistical nature of the Waybill data,

279

COAL & POWER SYSTEMS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COAL & POWER SYSTEMS COAL & POWER SYSTEMS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY GREENER, SOONER... THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION .......... i-1 STRATEGIC PLAN ........ 1-1 PROGRAM PLANS Vision 21 .......................... 2-1 Central Power Systems ...... 3-1 Distributed Generation ..... 4-1 Fuels ................................ 5-1 Carbon Sequestration ....... 6-1 Advanced Research ........... 7-1 TABLE OF CONTENTS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS STRENGTH THROUGH SCIENCE... A "GREENER, SOONER" PHILOSOPHY Coal, natural gas, and oil fuel about 70 percent of the electricity generated in the United States. As promising as renewable and other alternative fuels are, it will be several decades before they can make significant energy contributions to the Nation's

280

Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update / Regional  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gulf of Mexico States Gulf of Mexico States Gulf of Mexico States The Gulf of Mexico area, which includes the States of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, has in the past accounted for the majority of natural gas production. Processing plants are especially important in this part of the country because of the amount of NGLs in the natural gas produced and existence of numerous petro-chemical plants seeking that feedstock in this area. Consequently, the States along the Gulf of Mexico are home to the largest number of plants and the most processing capacity in the United States. Natural gas produced in this area of the country is typically rich in NGLs and requires processing before it is pipeline-quality dry natural gas. Offshore natural gas production can contain more than 4 gallons of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2009 Chapter 4 - Coal In the IEO2009 reference case, world coal consumption increases by 49 percent from 2006 to 2030, and coal’s share of world energy consumption increases from 27 percent in 2006 to 28 percent in 2030. Figure 42. World Coal Consumption by Country Grouping, 1980-2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 43. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2006, 2015, and 2030 (Percent). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 44. OECD Coal Consumption by Region, 1980, 2006, 2015, and 2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

282

International Energy Outlook 2006 - World Coal Markets  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Markets Coal Markets International Energy Outlook 2006 Chapter 5: World Coal Markets In the IEO2006 reference case, world coal consumption nearly doubles from 2003 to 2030, with the non-OECD countries accounting for 81 percent of the increase. Coal’s share of total world energy consumption increases from 24 percent in 2003 to 27 percent in 2030. Figure 48. World Coal Consumption by Region, 1980-2030 (Billion Short Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 49. Coal Share of World energy Consumption by Sector 2003, 2015, and 2030 (Percent). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Table 10. World Recoverable Coal Reserves (Billion Short Tons) Printer friendly version

283

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" 2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Billion Cubic Feet." ,,"Natural Gas",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Distillate","Residual",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(e)"

284

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" 2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Billion Cubic Feet." ,,"Natural Gas",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Distillate","Residual",,,"and",,"Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

285

Coal flows | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal flows Coal flows Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 142, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into steam coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal flows countries EIA exporting importing Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries- Reference Case (xls, 103.7 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License

286

Coal Reserves Data Base report  

SciTech Connect

The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

1991-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

287

A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter SB A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN, WYOMING assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U...........................................................................................................................SB-1 Coal Production History

288

Coal industry annual 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

EIA Energy Kids - Coal  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sometimes, coal-fired electric power plants are built near coal mines to lower ... industries and businesses with their own power plants use coal to generate ...

290

Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System September 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis A new natural gas-fired steam plant will replace...

291

Integrating Coal Gasification into a Rotary Kiln Electric Furnace Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal gasification is a potential alternative to conventional coal or natural gas- fired power plants ... Fundamentals of Spark-Plasma Sintering: Net-Shaping and Size Effects ... Investigation on a Microwave High-Temperature Air Heat Exchanger.

292

El Nio as a Natural Experiment for Studying the Tropical Tropopause Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interannual variability of the tropical tropopause region between 14 and 18 km is examined using observations of convection, winds, and tropopause temperatures from reanalyses and water vapor from satellites. This variability is compared to a ...

A. Gettelman; W. J. Randel; S. Massie; F. Wu; W. G. Read; J. M. Russell III

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Coalbed methane producibility from the Mannville coals in Alberta, Canada: A comparison of two areas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

recently completed coal bed methane (CBM) and oil and gas wells; · Develop more-comprehensive in-place coal is to conduct regional-scale, coal resource and reserve assessments of the significant coal beds in all major U the coal beds are thick, shallow, and gently dipping along the eastern margin of the Wyoming part

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

294

Detecting moving fires on coal conveyors  

SciTech Connect

To comply with certain elements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, a number of utilities operating coal fired power plants have switched to low-rank bituminous and semi-bituminous coals as an alternative to other fuels like natural gas. Power plants firing and handling this variety of coal may be extremely prone to fires nd explosions as the coal is conveyed from storage on to the boilers due to a phenomenon known as spontaneous combustion. The American Society of Testing for Materials ranks coals by their tendency to oxidize. The lower the coal`s rank, the greater its tendency to absorb oxygen and, consequently, the greater its tendency to spontaneously combust. This unique property creates a new type of fire and explosion hazard not previously experienced by many coal-fired plants. Fires involving coal crushers, storage silos, conveyors, bunkers and pulverizer mills generally occur as a result of two ignition sources: spontaneous combustion (self-heating) of coal and frictional heating of the coal`s conveyance system.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Materials science aspects of coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural organic materials are arrangements of linear aliphatic units and ring-like aromatic units arranged in a polymeric pattern. We show that fossilized organic materials such as coals and oil shale retain this polymeric character. We also show the polymeric nature of jet and amber

Charles Wert; Manfred Weller

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter GQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

297

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter PQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA By G.D. Stricker Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

298

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, HANNA AND CARBON BASINS, WYOMING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter HQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, HANNA AND CARBON BASINS, WYOMING By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

299

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, WILLISTON BASIN, NORTH DAKOTA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter WQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, WILLISTON BASIN, NORTH DAKOTA By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

300

COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Coal, Natural Gas, and Wind: The Expanded Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model (JEDI II); Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper we examine the impacts of building new coal, gas, or wind plants in three states: Colorado, Michigan, and Virginia. Our findings indicate that local/state economic impacts are directly related to the availability and utilization of local industries and services to build and operate the power plant. For gas and coal plants, the economic benefit depends significantly on whether the fuel is obtained from within the state, out of state, or some combination. We also find that the taxes generated by power plants can have a significant impact on local economies via increased expenditures on public goods.

Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Knocking the NOx Out of Coal Clean Coal 101 Lesson 3: Knocking the NOx Out of Coal How NOx Forms NOx Formation Air is mostly nitrogen molecules (green in the above diagram) and...

303

Coal and bituminous reserves  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 5 of this book contains sections entitled: other coal processes; underground processing of coal; and other important energy sources.

NONE

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Abstract--South America has emerged in recent years as one of the most dynamic regions for natural gas and electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. · Flexibility of gas supply: the third reason for LNG imports is related to the nature of gas demand (2006) the construction of re- gasification stations, so as to import liquefied natural gas (LNG), from of LNG imported will depend crucially on the development of the natural gas reserves in the region

Rudnick, Hugh

305

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 1998 - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

COAL MARKET MODULE COAL MARKET MODULE blueball.gif (205 bytes) Coal Production Submodule blueball.gif (205 bytes) Coal Distribution Submodule blueball.gif (205 bytes) Coal Export Component The coal market module (CMM) represents the mining, transportation, and pricing of coal, subject to end-use demand. Coal supplies are differentiated by heat and sulfur content. The CMM also determines the minimum cost pattern of coal supply to meet exogenously defined U.S. coal export demands as a part of the world coal market. Coal supply is projected on a cost-minimizing basis, constrained by existing contracts. Twelve different coal types are differentiated with respect to thermal grade, sulfur content, and underground or surface mining. The domestic production and distribution of coal is forecast for 13 demand regions and 11 supply

306

Design and economics of a plant to convert western subbituminous coal to SNG (substitute natural gas) using KRW (KRW Energy Systems Inc. ) gasifiers. Topical report (Final) May 1985-January 1986  

SciTech Connect

A first-pass design and cost estimate indicates that the levelized constant-dollar cost of gas for a 125 billion Btu/day plant to convert western subbituminous coal to substitute natural gas (SNG) using KRW gasifiers is $4.70/MMBtu. Process development allowances (PDA) increase the gas cost to $5.09/MMBtu. The levelized constant-dollar gas cost for a scaled-up 250 billion Btu/day plant is estimated at $4.17/MMBtu, indicating that smaller plants can be constructed with less capital risk while producing methane at only slightly higher costs.

Smith, J.T.; Hanny, D.J.; Smelser, S.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Potential Impact of Climate Change on Natural Resources in the Tennessee Valley Authority Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report addresses the impacts of changes in climate on water resources, agriculture, forests, outdoor recreation, ecological resources, and air quality in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region that could be reasonably anticipated to occur over the course of the 21st century assuming a medium greenhouse gas emissions projection. The emphasis is on those effects likely to occur in the next 10 to 40 years, which are likely to be modestlonger range predictions are much more uncertain.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Annual Energy Outlook with Projections to 2025-Market Trends - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal Index (click to jump links) Coal Production and Prices Coal Mining Labor Productivity Coal Consumption Coal Production and Prices Emissions Caps Lead to More Use of Low-Sulfur Coal From Western Mines Continued improvements in mine productivity (which have averaged 5.9 percent per year since 1980) are projected to cause falling real minemouth prices throughout the forecast relative to historical levels. Higher electricity demand and lower prices, in turn, are projected to yield increasing coal demand, but the demand is subject to the overall sulfur emissions cap in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which encourages progressively greater reliance on the lowest sulfur coals (from Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Utah). Figure 106. Coal production by region, 1970-2025 (million short tons). Having problems, call our National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 for help.

309

"Table A28. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region" Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region" " and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" " "," "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," ","RSE" " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural"," "," ","Coke"," ","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Total","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","and Breeze","Other(d)","Factors"

310

Coal: America's energy future. Volume I  

SciTech Connect

Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman requested the National Coal Council in April 2005 a report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring the USA's domestic coal resources to meet the nations' future energy needs. This resultant report addresses the Secretary's request in the context of the President's focus, with eight findings and recommendations that would use technology to leverage the USA's extensive coal assets and reduce dependence on imported energy. Volume I outlines these findings and recommendations. Volume II provides technical data and case histories to support the findings and recommendations. Chapter headings of Volume I are: Coal-to-Liquids to Produce 2.6 MMbbl/d; Coal-to-Natural Gas to Produce 4.0 Tcf Per Year; Coal-to-Clean Electricity; Coal to Produce Ethanol; Coal-to-Hydrogen; Enhanced Oil and Gas (Coalbed Methane); Recovery as Carbon Management Strategies; Delineate U.S. Coal Reserves and Transportation Constraints as Part of an Effort to Maximize U.S. Coal Production; and Penn State Study, 'Economic Benefits of Coal Conversion Investments'.

NONE

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

On the Nature of the Chromosphere-Corona Transition Region of the Solar Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The distribution of temperature and emission measure in the stationary heated solar atmosphere was obtained for the limiting cases of slow and fast heating, when either the gas pressure or the concentration are constant throughout the layer depth. Under these conditions the temperature distribution with depth is determined by radiation loss and thermal conductivity. It is shown that both in the case of slow heating and of impulsive heating, temperatures are distributed in such a way that classical collisional heat conduction is valid in the chromosphere-corona transition region of the solar atmosphere.

Ptitsyna, O

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Energy Landscapes: Coal Canals, Oil Pipelines, Electricity Transmission Wires in the Mid-Atlantic, 1820-1930.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal canals, oil pipelines, and electricity transmission wires transformed the built environment of the American mid-Atlantic region between 1820 and 1930. By transporting coal, oil, (more)

Jones, Christopher F.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Assessment of Natural Stream Sites for Hydroelectric Dams in the Pacific Northwest Region  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This pilot study presents a methodology for modeling project characteristics using a development model of a stream obstructing dam. The model is applied to all individual stream reaches in hydrologic region 17, which encompasses nearly all of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Project site characteristics produced by the modeling technique include: capacity potential, principal dam dimensions, number of required auxiliary dams, total extent of the constructed impoundment boundary, and the surface area of the resulting reservoir. Aggregated capacity potential values for the region are presented in capacity categories including total, that at existing dams, within federal and environmentally sensitive exclusion zones, and the balance which is consider available for greenfield development within the limits of the study. Distributions of site characteristics for small hydropower sites are presented and discussed. These sites are screened to identify candidate small hydropower sites and distributions of the site characteristics of this site population are presented and discussed. Recommendations are made for upgrading the methodology and extensions to make the results more accessible and available on a larger scale.

Douglas G. Hall; Kristin L. Verdin; Randy D. Lee

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

Robert Wilson

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

316

Coal gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A standard series of two staged gas generators (GG) has been developed in the United States for producing gas with a combustion heat from 4,700 to 7,600 kilojoules per cubic meter from coal (U). The diameter of the gas generators is from 1.4 to 3.65 meters and the thermal capacity based on purified cold gas is from 12.5 to 89 million kilojoules per hour. Certain standard sized gas generators have undergone experimental industrial tests which showed that it is most expedient to feed the coal into the gas generators pneumatically. This reduces the dimensions of the charging device, makes it possible to use more common grades of structural steels and reduces the cost of the gas. A double valve reliably prevents ejections of the gasification product and promotes the best distribution of the coal in the gas generator. The gas generators may successfully operate on high moisture (up to 36 percent) brown coal. Blasting with oxygen enriched to 38 percent made it possible to produce a gas with a combustion heat of 9,350 kilojoules per cubic meter. This supports a combustion temperature of 1,700C.

Rainey, D.L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Term Energy The Implications of Lower Natural Gas Prices ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... by about 2.1 billion cubic feet per ... national average delivered coal price was $ ... the regional average delivered coal price to electric ...

318

Overview of Avista GHG Modeling NPCC Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Conference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6/5/2013 1 Overview of Avista GHG Modeling NPCC Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Natural Gas CO2 Emissions A Bridge to a Low Carbon Future, or the Future? 815 1,190 lbs/MWh Gas CCCT has ~35% of coal emissions on a per-MWh basis Gas CT has ~50% of coal emissions on a per-MWh basis 119 119

319

University Coal Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation Clean Coal Crosscutting Research University Coal Research University Coal Research Clean Coal Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Hydrogen from Coal Coal...

320

O A L Section 2. Coal  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Section 2. Coal Coal prices are developed for the following three categories: coking coal; steam coal (all noncoking coal); and coal coke imports and exports.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

EIA - The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003-Coal Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003 Coal Market Module Figure 19. Coal Market Module Demand Regions. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 20. Coal Market Module Supply Regions. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 21. Coal Market Module Structure. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Coal Market Module Table. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. The coal market module (CMM) represents the mining, transportation, and pricing of coal, subject to end–use demand. Coal supplies are differentiated by heat and sulfur content. CMM also determines the minimum cost pattern of coal supply to meet exogenously defined U.S. coal

322

Modeling of gas generation from the Cameo coal zone in the Piceance Basin Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The gas generative potential of the Cretaceous Cameo coal in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, was evaluated quantitatively by sealed gold tube pyrolysis. The H/C and O/C elemental ratios show that pyrolyzed Cameo coal samples follow the Van Krevelen humic coal evolution pathway, reasonably simulating natural coal maturation. Kinetic parameters (activation energy and frequency factor) for gas generation and vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) changes were calculated from pyrolysis data. Experimental R{sub o} results from this study are not adequately predicted by published R{sub o} kinetics and indicate the necessity of deriving basin-specific kinetic parameters when building predictive basin models. Using derived kinetics for R{sub o}, evolution and gas generation, basin modeling was completed for 57 wells across the Piceance Basin, which enabled the mapping of coal-rank and coalbed gas potential. Quantities of methane generated at approximately 1.2% R{sub o} are about 300 standard cubic feet per ton (scf/ton) and more than 2500 scf/ton (in-situ dry-ash-free coal) at R{sub o}, values reaching 1.9%. Gases generated in both low- and high-maturity coals are less wet, whereas the wetter gas is expected where R{sub o} is approximately 1.4-1.5%. As controlled by regional coal rank and net coal thickness, the largest in-place coalbed gas resources are located in the central part of the basin, where predicted volumes exceed 150 bcf/mi, excluding gases in tight sands.

Zhang, E.; Hill, R.J.; Katz, B.J.; Tang, Y.C. [Shell Exploration and Production Co., BTC, Houston, TX (United States)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Europe and Asia are the leading destinations for U.S. coal exports ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

High natural gas prices in Europe have contributed to increased imports of U.S. steam coal. Source: ...

324

1 | P a g e 2012 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 | P a g e 2012 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference Pittsburgh, PA, USA October 15 - 18, 2012-mineable Coal Seam Qin He, Shahab D. Mohaghegh, Vida Gholami Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV26505, U.S.A. Abstract Studies have shown that, coal seam

Mohaghegh, Shahab

325

Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Retail Supplier Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Kentucky Department for Energy Development and Independence Kentucky Administrative Regulation Title 405 chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18 and 20 establish the laws governing coal mining in the state. The Department of Natural Resources under the authority of the Energy and Environment Cabinet is responsible for enforcing these laws and assuring compliance with the 1977 Federal Surface Mining Control Act (SMCRA). The Division of Mine Reclamation and Enforcement is responsible for inspecting

326

Natural  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Summary of U.S. Natural Gas Imports and Exports, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Imports Volume (million cubic feet) Pipeline Canada............................. 2,094,387 2,266,751 2,566,049 2,816,408 2,883,277 Mexico .............................. 0 1,678 7,013 6,722 13,862 Total Pipeline Imports....... 2,094,387 2,268,429 2,573,061 2,823,130 2,897,138 LNG Algeria .............................. 43,116 81,685 50,778 17,918 35,325 United Arab Emirates ....... 0 0 0 0 4,949 Total LNG Imports............. 43,116 81,685 50,778 17,918 40,274 Total Imports......................... 2,137,504 2,350,115 2,623,839 2,841,048 2,937,413 Average Price (dollars per thousand cubic feet) Pipeline Canada............................. 1.84 2.02 1.86 1.48 1.96 Mexico .............................. - 1.94 1.99 1.53 2.25 Total Pipeline Imports.......

327

International Energy Outlook 2006 - Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Natural Gas International Energy Outlook 2006 Chapter 4: Natural Gas Natural gas trails coal as the fastest growing primary energy source in IEO2006. The natural gas share of total world energy consumption increases from 24 percent in 2003 to 26 percent in 2030. Figure 34. World Natural Gas Consumption by Region, 1990-2030 (Trillion Cubic Feet). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 35. World Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use Sector, 2003-2030 (Trillion Cubic Feet). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Consumption of natural gas worldwide increases from 95 trillion cubic feet in 2003 to 182 trillion cubic feet in 2030 in the IEO2006 reference case

328

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook - Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Market Module Coal Market Module Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides forecasts of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2004, DOE/EIA-M060(2004) (Washington, DC, 2004). Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the forecast. Separate supply curves are developed for each of 11 supply regions and 12 coal types (unique combinations of thermal grade, sulfur content, and mine type). The modeling approach used to construct regional coal supply curves addresses the relationship between the minemouth price of coal and corresponding levels of capacity utilization of mines, mining capacity, labor productivity, and the cost of factor inputs (mining equipment, mine labor, and fuel requirements).

329

2012 Brief: Coal and mid-continent crude oil prices ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal and mid-continent crude oil (WTI) led energy commodity price declines in 2012. Natural gas was the only key energy commodity with a significant ...

330

NETL: Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) - Round...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deepwater Technology Enhanced Oil Recovery Gas Hydrates Natural Gas Resources Contacts Coal & Power Systems Major Demonstrations Innovations for Existing Plants Gasification...

331

Resource Recovery of Coal Bed Methane Formation Water.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??During the excavation of natural gas, petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted brine water, termed production water, is drawn from the coal bed methane formations (CBMF) along with the (more)

Bishop, Catherine Elizabeth

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Figure 51. World production of liquids from biomass, coal ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Title: Figure 51. World production of liquids from biomass, coal, and natural gas in three cases, 2011 and 2040 (million barrels per day) Subject

333

Coal & Power Systems Strategic Plan & Multi-Year Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

produce transportation fuels, chemicals, and feedstocks from coal, natural gas, oil shale, biomass, and other carbonaceous resources. Technologies to produce hydrogen will...

334

Australia world's largest coal exporter, fourth-largest liquefied ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

In addition to coal, Australia is one of the world's leading exporters of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Australia produced 1.6 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) ...

335

Energy-water nexus : sustainability of coal and water resources.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Energy and water are two precious natural resources with which demand will continue to grow with increased population growth. Coal provides a cheap and abundant (more)

Hebel, Anna Kathleen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Australia world's largest coal exporter, fourth-largest ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

In 2010, Australia was the world's largest coal exporter and fourth-largest liquefied natural gas exporter. Australia is one of the few countries in the Organization ...

337

Coal industry annual 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Coal industry annual 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Low temperature steam-coal gasification catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Shrinking domestic supplies and larger dependence on foreign sources have made an assortment of fossil fuels attractive as possible energy sources. The high sulfur and mineral coals of Illinois would be an ideal candidate as possible gasification feedstock. Large reserves of coal as fossil fuel source and a projected shortage of natural gas (methane) in the US, have made development of technology for commercial production of high Btu pipeline gases from coal of interest. Several coal gasification processes exist, but incentives remain for the development of processes that would significantly increase efficiency and lower cost. A major problem in coal/char gasification is the heat required which make the process energy intensive. Hence, there is a need for an efficient and thermally neutral gasification process. Results are described for the gasification of an Illinois No. 6 coal with transition metal catalysts and added potassium hydroxide.

Hippo, E.J.; Tandon, D. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Underground Coal Thermal Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: ? Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). ? Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). ? Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). ? Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

342

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

343

A new approach in ultrapurification of coal by selective flocculation  

SciTech Connect

The specific objective of the present investigation is to develop a mathematical and computational model to elicit values of active sites ({phi}) and fractional surface coverage ({theta}) which would yield optimum separation of coal from coal pyrite and coal refuse. Attempts are to be made to select appropriate flocculants and experimental conditions to obtain {phi} and {theta} values as dictated by the theoretical model so as to achieve the desired separation in naturally occurring samples of fine coal. (VC)

Moudgil, B.M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advanced Coal-Wind Non-Hybrid SNG IGCC+CCS PC CCGT Windor a synthetic natural gas (SNG) production facility) and anwithout Fuel With with SNG Production or Syncrude Production

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY),  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter SN A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY), NORTH PARK BASIN, COLORADO By S assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

346

Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 Market Share of Western Coal Continues To Increase U.S. coal production has remained near 1,100 million tons annually since 1996. In the AEO2006 reference case, increasing coal use for electricity generation at existing plants and construction of a few new coal-fired plants lead to annual production increases that average 1.1 percent per year from 2004 to 2015, when total production is 1,272 million tons. The growth in coal production is even stronger thereafter, averaging 2.0 percent per year from 2015 to 2030, as substantial amounts of new coal-fired generating capacity are added, and several CTL plants are brought on line. Figure 97. Coal production by region, 1970-2030 (million short tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 for help.

347

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal" November 20, 2012 jlowe@bsu.edu 765.285.2805 Ball State University Ball State University Administration Building 1899 Ball State 1920s Ball State University Ball State University (4) Coal Fired Boilers Installed 1941/1955 (3) Natural Gas Fired Boilers Installed in the 1970s Heat and Chilled Water Plant Operations Heat Plant: 4 Coal Fired Boilers 3 Natural Gas Fired Boilers 320,000 Lbs/Hr nameplate 240,000 Lbs/Hr current 700,000,000 Lbs/Year Chilled Water Plant: 5 Electrical Centrifugal Chillers 9,300 ton capacity 25,000,000 Ton Hours/Year Pollutants Produced from Burning 36,000 tons of Coal * Carbon Dioxide 85,000 tons (Global Warming)

348

Environmental data energy technology characterizations: coal  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the activities leading to the conversion of coal to electricity. Specifically, the activities consist of coal mining and beneficiation, coal transport, electric power generation, and power transmission. To enhance the usefulness of the material presented, resource requirements, energy products, and residuals for each activity area are normalized in terms of 10/sup 12/ Btus of energy produced. Thus, the total effect of producing electricity from coal can be determined by combining the residuals associated with the appropriate activity areas. Emissions from the coal cycle are highly dependent upon the type of coal consumed as well as the control technology assigned to the activity area. Each area is assumed to be equipped with currently available control technologies that meet environmental regulations. The conventional boiler, for example, has an electrostatic precipitator and a flue gas desulfurization scrubber. While this results in the removal of most of the particulate matter and sulfur dioxide in the flue gas stream, it creates other new environmental residuals -- solid waste, sludge, and ash. There are many different types of mined coal. For informational purposes, two types from two major producing regions, the East and the West, are characterized here. The eastern coal is typical of the Northern Appalachian coal district with a high sulfur and heat content. The western coal, from the Powder River Basin, has much less sulfur, but also has a substantially lower heating value.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

MOLECULAR ACCESSIBILITY IN OXIDIZED AND DRIED COALS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Changes in physical and chemical structure of the micropore system in eight solvent swelled Argonne Premium Coal Sample (APCS) coals upon weathering were studied using the EPR spin probe method. Spin probes, which are allowed to diffuse into the coal structure during swelling, are trapped when the swelling solvent is removed. Excess spin probes are removed from the coal surface and larger pores so that only the presence of spin probes trapped in pores which closely approximate the size of the spin probe are detected. Detailed explanations and illustrations of the experimental procedure used are given. Careful examination of the weathering process on coal as a function of rank was accomplished using the EPR spin probe method. The retention of spin probes in eight APCS coals provided valuable insight into both the loss of water and the oxidation which occur during the weathering process. The results could be explained in terms of the autoxidation process observed in other polymeric systems. It was shown that initial oxidation of coal can result in increased cross-linking in the coal structure. As the oxidation process continued, both the covalent and hydrogen bonded character of the coal were significantly altered. The retention character of some coals during oxidation was shown to change by as much as three orders of magnitude. Experiments were performed to study the effects of short term oxidation and dehydration on coal structure by exposing the coal samples to argon or oxygen for time periods up to five minutes. The results indicate that the structure of coal is extremely sensitive to environmental changes and exhibits significant changes in as little as 30 seconds. Exposure of Illinois No.6 coal to argon or oxygen for 30 seconds caused a decrease in the retention of polar spin probes by as much as an order of magnitude. The studies presented here suggest that the structure of coal is dynamic in nature, and has an intimate relationship with the nature of its environment. This method has been shown to be very sensitive to structural changes brought about in coal by oxidation and dehydration, and can be used to follow changes in coal during the swelling process. Additional ideas for future studies using the EPR spin probe method are also discussed.

Lowell D. Kispert

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Present coal potential of Turkey and coal usage in electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

Total coal reserve (hard coal + lignite) in the world is 984 billion tons. While hard coal constitutes 52% of the total reserve, lignite constitutes 48% of it. Turkey has only 0.1% of world hard coal reserve and 1.5% of world lignite reserves. Turkey has 9th order in lignite reserve, 8th order in lignite production, and 12th order in total coal (hard coal and lignite) consumption. While hard coal production meets only 13% of its consumption, lignite production meets lignite consumption in Turkey. Sixty-five percent of produced hard coal and 78% of produced lignite are used for electricity generation. Lignites are generally used for electricity generation due to their low quality. As of 2003, total installed capacity of Turkey was 35,587 MW, 19% (6,774 MW) of which is produced from coal-based thermal power plants. Recently, use of natural gas in electricity generation has increased. While the share of coal in electricity generation was about 50% for 1986, it is replaced by natural gas today.

Yilmaz, A.O. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions.Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coalconsumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System(NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

John Conti

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Coal industry annual 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

355

The coal-wind connection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The USA now has more than 10,000 MW of wind capacity and more wind farms are expected to be built. However transmissions constraints are great, especially in the Northwest and upper Midwest, where abundant wind resources span sparsely populated regions. These areas also hold major deposits of coal. Partnerships are being developed to share transmission to accommodate both new wind and new coal-fired capacity. Wyoming may well be the epicentre of the issue. Another idea, in wind-prone Texas, is to further integrate wind with baseload fossil power resources by creation of competitive renewable energy zones (CREZs). New transmission corridors will be set up linking the renewable energy zones to power markets in ERCOT, the Electric Reliability Council of Texas. There are problems of co-developing coal and wind capacity with common transmission. If coal gasification technology emerges on a commercial scale there would be a good opportunity for integrated gasification combined cycle which can cycle to firm up variable wind generation. Several coal companies in Wyoming are considering gasifying coal and putting it into the pipeline. 2 photos.

Blankinship, S.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Zero emission coal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effects of combustion emissions from wood (Honicky andfuel combustion sources, such as gas-, wood-, or coal-indoor combustion of cigarettes and of coal, wood, natural

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Coal-fired electric generators continue to dominate electric ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

More than 60% of electricity in the central region of the United States comes from coal-fired electric generators, down from 80% in the early part of ...

359

Competitive interstate taxation of western coal  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the potential market power of western states in setting coal severance taxes. An attempt to determine the emphasis placed by the western states on the development of their coal resources is also made. Three market structures are analyzed. One involves a western regional cartel, setting taxes collectively. The other cases are noncooperative tax equilibria with Montana and Wyoming competing against each other. We study the effects on these equilibria of changes in each region's relative emphasis on development of coal resources vs tax revenue. The welfare impacts of these tax setting policies are also addressed. The analysis is based on an activity analysis of US coal markets. The results show that the taxes associated with the noncooperative competitive tax equilibria are close to present tax levels. Additionally, we conclude that western states currently are quite efficient extractors of economic rent from coal produced within their boundaries, in terms of welfare loss per dollar of tax revenue collected. 2 figures.

Kolstad, C.D.; Wolak, F.A. Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Annual Coal Distribution Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: December 19, 2013 | Next Release Date: November 2014 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution...

362

2014 Coal Form Proposals  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Survey Form Changes Proposed for 2014. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has begun the process of re-clearing the coal survey ...

363

Coal Mining (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

364

Coal News and Markets  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Metallurgical coal markets became volatile when the thriving Chinese steel industry in late 2003 and 2004 made outsized demands for coking coal and met coke, ...

365

Coal News and Markets  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices (updated December 27, 2006) This report summarizes spot coal prices for the business weeks ended December 1, 8, and 15.

366

Annual Coal Report 2001  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE/EIA-0584 (2001) Annual Coal Report 2001 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy

367

Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Thermal Comfort Study in a Naturally Ventilated Residential Building in a Tropical Hot-Humid Climate Region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a thermal comfort study in a naturally ventilated residential building located in a tropical hot-humid climate region. The specific objective of this study is to investigate whether thermal comfort in this house can be achieved through a passive system only. The methods used in this study included conducting hourly monitoring of the temperature and relative humidity; measuring the air velocities; and assessing occupants' thermal sensations through questionnaires and interview. The data from the questionnaires were matched to the monitored data to assess the acceptable range of comfortable condition. Then using an hourly simulation program, some components of the building were also "modified" to investigate whether the building can be made "more comfortable". This study shows that it is possible to provide a thermally comfortable space in this region without using mechanical air-conditioning systems. The occupants' acceptable range of comfortable condition is different than that of people in the northern latitudes. The occupants sensed "neutrality" when the operative temperature in the house was about 27 degree Celsius (80F). The occupants could also tolerate slightly warm conditions, that is up to 29 degree Celsius (84OF), and still never wanted to install any air-conditioning systems. The simulation showed that using light wall materials would result in cooler indoor temperature at night but warmer during the day. If all windows were opened (25% the total floor area) the house could be more comfortable at night but less comfortable during the day. Findings of this study are important for architects and engineers in designing comfortable living spaces in these regions.

Soebarto, V. I.; Handjarinto, S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal 101 Lesson 2: The Clean Coal Technology Program The Clean Coal Technology Program began in 1985 when the United States and Canada decided that something had to be done about the "acid rain" that was believed to be damaging rivers, lakes, forests, and buildings in both countries. Since many of the pollutants that formed "acid rain" were coming from big coal-burning power plants in the United States, the U.S. Government took the lead in finding a solution. One of the steps taken by the U.S. Department of Energy was to create a partnership program between the Government, several States, and private companies to test new methods developed by scientists to make coal burning much cleaner. This became the "Clean Coal Technology Program."

371

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Biomass to Liquids Hydrogen-from-Coal RD&D ENERGY ANALYSIS About Us Search Products Contacts SMART GRID ANALYSIS BASELINE STUDIES QUALITY GUIDELINES NETL-RUA About NETL-RUA...

372

Economic benefits of R and D on gas supply technologies. [Unconventioal natural gas resources which are tight sands, Devonian shale, coal seam gas, and gas co-produced with water  

SciTech Connect

Advanced natural gas supply technologies, if successful, could lower the average cost of gas to consumers by 18% and increase the expected gas demand by 2 quads/year by the year 2000. Advanced production techniques for unconventional gas will have by far the greatest impact on future gas prices, providing economic benefits of between $200 billion and $320 billion. Advanced SNG from coal will provide only a $9 billion benefit if unconventional gas meets all of its performance targets. However, higher demand and failure of unconventional gas R and D could raise the benefits of SNG research to $107 billion. SNG research provides a hedge value that increases the likelihood of receiving a positive payoff from gas supply R and D. Changing the performance goals for SNG research to emphasize cost reduction rather than acceleration of the date of commercialization would greatly increase the potential benefits of the program. 9 references, 8 figures, 5 tables.

Darrow, K.G.; Ashby, A.B.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Marshalla, R.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Comparing the risk profiles of renewable and natural gas electricity contracts: A summary of the California Department of Water Resources contracts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal prices are also less variable than natural gas prices,coal-fired power plants are more often fixed-price than contracts for natural gas-

Bachrach, Devra; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Golove, William

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals  

SciTech Connect

Injection of CO{sub 2} in coalbeds is a plausible method of reducing atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2}, and it can have the additional benefit of enhancing methane recovery from coal. Most previous studies have evaluated the merits of CO{sub 2} disposal in high-rank coals. The objective of this research was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery from, low-rank coals in the Texas Gulf Coast area. Our research included an extensive coal characterization program, including acquisition and analysis of coal core samples and well transient test data. We conducted deterministic and probabilistic reservoir simulation and economic studies to evaluate the effects of injectant fluid composition (pure CO{sub 2} and flue gas), well spacing, injection rate, and dewatering on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery in low-rank coals of the Calvert Bluff formation of the Texas Wilcox Group. Shallow and deep Calvert Bluff coals occur in two, distinct, coalbed gas petroleum systems that are separated by a transition zone. Calvert Bluff coals < 3,500 ft deep are part of a biogenic coalbed gas system. They have low gas content and are part of a freshwater aquifer. In contrast, Wilcox coals deeper than 3,500 ft are part of a thermogenic coalbed gas system. They have high gas content and are part of a saline aquifer. CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Calvert Bluff low-rank coals of East-Central Texas must be located in the deeper, unmineable coals, because shallow Wilcox coals are part of a protected freshwater aquifer. Probabilistic simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection into 20 feet of Calvert Bluff coal in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicates that these coals can store 1.27 to 2.25 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with an ECBM recovery of 0.48 to 0.85 Bcf. Simulation results of flue gas injection (87% N{sub 2}-13% CO{sub 2}) indicate that these same coals can store 0.34 to 0.59 Bcf of CO{sub 2} with an ECBM recovery of 0.68 to 1.20 Bcf. Economic modeling of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery indicates predominantly negative economic indicators for the reservoir depths (4,000 to 6,200 ft) and well spacings investigated, using natural gas prices ranging from $2 to $12 per Mscf and CO{sub 2} credits based on carbon market prices ranging from $0.05 to $1.58 per Mscf CO{sub 2} ($1.00 to $30.00 per ton CO{sub 2}). Injection of flue gas (87% N{sub 2} - 13% CO{sub 2}) results in better economic performance than injection of 100% CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} sequestration potential and methane resources in low-rank coals of the Lower Calvert Bluff formation in East-Central Texas are significant. The potential CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of the coals ranges between 27.2 and 49.2 Tcf (1.57 and 2.69 billion tons), with a mean value of 38 Tcf (2.2 billion tons), assuming a 72.4% injection efficiency. Estimates of recoverable methane resources range between 6.3 and 13.6 Tcf, with a mean of 9.8 Tcf, assuming a 71.3% recovery factor. Moderate increases in gas prices and/or carbon credits could generate attractive economic conditions that, combined with the close proximity of many CO{sub 2} point sources near unmineable coalbeds, could enable commercial CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Texas low-rank coals. Additional studies are needed to characterize Wilcox regional methane coalbed gas systems and their boundaries, and to assess potential of other low-rank coal beds. Results from this study may be transferable to other low-rank coal formations and regions.

Duane McVay; Walter Ayers, Jr.; Jerry Jensen; Jorge Garduno; Gonzola Hernandez; Rasheed Bello; Rahila Ramazanova

2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Injection of CO{sub 2} in coalbeds is a plausible method of reducing atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2}, and it can have the additional benefit of enhancing methane recovery from coal. Most previous studies have evaluated the merits of CO{sub 2} disposal in high-rank coals. The objective of this research was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery from, low-rank coals in the Texas Gulf Coast area. Our research included an extensive coal characterization program, including acquisition and analysis of coal core samples and well transient test data. We conducted deterministic and probabilistic reservoir simulation and economic studies to evaluate the effects of injectant fluid composition (pure CO{sub 2} and flue gas), well spacing, injection rate, and dewatering on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery in low-rank coals of the Calvert Bluff formation of the Texas Wilcox Group. Shallow and deep Calvert Bluff coals occur in two, distinct, coalbed gas petroleum systems that are separated by a transition zone. Calvert Bluff coals coals deeper than 3,500 ft are part of a thermogenic coalbed gas system. They have high gas content and are part of a saline aquifer. CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Calvert Bluff low-rank coals of East-Central Texas must be located in the deeper, unmineable coals, because shallow Wilcox coals are part of a protected freshwater aquifer. Probabilistic simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection into 20 feet of Calvert Bluff coal in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicates that these coals can store 1.27 to 2.25 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with an ECBM recovery of 0.48 to 0.85 Bcf. Simulation results of flue gas injection (87% N{sub 2}-13% CO{sub 2}) indicate that these same coals can store 0.34 to 0.59 Bcf of CO{sub 2} with an ECBM recovery of 0.68 to 1.20 Bcf. Economic modeling of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery indicates predominantly negative economic indicators for the reservoir depths (4,000 to 6,200 ft) and well spacings investigated, using natural gas prices ranging from $2 to $12 per Mscf and CO{sub 2} credits based on carbon market prices ranging from $0.05 to $1.58 per Mscf CO{sub 2} ($1.00 to $30.00 per ton CO{sub 2}). Injection of flue gas (87% N{sub 2} - 13% CO{sub 2}) results in better economic performance than injection of 100% CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} sequestration potential and methane resources in low-rank coals of the Lower Calvert Bluff formation in East-Central Texas are significant. The potential CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of the coals ranges between 27.2 and 49.2 Tcf (1.57 and 2.69 billion tons), with a mean value of 38 Tcf (2.2 billion tons), assuming a 72.4% injection efficiency. Estimates of recoverable methane resources range between 6.3 and 13.6 Tcf, with a mean of 9.8 Tcf, assuming a 71.3% recovery factor. Moderate increases in gas prices and/or carbon credits could generate attractive economic conditions that, combined with the close proximity of many CO{sub 2} point sources near unmineable coalbeds, could enable commercial CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Texas low-rank coals. Additional studies are needed to characterize Wilcox regional methane coalbed gas systems and their boundaries, and to assess potential of other low-rank coal beds. Results from this study may be transferable to other low-rank coal formations and regions.

Duane McVay; Walter Ayers, Jr.; Jerry Jensen; Jorge Garduno; Gonzola Hernandez; Rasheed Bello; Rahila Ramazanova

2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

376

Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Investigation of coal structure. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A better understanding of coal structure is the first step toward more effective utilization of the most abundant hydrocarbon resource. Detailed characterization of coal structure is very difficult, even with today`s highly developed analytical techniques. This is primarily due to the amorphous nature of these high-molecular-weight mixtures. Coal has a polymeric character and has been popularly represented as a three-dimensional cross-linked network. There is, however, little or no information which positively verifies this model. The principal objective of this research was to further investigate the physical structure of coal and to determine the extent to which coal molecules may be covalently cross-linked and/or physically associated. Two common characterization methods, swellability and extractability, were used. A technique modifying the conventional swelling procedure was established to better determine network or associated model conformation. A new method for evaluating coal swelling involving laser scattering has also been developed. The charge-transfer interaction is relatively strong in high-volatile bituminous coal. Soaking in the presence of electron donors and acceptors proved effective for solubilizing the coal, but temperatures in excess of 200 C were required. More than 70 wt% of the coal was readily extracted with pyridine after soaking. Associative/dissociative equilibria of coal molecules were observed during soaking. From these results, the associated model has gained credibility over the network model as the representative structure of coal. Significant portions of coal molecules are unquestionably physically associated, but the overall extent is not known at this time.

Nishioka, Masaharu

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

" Level: National Data and Regional...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" "...

379

" Level: National Data and Regional...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" "...

380

Coal - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Coal Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, Exports & Distribution Coal Transportation Rates International All Coal Data Reports Analysis & Projections Most Requested Consumption Environment Imports & Exports Industry Characteristics Prices Production Projections Reserves Stocks All Reports EIA's latest Short-Term Energy Outlook for coal › image chart of U.S. Natural Gas Production and Imports projections as described in linked Short-Term Energy Outlook Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Short-Term Energy Outlook, released monthly. U.S. coal production by quarter › Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Quarterly Coal Report. Quarterly data for coal shipments between states ›

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Convergence of Regional Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) Prices : A review of regional LNG import prices using Engle Grangers Cointegration approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis investigates the bivariate long term stochastic relationship between the import Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) prices in Japan, USA and EU. The bivariate testing (more)

Eliston, Anton Jayanand

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Improved coal liquefaction was reinvestigated for the current two-stage process on the basis of the associated molecular nature of coal. Since a significant portion of coal molecules are physically associated as pointed in our recent paper, physical dissolution should be considered. The step-wise, high-temperature soaking is a simple and effective method for coal dissolution. Larger dissolution makes liquefaction severity lower. Broad molecular mass distribution in the associated coal was another important factor. The selective reaction of fractions with high molecular weight isolated after the high-temperature soaking makes gas yield lower. Tests using an autoclave by the concept shown in Figure 5 enabled to more oil and 15-20% less gas yields. It is expected that the procedure will result in great cost reduction in coal liquefaction.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Clean Coal Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Coal Research Clean Coal Research Clean Coal Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Hydrogen from Coal Coal to Liquids Major Demonstrations Crosscutting Research Carbon Capture and...

384

Coal Combustion Products | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Combustion Products Coal Combustion Products Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the...

385

Coal Tar and Bedrock  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characterization of bedrock groundwater and coal tar impacts is one of the most complicated tasks associated with managing manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. This report provides an overview of the fate and transport of coal tar in bedrock and the methods available to investigate coal tar at particular sites and discusses how to develop a decision-making framework for coal tar investigations.

2007-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

386

Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this research project is to study ways to modify surface properties of coal, pyrite and ash-forming mineral matter for beneficiation of fine coal. Since the differences in surface properties of coal and mineral matter are utilized in several oil based preparation technologies, such as: froth flotation, emulsion flotation, spherical agglomeration and liquid-liquid separation, another objective is to delineate the role of oil. The following studies are behind carried out to achieve the objectives: Investigation of the natural hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite; development and evaluation of enhanced coal hydrophobicity; development and evaluation of reagents xanthates which modulate the hydrophobicity of pyrite; and development and evaluation of emulsion processes and their underlying principles.

Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A "Bed" for Burning Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal Clean Coal 101 Lesson 4: A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with government and college officials on the campus of Georgetown University to celebrate the completion of one of the world's most advanced coal combustors. It was a small coal burner by today's standards, but large enough to provide heat and steam for much of the university campus. But the new boiler built beside the campus tennis courts was unlike most other boilers in the world. A Fluidized Bed Boiler A Fluidized Bed Boiler In a fluidized bed boiler, upward blowing jets of air suspend burning coal, allowing it to mix with limestone that absorbs sulfur pollutants.

388

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Distribution Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: June 27, 2013 Next Release Date: September 2013 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf October-December pdf xls pdf 2010 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf xls

389

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Alternate Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal and CoalBiomass to Liquids Alternate Hydrogen Production In the Alternate Production technology pathway, clean syngas from coal is converted to high-hydrogen-content liquid...

390

The Effect of Circulating Coal Slurry Water Hardness on Coal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to investigate the effect of gypsum on flotation and coal slurry settling during coal slurry recirculation, the water hardness and proton conductivity of coal...

391

Subbituminous and bituminous coal dominate U.S. coal ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

While almost all coal consumed in the United States is used to generate electricity (90% in 2010), coal is not entirely homogeneous. Coal is ...

392

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " 8 Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Residual",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(e)"

393

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" 4 Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"Residual Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate",,,"and",,"Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

394

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " 2 Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"LPG",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate","Residual",,"and",,"Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","Coal","Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

395

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " 8 Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Residual",,,"and",,"Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

396

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" 4 Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"Residual Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(e)"

397

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " 2 Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"LPG",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate","Residual",,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","Coal","Breeze","Other(e)"

398

Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Coal data: A reference  

SciTech Connect

This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

Not Available

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

Wenglarz, R.A.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Prebaked Anode from Coal Extract  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We previously reported that the coal extract prepared from non-hydrogenative extraction of thermal coals using two-ring-aromatic solvent (Hyper-coal) is suitable...

402

Coal desulfurization with sodium hypochlorite.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Wet desulfurization of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and Illinois No. 6 coal were conducted with sodium hypochlorite in the laboratory. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was (more)

Li, Wei, M.S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

U.S. Coal Supply and Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. Coal Supply and Demand > U.S. Coal Supply and Demand U.S. Coal Supply and Demand > U.S. Coal Supply and Demand U.S. Coal Supply and Demand 2010 Review (entire report also available in printer-friendly format ) Previous Editions 2009 Review 2008 Review 2007 Review 2006 Review 2005 Review 2004 Review 2003 Review 2002 Review 2001 Review 2000 Review 1999 Review Data for: 2010 Released: May 2011 Next Release Date: April 2012 Table 3. Electric Power Sector Net Generation, 2009-2010 (Million Kilowatthours) New England Coal 14,378 14,244 -0.9 Hydroelectric 7,759 6,861 -11.6 Natural Gas 48,007 54,680 13.9 Nuclear 36,231 38,361 5.9 Other (1) 9,186 9,063 -1.3 Total 115,559 123,210 6.6 Middle Atlantic Coal 121,873 129,935 6.6 Hydroelectric 28,793 26,463 -8.1 Natural Gas 89,808 104,341 16.2 Nuclear 155,140 152,469 -1.7

404

Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation (Indiana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation (Indiana) Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation (Indiana) Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation (Indiana) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Indiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Natural Resources The Indiana Department of Natural Resources implements and enforces the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, as well as a statewide program to protect society and the environment from the adverse effects of mining operations, and regulates coal mining operations to

405

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys

406

Hydrogen from Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U.S. Department of Energy DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies September 8, 2004 Presentation Outline ƒ Hydrogen Initiatives ƒ Hydrogen from Coal Central Production Goal ƒ Why Coal ƒ Why Hydrogen Separation Membranes ƒ Coal-based Synthesis Gas Characteristics ƒ Technical Barriers ƒ Targets ƒ Future Plans 2 3 Hydrogen from Coal Program Hydrogen from Coal Program FutureGen FutureGen Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Supports the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative and FutureGen * The Hydrogen Fuel Initiative is a $1.2 billion RD&D program to develop hydrogen

407

NETL: Coal & Power Systems - Brief History of Coal Use  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

History of Coal Coal & Power Systems Brief History of Coal Use Steam Locomotive In the 1800s, one of the primary uses of coal was to fuel steam engines used to power locomotives....

408

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Closely Aligned Programs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > C&CBTL > Closely Aligned Programs Coal and CoalBiomass to Liquids Closely Aligned Programs The Department of Energy's (DOE) Coal & CoalBiomass to Liquids...

409

FORT UNION COAL IN THE WILLISTON BASIN, NORTH DAKOTA: A SYNTHESIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter WS FORT UNION COAL IN THE WILLISTON BASIN, NORTH DAKOTA: A SYNTHESIS By R.M. Flores and C coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

410

Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

Baxter, L.L.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

U.S. Coal Supply: International Shocks and the Value of Fuel Flexibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global coal markets soared and collapsed during 2008. This study examines implications of these changes for U.S. coal markets, in particular the possible evolution of coal prices from four different regions from 2009 to 2020 and the value of being able to use the lowest-cost coals representative delivery points. Additionally, the report estimates the competitiveness of U.S. coals in international markets, considering U.S. coals moving to Europe as well as Colombian coals moving to the United States. The ...

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

412

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

commercial (point sources) Coal Oil Other Area sourcesSource Stationary fuel combugtion Electric utilities Coal Oil

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

Kiani, B.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

415

Coal feed lock  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

Pinkel, I. Irving (Fairview Park, OH)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

417

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Institutional Fuel Distributor Program Info State Montana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation The Coal Bed Methane Protection Act establishes a long-term coal bed methane protection account and a coal bed methane protection program for the purpose of compensating private landowners and water right holders for damage to land and to water quality and availability that is attributable to the development of coal bed methane wells. The Act aims to provide for

418

Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Utility Program Info State Mississippi Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality The Surface Coal Mining Regulations are a combination of permitting requirements and environmental regulations that limit how, where and when coal can be mined. It protects lands that are under special regulation due to their nature, and applies only to state lands. When applied to Coal with Carbon Capture and Storage projects the rules that would apply to a normal coal-mining project still apply. In addition to these measures, a CCS plant would need to adhere to all waste disposal requirements, water usage

419

Top four U.S. coal companies supplied more than half of U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

In the past two years, more than half of U.S. coal production was attributable to the top four coal producers, the result of changes in regional production as well as ...

420

Rend Lake College celebrates the opening of a new coal miner training facility  

SciTech Connect

The Coal Miner Training Center at Rend Lake College recently hosted the Illinois Mining Institute's annual conference and a regional mine rescue competition. The article gives an outline of the coal miner training and refresher course offered. 3 photos.

Buchsbaum, L.

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Coal Combustion Science  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 State / Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 14,828 4,508 19,336 Alaska 825 698 1,524 Arizona 13,143 - 13,143 Arkansas 13 - 13 Colorado 32,427 894 33,321 Illinois 33,997 285 34,283 Indiana 36,714 - 36,714 Kansas 176 - 176 Kentucky Total 131,546 2,821 134,367 East 107,000 2,707 109,706 West 24,547 114 24,660 Louisiana 3,746 - 3,746 Maryland 4,671 319 4,990 Mississippi 475 - 475 Missouri 366 - 366 Montana 38,459 485 38,944 New Mexico 28,949 - 28,949 North Dakota 30,449 - 30,449 Ohio 25,463 12 25,475 Oklahoma 1,710 - 1,710 Pennsylvania Total 64,392 6,005 70,397 Anthracite 2,852 205 3,057 Bituminous 61,540 5,800 67,340 Tennessee 3,346 28 3,374 Texas 45,019 31 45,050 Utah 24,761 2,144 26,905 Virginia 25,685 7,071 32,756 Washington 4,623 - 4,623 West Virginia Total 144,584

423

DOE Regional Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia DOE Regional Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia February 11, 2009 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) team of regional partners has begun injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) into coal seams in the Central Appalachian Basin to determine the feasibility of CO2 storage in unmineable coal seams and the potential for enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The results of the study will be vital in assessing the potential of carbon storage in coal seams as a safe and permanent method to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions while enhancing production of natural gas. DOE's Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) began injecting CO2 at the test site in Russell County, Virginia, in mid January.

424

International perspectives on coal preparation  

SciTech Connect

The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

425

U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 1997 Review  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Western Western Interior Appalachian Energy Information Administration/ U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 1997 Review 1 Figure 1. Coal-Producing Regions Source: Energy Information Administration, Coal Industry Annual 1996, DOE/EIA-0584(96) (Washington, DC, November 1997). U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 1997 Review by B.D. Hong Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy Overview U.S. coal production totaled a record high of 1,088.6 million short tons in 1997, up by 2.3 percent over the 1996 production level, according to preliminary data from the Energy Information Administration (Table 1). The electric power industry (utilities and independent power producers)-the dominant coal consumer-used a record 922.0 million short tons, up by 2.8 percent over 1996. The increase in coal use for

426

Overview of coal conversion  

SciTech Connect

The structure of coal and the processes of coal gasification and coal liquefaction are reviewed. While coal conversion technology is not likely to provide a significant amount of synthetic fuel within the next several years, there is a clear interest both in government and private sectors in the development of this technology to hedge against ever-diminishing petroleum supplies, especially from foreign sources. It is evident from this rather cursory survey that there is some old technology that is highly reliable; new technology is being developed but is not ready for commercialization at the present state of development. The area of coal conversion is ripe for exploration both on the applied and basic research levels. A great deal more must be understood about the reactions of coal, the reactions of coal products, and the physics and chemistry involved in the various stages of coal conversion processes in order to make this technology economically viable.

Clark, B.R.

1981-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

427

Coal Production 1992  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

428

Coal News and Markets  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Over the past month and a half, NAP spot coal prices have been flat or declining (graph above). ... (the walls of coal left in place to support the roof), ...

429

Indonesian coal mining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Stacker speeds coal recovery  

SciTech Connect

The Spring Creek Coal Co., near Decker, Montana, features the only stacker/reclaimer in the U.S. to stockpile and reclaim coal produced by a dragline/truck-shovel operation.

Jackson, D.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

March 2011 DOEEIA-0121 (201004Q) Revised: July 2012 Quarterly Coal Report October - December 2010 March 2011 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal...

432

Coal Market Module  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

6, DOEEIA-M060(2006) (Washington, DC, 2006). Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for...

433

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Economics of gas from coal  

SciTech Connect

This study deals with three questions: What does gas from coal cost and what affects this cost; How do different approaches and processes compare; and How near to competitive cost-levels is present-day technology. Discussion covers production of both substitute natural gas (SNG) and medium calorific gas (MCG: 10-16 MJ/Nm3 or 250-400 Btu/SCF). Conclusions are that SNG from low-cost U.S. coal and West German brown coal are, on the basis of mature technology and Government rates-of-return, roughly competitive with gas imports into the U.S. and Europe respectively. Similarly MCG from second-generation gasifiers is competitive with gas-oil or No. 2 heating oil in Europe, North America and Japan. However, capital costs form about half total gas costs at 10 percent rate-of-return, so that the competitiveness of gas from coal is sensitive to capital costs: this is the area of greatest uncertainty.

Teper, M.; Hemming, D.F.; Ulrich, W.C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Coal Industry Annual, 2000  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

Information Center

436

Ore components in coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dependence of the mineral content in coal and concentrates on the degree of metamorphism is analyzed.

Kh.A. Ishhakov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Coal Industry Annual, 1996  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

Fred Freme

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Coal Industry Annual, 1997  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

Fred Freme

1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

439

Coal Industry Annual, 1995  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

Fred Freme

1996-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

440

Coal Industry Annual, 1998  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

Fred Freme

2000-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Coal Industry Annual, 1994  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

Fred Freme

1996-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

442

Coal gasification apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Method for fluorinating coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

Huston, John L. (Skokie, IL); Scott, Robert G. (Westmont, IL); Studier, Martin H. (Downers Grove, IL)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Coal News and Markets  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... (Energy Publishing, Coal & Energy Price Report, Bulletin, ... Although, the soaring demands of the Chinese steel industry are still with us, ...

445

Coal Industry Annual, 1999  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

Information Center

446

Coal production 1989  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

447

Flash hydrogenation of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

Manowitz, Bernard (Brightwaters, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY); Sheehan, Thomas V. (Hampton Bays, NY); Winsche, Warren E. (Bellport, NY); Raseman, Chad J. (Setauket, NY)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Proceedings: Coal Combustion Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the 2007 Coal Combustion workshop was to present a holistic view of the various combustion processes required for minimal emissions, peak performance, and maximum reliability in a coal-fired power plant. The workshop also defined needs for future RD in coal combustion technology.

2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

449

Coal Market Module  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (AEO2013). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

Michael Mellish

2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

450

U.S. Coal Reserves  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Data - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Data - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. Consumption & Efficiency Energy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. Coal Reserves, production, prices, employ- ment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports. Renewable & Alternative Fuels Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol.

451

Revised market guide for coal exports from the United States  

SciTech Connect

The world market for steam coal is assessed. In recent years, much has changed in the world coal markets and in the expected opportunities for coal exports from the US. As an example, the overseas steam coal exports climbed from about 2 million tons in 1979 to about 35 million tons in 1981. Since then the overseas steam coal exports have fallen to 27 million tons in 1982 and to 17 million tons in 1983. In addition, metallurgical coal exports to overseas customers dropped from 60 million tons in 1982 to 43 million tons in 1983. This market guide is divided into four sections: Section one contains a review of the most frequently asked questions by individuals interested in the overseas coal markets and the role of US producers in this market; Section two contains an overview of the market for US steam and metallurgical coal exports, including forecasts of import demands, potential US market share, and the factors affecting this market share; Section three contains an outline of the current structure of the steam coal export trade in the US and the potential developments that will influence its future, and Section four contains a review of the important data on the nature of the energy-using industries, utilities and power plants, cement plants, coal quality requirements, and ports of the major steam and metallurgical coal importing countries. 14 figures, 45 tables.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Direct coal-fired gas turbines for combined cycle plants  

SciTech Connect

The combustion/emissions control island of the CFTCC plant produces cleaned coal combustion gases for expansion in the gas turbine. The gases are cleaned to protect the turbine from flow-path degeneration due to coal contaminants and to reduce environmental emissions to comparable or lower levels than alternate clean coal power plant tedmologies. An advantage of the CFTCC system over other clean coal technologies using gas turbines results from the CFTCC system having been designed as an adaptation to coal of a natural gas-fired combined cycle plant. Gas turbines are built for compactness and simplicity. The RQL combustor is designed using gas turbine combustion technology rather than process plant reactor technology used in other pressurized coal systems. The result is simpler and more compact combustion equipment than for alternate technologies. The natural effect is lower cost and improved reliability. In addition to new power generation plants, CFTCC technology will provide relatively compact and gas turbine compatible coal combustion/emissions control islands that can adapt existing natural gas-fired combined cycle plants to coal when gas prices rise to the point where conversion is economically attractive. Because of the simplicity, compactness, and compatibility of the RQL combustion/emission control island compared to other coal technologies, it could be a primary candidate for such conversions.

Rothrock, J.; Wenglarz, R.; Hart, P.; Mongia, H.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

NETL: Coal-Fired Power Plants (CFPPs)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Sources Coal-Fired Power Plants (CFPPs) Where is the coal in the United States? Coal Across the U.S. The U.S. contains coal resources in various places. The coal occurs...

454

Natural gas consumption reflects shifting sectoral patterns ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

For many years, while coal-fired generation was less expensive, those natural gas-fired combined-cycle units were used at relatively low rates.

455

Natural Gas Monthly - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics www.eia.gov Natural Gas Monthly September 2013 U.S. Department of Energy

456

NETL: Coal Utilization By-Products (CUB)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Coal Utilization Byproducts Innovations for Existing Plants Solid Waste (Coal Utilization...

457

Coal recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

"Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(g)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.4;" 3.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.4;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any" "NAICS"," ","Energy","Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," " "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(g)" ,,"Total United States"

459

"Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(f)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 2.4;" 2.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 2.4;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any Combustible" "NAICS"," ","Energy","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," " "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(f)" ,,"Total United States" 311,"Food",27.5,"X",42,39.5,62,"X",0,9.8

460

"Characteristic(a)","Total(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","Breeze","Other(g)","Produced Onsite(h)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1.3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.3;" 1.3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," ","Shipments" "Economic",,"Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and"," ","of Energy Sources" "Characteristic(a)","Total(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","Breeze","Other(g)","Produced Onsite(h)"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "region coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Manganese Occurrence Near Three Coal Ash Impoundments in Illinois  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes research performed to better understand the cause of elevated manganese concentrations sometimes found in groundwater near coal ash management facilities. Three impoundments in Illinois were selected for detailed field and laboratory studies of conditions conducive to manganese release from coal ash as well as natural soils.

2002-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

462

Analysis of the Coal Sector under Carbon Constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As an input to the MIT study of The Future of Coal (Ansolabehere et al., 2007) the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model was applied to an assessment of the fate of the coal industry under various scenarios of greenhouse gas mitigation and alternative assumptions about nuclear power growth and the future price of natural gas. A main determinant

James R. Mcfarl; Sergey Paltsev; Henry D. Jacoby

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Engineering Economic Evaluation of Clean-Coal Technologies 1999  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report updates previous studies of the capital cost and performance of clean coal power generation technologies and compares them on a consistent basis with regard to location, time, coal, and site conditions. It includes estimates of the cost of electricity for each technology and compares these costs to those of natural gas combined cycles.

1999-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

464

"Table A37. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," 7. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," " Census Division, and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" " "," "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," ","RSE" " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural"," "," ","Coke"," ","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Total","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","and Breeze","Other(d)","Factors"

465

"Table A36. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," 6. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," " Census Division, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ,,,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC"," "," "," ","Residual","Distillate ","Natural"," "," ","Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Total","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","and Breeze","Other(d)","Factors" ,,"Total United States"

466

Coal | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant chunk of our nation's electricity. The Energy Department is working to develop technologies that make coal cleaner, so we can ensure it plays a part in our clean energy future. The Department is also investing in development of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies, also referred to as carbon capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured Energy Secretary Moniz Visits Clean Coal Facility in Mississippi On Friday, Nov. 8, 2013, Secretary Moniz and international energy officials toured Kemper, the nation's largest carbon capture and storage facility, in Liberty, Mississippi. A small Mississippi town is making history with the largest carbon capture

467

Coal production: 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

US coal production and related data are reported for the year 1980, with similar data for 1979 given for comparison. The data here collected on Form EIA-7A, coal production report, from 3969 US mines that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1980. Among the items covered are production, prices, employment, productivity, stocks, and recoverable reserves. Data are reported by state, county, coal producing district, type of mining, and by type of coal (anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite). Also included are a glossary of coal terms used, a map of the coal producing disricts, and form EIA-7A with instructions. 14 figures, 63 tables.

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Trends, 2001 - 2010 Trends, 2001 - 2010 Transportation infrastructure overview In 2010, railroads transported over 70 percent of coal delivered to electric power plants which are generally concentrated east of the Mississippi River and in Texas. The U.S. railroad market is dominated by four major rail companies that account for 99 percent of U.S. coal rail shipments by volume. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by mode Rail Barge Truck Figure 2. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by rail, 2010 figure data Figure 3. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by barge, 2010 figure data Figure 4. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by truck, 2010 figure data The Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, where coal is extracted in

469

Quarterly Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed U.S. domestic coal distribution data by coal origin state, coal destination state, mode of ...

470

Coal Combustion Products | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combustion Products Coal Combustion Products Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the...

471

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prices in 2007 real $ Coal Prices Coal prices have been farprices. Factors like coal prices and EOR revenues affect theCoal Prices..

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Quarterly Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed U.S. domestic coal distribution data by coal origin state, coal destination state, mode of ...

473

Biological upgrading of coal liquids. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A large number of bacterial enrichments have been developed for their ability to utilize nitrogen and sulfur in coal liquids and the model compound naphtha. These bacteria include the original aerobic bacteria isolated from natural sources which utilize heteroatom compounds in the presence of rich media, aerobic nitrogen-utilizing bacteria and denitrifying bacteria. The most promising isolates include Mix M, a mixture of aerobic bacteria; ER15, a pyridine-utilizing isolate; ERI6, an aniline-utilizing isolate and a sewage sludge isolate. Culture optimization experiments have led to these bacteria being able to remove up to 40 percent of the sulfur and nitrogen in naphtha and coal liquids in batch culture. Continuous culture experiments showed that the coal liquid is too toxic to the bacteria to be fed without dilution or extraction. Thus either semi-batch operation must be employed with continuous gas sparging into a batch of liquid, or acid extracted coal liquid must be employed in continuous reactor studies with continuous liquid flow. Isolate EN-1, a chemical waste isolate, removed 27 percent of the sulfur and 19 percent of the nitrogen in fed batch experiments. Isolate ERI5 removed 28 percent of the nitrogen in coal liquid in 10 days in fed batch culture. The sewage sludge isolate removed 22.5 percent of the sulfur and 6.5 percent of the nitrogen from extracted coal liquid in continuous culture, and Mix M removed 17.5 percent of the nitrogen from medium containing extracted coal liquid. An economic evaluation has been prepared for the removal of nitrogen heteroatom compounds from Wilsonville coal liquid using acid extraction followed by fermentation. Similar technology can be developed for sulfur removal. The evaluation indicates that the nitrogen heteroatom compounds can be removed for $0.09/lb of coal liquid treated.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

475