National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for refuse bank slurry

  1. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C.

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  2. Lapping slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Upchurch, V.S.; Leitten, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina work pieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid. 1 fig.

  3. Lapping slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Upchurch, Victor S.; Leitten, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina workpieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid.

  4. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-12-31

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  5. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  6. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  7. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  8. Ultrasound Analysis Of Slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soong, Yee; Blackwell, Arthur G.

    2005-11-01

    An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N.sub.2 gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

  9. Ultrasound Analysis of Slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soong, Yee and Blackwell, Arthur G.

    2005-11-01

    An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N, gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

  10. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Swanson, W.W.

    1989-10-30

    A principal object of the invention is the provision of an aqueous coal slurry containing a dispersant, which is of low-cost and which contains very low or no levels of sodium, potassium, sulfur and other contaminants. In connection with the foregoing object, it is an object of the invention to provide an aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant and to provide a method of preparing an aqueous coal slurry which includes the step of adding an effective amount of dextrin as a dispersant. The invention consists of certain novel features and a combination of parts hereinafter fully described, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 6 tabs.

  11. Commerce Refuse To Energy Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Refuse To Energy Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Commerce Refuse To Energy Biomass Facility Facility Commerce Refuse To Energy Sector Biomass Facility Type...

  12. Growing attraction of refuse-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, R.

    1981-09-08

    A review of Dr. Andrew Porteous' book, Refuse Derived Fuels is presented. The escalating price of fossil fuel, particularily oil, together with the high cost of handling and transporting refuse makes the idea of refuse-derived fuel production an attractive and economic proposition. Refuse-derived fuel production is discussed and the various manufacturing processes in the UK and the USA are described. The pyrolysis of refuse for the production of gas, oil or heat and the production of methane and ethyl alcohol or other possibilities for refuse conversion.

  13. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. System and method for slurry handling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Raymond Douglas; Oppenheim, Judith Pauline

    2015-12-29

    A system includes a slurry depressurizing system that includes a liquid expansion system configured to continuously receive a slurry at a first pressure and continuously discharge the slurry at a second pressure. For example, the slurry depressurizing system may include an expansion turbine to expand the slurry from the first pressure to the second pressure.

  15. Suspended-slurry reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    None

    2016-03-22

    An apparatus for generating a large volume of gas from a liquid stream is disclosed. The apparatus includes a first channel through which the liquid stream passes. The apparatus also includes a layer of catalyst particles suspended in a solid slurry for generating gas from the liquid stream. The apparatus further includes a second channel through which a mixture of converted liquid and generated gas passes. A heat exchange channel heats the liquid stream. A wicking structure located in the second channel separates the gas generated from the converted liquid.

  16. Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Venables, Barney J.; Ohlsson, Oscar O.

    1996-01-01

    A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

  17. Case Study - Compressed Natural Gas Refuse Fleets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-02-01

    This case study explores the use of heavy-duty refuse trucks fueled by compressed natural gas highlighting three fleets from very different types of organizations.

  18. Proceedings of refuse-derived fuel (RDF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saltiel, C. )

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF)-Quality. Standards and Processing. Topics covered include: An Overview of RDF Processing Systems: Current Status, Design Features, and Future Trends. The Impact of Recycling and Pre-Combustion Processing of Municipal Solid Waste on Fuel Properties and Steam Combustion. The Changing Role of Standards in the Marketing of RDF. Refuse Derived Fuel Quality Requirements for Firing in Utility, Industrial or Dedicated Boilers. Refuse-Derived Fuel Moisture Effects on Boiler Performance and Operability. Refuse Derived Fuels: Technology, Processing, Quality and Combustion Experiences.

  19. Pilot scale production and combustion of liquid fuels from refuse derived fuel (RDF): Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klosky, M.K.

    1996-09-01

    EnerTech is developing a process for producing pumpable slurry fuels, comparable to Coal-Water-Fuels (CWF), from solid Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF). Previous reports have described the characteristics of the enhanced carbonized RDF slurry fuels. This paper summarizes those fuel characteristics and reports on the latest combustion tests performed with the final product fuel. The objective of this research was to determine the boiler and emission performance from the carbonized RDF slurry fuel using statistical screening experiments. Eight combustion tests were performed with a pilot scale pulverized coal/oil boiler simulator, with CO, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions determined on-line. The combustion tests produced simultaneous CO and NO{sub x} emissions well below and SO{sub 2} emissions comparable to the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This research will form the basis for later combustion experiments to be performed with the carbonized RDF slurry fuel, in which dioxin/furan and trace metal emissions will be determined.

  20. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

    1983-11-08

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

  1. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platt, Robert J.; Shadbolt, Edward A.

    1983-01-01

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces.

  2. Medical ice slurry production device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kasza, Kenneth E.; Oras, John; Son, HyunJin

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  3. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, Robert E. (Fairview, PA); Basic, Steven L. (Hornell, NY); Smith, Russel M. (North East, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Smithtown Selects CNG to Cut Refuse

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Collection Costs Smithtown Selects CNG to Cut Refuse Collection Costs to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Smithtown Selects CNG to Cut Refuse Collection Costs on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Smithtown Selects CNG to Cut Refuse Collection Costs on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Smithtown Selects CNG to Cut Refuse Collection Costs on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Smithtown Selects CNG to Cut Refuse Collection Costs

  5. Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

  6. Apparatus and method for transferring slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, J.R.

    1982-08-13

    Slurry is transferred to a high pressure region by pushing the slurry from the bottom of a transfer vessel with a pressurizing liquid admitted into the top of the vessel. While the pressurizing liquid is being introduced into the transfer vessel, pressurizing liquid which has mixed with slurry is drawn off from the transfer vessel at a point between its upper and lower ends.

  7. Rheology of petroleum coke-water slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, M.; Mall, B.K.; Mukherjee, A.; Basu, S.K.; Verma, S.K.; Narasimhan, K.S.

    1998-07-01

    This paper reports the results of the studies carried out on the optimization of particle size distribution, the rheological characteristics and stability of highly loaded petroleum coke-water slurry using three additives. The solids loading achieved in the slurries were in the range of 65% to 75.6% depending on the additives used. Slurry viscosity varied between 267 to 424 mPas at 128 s{sup {minus}} shear rate. The petroleum coke-water slurries exhibited pseudoplastic characteristics with yield tending towards Bingham plastic as the solids loading progressively increased. The effect of addition of petroleum coke to the extent of 25% in coal-water slurry prepared from low ash Ledo coal of Makum field in Assam was also examined. The slurry containing coal-petroleum coke blend showed better stability, having shelf life of 7 days as compared to 5 days in the case of petroleum coke-water slurry.

  8. Decomposition Studies of Tetraphenylborate Slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.L.

    1997-05-06

    This report details the decomposition of aqueous (K,Na) slurries in concentrated salt solutions using a more complete candidate catalyst recipe, extended testing temperatures (40-70 degrees C) and test durations of approximately 1500 hours (9 weeks). This study uses recently developed High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods for analysis of tetraphenylborate (TPB-), triphenylborane (3PB) and diphenylborinic acid (2PB). All of the present tests involve non-radioactive simulants and do not include investigations of radiolysis effects.

  9. Cryogenic slurry for extinguishing underground fires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiken, Robert F. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kim, Ann G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kociban, Andrew M. (Wheeling, WV); Slivon, Jr., Joseph P. (Tarentum, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A cryogenic slurry comprising a mixture of solid carbon dioxide particles suspended in liquid nitrogen is provided which is useful in extinguishing underground fires.

  10. Rheology of petroleum coke-water slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, M.; Mall, B.K.; Mukherjee, A.

    1998-04-01

    This paper reports the results of the studies carried out on the optimization of particle size distribution, the theological characteristics and stability of highly loaded petroleum coke-water slurry using three additives. The solids loading achieved in the slurries were in the range of 65% to 75.6% depending on the additives used. Slurry viscosity varied between 267 to 424 mPas at 128 s{sup -1} shear rate. The petroleum coke-water slurries exhibited pseudoplastic characteristics with yield tending towards Bingham plastic as the solids loading progressively increased.

  11. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Arnold D.

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  12. Corrosion of boiler tube alloys in refuse firing: Shredded vs bulk refuse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, H.H. ); Daniel, P.L.; Blue, J.D. )

    1994-08-01

    Results of corrosion probe exposures at two mass burning incinerators were compared with those conducted in a unit burning refuse-derived fuel. Tests were conducted with carbon steel, low-alloy steels, stainless steels, and high nickel-chromium alloys. Corrosion rates at similar metal and gas temperatures were essentially the same for both types of fuel. Boiler tube performance in the waterwalls of other incinerators confirmed these results. Boiler design and operating conditions appear to be more important factors in tube wastage than the extent of refuse processing.

  13. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, Walter A.; Gorski, Alan; Jaehnig, Leo J.; Moskal, Clifford J.; Naylor, Joseph D.; Parimi, Krishnia; Ward, John V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  14. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  15. Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, G.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Chisheng Wang.

    1993-03-16

    An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

  16. Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Gregory F.; Lyczkowski, Robert W.; Wang, Chi-Sheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

  17. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  18. Utilization of refuse derived fuels by the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehr, D.L.

    1983-07-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act are forcing those in charge of landfills to adhere to more stringent operating standards. This, along with the growing scarcity of landfill availability, makes the use of landfills less desirable for solid waste disposal. As such, new disposal methods that are environmentally safe and economically practical must be found. One alternative, that is not really new but which has gained renewed interest, is incineration. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act also requires that government agencies should direct their installations to recover as many resources as possible. Therefore if incineration is to be implemented, heat recovery should be incorporated into the system. There are several processes available to convert raw refuse into a fuel for use in a heat recovery system. Refuse derived fuels (RDF) can be in the form of raw refuse, densified refuse, powdered refuse, gas, or pyrolytic oil. The only form of RDF that is economically feasible for systems designed to process less than 200 TPD (tons per day) is raw refuse. Most Navy bases generate far less than 200 TPD of solid waste and therefore the Navy has focused most of its attention on modular heat recovery incinerator (HRI) systems that utilize raw refuse as fuel.

  19. NREL: Transportation Research - Miami-Dade County Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Truck Testing Miami-Dade County Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Truck Testing Photo of garbage truck with view of lake and city in background. As part of its overall strategy to reduce emissions and fuel use, Miami-Dade County currently operates 35 hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles, with 29 more on order. Photo courtesy of Parker Hannifin NREL is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 next-generation (model year 2015) hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation (model year

  20. Jet flames of a refuse derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Roman; Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof

    2009-04-15

    This paper is concerned with combustion of a refuse derived fuel in a small-scale flame. The objective is to provide a direct comparison of the RDF flame properties with properties of pulverized coal flames fired under similar boundary conditions. Measurements of temperature, gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO) and burnout have demonstrated fundamental differences between the coal flames and the RDF flames. The pulverized coals ignite in the close vicinity of the burner and most of the combustion is completed within the first 300 ms. Despite the high volatile content of the RDF, its combustion extends far into the furnace and after 1.8 s residence time only a 94% burnout has been achieved. This effect has been attributed not only to the larger particle size of fluffy RDF particles but also to differences in RDF volatiles if compared to coal volatiles. Substantial amounts of oily tars have been observed in the RDF flames even though the flame temperatures exceeded 1300 C. The presence of these tars has enhanced the slagging propensity of RDF flames and rapidly growing deposits of high carbon content have been observed. (author)

  1. Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shea, S.

    2011-09-01

    Refuse haulers are ideal for the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. By using fuels like natural gas, propane, or biodiesel, and technologies like hybrid electric and hydraulic hybrid systems, the refuse-hauling sector could substantially decrease its petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions. Fleet managers should explore the benefits of the fuels and technologies available, as well as the individual fleet needs, before adoption.

  2. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  3. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G.

    1986-01-01

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  4. Rapid Cooling Using Ice Slurries for Industrial and Medical Applications -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Rapid Cooling Using Ice Slurries for Industrial and Medical Applications Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Schematic of distributed-load ice slurry building cooling system Schematic of distributed-load ice slurry building cooling system Endoscopic view of a swine kidney covered with ice slurry delivered

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Trucks Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Delicious Rank

  6. Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice Slurry |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice Slurry Technology available for licensing: Proprietary method and equipment for making an ice slurry coolant to induce therapeutic hypothermia. Portable, automatic Advantageous for emergency care, cooling during surgeries, organ harvesting PDF icon ice_slurry

  7. CATALYTIC RECOMBINATION OF RADIOLYTIC GASES IN THORIUM OXIDE SLURRIES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, L.E.

    1962-08-01

    A method for the coinbination of hydrogen and oxygen in aqueous thorium oxide-uranium oxide slurries is described. A small amount of molybdenum oxide catalyst is provided in the slurry. This catalyst is applicable to the recombination of hydrogen and/or deuterium and oxygen produced by irradiation of the slurries in nuclear reactors. (AEC)

  8. SEPARATING LIQUID MODERATOR FROM A SLURRY TYPE REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, H.C.

    1961-07-01

    A system for evaporating moderator such as D/sub 2/O from an irradiated slurry or sloution characterized by two successive evaproators is described. In the first of these the most troublesome radioactivity dissipates before the slurry becomes too thick to be pumped out; in the second the slurry, now easier to handle, can be safely reduced to a sludge.

  9. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  10. Freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Calvert, Paul D. (Tucson, AZ)

    2000-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  11. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  12. Advances in slurry spray header design technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, J.L.; Phillips, P.H.

    1995-06-01

    Due to the structure of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, Absorbers for Phase I Compliance have been designed for larger capacities and absorbers with inlet flue gas volume ratings of 1.4 to 2.0 million acfm have become more typical. As a consequence, larger slurry recirculation pump designs have been developed (30,000 to 50,000 gpm) requiring large diameter spray headers with four (4) to five (5) inch slurry spray nozzles. This, in turn, has led to the development of special couplings to replace flanges for nozzle attachment, resulting in significant process, maintainability and economic advantages. A cost comparison of coupling versus the traditional flanged and screwed connections will be made along with the advantages and disadvantages of each of these choices. Additionally, full scale application experience will be reviewed.

  13. System for pressure letdown of abrasive slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kasper, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    A system and method for releasing erosive slurries from containment at high pressure without subjecting valves to highly erosive slurry flow. The system includes a pressure letdown tank disposed below the high-pressure tank, the two tanks being connected by a valved line communicating the gas phases and a line having a valve and choke for a transfer of liquid into the letdown tank. The letdown tank has a valved gas vent and a valved outlet line for release of liquid. In operation, the gas transfer line is opened to equalize pressure between tanks so that a low level of liquid flow occurs. The letdown tank is then vented, creating a high-pressure differential between the tanks. At this point, flow between tanks is controlled by the choke. High-velocity, erosive flow through a high-pressure outlet valve is prevented by equalizing the start up pressure and thereafter limiting flow with the choke.

  14. Illinois user sues pipeline on refusal to transport gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, J.

    1985-12-02

    An Illinois steel company filed suit against Panhandle Eastern Pipeline Co. for refusing to transport natural gas after its gas transportation program ended on November 1. The company is asking for three times the amount it is losing, which is $7,000 per day, since being forced to purchase from a higher priced distribution company. The suit claims that Panhandle's refusal violates federal and state anti-trust laws and threatens the plant's continued operation. This is the first legal action by a single industrial user, but consumer groups have named over 20 major interstate pipelines for the same allegation when pipelines declined to participate in open access transportation under Order 436.

  15. Fleet DNA Project Data Summary Report for Refuse Trucks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    62 16 30 31 61 Deployment ID 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 387 Number of days Breakdown of Total Operational Days Collected by Deployment for Refuse Trucks 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% # of Vehicles Reporting: 39 # of Days Included: 387 Generated: Thu Aug 07, 2014 62 16 30 31 61 Deployment ID 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 39 Number of Vehicles Breakdown of Total Vehicles by Deployment for Refuse Trucks 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% # of Vehicles Reporting: 39 # of Days Included: 387 Generated: Thu Aug 07, 2014 30

  16. Upgrading heavy oil using slurry processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Bianco, A.; Panariti, N.; Marchionna, M.

    1995-11-01

    There is a growing interest in processes capable of converting heavy feedstocks (petroleum residues and heavy oils) into lower boiling products of high quality. The operational problems of upgrading heavy feeds relate to the presence of sulfur, nitrogen, metals, and considerable amounts of Conradson carbon residue. An efficient residue conversion process must be able to reduce the molecular weight of the feedstocks to material with boiling points below 550 C, increase the H-to-C ratio of the refined product, and remove heteroatoms and metals. Whereas the molecular weight reduction is normally achieved by C-C bond cracking above 400 C, often in the presence of acid catalysts, a higher H-to-C ratio can be obtained by either the rejection of carbon (as in coking) or the addition of hydrogen (as in hydrogenation processes). Slurry processes combine the flexibility of the carbon rejection with the high performance of the hydrogen addition processes. The origin of slurry processes is the Bergius-Pier technology (1920--1930) for the conversion of heavy oils and coal into distillates. Whereas the original Bergius-Pier technology did not use a catalyst, small amounts of inexpensive additives or finely dispersed hydrogenation catalysts can be used to increase the rates of the desired reactions. Catalysts can also inhibit coke formation by physically interfering with the coalescence of mesophase, which is the precursor of solid coke. Catalysts are used to reduce the severity of the process and to improve the quality of the products. Most of the research carried out in the past decade in the field of slurry processes has dealt with the identification of more effective and/or less expensive catalysts and the technological problems related to their use. Here the authors discuss both subjects, describing the path from the fundamental chemistry of dispersed catalytic systems to the development and initial commercialization of slurry processes.

  17. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duran, E.L.

    1984-11-29

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  18. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duran, Edward L.

    1985-01-01

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  19. Refuse derived fuel delivery system and distribution conveyors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminski, D.J.; Frank, E.A.; Grinsteiner, C.S.

    1987-08-18

    This patent describes an apparatus for supplying comminuted combustible solid waste material from a refuse material supply to a combustion apparatus for use as fuel and wherein the combustion apparatus includes at least two fuel charging means each having a hopper for receiving comminuted combustible solid waste material, and the hoppers being positioned in side-by-side relation.

  20. Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Chris M.; Musich, Mark A.; Mann, Michael D.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Richter, John J.; Potas, Todd A.; Willson, Warrack G.

    2000-01-01

    Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

  1. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  2. Oxidation of coal-water slurry feed to hydrogasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Bernard S.

    1976-01-01

    An aqueous coal slurry is preheated, subjected to partial oxidation and vaporization by injection of high pressure oxygen and is introduced into a top section of a hydrogasifier in direct contact with hot methane-containing effluent gases where vaporization of the slurry is completed. The resulting solids are reacted in the hydrogasifier and the combined gases and vapors are withdrawn and subjected to purification and methanation to provide pipeline gas. The amount of oxygen injected into the slurry is controlled to provide the proper thermal balance whereby all of the water in the slurry can be evaporated in contact with the hot effluent gases from the hydrogasifier.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Refuse Haulers Do Heavy Lifting in New

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    York CNG Refuse Haulers Do Heavy Lifting in New York to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Refuse Haulers Do Heavy Lifting in New York on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Refuse Haulers Do Heavy Lifting in New York on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Refuse Haulers Do Heavy Lifting in New York on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Refuse Haulers Do Heavy Lifting in New York on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels

  4. Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hed, P. Paul; Fuchs, Baruch A.

    2001-01-01

    A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

  5. Method and apparatus for improved wire saw slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costantini, Michael A.; Talbott, Jonathan A.; Chandra, Mohan; Prasad, Vishwanath; Caster, Allison; Gupta, Kedar P.; Leyvraz, Philippe

    2000-09-05

    A slurry recycle process for use in free-abrasive machining operations such as for wire saws used in wafer slicing of ingots, where the used slurry is separated into kerf-rich and abrasive-rich components, and the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry. During the process, the average particle size of the makeup slurry is controlled by monitoring the condition of the kerf and abrasive components and making necessary adjustments to the separating force and dwell time of the separator apparatus. Related pre-separator and post separator treatments, and feedback of one or the other separator slurry output components for mixing with incoming used slurry and recirculation through the separator, provide further effectiveness and additional control points in the process. The kerf-rich component is eventually or continually removed; the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry with a controlled, average particle size such that the products of the free-abrasive machining method using the recycled slurry process of the invention are of consistent high quality with less TTV deviation from cycle to cycle for a prolonged period or series of machining operations.

  6. Lime slurry use at the Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, L.E.; Hughes, R.W.; Baggett, G.

    1996-04-01

    The use of lime slurry at the IWPF demonstrated many benefits. Hazardous chemical use was reduced, solids handling was improved, water quality was enhanced and there has been a cost savings. The lime slurry also enabled the plant to begin treating the soluble oil waste, which we were not able to do in the past.

  7. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  8. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. The HHVs under study - Autocar E3 refuse trucks equipped with Parker Hannifin's RunWise Advanced Series Hybrid Drive systems - can recover as much as 70 percent of the energy typically lost during braking and reuse it to power the vehicle. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs.

  9. Bubble column apparatus for separating wax from catalyst slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neathery, James K.; Davis, Burtron H.

    2004-07-13

    Novel methods and devices for production of liquid hydrocarbon products from gaseous reactants are disclosed. In one aspect, a method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon, typically a wax, from a catalyst containing slurry is provided, comprising passing the slurry through at least one downcomer extending from an overhead separation chamber and discharging into the bottom of a slurry bubble column reactor. The downcomer includes a cross-flow filtration element for separating a substantially particle-free liquid hydrocarbon for downstream processing. In another aspect, a method for promoting plug-flow movement in a recirculating slurry bubble column reactor is provided, comprising discharging the recirculating slurry into the reactor through at least one downcomer which terminates near the bottom of the reactor. Devices for accomplishing the above methods are also provided.

  10. SRC-water slurry rheology. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-02-01

    SRC-water slurries exhibit properties that qualify them for use as fuel in conventional oil-fired combustion facilities. However, to date, the slurries tested have shown storage instability, which requires constant agitation and recirculation to avoid sedimentation in the storage tanks. High viscosities of the material being evaluated hampered the test performance. A program was instituted to better understand the variables responsible for viscosity and static stability of these slurries. Effective additives and concentrations were determined. This report presents laboratory data demonstrating that solid concentration, particle size distribution, additive concentration, and slurry preparation technique influence the viscosity and stability characteristics of an SRC-water slurry. 7 references, 12 figures, 11 tables.

  11. Fuel injection of coal slurry using vortex nozzles and valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holmes, Allen B.

    1989-01-01

    Injection of atomized coal slurry fuel into an engine combustion chamber is achieved at relatively low pressures by means of a vortex swirl nozzle. The outlet opening of the vortex nozzle is considerably larger than conventional nozzle outlets, thereby eliminating major sources of failure due to clogging by contaminants in the fuel. Control fluid, such as air, may be used to impart vorticity to the slurry and/or purge the nozzle of contaminants during the times between measured slurry charges. The measured slurry charges may be produced by a diaphragm pump or by vortex valves controlled by a separate control fluid. Fluidic circuitry, employing vortex valves to alternatively block and pass cool slurry fuel flow, is disclosed.

  12. Frustrated Material Refuses Orderly Arrangements | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frustrated Material Refuses Orderly Arrangements Unlike most materials, a newly discovered oxide of lead, copper, and tellurium does not show an orderly arrangement of electron spins near the temperature of "absolute zero" Kelvin (-460 °F). Approaching "absolute zero", thermal vibrations slow and typically atoms, and their electron spins, find orderly arrangements resulting in long-range symmetry. In this material the electron spins fail to find an ordered state and thus are

  13. Enhanced cover methods for surface coal refuse reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile, L.F.; Cargill, K.W.; McGarvie, S.D.

    1997-12-31

    Controlling acid rock drainage (ARD) can be a major component of surface mining reclamation. An enhanced reclamation cover system is being constructed to control infiltration of rain water and generation of ARD from coal-refuse disposal areas at a closed mine in southern Illinois. Development of the mine reclamation plan required consideration of ARD generation in coal refuse disposal areas located adjacent to an alluvial aquifer used for public water supply. An integrated site characterization was performed at the mine to provide information to develop and support the enhanced reclamation plan. The enhanced cover system is similar to covers required for municipal solid waste landfills by the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Subtitle D regulations. The system comprises a graded and compacted gob layer, overlain by a compacted clay liner, and a protective soil cover. The results of infiltration modeling and analyses showed that the standard reclamation cover is effective in reducing infiltration by about 18 percent compared to an unreclaimed coal-refuse surface. The modeling results showed that the inhanced cover system should reduce infiltration by about 84 percent. The geochemical modeling results showed that the reduction in infiltration would help minimize ARD generation and contribute to an earlier reclamation of the mine site.

  14. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-03-20

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. PowerEnerCat was unable to raise their cash contribution for the project, and the work was stopped. This report summarizes some of the progress of the project and the concepts that were intended for experimental tests.

  15. Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

  16. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  17. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under another project. However, since the cost of reducing magnesium from magnesium oxide makes up 85% of the cost of the slurry, if hydrogen can be stored many times in the slurry, then the cost of storing hydrogen can be spread over many units of hydrogen and can be significantly reduced from the costs of a chemical hydride system. This may be the most important finding of this project. If the slurry is used to carry a rechargeable hydride, the slurry can be stored in a conventional liquid fuel tank and delivered to a release system as hydrogen is needed. The release system will contain only the hydride needed to produce the hydrogen desired. This is in contrast to conventional designs proposed for other rechargeable hydride systems that store all the hydride in a large and heavy pressure and heat transfer vessel.

  18. NREL Evaluates Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes NREL's evaluation of the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation (model year 2013) HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. Launched in March 2015, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data - fuel economy, maintenance costs, and drive cycles - from the HHVs and the conventional diesel vehicles. The fuel economy of heavy-duty vehicles, such as refuse trucks, is largely dependent on the load carried and the drive cycles on which they operate. In the right applications, HHVs offer a potential fuel-cost advantage over their conventional counterparts. This advantage is contingent, however, on driving behavior and drive cycles with high kinetic intensity that take advantage of regenerative braking. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs. Based on the field data, NREL will develop a validated vehicle model using the Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator, also known as FASTSim, to study the impacts of route selection and other vehicle parameters. NREL is also analyzing fueling and maintenance data to support total-cost-of-ownership estimations and forecasts. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of HHVs in refuse operation compared to similar conventional vehicles and to provide unbiased technical information to interested stakeholders.

  19. Suspended-slurry reactor (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An apparatus for generating a large volume of gas from a liquid stream is disclosed. The ... catalyst particles suspended in a solid slurry for generating gas from the liquid stream. ...

  20. Slurry Retrieval, Pipeline Transport & Plugging and Mixing Workshop

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Gary L. Smith - Office of Waste Processing (EM-21) Slurry Retrieval, Pipeline Transport & Plugging and Mixing Workshop 1 Dr. Gary L. Smith - Office of Waste Processing (EM-21) Dr. ...

  1. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nodd, Dennis G.; Walker, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

  2. Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edited by Guenther, Chris; Garg, Rahul

    2013-08-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

  3. Coal/D-RDF (densified refuse-derived fuel) co-firing project, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hecklinger, R.S.; Rehm, F.R.

    1985-11-01

    A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse-derived fuel with coal at the fuel-receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to establish a base line condition. For the second series, a mixture of coal and densified refuse-derived fuel was fired. The report describes the equipment used to densify refuse derived fuel, procedures used to prepare and handle the coal and densified refuse derived fuel mixture and the test results. The results include the effect of the coal and densified refuse derived fuel mixture on plant operations, boiler efficiency, stack emissions and EP toxicity.

  4. Coal slurry pipelines: Blach Mesa and future projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brolick, H.J.

    1998-12-31

    Most people in the mining industry have some familiarity with pipelining of minerals in slurry form, however, many may not realize the extent that mineral slurry pipeline transport is used throughout the world. The author is referring to the shipment of the minerals in the raw or concentrate form, not tailings pipelines which are also commonplace in the minerals industry. There are over forty mineral pipelines around the world. The list covers a wide range of minerals, including copper ore concentrate, iron ore concentrate, limestone, phosphate concentrate, kaolin, Gilsonite and gold ore, with only eleven of the mineral pipelines located in the USA. It should be noted that one of the earliest slurry pipelines was a 108 mile coal slurry pipeline in Ohio, which started up in 1957. The pipeline only operated until 1963 when a railroad company literally bought out the transportation contract. This really was the beginning of the unit train concept. Each mineral has specific physical and chemical characteristics to be considered when evaluating transport by pipeline. The processing required at the pipeline origin, as well as at the pipeline termination, are also important factors in determining slurry pipeline feasibility. Transport distance, annual volume, and continuity of shipments are other important factors. One of the most difficult minerals to transport as a slurry is coal because the specific gravity is closer to water than most other minerals. Thus, the fine balance of creating enough fine particles to serve as a carrier for the coarser material, while at the same time having a material that can be economically dewatered is very sensitive and technical designs will vary with types of coal. Additionally, since coal is purchased for its thermal value, excess surface moisture can lower the value of the coal to the customer. One of the most successful slurry pipeline operations, and the only current operating long-distance coal slurry pipeline is the Black Mesa Pipeline System. The Black Mesa Pipeline is a 273 mile (439 km) long, 18-inch (457 mm) coal/water slurry pipeline, originating on the Black Mesa in the Northeastern part of Arizona, USA. The system delivers coal from the Peabody Coal Company`s Black Mesa open pit mine to the Mohave Generating Station which is a 1580 MW steam powered electric generating plant located in Laughlin, Nevada. Black Mesa Pipeline began commercial operation in November, 1970 and has transported in excess of 110,000,000 tons (99,800,000 metric tons) of coal with an availability factor of 99%.

  5. Combustion of refuse derived fuel in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piao, Guilin; Aono, Shigeru; Mori, Shigekatsu; Deguchi, Seiichi; Fujima, Yukihisa; Kondoh, Motohiro; Yamaguchi, Masataka

    1998-12-31

    Power generation from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is an attractive utilization technology of municipal solid waste. To explain the behavior of RDF-fired fluidized bed incinerator, the commercial size RDF was continuously burnt in a 30 x 30 cm bubbling type fluidized-bed combustor. It was found that 12 kg/h of RDF feed rate was too high feed for this test unit and the Co level was higher than 500 ppm. However, 10 kg/h of RDF was a proper feed rate and the Co level was kept under 150 ppm. Secondary air injection and changing air ratio from the pipe grid were effective for the complete combustion of RDE. It was also found that HCl concentration in flue gas was controlled by the calcium component contained in RDF and its level was decreased with decreasing the combustor temperature.

  6. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  7. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  8. Study on rheological characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu

    1997-07-01

    We have embarked on a program to develop petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) as an alternative fuel for existing oil-fired boilers. The industrial application of petroleum coke residual oil slurry requires full knowledge of its flow behavior. This paper will present the results of an experimental investigation undertaken to study the Theological properties using a rotating viscometer at shear rate up to 996 s{sup -1}. The effects of temperature, concentration, particle size distribution and additives are also investigated. The experiments show that petroleum coke residual oil slurry exhibits pseudoplastic behavior, which has favorable viscosity property under a certain condition and has broad prospect to be applied on oil-fired boilers.

  9. Co-firing coal-water slurry in low-NOx burners: Experience at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Co-firing coal-water slurry in low-NOx burners: Experience at Penelecs Seward Station Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Co-firing coal-water slurry in low-NOx ...

  10. METHOD OF MAKING UO$sub 2$-Bi SLURRIES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahn, H.T.

    1960-05-24

    A process is given of preparing an easily dispersible slurry of uranium dioxide in bismuth. A mixture of bismuth oxide, uranium, and bismuth are heated in a capsule to a temperature over the melting point of bismuth oxide. The amount of bismuth oxide used is less than that stoichiometrically required because the oxygen in the capsule also enters into the reaction.

  11. Apparatus for converting biomass to a pumpable slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri; Schaleger, Larry L.; Wrathall, James A.; Yaghoubzadeh, Nasser

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus used in the pretreatment of wood chips in a process for converting biomass to a liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel. The apparatus functions to break down the wood chips to a size distribution that can be readily handled in a slurry form. Low maintenance operation is obtained by hydrolyzing the chips in a pressure vessel having no moving parts.

  12. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  13. Method for freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Calvert, Paul D. (Tucson, AZ)

    2002-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  14. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  15. Determination of the fuel characteristics of refuse-derived fuels by macroanalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hecklinger, R.S.; Large, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    There is need for a means of determining the fuel characteristics of refuse-derived fuels to adjust the producer/user contractual relationship for fuel value. The authors discuss efforts to establish a macroanalysis procedure.

  16. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  17. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  18. Green Investment Bank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Green Investment Bank Place: United Kingdom Product: UK-based investment bank that will focus on clean energy investment. References: Green Investment Bank1 This article...

  19. Carbon Bank Ireland | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ireland Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Bank Ireland Place: Nevada Zip: 89411 Product: Investment bank focused on CDM projects. References: Carbon Bank Ireland1 This...

  20. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, B.L.; Tijm, P.J.A.

    1998-12-31

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis can convert a variety of synthesis gas mixtures produced from both coal and natural gas to obtain hydrocarbons, which can be further processed to manufacture automotive fuels. As the Fischer-Tropsch reaction is highly exothermic, a slurry phase reactor offers a significant advantage over the traditional fixed bed reactor for heat management. Since 1992, Air Products and DOE have been developing the slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process with help of a number of industrial partners. This paper discusses the evolution of the technology through four pilot plant campaigns conducted at DOE`s Alternative Fuels Development Unit in LaPorte, Texas. Key issues such as catalyst-wax separation, reactor productivity improvements, reactor temperature control, and in-situ activation are addressed.

  1. Instrumentation to Monitor Transient Developing Periodic Flow in Newtonian Slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.

    2014-08-03

    This paper describes measurement techniques developed and applied to characterize solids mobilization and mixing of Newtonian slurries that are subjected to transient, periodic, developing flows. Metrics to characterize mobilization and mixing are the just suspended velocity (UJS) and the cloud height (HC). Two ultrasonic instruments to characterize pulse jet mixing of slurries were developed and deployed to measure related metrics: the thickness of the settled bed (used to determine mobilization) and the concentration within the cloud as a function of elevation [C(Z)]. A second method, continuous sample extraction, characterization, and reinsertion was successfully used to measure average density and characterize the concentration within the cloud. Testing focused on mixing vessels using intermitent jet mixers oriented vertically downward. Descriptions of the instruments and instrument performance are presented. These techniques were an effective approach to characterize mixing phenomena, determine mixing energy required to fully mobilize vessel contents, and to determine mixing times for process evaluation.

  2. The Black Mesa coal/water slurry pipeline system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brolick, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Black Mesa Pipeline is a 273 mile (439 km) long, 18-inch (457 mm) coal/water slurry pipeline, originating on the Black Mesa in the Northeastern part of Arizona, USA. The system delivers coal from the Peabody Coal Company`s Black Mesa open pit mine to the Mohave Generating Station which is a 1580 mw steam powered electric generating plant located in Laughlin, Nevada.

  3. Process for gasifying carbonaceous material from a recycled condensate slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.

    1981-01-01

    Coal or other carbonaceous material is gasified by reaction with steam and oxygen in a manner to minimize the problems of effluent water stream disposal. The condensate water from the product gas is recycled to slurry the coal feed and the amount of additional water or steam added for cooling or heating is minimized and preferably kept to a level of about that required to react with the carbonaceous material in the gasification reaction. The gasification is performed in a pressurized fluidized bed with the coal fed in a water slurry and preheated or vaporized by indirect heat exchange contact with product gas and recycled steam. The carbonaceous material is conveyed in a gas-solid mixture from bottom to top of the pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with the solids removed from the product gas and recycled steam in a supported moving bed filter of the resulting carbonaceous char. Steam is condensed from the product gas and the condensate recycled to form a slurry with the feed coal carbonaceous particles.

  4. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, Franklin A.

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  6. Influence of slurry flocculation on the character and compaction of spray-dried silicon nitride granules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Hideo; Shinohara, Nobuhiro; Okumiya, Masataro; Uematsu, Keizo; JunIchiro, Tsubaki; Iwamoto, Yuji; Kamiya, Hidehiro

    1995-04-01

    The effect of slurry flocculation on the characteristics of silicon nitride granules prepared by the spray drying process is investigated. The flocculation state of an aqueous silicon nitride slurry is controlled by adding nitric acid and evaluated as a function of pH. Dense and hard silicon nitride granules result from a well-dispersed slurry having a high pH (e.g., 10.8). These hard granules retain their shape in green compacts and form detrimental defects. Lowering the pH of the slurry to a certain value (e.g., pH 7.9) results in slurry flocculation. Granules prepared from this flocculated slurry have low density and low diametral compression strength and contribute to the elimination large pores in green compacts.

  7. Effects of Iron Oxides on the Rheological Properties of Cementitious Slurry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effects of Iron Oxides on the Rheological Properties of Cementitious Slurry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of Iron Oxides on the Rheological Properties of Cementitious Slurry Iron oxide has been considered a promising host for immobilizing and encapsulating radioactive 99Tc (t1/2=2.1x105 year), which significantly enhances the stability of 99Tc within a cementitious waste form. However, the flow behavior of cementitious slurry

  8. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doherty, Joseph P.; Marek, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

  9. Test Loop Demonstration and Evaluation of Slurry Transfer Line Critical Velocity Measurement Instruments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Morgen, Gerald P.; Peters, Timothy J.; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Baer, Ellen BK

    2010-07-31

    This report presents the results of the evaluation of three ultrasonic sensors for detecting critical velocity during slurry transfer between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP.

  10. Hydrolysis of late-washed, irradiated tetraphenylborate slurry simulants I: Phenylboric acid hydrolysis kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marek, J.C.

    2000-02-10

    The attached report details the kinetics of phenylboric acid reaction at 90 degrees C during precipitate hydrolysis processing of late-washed, irradiated tetraphenylborate slurry simulants.

  11. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts for selective transportation fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, W.E.; Cilen, N.; Withers, H.P. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The future use of coal as a source of conventional transportation fuel will depend on the development of an economical and energy efficient liquefaction process. Technologies that have been commercially proven or that are close to commercialization include the fixed- and fluidized-bed Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol synthesis (fixed-bed and slurry-phase) and the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline process. Of these technologies, the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis produces the widest slate of products and has been in operation for the longest period.

  13. Minority Banks | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Banks Minority Banks Our Bank Deposit Financial Assistance Program was developed for the purpose of strengthening and expanding the Nation's minority and women-owned small business enterprises. In order to classify as "minority" the institution's majority ownership must include African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts, and women. The minority institution must certify minority ownership with the Department of the Treasury and appear on

  14. Alternative fuel trucks case studies: Running refuse haulers on compressed natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-07-01

    This document details the experience of New York City`s compressed natural gas refuse haulers. These 35 ton vehicles have engines that displace 10 liters and provide 240 horsepower. Fuel economy, range, cost, maintenance, repair issues, and emissions are discussed. Photographs and figures illustrate the attributes of these alternative fuel vehicles.

  15. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G.; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  16. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Wittmer, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  17. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

    1995-10-10

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  18. Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, C.M.; Quiring, M.S.; Jensen, K.L.; Hickey, R.F.; Gillham, L.D.

    1998-10-27

    In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst-free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by mixing them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation. 2 figs.

  19. Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Curt M.; Quiring, Michael S.; Jensen, Karen L.; Hickey, Richard F.; Gillham, Larry D.

    1998-10-27

    In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by slurring them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation.

  20. Dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas in slurry phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Y.Z.; Fujimoto, K.; Shikata, T.

    1997-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME) is one of the important chemicals derived from synthesis gas. It can be widely used in syngas conversion, production of olefins, or MTG gasoline. Recently, is has been noticed as a substitute of LPG used as home fuel. In the present study, dimethyl ether was effectively synthesized from CO rich syngas (H{sub 2}/CO=1/1) over hybrid catalyst containing a Cu-Zn-Al(O) based methanol synthesis catalyst and {gamma}-alumina in an agitated slurry reactor under relatively mild reaction conditions: temperature 230--300 C, pressure 2.0--5.0 MPa, contact time 2.0--10 gram-cat.-h/mol. The catalysts used as the methanol active components were commercially available Cu-Zn-Al(O) based catalysts, BASF S385 and ICI 51-2. Two kinds of {gamma}-alumina ALO4 (standard catalyst of the Catalysis Society of Japan) and N612N (NIKKI Co., Japan) were used as the methanol dehydration components. The slurry was prepared by mixing the fine powder (<100 mesh) of catalyst components with purified n-hexadecane. The catalysts were reduced by a mixing gas containing 20% syngas and 80% nitrogen with a three-hour programmed temperature raising from room temperature to the final temperature. All products were analyzed by gas chromatographs. Results are given and discussed.

  1. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragomir B. Bukur

    2004-09-29

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined.

  2. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-09-29

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

  3. CST Suspension Analysis for Slurry Pumps of Tank 40

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LEE, SIY.

    2004-04-01

    Tank 40 simulation models with four submersible slurry pumps available for the CST suspension operations have been developed to provide operational guidance of slurry pumps for an efficient sludge removal. A series of the modeling calculations have been performed for key operational parameters such as pump operation mode, number of operating pumps, and to provide a recommendation for CST suspension and mixing operations in Tank 40. Reference design and operating conditions shown in Table 1 were used to perform the modeling analysis of the tank CST mixing. In the analysis, the pump was assumed to be stationary or rotating. Solid obstructions including the pump housing, the 14 inches riser, and 6.75-ft tank support column were included in the simulation models. Free surface motion of the tank liquid was neglected for high tank liquid level using the literature information. Steady-state and transient analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed with FLUENTTM. All analyses we re based on three-dimensional results. A suspension capability was evaluated assuming that local fluid velocity can be used as a measure of CST suspension and mixing. For a minimum suspension velocity of 1.1 ft/sec for the largest CST size of 700 microns, the results indicated that at least two existing slurry mixers running at 3800 gpm flowrate per nozzle could keep CST solids suspended from the tank with a 200 in liquid level. In this case, the exception is for the fluid region with less than 20 wt contents of CST material. This is based on the conservative assumption that the largest CST size of 700 micron diameter remains unchanged neglecting a friable effect during the entire period of pump operations. The length of time that the CST material is exposed to the liquid stream lower than minimum suspension velocity is also important in affecting the ability of the liquid stream to suspend CST particle, and this effect is quantified in the present analysis by using the literature result s. The model results show that at least two pumps on opposite sides could keep suspending the CST material based on the slurry with 35 wt contents, but that at lower concentrations, particles larger than about 400 microns would tend to settle quickly and probably not remain in suspension long enough for the opposite jet to come around and stir that region of the tank. The main conclusions are as follows: The steady-state flow patterns on the horizontal discharge plane follow a series of parabolic curves similar to that of a free jet available in the literature. For the simulations, a series of the modeling calculations was performed with indexed stationary and rotating pump operations. The calculated results demonstrated that the existing slurry pumps running at 7600 gpm could suspend the CST particles from the tank with a 200 in liquid level, based on a minimum sludge suspension velocity of about 1.1 ft/sec for 700 micron CST particle. The suspension distance for the transient model with pump rotations is smaller than that of the steady-state model with indexed pump orientations for given operating conditions. However, total suspension extents for the two modeling cases have about the same area.

  4. Qualification of Three On-line Slurry Monitoring Devices for Application during Waste Retrieval Operations at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Hylton, Tom D.; May, T. H.

    2000-10-18

    Qualification of Three On-line Slurry Monitoring Devices for Application during Waste Retrieval Operations at DOE Sites

  5. Slurry Molding Technologies for Novel Carbon and Graphite Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchell, T.D.

    2004-06-30

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a slurry molding technology for the manufacture of porous, high surface area, carbon fiber composites molecular sieves, and carbon-carbon composite preforms. Potentially, this technology could be applied to the manufacture of a host of novel carbon materials including porous adsorbent carbons, low-pressure drop adsorbent carbon composites, ultra-fine-grained graphite, and carbon fiber reinforced graphite. New opportunities for high surface carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) materials are now emerging. Many of these opportunities are driven by increasingly harsh environmental pressures. Traditional granular activated carbon (GAC) is not suitable for many of these applications because of the difficulties encountered with attrition and in forming ''structures'' which have the necessary mechanical and physical properties. In addition, the electrical desorption of adsorbed species is not possible with GAC due to its low bulk electrical conductivity. Activated carbon fibers have been found to be useful in some applications. Work by ORNL has shown, for example, that CFCMS materials are capable of adsorbing various gases and desorbing them under electrical stimulation. For some applications these fibers have to be formed into a structure that can offer the desired mechanical integrity and pressure drop characteristics. To date, the work by ORNL has focused on the use of a single manufacturer's isotropic pitch fibers which, when activated, may be cost prohibitive for many applications. Fine-grained graphite is attractive for many applications including the chemical processing industry where their unique combination of properties--including high strength and chemical inertness, are particularly attractive. However, a lack of toughness can limit their utility in certain applications. The use of ultra-fine powders in conjunction with slurry molding and hot pressing offers the possibility of higher strength graphite. Moreover, the inclusion of carbon fibers may provide a toughening mechanism, resulting in tougher, stronger graphite at an attractive cost. The objective of this work was to further develop the ORNL slurry molding technology and apply it to the following tasks: (1) the development of low cost, high surface area CFCMS materials and structures; (2) the development of ultra-fine-grained graphite; and (3) to identify suitable applications for the materials developed in (1) and (2). The work was conducted jointly by SGL and ORNL.

  6. Central Bank of India | Open Energy Information

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    India Jump to: navigation, search Name: Central Bank of India Place: DELHI, Delhi (NCT), India Zip: 110002 Product: Retail bank closely conencted with social development through...

  7. European Investment Bank | Open Energy Information

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    Logo: European Investment Bank Name: European Investment Bank Address: 98-100, boulevard Konrad Adenauer L-2950 Place: Luxembourg Product: Microfinance, Loans, Venture Capital...

  8. UCEAO: Energy Knowledge Bank | Open Energy Information

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    UCEAO: Energy Knowledge Bank Jump to: navigation, search Name: UCEAO: Energy Knowledge Bank Place: Ohio Website: knowledgebank.uso.edu References: University Clean Energy Alliance...

  9. The Global Carbon Bank | Open Energy Information

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    Global Carbon Bank Jump to: navigation, search Name: The Global Carbon Bank Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77025 Sector: Carbon, Services Product: Houston-based provider of advisory...

  10. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnet, George; Gokhale, Ashok J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

  11. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste and method for producing the same are disclosed, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces. 3 figs.

  12. A Long Term Field Emissions Study of Natural Gas Fueled Refuse Haulers in New York City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark; Byron l. Rapp; Mridul Gautam; Wenguang Wang; Donald W. Lyons

    1998-10-19

    New York City Department of Sanitation has operated natural gas fueled refuse haulers in a pilot study: a major goal of this study was to compare the emissions from these natural gas vehicles with their diesel counterparts. The vehicles were tandem axle trucks with GVW (gross vehicle weight) rating of 69,897 pounds. The primary use of these was for street collection and transporting the refuse to a landfill. West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories have been engaged in monitoring the tailpipe emissions from these trucks for seven-years. In the later years of testing the hydrocarbons were speciated for non-methane and methane components. Six of these vehicles employed the older technology (mechanical mixer) Cummins L-10 lean burn natural gas engines. Five trucks were equipped with electronically controlled Detroit Diesel Series 50 lean burn engines, while another five were powered by Caterpillar stoichiometric burn 3306 natural gas engines, The Ca terpillar engines employed an exhaust oxygen sensor feedback and three way catalysts. Since the refuse haulers had automatic Allison transmissions, and since they were employed in stop-and-go city service, initial emissions measurements were made using the Central Business Cycle (SAE Jl376) for buses at 42,000 pound test weight. Some additional measurements were made using an ad hoc cycle that has been designed to be more representative of the real refuse hauler use that included several compaction cycles. The Cummins powered natural gas vehicles showed oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide emission variations typically associated with variable fuel mixer performance. In the first Year of testing, the stoichiometric Caterpillar engines yielded low emission levels, but in later years two of these refuse haulers had high carbon monoxide attributed to failure of the feedback system. For example, carbon monoxide on these two vehicles rose from 1.4 g/mile and 10 g/mile in 1995 to 144.9 g/mile and 57.8 g/mile in 1996. These stoichiometric engines were also less fuel efficient than their lean burn counterparts. The Detroit Diesel Series 50 powered refuse haulers produced high levels of oxides of nitrogen. However, it was found that changing the shifting patterns of the transmission lowered the oxides of nitrogen. All three engine types showed the potential for low emissions operation and the particulate matter reduction advantage offered by natural gas was evident from the results.

  13. Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishna, C.R.

    1984-07-27

    In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

  14. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO₂- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO₂-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO₂ absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO₂ pressures in stripping conditions,more » relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.« less

  15. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO?- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO?-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO? absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO? pressures in stripping conditions, relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.

  16. A Pipeline Transport Correlation for Slurries with Small but Dense Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poloski, Adam P.; Etchells, Arthur W.; Chun, Jaehun; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Minette, Michael J.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2010-04-01

    Most correlations/models for minimum transport or critical velocity of slurry were developed for slurries composed of particles greater than ~100-200 ?m diameter with narrow particle-size distributions which is typical of the minerals industry. Many other process industries handle smaller particles. In particular waste slurries at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site have broad size distributions and significant fractions of smaller particles. Despite the size of these wastes, recent PNNL studies indicate that the small particles might be of sufficient density to pose a significant risk for pipeline deposition and plugging. To allow predictive assessment of deposition of fine dense particles for waste slurry transport at the U.S. DOE Hanford site, a pipeline-transport correlation for critical velocity was developed using a simple power-law between two dimensionless numbers important for slurry transport, the deposition Froude and Archimedes numbers. The correlation accords well with experimental data for slurries with Archimedes numbers <80 and is an adequate pipeline design guide for processing Hanford waste slurry.

  17. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  18. Reliable Alloy that Refuses to Forget, Repeatedly | U.S. DOE Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science (SC) Reliable Alloy that Refuses to Forget, Repeatedly Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 10.01.15 Reliable Alloy that

  19. Initial operating results of coal-fired steam generators converted to 100% refuse-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barsin, J.A. ); Graika, P.K. ); Gonyeau, J.A. ); Bloomer, T.M. )

    1988-01-01

    The conversion of Northern States Power Company's (NSP) Red Wing and Wilmarth steam generators to fire refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is discussed. The use of the existing plant with the necessary modifications to the boilers has allowed NSP to effectively incinerate the fuel as required by Washington and Ramsey Counties. This paper covers the six-month start-up of Red Wing No. 1, commencing in May 1987, and the operating results since the plant went commercial in July 1987.

  20. DOE feasibility report on Lake Calumet area refuse-to-energy facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-06-18

    Site analyses and literature reviews were conducted to determine the feasibility of building an energy-producing municipal waste incinerator at Calumet Lake, Illinois. The amount of burnable waste produced within 5 and 10 miles of the near-Chicago site, the composition and heating value of this solid waste, and the air pollution impacts of waste incineration were determined, and the economic value of recovered material or of steam and electricity produced at the plant are discussed. It is concluded that there is sufficient refuse in the area to support a refuse processing center, that increasng landfill costs make such a center economically attractive, and that the Btu content of the refuse is adequate to produce steam for heat and power use. Replacing existing oil-fired power plants with this facility would result in an 88% reduction in current pollutant emission levels. There is a ready market for steam that could be produced. It is recommended that steps be taken to implement the establishment of the proposed waste processing center. (LCL)

  1. Kevin Banks | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kevin Banks By Justin H.S. Breaux * October 6, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint Kevin Banks is a freshman at the Milwaukee School of Engineering, where he studies biomedical engineering. As an intern within the Chicago Scholars Argonne Future Research Program, Kevin conducted research this summer in Argonne's Energy Systems division. His research seeks to increase energy efficiency by reducing friction and wear on machines using engine oils. "What I liked most about my internship experience was

  2. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMillian, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  3. Pretreated Slurries; Issue Date: August 2010; Revision Date: July 2011 (Version 07-08-2011)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summative Mass Closure Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Review and Integration: Pretreated Slurries Issue Date: August 2010 Revision Date: July 2011 (Version 07-08-2011) J. Sluiter and A. Sluiter Technical Report NREL/TP-510-48825 Revised July 2011 Technical Report Summative Mass Closure NREL/TP-510-48825 Revised July 2011 Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Review and Integration: Pretreated Slurries Issue Date: August 2010 Revision Date: July 2011 (Version 07-08-2011) J. Sluiter and A.

  4. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYSTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2005-09-29

    This report covers the third year of this research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we utilized experimental data from the STSR, that were obtained during the first two years of the project, to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations and estimate kinetic parameters. We used a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) with estimated values of binary interaction coefficients for the VLE calculations. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Occasional discrepancies (for some of the experimental data) between calculated and experimental values of the liquid phase composition were ascribed to experimental errors. The VLE calculations show that the vapor and the liquid are in thermodynamic equilibrium under reaction conditions. Also, we have successfully applied the Levenberg-Marquardt method (Marquardt, 1963) to estimate parameters of a kinetic model proposed earlier by Lox and Froment (1993b) for FTS on an iron catalyst. This kinetic model is well suited for initial studies where the main goal is to learn techniques for parameter estimation and statistical analysis of estimated values of model parameters. It predicts that the chain growth parameter ({alpha}) and olefin to paraffin ratio are independent of carbon number, whereas our experimental data show that they vary with the carbon number. Predicted molar flow rates of inorganic species, n-paraffins and total olefins were generally not in good agreement with the corresponding experimental values. In the future we'll use kinetic models based on non-constant value of {alpha}.

  5. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2006-09-29

    This report covers the fourth year of a research project conducted under the University Coal Research Program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) employing iron-based catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred-tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (water, carbon dioxide, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the fourth year of the project, an analysis of experimental data collected during the second year of this project was performed. Kinetic parameters were estimated utilizing product distributions from 27 mass balances. During the reporting period two kinetic models were employed: a comprehensive kinetic model of Dr. Li and co-workers (Yang et al., 2003) and a hydrocarbon selectivity model of Van der Laan and Beenackers (1998, 1999) The kinetic model of Yang et al. (2003) has 24 parameters (20 parameters for hydrocarbon formation, and 4 parameters for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction). Kinetic parameters for the WGS reaction and FTS synthesis were estimated first separately, and then simultaneously. The estimation of these kinetic parameters employed the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method and the trust-region reflective Newton large-scale (LS) method. A genetic algorithm (GA) was incorporated into estimation of parameters for FTS reaction to provide initial estimates of model parameters. All reaction rate constants and activation energies were found to be positive, but at the 95% confidence level the intervals were large. Agreement between predicted and experimental reaction rates has been fair to good. Light hydrocarbons are predicted fairly accurately, whereas the model underpredicts values of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. Van der Laan and Beenackers hydrocarbon selectivity model provides a very good fit of the experimental data for hydrocarbons up to about C{sub 20}. However, the experimental data shows higher paraffin formation rates in C{sub 12}-C{sub 25} region which is likely due to hydrocracking or other secondary reactions. The model accurately captures the observed experimental trends of decreasing olefin to paraffin ratio and increasing {alpha} (chain growth length) with increase in chain length.

  6. Rules governing the classification of coal slurries for filtering centrifuges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.Y. Gol'berg; Y.B. Rubinshtein; S.A. Osadchii

    2008-07-01

    The feasibility of using filtering centrifuges for the cleaning of a coking-coal slurry is confirmed in principle, and regime operating parameters which ensure the production of a concentrate of conditioned quality are determined on the basis of results of experimental-industrial tests of a new procedure for this operation at the Neryungrinskaya Concentrating Mill. An equation is proposed for determination of solid carry-off in the centrifuge effluent, which completely satisfactorily (with a correlation coefficient of 0.7-0.8) describes the dependence of the parameter in question on the solid content in the centrifuge feed, and on its content of -0.2-mm material. It is noted that special investigations to determine the effect of the speed of the rotor and shape of the particles on the amount of solid carry-off in the centrifuge effluent are required for construction of a model describing the size reduction of solid-phase particles in the effluent during centrifuge filtration.

  7. Effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itodo, I.N.; Awulu, J.O.

    1999-12-01

    The effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield was investigated. Twelve laboratory-size anaerobic batch digesters with 25 L volume were constructed and used for the experiments. Three replicates of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% TS concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries were anaerobically digested for a 30-day detention period and gas yield was measured by the method of water displacement. Temperature variation within the digesters was measured with a maximum and minimum thermometer. Anaerobic digestion of the slurries was undertaken in the mesophilic temperature range (20--40 C). The carbon:nitrogen ratio of each of the slurries digested was determined. The carbon content was determined using the wackley-Black method, and nitrogen content was determined by the regular kjeldhal method. The pH was measured weekly during the period of digestion from a digital pH meter. Gas quality (% methane fraction) was also measured weekly from an analyzer. Coefficient of variation was computed to ascertain the status of the digestion process. Analysis of variance was used to determine the significant difference in gas yield at p < 0.05. Duncan's New Multiple Range Test at p < 0.05 was used to analyze the difference in gas yield among the various TS concentrations of the slurries investigated. The results indicate that biogas yield is of the order: 5% TS > 10% TS > 15% TS > 20% TS. This result shows that gas yield increases with decreasing TS concentration of the slurries. The ANOVA showed that the gas yield from the various TS % was significantly different (p < 0.05). DNMRT showed that there was significant difference in gas yield from the slurries and wastetypes investigated. Poultry waste slurries had the greatest gas yield (L CH4/kg TS) as the gas yield from the waste types was of the order: Poultry > Piggery > Cattle. The pH of the slurries was of the range 5.5 to 6.8 (weakly acidic). The C:N of the slurries varied between 6:1 and 9:1. The Coefficient of Variation (CV) for 10 consecutive days of digestion was less than 10% indicating a steady state in all the digesters.

  8. Republic of Macedonia-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy...

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    World Bank Climate Projects Jump to: navigation, search Name Republic of Macedonia-World Bank Climate Projects AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector Energy, Land Focus...

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    World Bank Climate Activities Jump to: navigation, search Name Gabon-World Bank Climate Activities AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics...

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    World Bank Climate Projects Jump to: navigation, search Name Ukraine-World Bank Climate Projects AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency...

  11. A review of trace element emissions from the combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, G.A. )

    1992-05-01

    The effects of cocombusting refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal on stack emissions of trace elements in the ash stream were reviewed. The large number of variables and uncertainties involved precluded drawing definitive conclusions regarding many of the trace elements. However, it is evident that cocombustion resulted in increased emissions of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. Emissions of As and Ni tended to decrease when RDF was fired with coal. Modeling studies indicated that ambient levels of trace elements during cocombustion should be within acceptable limits. However, periodic monitoring of Cd, Hg, and Pb may be warranted in some instances.

  12. Natural gas cofiring in a refuse derived fuel incinerator: Results of a field evaluation. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshai, R.Z.; Hong, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    An evaluation of emissions reduction and improved operation of a municipal solid waste incinerator through natural gas cofiring is presented. A natural gas cofiring system was retrofitted on a refuse derived fuel combustor of the Columbis Solid Waste Reduction Facility in Columbus, Ohio. The field evaluation, conducted between July 6 and August 5, 1992, showed significant improvements in emissions and boiler operations. Carbon monoxide emissions were reduced from the baseline operations range of 530 to 1,950 parts per million to less than 50 ppm. Emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans were also reduced.

  13. Fluid dynamic studies for a simulated Melton Valley Storage Tank slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hylton, T.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Cummins, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), are used for the collection and storage of remote-handled radioactive liquid wastes. These wastes, which were typically acidic when generated, were neutralized with the addition of sodium hydroxide to protect the storage tanks from corrosion, but this caused the transuranic and heavy metals to precipitate. These wastes will eventually need to be removed from the tanks for ultimate disposal. The objective of the research activities discussed in this report is to support the design of a pipeline transport system between the MVSTs and a treatment facility. Since the wastes in the MVSTs are highly radioactive, a surrogate slurry was developed for this study. Rheological properties of the simulated slurry were determined in a test loop in which the slurry was circulated through three pipeline viscometers of different diameters. Pressure drop data at varying flow rates were used to obtain shear stress and shear rate data. The data were analyzed, and the slurry rheological properties were analyzed by the Power Law model and the Bingham plastic model. The plastic viscosity and yield stress data obtained from the rheological tests were used as inputs for a piping design software package, and the pressure drops predicted by the software compared well with the pressure drop data obtained from the test loop. The minimum transport velocity was determine for the slurry by adding known nominal sizes of glass spheres to the slurry. However, it was shown that the surrogate slurry exhibited hindered settling, which may substantially decrease the minimum transport velocity. Therefore, it may be desired to perform additional tests with a surrogate with a lower concentration of suspended solids to determine the minimum transport velocity.

  14. Tin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from slurries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, A.T.; Cochran, J.K.

    1992-12-31

    The overall objective of this effort was to develop a process for economically fabricating thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from conventional ceramic powders using dispersions. This process resulted in successful production of monosized spheres in the mm size range which were point contact bonded into foams. Thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres of small (one to five millimeter) diameter have novel applications as high-temperature insulation and light structural materials when bonded into monolithic foams. During Phase 1 of this program the objective as to develop a process for fabricating thin-wall hollow spheres from powder slurries using the coaxial nozzle fabrication method. Based on the success during Phase 1, Phase 2 was revised to emphasize the assessment of the potential structural and insulation applications for the spheres and modeling of the sphere formation process was initiated. As more understanding developed, it was clear that to achieve successful structural application, the spheres had to be bonded into monolithic foams and the effort was further expanded to include both bonding into structures and finite element mechanical modeling which became the basis of Phase 3. Successful bonding techniques and mechanical modeling resulted but thermal conductivities were higher than desired for insulating activities. In addition, considerable interest had been express by industry for the technology. Thus the final Phase 4 concentrated on methods to reduce thermal conductivity by a variety of techniques and technology transfer through individualized visits. This program resulted in three Ph.D. theses and 10 M.S. theses and they are listed in the appropriate technical sections.

  15. Select Bank Plc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bank Plc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Select Bank Plc Place: Mayfair, England, United Kingdom Zip: W1J 8LQ Sector: Renewable Energy Product: England-based firm that promotes...

  16. EA-342 Royal Bank of Canada | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon EA-342 Royal Bank of Canada More Documents & Publications EA-342-A Royal Bank of Canada EA-330 The Royal Bank of Scotland plc EA-330-A The Royal Bank of Scotland plc

  17. Biogas from refuse via an earth-sheltered passive solar digester. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    As originally conceived, the project involved the design, construction and operation of a test-scale refuse digestion system and alternative energy technology, as an integral component of a planned comprehensive waste management system based on the concept of recycling and resource recovery. Specific technologies employed in the digestion system included aerobic composting and anaerobic fermentation. System inputs included non-recycleable organic refuse (paper, food wastes, etc.) and septage (septic tank sludge), both of which represent disposal problems for many North American communities, and heat. Anticipated system outputs were biogas (50 to 60% methane), a premium fuel, and compostable sludge, a potential soil amendment-fertilizer. Projected net energy output was enhanced by incorporating biological feedstock preheating, earth sheltering, passive solar heating, and sludge heat recovery into the project design. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of this system versus competing waste-to-energy technologies. Due primarily to institutional barriers and related factors, the project did not progress to the point of enabling the stated purpose to be demonstrated.

  18. Results of emissions testing while burning densified refuse derived fuel, Dordt College, Sioux Center, Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. provided engineering and source testing services to the Council of Great Lake Governors to support their efforts in promoting the development and utilization of densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF) and pelletized wastepaper fuels in small steam generating facilities. The emissions monitoring program was designed to provide a complete air emissions profile while burning various refuse derived fuels. The specific goal of this test program was to conduct air emissions tests at Dordt College located in Sioux Center, Iowa and to identify a relationship between fuel types and emission characteristics. The sampling protocol was carried out June 12 through June 20, 1989 on boiler {number sign}4. This unit had been previously modified to burn d-RDF. The boiler was not equipped with any type of air pollution control device so the emissions samples were collected from the boiler exhaust stack on the roof of the boilerhouse. The emissions that were sampled included: particulates; PM{sub 10} particulates; hydrochloric acid; dioxins; furans; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB); metals and continuous monitors for CO, CO{sub 2}O{sub 2}SO{sub x}NO{sub x} and total hydrocarbons. Grab samples of the fuels were collected, composited and analyzed for heating value, moisture content, proximate and ultimate analysis, ash fusion temperature, bulk density and elemental ash analysis. Grab samples of the boiler ash were also collected and analyzed for total hydrocarbons total dioxins, total furans, total PCBs and heavy metals. 77 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. Modified biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays to assess biodegradation potential of landfilled refuse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogner, J.E.; Rose, C.; Piorkowski, R.

    1989-01-01

    Modified Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) assays were used to assess biogas production potential of solid landfill samples. In landfill samples with visible soil content, moisture addition alone was generally as effective at stimulating biogas production as the addition of a comprehensive nutrient media. In a variety of samples from humid and semiarid landfills, addition of an aqueous nutrient media was the most effective stimulant for biogas production; however, moisture addition was almost as effective for most samples, suggesting that water addition would be the most cost-effective field approach. Onset of methanogenesis was slower in fresh refuse samples (even when inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge) than in landfill samples, indicating that the soil into which materials are landfilled is a major source of microorganisms. High volatile solids loading in fresh refuse and landfill assays retarded methanogenesis. A comparison of anaerobic and aerobic sample handling techniques showed no significant differences with regard to onset of methanogenesis and total gas production. The technique shows initial promise with regard to replication and reproducibility of results and could be a meaningful addition to landfill site evaluations where commercial gas recovery is anticipated. The BMP technique could also be adapted to assess anaerobic biodegradability of other solid waste materials for conventional anaerobic digestion applications. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhasin, A.K.; Berggren, M.H.; Ronzio, N.J.; Smit, F.J.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the results of process and cost refinement studies for the manufacture of ultra-clean coal-slurry fuel for direct-fired gas turbines. The work was performed as an extension to an earlier contract in which AMAX R and D supplied METC with two lots of highly beneficiated coal slurry fuel for use in the Heat Engines program. A conceptual design study and cost estimate supplied to METC at that time indicated that a combined physical and chemical cleaning process could produce ultra-clean fuel at a competitive price. Laboratory and pilot plant studies performed for the contract extension further defined the process conditions and operating and capital costs to prepare coals containing from 0.2 to 1.0% ash as slurry fuels. A base-case fuel containing coal cleaned to 0.5% ash in a 1000 cp slurry containing 55% coal was $4.16 per million Btu when produced in quantities required to fuel a 500 MW gas-turbine generating station. Coal slurry fuel production costs as low as $3.66 per million Btu were projected for coals cleaned to 1.0% ash. 12 refs., 23 figs., 63 tabs.

  1. Coal liquefaction process utilizing coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comolli, Alfred G.; McLean, Joseph B.

    1989-01-01

    A coal hydrogenation and liquefaction process in which particulate coal feed is pressurized to an intermediate pressure of at least 500 psig and slurried with CO.sub.2 liquid to provide a flowable coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream, which is further pressurized to at least 1000 psig and fed into a catalytic reactor. The coal particle size is 50-375 mesh (U.S. Sieve Series) and provides 50-80 W % coal in the coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream. Catalytic reaction conditions are maintained at 650.degree.-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure and coal feed rate of 10-100 lb coal/hr ft.sup.3 reactor volume to produce hydrocarbon gas and liquid products. The hydrogen and CO.sub.2 are recovered from the reactor effluent gaseous fraction, hydrogen is recycled to the catalytic reactor, and CO.sub.2 is liquefied and recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, two catalytic reaction stages close coupled together in series relation can be used. The process advantageously minimizes the recycle and processing of excess hydrocarbon liquid previously needed for slurrying the coal feed to the reactor(s).

  2. Utilization of solid wastes from the gasification of coal-water slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Y. Shpirt; N.P. Goryunova

    2009-07-01

    It was found that only fly and bottom ashes are the solid wastes of water-coal slurry gasification in a direct-flow gasifier. The yields and chemical compositions of fly and bottom ashes obtained after the gasification of water-coal slurries prepared using brown (B) and long-flame (D) coals from the Berezovskii and Mokhovskii strip mines (Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk Basins, respectively) were characterized. Based on an analysis of currently available information, the areas of utilization of fly and bottom ashes after water-coal slurry gasification with dry ash removal were summarized. The use of these wastes in the construction of high-ways and earthwork structures (for the parent coals of B and D grades) and in the manufacture of ash concrete (for the parent coal of D grade) is most promising.

  3. MEASUREMENT AND PREDICTION OF RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING SLURRIES AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibler, N; John Pareizs, J; Terri Fellinger, T; Cj Bannochie, C

    2007-01-10

    This paper presents results of measurements and predictions of radiolytic hydrogen production rates from two actual process slurries in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS). Hydrogen is a flammable gas and its production in nuclear facilities can be a safety hazard if not mitigated. Measurements were made in the Shielded Cells of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a sample of Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) currently being processed by the DWPF. Predictions were made using published values for rates of radiolytic reactions producing H{sub 2} in aqueous solutions and the measured radionuclide and chemical compositions of the two slurries. The agreement between measured and predicted results for nine experiments ranged from complete agreement to 24% difference. This agreement indicates that if the composition of the slurry being processed is known, the rate of radiolytic hydrogen production can be reasonably estimated.

  4. SUCCESSES AND EMERGING ISSUES IN SIMULATING THE MIXING BEHAVIOR OF LIQUID-PARTICLE NUCLEAR WASTE SLURRIES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 211B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Aqueous radioactive high-level waste slurries are combined during processing steps that ultimately produce a stable borosilicate glass waste form. Chemically treated waste slurries are combined with each other and with glass frit-water slurries to produce the melter feed. Understanding the evolution of the rheological properties of the slurries is an important aspect of removing and treating the stored waste. To a first approximation, combinations of colloidal waste slurry with {approx}0.1-mm mean diameter glass frit or glass beads act in an analogous matter to slurries of spherical beads in Newtonian liquids. The non-Newtonian rheological properties of the waste slurries without frit, however, add complexity to the hydrodynamic analysis. The use of shear rate dependent apparent viscosities with the modified Einstein equation was used to model the rheological properties of aqueous frit-waste slurries.

  5. Rheological properties of water-coal slurries based on brown coal in the presence of sodium lignosulfonates and alkali

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.P. Savitskii; A.S. Makarov; V.A. Zavgorodnii

    2009-07-01

    The effect of the oxidized surface of brown coal on the structural and rheological properties of water-coal slurries was found. The kinetics of structure formation processes in water-coal slurries based on as-received and oxidized brown coal was studied. The effect of lignosulfonate and alkali additives on the samples of brown coal was considered.

  6. A KINETIC S'FUDY OF METHANOL SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY REACTOR USING

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    KINETIC S'FUDY OF METHANOL SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY REACTOR USING a CuO/ZnO/AI20 3 CATALYST _E/PC/89787--_ DE92 016818 A thesis by HAMAD ABDULWAHAB AL-ADW/_rI A KINETIC STUDY OF METHANOL SYNTHESIS IN A. SLURRY REACTOR USING a CuO/ZnO/AI20 3 CATALYST A thesis by HAMAD ABDULWAHAB AL-ADWAN1 Approved as to style and content by: NJ . . _ _LI ,,l, ,m , Michael Rosynek JR., G, Anthony li P" ¥ (Co-Chair of Committee) (Member) Ayd,,, Akgol -) tri n ILayTnond W. Flumerfelt (Co-Chair of Committee) (Head

  7. Thermal conductivities of Wilsonville solvent and Wilsonville solvent/Illinois No. 6 coal slurry. [Wilsonville solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, J.H.; Mrochek, J.E.; Johnson, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal conductivities of a Wilsonville solvent and of a slurry prepared from this solvent and Illinois No. 6 coal have been measured at temperatures from 295 up to 500 K. With increasing temperature, the thermal conductivity varied from 1.23 to 1.02 mW cm/sup -1/ K/sup -1/ (296 to 438 K) and from 1.51 to 1.02 mW cm/sup -1/ K/sup -1/ (295 to 505 K) for the solvent and the slurry, respectively. At room temperature, measurements on toluene were accurate to within 3% of literature values. 18 references, 9 figures, 7 tables.

  8. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this technology could be used to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of IGCC plants. The study goes beyond the systems-level analyses and initial lab work that formed the bases of previous studies and includes the following tasks: performing laboratory tests to quantify slurry properties; developing an engineering design of a liquid CO{sub 2} slurry preparation and feed system; conducting a full IGCC plant techno-economic analysis for Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and North Dakota lignite in both water and liquid CO{sub 2} slurries; and identifying a technology development plan to continue the due diligence to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of this technology. The initial task included rheology tests and slurry data analyses that would increase the knowledge and understanding of maximum solids loading capability for both PRB and lignite. Higher coal concentrations have been verified in liquid CO{sub 2} over water slurries, and a coal concentration of 75% by weight in liquid CO{sub 2} has been estimated to be achievable in a commercial application. In addition, lower slurry viscosities have been verified in liquid CO{sub 2} at the same solids loading, where the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry viscosity has been measured to be about a factor of 10 lower than the comparable water slurry and estimated to be less than 100 centipoise in a commercial application. In the following task, an engineering design of a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and mixing system has been developed for both a batch and continuous system. The capital cost of the design has also been estimated so that it could be used in the economic analysis. An industry search and survey has been conducted to determine if essential components required to construct the feed system are available from commercial sources or if targeted R&D efforts are required. The search and survey concluded that commercial sources are available for selected components that comprise both the batch and continuous type systems. During normal operation, the fuel exits the bottom of the coal silo and is fed to a rod mill for grinding to the desired particle size. From the rod mill, the coal is transported in a dense phase pneumatic transport system to the top of a solids heat exchanger, wherein the ground coal is chilled to a low temperature (in the range of -23.3°C (-10°F)) prior to mixing with liquid CO{sub 2}. This temperature was selected based on evaluating trade-offs between refrigeration work and the cost of the system pressure boundary at various combinations of pressure and temperature that correspond to the gas/liquid phase boundary for CO{sub 2}. Electrical loads to drive the equipment comprising the liquid CO{sub 2} feed system are significantly greater than those for a water slurry system, and this effect has been captured in the technical performance analysis. In the next task, a plant-wide techno-economic analysis has been conducted for PRB coal and lignite in both liquid CO{sub 2} and water slurry feed. The IGCC cases using a liquid CO{sub 2} slurry system show reduced plant output and higher heat rate for PRB coal and for ND lignite at 90% CO{sub 2} capture. Some of these performance differences can be attributed to the higher requirement for steam for the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry cases to drive the water-gas shift reaction, thereby reducing steam turbine power generation. Other factors contributing to the calculated performance differences are the increase in parasitic loads attributable to refrigeration to produce liquid CO{sub 2} and chilled coal and the reduction in enthalpy of the inlet streams to the gasifier associated with the low temperature liquid CO{sub 2} slurry feed. The capital costs for the complete plant are slightly higher for the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry cases for PRB coal but somewhat reduced for ND lignite relative to the corresponding water slurry cases. Differences in dollar/kWe costs are higher for both coals due to the reduction in net output. The cost of electricity computed for the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry cases is greater for both PRB and ND Lignite coals. It does not appear that there is any benefit to using liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurries for feeding low rank coals to the E-Gas™ gasifier. Any incidental benefits in improved cold gas efficiency are more than compensated for in higher overall plant costs, increased complexity, and reduced power output and efficiency. The results of the study are compared with previous published analyses, and the differences in model assumptions, approach and basis are summarized. It has been concluded that the use of liquid CO{sub 2} may still prove to have a significant advantage in a different type of gasifier, i.e., single-stage entrained flow with radiant quench section, but some key questions remain unanswered that can validate the potential improvement of gasifier performance using liquid CO{sub 2} slurries. In order to provide a path to answering these questions, a technology development roadmap has been developed to resolve fundamental issues and to better define the operation aspects of using liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurries. The fundamental issues could be resolved by conducting additional laboratory analyses consisting of: • A rheological test program to quantitatively evaluate slurry preparation and handling for liquid CO{sub 2} including experiments to evaluate preparation systems. • An experimental program on CO{sub 2}-assisted gasification in order to obtain the most relevant experimental data from drop tube furnace studies to aid in verifying the potential advantages of direct feed of liquid CO{sub 2}/coal as gasifier feedstocks. Quantifying the operational aspects of liquid CO{sub 2} slurries can best be achieved with: • An experimental program using a flow test loop to evaluate equipment performance and handling properties of liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurries for gasifier feedstocks on a scale sufficient to predict full scale operating parameters. • Spray atomization studies necessary to evaluate the effect of atomization properties of liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurries that could be significantly different than those of water/coal slurries.

  9. Kinetics of Slurry Phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski; Lech Nowicki; Madhav Nayapati

    2006-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) employing iron-based catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred-tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. Three STSR tests of the Ruhrchemie LP 33/81 catalyst were conducted to collect data on catalyst activity and selectivity under 25 different sets of process conditions. The observed decrease in 1-olefin content and increase in 2-olefin and n-paraffin contents with the increase in conversion are consistent with a concept that 1-olefins participate in secondary reactions (e.g. 1-olefin hydrogenation, isomerization and readsorption), whereas 2-olefins and n-paraffins are formed in these reactions. Carbon number product distribution showed an increase in chain growth probability with increase in chain length. Vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations were made to check validity of the assumption that the gas and liquid phases are in equilibrium during FTS in the STSR. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Discrepancies between the calculated and experimental values for the liquid-phase composition (for some of the experimental data) are ascribed to experimental errors in the amount of wax collected from the reactor, and the relative amounts of hydrocarbon wax and Durasyn 164 oil (start-up fluid) in the liquid samples. Kinetic parameters of four kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003; Van der Laan and Beenackers, 1998, 1999; and an extended kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers) were estimated from experimental data in the STSR tests. Two of these kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003) can predict a complete product distribution (inorganic species and hydrocarbons), whereas the kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers (1998, 1999) can be used only to fit product distribution of total olefins and n-paraffins. The kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers was extended to account separately for formation of 1- and 2-olefins, as well as n-paraffins. A simplified form of the kinetic model of Lox and Froment (1993b) has only five parameters at isothermal conditions. Because of its relative simplicity, this model is well suited for initial studies where the main goal is to learn techniques for parameter estimation and statistical analysis of estimated values of model parameters. The same techniques and computer codes were used in the analysis of other kinetic models. The Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method was employed for minimization of the objective function and kinetic parameter estimation. Predicted reaction rates of inorganic and hydrocarbon species were not in good agreement with experimental data. All reaction rate constants and activation energies (24 parameters) of the Yang et al. (2003) model were found to be positive, but the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were large. Agreement between predicted and experimental reaction rates has been fair to good. Light hydrocarbons were predicted fairly accurately, whereas the model predictions of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons values were lower than the experimental ones. The Van der Laan and Beenackers kinetic model (known as olefin readsorption product distribution model = ORPDM) provided a very good fit of the experimental data for hydrocarbons (total olefins and n-paraffins) up to about C{sub 20} (with the exception of experimental data that showed higher paraffin formation rates in C{sub 12}-C{sub 25} region, due to hydrocracking or other secondary reactions). Estimated values of all model parameters (true and pseudo-kinetic parameters) had high statistical significance after combining parameters related to olefin termination and readsorption into one (total of 7 model parameters). The original ORPDM was extended to account separately for formation of 1- and 2-olefins, and successfully employed to fit experimental data of three major groups of hydrocarbon products (n-paraffins, 1-olefins and 2-olefins). This model is referred to as an extended ORPDM (8 model parameters in its final form). In general, all three groups of products were fitted well, and the estimated model parameters were all positive and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were small. Even though the extended ORPDM provided a very good fit of experimental data, it can not be used for the prediction of product distributions for a given set of process conditions. This model has several pseudo-kinetic parameters whose values vary with process conditions. Additional work is needed to expand capabilities of the model to predict molar flow rates of all inorganic species and major hydrocarbon products in terms of true kinetic (temperature dependent) constants.

  10. Apparatus and method for pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in coal derived, water immiscible liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Carl D.

    1983-03-29

    An apparatus for and method of pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in a coal derived, water immiscible liquid to higher pressure involves the use of a motive fluid which is miscible with the liquid of the slurry. The apparatus includes a pump 12, a remote check valve 14 and a chamber 16 between and in fluid communication with the pump 12 and check valve 14 through conduits 18,20. Pump 12 exerts pressure on the motive fluid and thereby on the slurry through a concentration gradient of coal solids within chamber 16 to alternately discharge slurry under pressure from the outlet port of check valve 14 and draw slurry in through the inlet port of check valve 14.

  11. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.; Chum, Helena L.; Evans, Robert J.; Rejai, Bahman; Bain, Richard L.; Overend, Ralph P.

    1996-01-01

    A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

  12. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

    1996-04-02

    A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

  13. Development and evaluation of lime enhanced refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1996-12-31

    The disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) is of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments throughout the US. There are two technologies currently in use for the combustion of MSW: (1) mass burning in which unprocessed MSW is burned in a heat recovery furnace, and (2) a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) product, which consists of the organic (combustible) fraction of MSW which has been processed to produce a more homogeneous fuel product than raw MSW. The RDF is either marketed to outside users or combusted on-site in a dedicated or existing furnace. In an attempt to alleviate the problems encountered with RDF as a feedstock, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the University of North Texas (UNT) under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) began a multi-phase research study to investigate the development of a low-cost binder that would improve the quality of RDF pellets.

  14. Chlorinated organic compounds evolved during the combustion of blends of refuse-derived fuels and coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaodong Yang; Napier, J.; Sisk, B.; Wei-Ping Pan; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study was to examine the possible formation of chlorinated organic compounds during the combustion of blends of refuse derived fuels (RDF) and coal under conditions similar to those of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. A series of experiments were conducted using a TGA interfaced to FTIR and MS systems. Additional experiments using a tube furnace preheated to AFBC operating temperatures were also conducted. The combustion products were cryogenically trapped and analyzed with a GUMS system. The chlorination of phenols and the condensation reactions of chlorophenols were investigated in this study. A possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organic; compounds such as dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, by chlorination and condensation reactions involving phenols, was proposed.

  15. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Quarterly report, October - December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-12-01

    The objectives of this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the effect of S0{sub 2} on the formation of chlorine during combustion processes was examined. To simulate the conditions used in the AFBC system, experiments were conducted in a quartz tube in an electrically heated furnace. The principle analytical technique used for identification of the products from this study was GC/MS. The evolved gas was trapped by an absorbent and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The preliminary results indicate an inhibiting effect of S0{sub 2} on the Deacon Reaction. Secondly, information on the evolution of chlorine, sulfur and organic compounds from coals 95031 and 95011 were studied with the AFBC system. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Sulfur dioxide capture in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churney, K.L.; Buckley, T.J. . Center for Chemical Technology)

    1990-06-01

    Chlorine and sulfur mass balance studies have been carried out in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal in the NIST multikilogram capacity batch combustor. The catalytic effect of manganese dioxide on the trapping of sulfur dioxide by lime was examined. Under our conditions, only 4% of the chlorine was trapped in the ash and no effect of manganese dioxide was observed. Between 42 and 14% of the total sulfur was trapped in the ash, depending upon the lime concentration. The effect of manganese dioxide on sulfur capture was not detectable. The temperature of the ash was estimated to be near 1200{degrees}C, which was in agreement with that calculated from sulfur dioxide capture thermodynamics. 10 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galvagno, S. Casciaro, G.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Mingazzini, C.; Russo, A.; Portofino, S.

    2009-02-15

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products.

  18. ULTRASONICALLY-ENHANCED DENSE-MEDIUM CYCLONING FOR FINE COAL AND COAL REFUSE IMPOUNDMENT MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Mark S. Klima; Dr. Barbara J. Arnold

    2001-08-01

    The Pennsylvania State University, its project team (Typlex, Inc., DAGER, Inc., and PrepTech, Inc.), and advisory committee members have demonstrated the application of ultrasonic energy during dense-medium cyclining and subsequent recovery of fine coal and coal refuse impoundment materials. The results will help to extend the range of conventional dense-medium cyclining to sizes now typically cleaned in relatively inefficient water-only cyclone and spiral concentrators circuits. This technology also provides a potential approach to produce ultra-clean material as would be used for feedstocks for premium carbon products. This report describes Phase I of the project, which involved laboratory testing of dense-medium cyclining and subsequent medium recovery, with and without ultrasonic treatment, along with fundamental dispersion testing. Dense-medium cycloning was conducted with a 76.2-mm (3-in.) diameter cyclone under various conditions including magnetite grade, medium relative density, inlet pressure, cyclone geometry, and feed coal. Dense-medium recovery testing was carried out with a 305-mm (12-in.) diameter x 152-mm (6-in.) wide wet-drum magnetic separator using the cyclone clean coal and refuse products as the feed material. Fundamental testing of dispersion/reagglomeration phenomena was conducted with coal/clay mixtures. In almost all cases, the dense-medium cyclone was capable of achieving separations down to approximately 0.037 mm. Ultrasonic treatment had a slight effect on reducing the ash content of the clean coal. It was also found that ultrasonic treatment improved the purity of the magnetic fraction during wet-drum magnetic separation. The treatment was particularly beneficial for the cyclone overflow material. The fundamental testing indicated that agitation after ultrasonic treatment is necessary to disperse fine particles and to prevent agglomeration.

  19. Two weight system for measuring depth and sediment in slurry-supported excavations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deming, P.; Good, D.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a two weight system using bar and flat shaped weights for measuring depth and detecting sediment at the bottom of slurry-supported excavations. Currently there are no standard depth measurement weights or methods for reliably identifying bottom sediment. Two weights and a procedural system for using the weights is described. Details suitable for manufacture are provided.

  20. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF THREE-PHASE SLURRY-BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    1999-09-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved in understanding three-phase reactors from the point of view of kinetic theory. In a paper in press for publication in Chemical Engineering Science (Wu and Gidaspow, 1999) we have obtained a complete numerical solution of bubble column reactors. In view of the complexity of the simulation a better understanding of the processes using simplified analytical solutions is required. Such analytical solutions are presented in the attached paper, Large Scale Oscillations or Gravity Waves in Risers and Bubbling Beds. This paper presents analytical solutions for bubbling frequencies and standing wave flow patterns. The flow patterns in operating slurry bubble column reactors are not optimum. They involve upflow in the center and downflow at the walls. It may be possible to control flow patterns by proper redistribution of heat exchangers in slurry bubble column reactors. We also believe that the catalyst size in operating slurry bubble column reactors is not optimum. To obtain an optimum size we are following up on the observation of George Cody of Exxon who reported a maximum granular temperature (random particle kinetic energy) for a particle size of 90 microns. The attached paper, Turbulence of Particles in a CFB and Slurry Bubble Columns Using Kinetic Theory, supports George Cody's observations. However, our explanation for the existence of the maximum in granular temperature differs from that proposed by George Cody. Further computer simulations and experiments involving measurements of granular temperature are needed to obtain a sound theoretical explanation for the possible existence of an optimum catalyst size.

  1. Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

    2003-02-26

    The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

  2. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.

    1985-05-15

    Activity in April centered on performing hot-water leaching investigations. Analyses of caustic filtrates to be used for regeneration tests were completed. Modifications to the Inconel caustic-leach reactor were made to permit injection of caustic after preheating the coal-water feed slurry. Criteria for cost estimates and sensitivity analysis were established.

  3. Development and process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukur, D.B.; Mukesh, D.; Patel, S.A.; Zimmerman, W.H.; Rosynek, M.P.; Kellogg, L.J.

    1990-04-01

    This report describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating improved catalysts for a slurry Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process for converting synthesis gas to high quality transportation fuels (gasoline and distillate). The improvements in catalyst performance were sought by studying effects of pretreatment conditions, promoters and binders/supports. A total of 20 different, iron based, catalysts were evaluated in 58 fixed bed reactor tests and 10 slurry reactor tests. The major accomplishments and conclusions are summarized below. The pretreatment conditions (temperature, duration and the nature of reducing gas) have significant effect on catalyst performance (activity, selectivity and stability) during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. One of precipitated unsupported catalysts had hydrocarbon selectivity similar to Mobil`s I-B catalyst in high wax mode operation, and had not experienced any loss in activity during 460 hours of testing under variable process conditions in a slurry reactor. The effect of promoters (copper and potassium) on catalyst performance during FT synthesis has been studied in a systematic way. It was found that potassium promotion increases activities of the FT and water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions, the average molecular weight of hydrocarbon products, and suppresses the olefin hydrogenation and isomerization reactions. The addition of binders/supports (silica or alumina) to precipitated Fe/Cu/K catalysts, decreased their activity but improved their stability and hydrocarbon selectivity. The performance of catalysts of this type was very promising and additional studies are recommended to evaluate their potential for use in commercial slurry reactors.

  4. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE.sub.10 rectangular mode to TE.sub.01 circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power.

  5. Evaluation of Computational Method of High Reynolds Number Slurry Flow for Caverns Backfilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettin, Giorgia

    2015-05-01

    The abandonment of salt caverns used for brining or product storage poses a significant environmental and economic risk. Risk mitigation can in part be address ed by the process of backfilling which can improve the cavern geomechanical stability and reduce the risk o f fluid loss to the environment. This study evaluate s a currently available computational tool , Barracuda, to simulate such process es as slurry flow at high Reynolds number with high particle loading . Using Barracuda software, a parametric sequence of simu lations evaluated slurry flow at Re ynolds number up to 15000 and loading up to 25%. Li mitations come into the long time required to run these simulation s due in particular to the mesh size requirement at the jet nozzle. This study has found that slurry - jet width and centerline velocities are functions of Re ynold s number and volume fractio n The solid phase was found to spread less than the water - phase with a spreading rate smaller than 1 , dependent on the volume fraction. Particle size distribution does seem to have a large influence on the jet flow development. This study constitutes a first step to understand the behavior of highly loaded slurries and their ultimate application to cavern backfilling.

  6. Elimination Of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In Defense Waste Processing Facility Slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2013-01-22

    Based on lab-scale simulations of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) slurry chemistry, the addition of sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide to waste slurries at concentrations sufficient to take the aqueous phase into the alkaline region (pH > 7) with approximately 500 mg nitrite ion/kg slurry (assuming <25 wt% total solids, or equivalently 2,000 mg nitrite/kg total solids) is sufficient to effectively deactivate the noble metal catalysts at temperatures between room temperature and boiling. This is a potential strategy for eliminating catalytic hydrogen generation from the list of concerns for sludge carried over into the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) or Recycle Collection Tank (RCT). These conclusions are drawn in large part from the various phases of the DWPF catalytic hydrogen generation program conducted between 2005 and 2009. The findings could apply to various situations, including a solids carry-over from either the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) into the SMECT with subsequent transfer to the RCT, as well as a spill of formic acid into the sump system and transfer into an RCT that already contains sludge solids. There are other potential mitigating factors for the SMECT and RCT, since these vessels are typically operated at temperatures close to the minimum temperatures that catalytic hydrogen has been observed to occur in either the SRAT or SME (pure slurry case), and these vessels are also likely to be considerably more dilute in both noble metals and formate ion (the two essential components to catalytic hydrogen generation) than the two primary process vessels. Rhodium certainly, and ruthenium likely, are present as metal-ligand complexes that are favored under certain concentrations of the surrounding species. Therefore, in the SMECT or RCT, where a small volume of SRAT or SME material would be significantly diluted, conditions would be less optimal for forming or sustaining the catalytic ligand species. Such conditions are likely to adversely impact the ability of the transferred mass to produce hydrogen at the same rate (per unit mass SRAT or SME slurry) as in the SRAT or SME vessels.

  7. Investing in Minority Banks | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investing in Minority Banks Investing in Minority Banks Our Bank Deposit Financial Assistance Program was developed for the purpose of strengthening and expanding the Nation's minority and women-owned small business enterprises. In order to classify as "minority" the institution's majority ownership must include African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts, and women. The minority institution must certify minority ownership with the

  8. Bank of America | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    America Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bank of America Place: Charlotte, NC Zip: 28202 Website: www.bankofamerica.com References: NREL & Industry: National Account Companies1...

  9. Intern Spotlight: Kevin Banks | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kevin Banks is a freshman at the Milwaukee School of Engineering, where he studies biomedical engineering. As an intern within the Chicago Scholars Argonne Future Research...

  10. The World Bank - Transport | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    provides relevant information about transport, focusing on The World Bank Transport Strategy - Safe, Clean and Affordable - Transport for Development. The website includes...

  11. Building Green in Greensburg: Greensburg State Bank

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This poster highlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable features of the high-performing Greensburg State Bank building in Greensburg, Kansas.

  12. Building Green in Greensburg: Centera Bank

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This poster highlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable features of the high-performing Centera Bank building in Greensburg, Kansas.

  13. Building Green in Greensburg: The Peoples Bank

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This poster highlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable features of the high-performing Peoples Bank building in Greensburg, Kansas.

  14. NY Green Bank | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    sector to address and alleviate market and financial barriers preventing a thriving clean energy marketplace. NY Green Bank does not accept deposits or offer retail loans, and...

  15. Effects of weathering on coal and its sulfur constituents in refuse piles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, L.A.; Berggren, D.J.; Hughes, R.E.

    1984-12-01

    The rejects from coal mining and processing operations are intensively weathered in refuse piles. The effects of weathering on coal and and its associated sulfur-containing compounds are economically and environmentally significant. Chemical and x-ray diffraction analyses of material from abandoned mined lands, collected for a study of historic long-wall mines in Illinois, showed that most pyrite in weathered samples is converted to gypsum, jarosite, and minor alunite. There were only small reductions in the trace element concentrations of these samples. Coal readily takes up oxygen from air. Coal-oxygen complexes produced by oxygen adsorption or peroxide formation are very unstable, and the oxygen can be removed as oxygen gas, CO/sub 2/, or H/sub 2/O upon heating and evacuation. Heating coal under partial vacuum decreases its surface charge. The decrease in surface charge increases with heating time and temperature. This suggests that the adverse effect of exposure to air may be partially reversed, with a corresponding gain in the efficiency of the coal recovery processes.

  16. Comminution phenomena during the fluidized bed combustion of a commercial refuse-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, U.; Cammarota, A.; Chirone, R.; D`Anna, G.

    1995-12-31

    A commercial densified refuse-derived fuel (RDF), obtained as pellets from municipal solid wastes, was burned in two laboratory scale bubbling fluidized bed combustors, having an internal diameter of 41 mm. The apparatus were both batchwise operated at 850 C by injecting batches of RDF particles into a bed of silica sand (300--400 {micro}m as size range) fluidized at a superficial gas velocity of 0.8 m/s. RDF particles with equivalent mean diameter ranging from 4 to 9 mm were used. Different experimental procedures were set up to separately investigate comminution phenomena of fuel particles. Results were compared with those obtained burning a South African bituminous coal. Results pointed out that RDF particles undergo a strong primary fragmentation phenomenon, with a probability of particle breakage equal to 1 for fuel particles larger than 6 mm. Attrition and char fragmentation phenomena are particularly relevant under both inert and oxidizing conditions, generating a large amount of unburned fines which may affect overall combustion efficiency.

  17. Design considerations and operating experience in firing refuse derived fuel in a circulating fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekos, S.J.; Matuny, M.

    1997-12-31

    The worldwide demand for cleaner, more efficient methods to dispose of municipal solid waste has stimulated interest in processing solid waste to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) for use in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The combination of waste processing and materials recovery systems and CFB boiler technology provides the greatest recovery of useful resources from trash and uses the cleanest combustion technology available today to generate power. Foster Wheeler Power Systems along with Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation and several other Foster Wheeler sister companies designed, built, and now operates a 1600 tons per day (TPD) (1450 metric tons) municipal waste-to-energy project located in Robbins, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. This project incorporates waste processing systems to recover recyclable materials and produce RDF. It is the first project in the United States to use CFB boiler technology to combust RDF. This paper will provide an overview of the Robbins, Illinois waste-to-energy project and will examine the technical and environmental reasons for selecting RDF waste processing and CFB combustion technology. Additionally, this paper will present experience with handling and combusting RDF and review the special design features incorporated into the CFB boiler and waste processing system that make it work.

  18. Superheater corrosion in a boiler fired with refuse-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blough, J.L.; Stanko, G.J.; Bakker, W.T.; Steinbeck, T.

    1995-12-31

    The environment in the superheater of a boiler firing refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is very aggressive. The high wastage rate for the standard T-22 material necessitated a materials testing program. Simples of Types 304H, HR3C, T-22 chromized, 825 and 625 were assembled into tubular test sections and welded into the superheater tubing. After 1,180 hours the test sections were evaluated and the wastage rates calculated for each material. The chlorides contained in the RDF are believed to be the primary corrodent. The chlorine may be interacting with the metal samples as HCl, a low-melting-point eutectic or a combination of these. Of the six materials tested, Alloy 625 exhibited the best resistance--substantially better than the next-best Type 304. Alloy 825 and HR3C corroded approximately 1.5 times the rate of Type 304. The chromized layer on T-22 showed no resistance to the environment and was consumed in large areas.

  19. Gasification of refuse derived fuel in the Battelle high throughput gasification system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Creamer, K.S.; Tweksbury, T.L.; Taylor, D.R. )

    1989-07-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental program to demonstrate the suitability of the Battelle High Throughput Gasification Process to non-wood biomass fuels. An extensive data base on wood gasification was generated during a multi-year experimental program. This data base and subsequent design and economic analysis activities led to the discussion to study the gasification character of other fuels. The specific fuel studied was refuse derived fuel (RDF) which is a prepared municipal solid waste (MSW). The use of RDF, while providing a valuable fuel, can also provide a solution to MSW disposal problems. Gasification of MSW provides advantages over land fill or mass burn technology since a more usable form of energy, medium Btu gas, is produced. Land filling of wastes produces no usable products and mass burning while greatly reducing the volume of wastes for disposal can produce only steam. This steam must be used on site or very nearby this limiting the potential locations for mass burn facilities. Such a gas, if produced from currently available supplies of MSW, can contribute 2 quads to the US energy supply. 3 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. NREL Evaluates Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs) and comparable conven- tional diesel vehicles operated by Miami- Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in Florida. Launched in March 2015, the study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of HHVs in refuse operation. The study was designed to help Miami- Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving

  1. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-02-29

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coals with refuse derived fuels were two-fold. First, the effects of different experimental parameters such as temperature, flow rates and reaction times on the formation of chlorinated organic compounds were studied using the tubular furnace as a reactor followed by GC/MS analysis. Secondly, the effect of fuel/air ratio on the flue gas composition and combustion efficiency were studied with the AFBC system.

  2. RESIDENTIAL NETWORK MEMBERS UNITE TO FORM GREEN BANK NETWORK | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy RESIDENTIAL NETWORK MEMBERS UNITE TO FORM GREEN BANK NETWORK RESIDENTIAL NETWORK MEMBERS UNITE TO FORM GREEN BANK NETWORK The NY Green Bank logo. Residential Network members Connecticut Green Bank and NY Green Bank, a division of Residential Network member New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, have helped launch the Green Bank Network, a new international organization focused on collaborating to scale up private financing to meet the challenge of climate change.

  3. Deposition Velocities of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Slurries in Pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poloski, Adam P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Abrefah, John; Casella, Andrew M.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Nigl, Franz; Minette, Michael J.; Toth, James J.; Tingey, Joel M.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-03-25

    The WTP pipe plugging issue, as stated by the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) Executive Summary, is as follows: Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging. A strategy was employed to perform critical-velocity tests on several physical simulants. Critical velocity is defined as the point where a stationary bed of particles deposits on the bottom of a straight horizontal pipe during slurry transport operations. Results from the critical velocity testing provide an indication of slurry stability as a function of fluid rheological properties and transport conditions. The experimental results are compared to the WTP design guide on slurry transport velocity in an effort to confirm minimum waste velocity and flushing velocity requirements as established by calculations and critical line velocity correlations in the design guide. The major findings of this testing is discussed below. Experimental results indicate that the use of the Oroskar and Turian (1980) correlation in the design guide is conservativeSlurry viscosity has a greater affect on particles with a large surface area to mass ratio. The increased viscous forces on these particles result in a decrease in predicted critical velocities from this traditional industry derived equations that focus on particles large than 100 ?m in size. Since the Hanford slurry particles generally have large surface area to mass ratios, the reliance on such equations in the Hall (2006) design guide is conservative. Additionally, the use of the 95% percentile particle size as an input to this equation is conservative. However, test results indicate that the use of an average particle density as an input to the equation is not conservative. Particle density has a large influence on the overall result returned by the correlation. Lastly, the viscosity correlation used in the WTP design guide has been shown to be inaccurate for Hanford waste feed materials. The use of the Thomas (1979) correlation in the design guide is not conservativeIn cases where 100% of the particles are smaller than 74 ?m or particles are considered to be homogeneous due to yield stress forces suspending the particles the homogeneous fraction of the slurry can be set to 100%. In such cases, the predicted critical velocity based on the conservative Oroskar and Turian (1980) correlation is reduced to zero and the design guide returns a value from the Thomas (1979) correlation. The measured data in this report show that the Thomas (1979) correlation predictions often fall below that measured experimental values. A non-Newtonian deposition velocity design guide should be developed for the WTP Since the WTP design guide is limited to Newtonian fluids and the WTP expects to process large quantities of such materials, the existing design guide should be modified address such systems. A central experimental finding of this testing is that the flow velocity required to reach turbulent flow increases with slurry rheological properties due to viscous forces dampening the formation of turbulent eddies. The flow becomes dominated by viscous forces rather than turbulent eddies. Since the turbulent eddies necessary for particle transport are not present, the particles will settle when crossing this boundary called the transitional deposition boundary. This deposition mechanism should be expected and designed for in the WTP.

  4. Slurry-Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Semelsberger, Troy; Simmons, Kevin L.; Van Hassel, Bart A.

    2014-05-30

    In this paper, the system designs for hydrogen storage using chemical hydrogen materials in an 80 kWe fuel cell, light-duty vehicle are described. Ammonia borane and alane are used for these designs to represent the general classes of exothermic and endothermic materials. The designs are then compared to the USDRIVE/DOE developed set of system level targets for on-board storage. While most of the DOE targets are predicted to be achieved based on the modeling, the system gravimetric and volumetric densities were more challenging and became the focus of this work. The resulting system evaluation determined that the slurry is majority of the system mass. Only modest reductions in the system mass can be expected with improvements in the balance of plant components. Most of the gravimetric improvements will require developing materials with higher inherent storage capacity or by increasing the solids loading of the chemical hydrogen storage material in the slurry.

  5. Process for coal liquefaction by separation of entrained gases from slurry exiting staged dissolvers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N.; Ying, David H. S.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a solvent, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals are separated from the condensed dissolver effluent. In accordance with the improved process, fresh hydrogen is fed to each dissolver and the entrained gas from each dissolver is separated from the slurry phase and removed from the reactor system before the condensed phase is passed to the next dissolver in the series. In accordance with another process, the feeds to the dissolvers are such that the top of each downstream dissolver is used as a gas-liquid separator.

  6. PNC Bank Equipment Finance and Energy Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: PNC Bank - Equipment Finance and Energy Group Place: Valencia, California Zip: 91355 Product: Energy and Equipment Finance arm of PNC Bank...

  7. India-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name India-World Bank Climate Projects AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Topics Background analysis...

  8. Philippines-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philippines-World Bank Climate Projects AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency, Geothermal Topics Background...

  9. World Bank-Climate Change Knowledge Portal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change Knowledge Portal Jump to: navigation, search Logo: World Bank-Climate Change Knowledge Portal Name World Bank-Climate Change Knowledge Portal AgencyCompany...

  10. Global Climate Change: Risk to Bank Loans | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Risk to Bank Loans Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Climate Change: Risk to Bank Loans AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations...

  11. Colorado State Bank and Trust | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bank and Trust Jump to: navigation, search Name: Colorado State Bank and Trust Place: Denver, Colorado Zip: 80202 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Leasing and lending for...

  12. LNJ Bhilwara Group Glitnir Bank JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Glitnir Bank JV Place: Noida, India Zip: 201 301 Sector: Geothermal energy Product: Joint venture established by LNJ Bhilwara Group and Glitnir Bank, for the development of...

  13. RESIDENTIAL NETWORK MEMBERS UNITE TO FORM GREEN BANK NETWORK...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Network members Connecticut Green Bank and NY Green Bank, a division of Residential Network member New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, have helped ...

  14. Georgia-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Projects Jump to: navigation, search Name Georgia-World Bank Climate Projects AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Focus Area Renewable Energy, Hydro Topics Background analysis...

  15. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1981-01-01

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  16. Electrical Energy Storage Using Carbon Slurries | U.S. DOE Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science (SC) Electrical Energy Storage Using Carbon Slurries Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 05.01.12 Electrical Energy Storage

  17. Processes and catalysts for conducting fischer-tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    1999-01-01

    Processes and catalysts for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR). One aspect of the invention involves the use of cobalt catalysts without noble metal promotion in an SBCR. Another aspect involves using palladium promoted cobalt catalysts in an SBCR. Methods for preparing noble metal promoted catalysts via totally aqueous impregnation and procedures for producing attrition resistant catalysts are also provided.

  18. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, T.L.

    1994-06-28

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE[sub 10] rectangular mode to TE[sub 01] circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power. 4 figures.

  19. Processes and catalysts for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, A.H.; Oukaci, R.; Goodwin, J.G.

    1999-08-17

    Processes and catalysts are disclosed for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR). One aspect of the invention involves the use of cobalt catalysts without noble metal promotion in an SBCR. Another aspect involves using palladium promoted cobalt catalysts in an SBCR. Methods for preparing noble metal promoted catalysts via totally aqueous impregnation and procedures for producing attrition resistant catalysts are also provided. 1 fig.

  20. Thermal conductivities of Wilsonville solvent and Wilsonville solvent/Illinois No. 6 coal slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrochek, J.E.; Wilson, J.H.; Johnson, J.K.

    1985-12-01

    This report describes instrumentation and techniques that, when used in conjunction with a unique bench-scale flow system for coal liquids, enabled thermal conductivity measurements of fresh, slurried coal-solvent mixtures under more or less dynamic flow conditions. The transient hot-wire technique was selected as the method of choice, and a high-temperature, high-pressure cell, rated for temperatures to 850 K and pressures to 30 MPa (4366 psig), was fabricated from type 347 stainless steel. The cell, constructed of two identical manifolds joined by a length of pipe (34.9-mm OD x 19.7-mm ID), contained a platinum hot wire gauge (40 SWG, 0.076-mm diam) approx.29 cm in length. The measurement system consisted of a commercially available, precision dc current source (programmable and capable of current output to 164 mA) and a custom-built, switching/voltage amplification network with a digital oscilloscope for data acquisition. Measurements of the voltage drop across the hot-wire gauge (4096 data points) were transferred to a minicomputer for analysis and long-term storage. Thermal conductivities were measured on a Wilsonville solvent and a slurry prepared from this solvent and Illinois No. 6 coal over a temperature range of 295 to 505 K. Thermal conductivities for both the solvent and the slurry decreased with increasing temperatures, similar to the trend showed by toluene. The solvent decreased from 1.23 to 1.02 mW cm/sup -1/ K/sup -1/ over the temperature range 296 to 438 K, while the slurry decreased from 1.51 to 1.02 mW cm/sup -1/ K/sup -1/ over the range 295 to 505 K. 20 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Coal water slurries. (Latest citations from the Patent bibliographic database with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the mixing of coal with water to achieve a fuel mixture, or a medium for the transporting or processing of coal. Apparatus, preparation methods, and a variety of processes regarding the utilization of coal-water slurries are presented. Applications include synthetic gas production and coal beneficiation operations. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Experimental investigation of ice slurry flow pressure drop in horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grozdek, Marino; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah; Lundqvist, Per [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Brinellvaegen 68, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    Pressure drop behaviour of ice slurry based on ethanol-water mixture in circular horizontal tubes has been experimentally investigated. The secondary fluid was prepared by mixing ethyl alcohol and water to obtain initial alcohol concentration of 10.3% (initial freezing temperature -4.4 C). The pressure drop tests were conducted to cover laminar and slightly turbulent flow with ice mass fraction varying from 0% to 30% depending on test conditions. Results from flow tests reveal much higher pressure drop for higher ice concentrations and higher velocities in comparison to the single phase flow. However for ice concentrations of 15% and higher, certain velocity exists at which ice slurry pressure drop is same or even lower than for single phase flow. It seems that higher ice concentration delay flow pattern transition moment (from laminar to turbulent) toward higher velocities. In addition experimental results for pressure drop were compared to the analytical results, based on Poiseulle and Buckingham-Reiner models for laminar flow, Blasius, Darby and Melson, Dodge and Metzner, Steffe and Tomita for turbulent region and general correlation of Kitanovski which is valid for both flow regimes. For laminar flow and low buoyancy numbers Buckingham-Reiner method gives good agreement with experimental results while for turbulent flow best fit is provided with Dodge-Metzner and Tomita methods. Furthermore, for transport purposes it has been shown that ice mass fraction of 20% offers best ratio of ice slurry transport capability and required pumping power. (author)

  3. Erosion Evaluation of a Slurry Mixer Tank with Computational Fluid Dynamics Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S

    2006-03-22

    This paper discusses the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to understand and characterize erosion of the floor and internal structures in the slurry mixing vessels in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. An initial literature survey helped identify the principal drivers of erosion for a solids laden fluid: the solids content of the working fluid, the regions of recirculation and particle impact with the walls, and the regions of high wall shear. A series of CFD analyses was performed to characterize slurry-flow profiles, wall shear, and particle impingement distributions in key components such as coil restraints and the vessel floor. The calculations showed that the primary locations of high erosion resulting from abrasion were at the leading edge of the coil guide, the tank floor below the insert plate of the coil guide support, and the upstream lead-in plate. These modeling results based on the calculated high shear regions were in excellent agreement with the observed erosion sites in both location and the degree of erosion. Loss of the leading edge of the coil guide due to the erosion damage during the slurry mixing operation did not affect the erosion patterns on the tank floor. Calculations for a lower impeller speed showed similar erosion patterns but significantly reduced wall shear stresses.

  4. Correlations to predict frictional pressure loss of hydraulic-fracturing slurry in coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, S.; Zhoi, Y.X.; Bailey, M.; Hernandez, J.

    2009-08-15

    Compared with conventional-tubing fracturing, coiled-tubing (CT) fracturing has several advantages. CT fracturing has become an effective stimulation technique for multizone oil and gas wells. It is also an attractive production-enhancement method for multiseam coalbed-methane wells, and wells with bypassed zones. The excessive frictional pressure loss through CT has been a concern in fracturing. The small diameter of the string limits the cross-sectional area open to flow. Furthermore, the tubing curvature causes secondary flow and results in extra flow resistance. This increased frictional pressure loss results in high surface pumping pressure. The maximum possible pump rate and sand concentration, therefore, have to be reduced. To design a CT fracturing job properly, it is essential to predict the frictional pressure loss through the tubing accurately. This paper presents correlations for the prediction of frictional pressure loss of fracturing slurries in straight tubing and CT. They are developed on the basis of full-scale slurry-flow tests with 11/2-in. CT and slurries prepared with 35 lbm/1,000 gal of guar gel. The extensive experiments were conducted at the full-scale CT-flow test facility. The proposed correlations have been verified with the experimental data and actual field CT-fracturing data. Case studies of wells recently fractured are provided to demonstrate the application of the correlations. The correlations will be useful to the CT engineers in their hydraulics design calculations.

  5. Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to characterize coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors. Since the combustion event is a strong function of the fuel spray, full characterization of the spray is a necessity for successful engine design and for modeling of the combustion process. Two experimental facilities were used at TAMU to study the injection of coal slurry fuels. The first experimental facility incorporates General Electric locomotive engine components (injection pump, fuel line, and nozzle) and a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the moving parts of the pump. The second experimental facility is based on an accumulator injector from General Electric. Instrumentation includes instantaneous needle lift and fuel line pressure. A pressurized visualization chamber was used to provide a spray environment which simulated the engine gas density and permitted the use of spray diagnostic techniques. The study was divided into two phases: (1) overall characterization of the spray, and (2) detailed droplet size and size distribution characterization. In addition to this overall characterization of the spray, the second phase of this study characterized the details of the atomization quality.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX MISCIBLE AND IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.

    2011-06-15

    Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). At present, Tank 50H contains two standard slurry pumps and two Quad Volute slurry pumps. Current requirements and mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste would like to move one or both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that are failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to blend miscible and immiscible liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Salt Disposition Integration Project (SDIP) and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters needed to blend the tank contents. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will be able to blend miscible liquids (i.e., salt solution) in Tank 50H within 4.4 hours. (2) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 3.1 hours. (3) Three rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 2.5 hours. (4) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets that are less than or equal to 15 micron in diameter. If the droplets are less than 15 micron, they will be dispersed within 4.4 hours. Isopar L{reg_sign} provides a lower bound on the maximum size of droplets that will be dispersed by the slurry pumps in Tank 50H. (5) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets less than 15 micron within 3.1 hours, and three rotating standard slurry pumps will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets less than 15 micron within 2.5 hours. (6) If the Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets are drawn through the pump, they will be further reduced in size, with a maximum drop size less than 15 micron.

  7. Employees give to local food bank

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Employees in DOE's Oak Ridge Office of EM donated 3,209 pounds of food to the Second Harvest Food Bank of East Tennessee. The donation was part of the national Feds Feed Families campaign.

  8. The DOE/DOD Environmental Data Bank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C de Baca, J.E.

    1996-07-01

    The DOE/DOD Environmental Data Bank was established in 1959 as a central location for storing weapons and equipment environments information from a variety of DOE, DOD, and industrial sources and continues to be maintained by Sandia National Laboratories. The Environmental Data Bank contains approximately 2,900 documents regarding normal and abnormal environments that describe the handling, storage, transportation, use, and general phases, which occur during the life of a weapon system. The Environmental Data Bank contains a vast assortment of resources that document crash, fire, and chemical environments resulting from aircraft, rail, ship, and truck accidents, as well as crash and thermal tests conducted on shipping containers. Also included are studies on the hazards of exposure to liquid natural gas fireballs, chemical fireballs, and hydrogen fireballs. This paper describes the DOE/DOD Environmental Data Bank system, its structure, data sources, and usage, with particular emphasis on its use for safety assessments at Sandia National Laboratories.

  9. Coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically controlled accumulator fuel injection system: Break-up distances and times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions (50% (by man) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}), the break-up time was 0.30 ms. An empirical correlation for spray tip penetration, break-up time and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  10. Assessment of the percent status of burning refuse-derived fuel as a fuel supplement in the cement kiln industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of the project was to solicit information on the use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in cement kilns by survey, follow up the mailed survey with telephone calls to the recipients, and assemble collected information into a report. A list of companies that had some experience with RFD was compiled and is presented in Appendix A. The procedure for conducting the survey is explained. A copy of the questionnaire is presented in Appendix B. The letters of response are reproduced in Appendix C. Two completed forms were received and clear conclusions are summarized. The effort was terminated and no final report was assembled.

  11. Combustion characterization of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Lu, Huagang; Hyatt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The fundamental thermal behavior of five materials (Illinois coal No. 6, Kentucky coal No. 9, polyvinyl chloride, cellulose, newspaper) has been investigated using the TGA/FTIR/MS system under the condition of combustion. The system was used to identify molecular chlorine, along with HCI, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and various hydrocarbons in the gaseous products of the combustion of PVC resin in air. This is a significant finding that will lead us to examine this combustion step further to look for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds during co-firing of coal with refuse derived fuels.

  12. Coal-firing sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report {number_sign}7, [April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping, Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-05-31

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the organic compounds tentatively identified as combustion products in the previous report were confirmed by comparing retention times with pure samples. Secondly, a reduced amount of unburned carbon in the fly ash and an oxygen concentration at about 3--6% in the flue gases were achieved by the addition of removable heat exchange tubes in the AFBC system.

  13. Refuse-derived fuels in US Air Force heating and power systems. Final report, June 1982-February 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joensen, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to document and review all data associated with densified refuse-derived fuel (dRDF)--its preparation and properties, storage and handling, boiler cofiring efficiency and environmental emissions, potential boiler metal wastage, and any other experiences associated with the use of this fuel. The results of this investigation provide the basis for the development of an optimum dRDF fuel specification. These results identify performance characteristics and operating problems of the existing dRDF fuel pellet and contain an economic feasibility assessment of using this fuel.

  14. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors. Seventh technical progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidaspow, D.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this investigation is to convert our ``learning gas solid-liquid`` fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid and particulate phase. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. A hydrodynamic model for multiphase flows, based on the principles of mass, momentum and energy conservation for each phase, was developed and applied to model gas-liquid, gas-liquid-solid fluidization and gas-solid-solid separation. To simulate the industrial slurry bubble column reactors, a computer program based on the hydrodynamic model was written with modules for chemical reactions (e.g. the synthesis of methanol), phase changes and heat exchangers. In the simulations of gas-liquid two phases flow system, the gas hold-ups, computed with a variety of operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas and liquid velocities, agree well with the measurements obtained at Air Products` pilot plant. The hydrodynamic model has more flexible features than the previous empirical correlations in predicting the gas hold-up of gas-liquid two-phase flow systems. In the simulations of gas-liquid-solid bubble column reactors with and without slurry circulation, the code computes volume fractions, temperatures and velocity distributions for the gas, the liquid and the solid phases, as well as concentration distributions for the species (CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}0H, ... ), after startup from a certain initial state. A kinetic theory approach is used to compute a solid viscosity due to particle collisions. Solid motion and gas-liquid-solid mixing are observed on a color PCSHOW movie made from computed time series data. The steady state and time average catalyst concentration profiles, the slurry height and the rates of methanol production agree well with the measurements obtained at an Air Products` pilot plant.

  15. Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

    2012-06-29

    Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

  16. Vibration mills in the manufacturing technology of slurry fuel from unbeneficiated coal sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.G. Gorlov; A.I. Seregin; G.S. Khodakov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russia)

    2008-08-15

    Coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) is economically viable provided that its ash content does not exceed 30% and the amount water in the fuel is at most 45%. Two impoundments were revealed that have considerable reserves of waste coal useful for commercial manufacture of CWSF without the beneficiation step. One of the CWSF manufacture steps is the comminution of coal sludge to have a particle size required by the combustion conditions. Vibration mills, which are more compact and energy-intensive that drum mills, can be used in the CWSG manufacture process. The rheological characteristics of CWSF obtained from unbeneficiated waste coal were determined.

  17. Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1980-01-01

    In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

  18. Results of Scoping Studies for Determining Radiolytic Hydrogen Production from Moist CST and CST Slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1998-12-11

    In support of the Salt Disposition team, scoping studies have been performed on the radiolysis of moist and aqueous slurries of Crystalline Silicotitanate(CST). If CST is used for removal of Cs-137 from SRS salt solutions, radiolysis of the water by Cs-137 on the CST will produce H2. Also it has been shown that the presence of a solid in the system can enhance the production of H2 by transferring absorbed energy from the solid to the water (1). As indicated in the test plan (2) for this scoping study, it is the intent of this study to determine if CST enhances the radiolytic production of H2 and to estimate the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate from an aqueous CST slurry in a column at the maximum expected Cs-137 loading on the CST.Initially several CST slurry systems were irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays and the radiolytic yield of H2 measured in terms of its G value (molecules of H2 produced per 100 eV of energy absorbed). Based on the results of these tests it was determined that CST did not enhance the radiolytic production of H2 by transferring energy to the water and causing it to decompose.Calculations were then performed to estimate the rate of H2 production from a process column 16ft. long by 5ft. in diameter containing CST that was fully loaded with Cs-137. The maximum rate of H2 production based on the G values measured in this study was one liter per minute at STP (0.04 cfm). This was for a 63 percent water/CST slurry with a G value of 0.2 molecules/100eV for H2 production and a loading of 1 gram of Cs-137 per 100 grams of resin. The present work also indicates that for a column containing salt solution and CST rather than water and CST, the rate would be 4X lower. This lower value is much more realistic.

  19. Entrained-flow dry-bottom gasification of high-ash coals in coal-water slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.G. Gorlov; V.G. Andrienko; K.B. Nefedov; S.V. Lutsenko; B.K. Nefedov

    2009-04-15

    It was shown that the effective use of dry ash removal during entrained-flow gasification of coal-water slurries consists in simplification of the ash storage system and utilization of coal ash, a decrease in the coal demand, a reduction in the atmospheric emissions of noxious substances and particulate matter, and abandonment of the discharge of water used for ash slurry. According to the results of gasification of coal-water slurries (5-10 {mu}m) in a pilot oxygen-blow unit at a carbon conversion of >91%, synthesis gas containing 28.5% CO, 32.5% H{sub 2}, 8.2% CO{sub 2}, 1.5% CH{sub 4}, the rest being nitrogen, was obtained. The fly ash in its chemical composition, particle size, and density meets the requirements of the European standard EN 450 as a cement additive for concrete manufacture.

  20. Co-firing coal-water slurry in low-NOx burners: Experience at Penelec`s

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Seward Station (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Co-firing coal-water slurry in low-NOx burners: Experience at Penelec`s Seward Station Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Co-firing coal-water slurry in low-NOx burners: Experience at Penelec`s Seward Station The electric utility industry is facing significant challenges for meeting environmental regulations for its coal fired generation units, and at the same time must stay cost competitive in an industry that is being

  1. Co-firing coal-water slurry in low-NOx burners: Experience at Penelec`s

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Seward Station (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Co-firing coal-water slurry in low-NOx burners: Experience at Penelec`s Seward Station Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Co-firing coal-water slurry in low-NOx burners: Experience at Penelec`s Seward Station The electric utility industry is facing significant challenges for meeting environmental regulations for its coal fired generation units, and at the same time must stay cost competitive in an industry that is

  2. Development and Validation of a Slurry Model for Chemical Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Pires, Richard P.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2014-07-25

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) is developing models for hydrogen storage systems for fuel cell-based light duty vehicle applications for a variety of promising materials. These transient models simulate the performance of the storage system for comparison to the DOE’s Technical Targets and a set of four drive cycles. The purpose of this research is to describe the models developed for slurry-based chemical hydrogen storage materials. The storage systems of both a representative exothermic system based on ammonia borane and endothermic system based on alane were developed and modeled in Simulink®. Once complete the reactor and radiator components of the model were validated with experimental data. The model was then run using a highway cycle, an aggressive cycle, cold-start cycle and hot drive cycle. The system design was adjusted to meet these drive cycles. A sensitivity analysis was then performed to identify the range of material properties where these DOE targets and drive cycles could be met. Materials with a heat of reaction greater than 11 kJ/mol H2 generated and a slurry hydrogen capacity of greater than 11.4% will meet the on-board efficiency and gravimetric capacity targets, respectively.

  3. Thickening of ultrafine coal-water slurries in a solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinkerton, A.P.; Klima, M.S.; Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.

    1999-07-01

    As part of a study being conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) to evaluate ultrafine coal dewatering technologies, testing was carried out to investigate the use of a solid-bowl (high-g) centrifuge for thickening ultrafine coalwater slurries. The objective of this study was to increase the solids concentration to a level suitable for use as a coal-water slurry fuel, while maximizing overall solids recovery. Feed material was collected from the combined discharge (centrate) streams from several screen-bowl centrifuges. These devices are currently being used in a commercial coal cleaning facility to dewater the clean coal product from a froth flotation circuit. Current plant practice is to discharge the centrate to settling ponds. The screen bowl centrate averages 5% solids by weight and contains nearly 60% material finer than 10 {mu}m. The current study examined the effects of operating conditions on centrifuge performance. The test conditions included centrifuge bowl and scroll speeds and volumetric feed rate. In addition to thickening, some cleaning was also achieved, because the finest particles (e.g. < 3 {micro}m), which contained a large percentage of liberated clays, were removed with the bulk of the water. The centrifuge products were analyzed for solids concentration, particle size distribution, and ash content. Size selectivity curves were also used to evaluate centrifuge performance.

  4. Additive development for ultra-clean coal slurry fuel: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Swanson, W.W.

    1988-05-24

    AMAX performed research to develop improved quality, cost-effective dispersing additives for coal-water slurry fuels intended for high-intensity combustion systems. Dispersants were identified on the basis of coal surface characteristics and coal-dispersant interactions. Micronized samples of physically and chemically cleaned coal feedstocks from the Eastern and Midwestern regions of the United States were examined using bulk and surface analysis techniques. Utilization of coal surface and dispersant functionality was optimized through multicomponent application of additives, pH control, and control of surface oxidation. A low-cost, low-alkali, sulfur-free dextrin compound was found to be effective in enhancing dispersion when applied to the coal surfaces as a pretreatment or with conventional dispersants as a co-additive. The cleaning method and ash content had minimal direct impact on coal surface functionality. Parameters such as internal moisture, particle size, surface area, surface oxidation, and soluble ions were the primary considerations which influenced slurry loading and additive consumption. The dispersing additive packages functioned over the range of coal types and cleaning levels investigated. The preferred additives were compatible with each other, allowing for blending to optimize performance, cost, and alkali contamination. Each additive was found to be suitable for use in applications which utilize elevated-temperature fuel delivery systems. 17 refs., 8 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS (SBCR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.H. Al-Dahhan; M.P. Dudukovic; L.S. Fan

    2001-07-25

    This report summarizes the accomplishment made during the second year of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Air Products and Chemicals. The technical difficulties that were encountered in implementing Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) in high pressure SBCR have been successfully resolved. New strategies for data acquisition and calibration procedure have been implemented. These have been performed as a part of other projects supported by Industrial Consortium and DOE via contract DE-2295PC95051 which are executed in parallel with this grant. CARPT and Computed Tomography (CT) experiments have been performed using air-water-glass beads in 6 inch high pressure stainless steel slurry bubble column reactor at selected conditions. Data processing of this work is in progress. The overall gas holdup and the hydrodynamic parameters are measured by Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) in 2 inch slurry bubble column using Norpar 15 that mimic at room temperature the Fischer Tropsch wax at FT reaction conditions of high pressure and temperature. To improve the design and scale-up of bubble column, new correlations have been developed to predict the radial gas holdup and the time averaged axial liquid recirculation velocity profiles in bubble columns.

  6. Mixing behavior of a model cellulosic biomass slurry during settling and resuspension

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crawford, Nathan C.; Sprague, Michael A.; Stickel, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-29

    Thorough mixing during biochemical deconstruction of biomass is crucial for achieving maximum process yields and economic success. However, due to the complex morphology and surface chemistry of biomass particles, biomass mixing is challenging and currently it is not well understood. This study investigates the bulk rheology of negatively buoyant, non-Brownian α-cellulose particles during settling and resuspension. The torque signal of a vane mixer across two distinct experimental setups (vane-in-cup and vane-in-beaker) was used to understand how mixing conditions affect the distribution of biomass particles. During experimentation, a bifurcated torque response as a function of vane speed was observed, indicating thatmore » the slurry transitions from a “settling-dominant” regime to a “suspension-dominant” regime. The torque response of well-characterized fluids (i.e., DI water) were then used to empirically identify when sufficient mixing turbulence was established in each experimental setup. The predicted critical mixing speeds were in agreement with measured values, suggesting that secondary flows are required in order to keep the cellulose particles fully suspended. In addition, a simple scaling relationship was developed to model the entire torque signal of the slurry throughout settling and resuspension. Furthermore, qualitative and semi-quantitative agreement between the model and experimental results was observed.« less

  7. Slurry phase synthesis of dimethyl ether from syngas -- A reactor model simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizuguchi, Masatsugu; Ogawa, Takashi; Ono, Masami,; Tomura, Keiji; Shikada, Tsutomu; Ohno, Yotaro; Fujimoto, Kaoru

    1998-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME) would be an attractive alternative fuel for diesel, domestic use, and power generation, if it is economically synthesized directly from syngas (derived from coal gasification or natural gas reforming). DME, which is a colorless gas with a boiling point of {minus}25 C, is chemically stable and easily liquefied under pressure. Since the properties of DME are similar to LPG, it can be handled and stored with the same manner as LPG. The authors have performed the slurry phase DME synthesis by using the 50 kg/day bench-scale unit. DME was synthesized at high yield from syngas (H{sub 2}+CO) with the newly developed catalyst system. To establish the scale-up methodology, the reactor simulation technique is essential. The authors developed a mathematical model of the slurry phase bubble column reactor for DME synthesis, which is based on their experimental results. The performance of a commercial-scale DME reactor was simulated by this model, and the results were discussed.

  8. Coal transportation: a comparative spatial analysis between unit train and slurry pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soltanmohammadi-Sarab, M.

    1986-01-01

    After the 1973 Arab oil embargo and a drastic price rise in crude oil, the demand for coal and, subsequently, the price of coal rose to a new high, thus encouraging further production of coal. The increase in production occurred in most of the coal fields except those in some specific areas, such as West Virginia. Preliminary studies indicate that the high transportation cost of coal contributes to this slacking coal-production pattern. Three related objectives are studied in this dissertation: (a) finding the least-cost mode of coal transportation; (b) determining the new pattern of trade under the chosen mode of coal transportation; and (c) conducting a comparative static analysis of the coal market in the US. Engineering models are used to calculate the average costs of transportation. These models are adjusted for the appropriate economic applications. The mainland US is divided into five regions and the demand and supply of coal in each region is estimated. The estimated cost of coal transportation for both the slurry pipeline and the unit train reveals that the slurry is the lower cost mode of coal transportation for any given distance or amount of coal handled by the system.

  9. SUCCESSES AND EMERGING ISSUES IN SIMULATING THE PROCESSING BEHAVIOR OF LIQUID-PARTICLE NUCLEAR WASTE SLURRIES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 205E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Slurries of inorganic solids, containing both stable and radioactive elements, were produced during the cold war as by-products of the production of plutonium and enriched uranium and stored in large tanks at the Savannah River Site. Some of this high level waste is being processed into a stable glass waste form today. Waste processing involves various large scale operations such as tank mixing, inter-tank transfers, washing, gravity settling and decanting, chemical adjustment, and vitrification. The rheological properties of waste slurries are of particular interest. Methods for modeling flow curve data and predicting the properties of slurry blends are particularly important during certain operational phases. Several methods have been evaluated to predict the rheological properties of sludge slurry blends from the data on the individual slurries. These have been relatively successful.

  10. Deposition Velocities of Non-Newtonian Slurries in Pipelines: Complex Simulant Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poloski, Adam P.; Bonebrake, Michael L.; Casella, Andrew M.; Johnson, Michael D.; Toth, James J.; Adkins, Harold E.; Chun, Jaehun; Denslow, Kayte M.; Luna, Maria; Tingey, Joel M.

    2009-07-01

    One of the concerns expressed by the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) is about the potential for pipe plugging at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Per the reviews executive summary, Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging. To evaluate the potential for plugging, deposition-velocity tests were performed on several physical simulants to determine whether the design approach is conservative. Deposition velocity is defined as the velocity below which particles begin to deposit to form a moving bed of particles on the bottom of a straight horizontal pipe during slurry-transport operations. The deposition velocity depends on the system geometry and the physical properties of the particles and fluid. An experimental program was implemented to test the stability-map concepts presented in WTP-RPT-175 Rev. 01. Two types of simulant were tested. The first type of simulant was similar to the glass-bead simulants discussed in WTP-RPT-175 Rev. 0 ; it consists of glass beads with a nominal particle size of 150 m in a kaolin/water slurry. The initial simulant was prepared at a target yield stress of approximately 30 Pa. The yield stress was then reduced, stepwise, via dilution or rheological modifiers, ultimately to a level of <1 Pa. At each yield-stress step, deposition-velocity testing was performed. Testing over this range of yield-stress bounds the expected rheological operating window of the WTP and allows the results to be compared to stability-map predictions for this system. The second simulant was a precipitated hydroxide that simulates HLW pretreated sludge from Hanford waste tank AZ-101. Testing was performed in a manner similar to that for the first simulant over a wide range of yield stresses; however, an additional test of net-positive suction-head required (NPSHR) was performed at each yield stress condition. Unlike the previous simulant, the sizes and densities of the particles that can deposit in the piping are a result of the simulant precipitation process; there is expected to be a complex mixture of particles of various sizes and densities that make it difficult to predict a stability map. The objective of the testing is to observe whether behavior consistent with the stability-map concept occurs in complex simulants with mixtures of different sizes and densities.

  11. PROGRESS TOWARDS MODELING OF FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gandrik; Steven P. Antal

    2010-11-01

    The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The model includes heat generation due to the exothermic chemical reaction, as well as heat removal from a constant temperature heat exchanger. Results of the CMFD simulations (similar to those shown in Figure 1) will be presented.

  12. World Bank Good Practice Guidelines: Financial Analysis of Revenue...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Topics: Finance Resource Type: Guidemanual Website: siteresources.worldbank.orgINTRANETFINANCIALMGMTResourcesFMB-Notes...

  13. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on a brownfield site at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin. The site currently has a PV system in place and was assessed for further PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.1333/kWh and incentives offered by the State of Wisconsin and by the serving utility, Madison Gas and Electric. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  14. Methodology for modeling the devolatilization of refuse-derived fuel from thermogravimetric analysis of municipal solid waste components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritsky, K.J.; Miller, D.L.; Cernansky, N.P.

    1994-09-01

    A methodology was introduced for modeling the devolatilization characteristics of refuse-derived fuel (RFD) in terms of temperature-dependent weight loss. The basic premise of the methodology is that RDF is modeled as a combination of select municipal solid waste (MSW) components. Kinetic parameters are derived for each component from thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) data measured at a specific set of conditions. These experimentally derived parameters, along with user-derived parameters, are inputted to model equations for the purpose of calculating thermograms for the components. The component thermograms are summed to create a composite thermogram that is an estimate of the devolatilization for the as-modeled RFD. The methodology has several attractive features as a thermal analysis tool for waste fuels. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Performance analysis of cofiring densified refuse derived fuel in a military boiler. Final report Aug 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report provides an overview of existing densified refuse-derived fuel (dRDF) receiving, storage, handling and combustion equipment at Wright-Patterson Air Foce Base. DRDF is being burned as part of a long term alternative fuel evaluation program to develop design and procurement criteria for multiple fuel boilers. Recommendations are offered for specific equipment, procedural changes, and studies to improve the efficacy of the present configurations of dRDF as a fuel. A discussion of the fuel use criteria is presented. The options for continuing the present dRDF supply arrangement vs. the feasibility of local production of dRDF are presented. Research needs are summarized. A preemptive, integrated local synthetic solid fuel production facility and boiler performance test is recommended as a continuation of the program.

  16. Study of organic compounds evolved during the co-firing of coal and refuse derived fuel using TG/MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puroshothama, Shobha; Lu, R.; Yang, Xiaodong

    1996-10-01

    The evolution of organic compounds during the combustion of carbonaceous fuel coupled with solid waste disposal and limited landfill space has been a cause for concern. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuel seems an attractive alternative technique to tackle the dual problem of controlling SO{sub x} emissions as well as those of the chlorinated organic toxins. The TG serves to emulate the conditions of the fluidized bed combustor and the MS serves as the detector for evolved gases. This versatile combination is used to study the decomposition pathway as well as predict the conditions at which various compounds are formed and may serve as a means of reducing the formation of these chlorinated organic compounds.

  17. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 8, July 1996--August 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-08-31

    The objective of this study was to examine the possible formation of chlorinated organic compounds during the combustion of blends of refuse derived fuels (RDF) and coal under conditions similar to those of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. A series of experiments were conducted using a TGA interfaced to FTIR. Additional experiments using a tube furnace preheated to AFBC operating temperatures were also conducted. The combustion products were cryogenically trapped and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The chlorination of phenols and the condensation reactions of chlorophenols were investigated in this study. A possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds such as dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, by chlorination and condensation reactions involving phenols, was proposed.

  18. Banking on Solar: An Analysis of Banking Opportunities in the U.S. Distributed Photovoltaic Market

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Banking on Solar: An Analysis of Banking Opportunities in the U.S. Distributed Photovoltaic Market David Feldman and Travis Lowder National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-62605 November 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF MIXING AND TRANSFERRING SETTLING COHESIVE SLURRY SIMULANTS IN THE AY-102 TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, D.

    2011-08-04

    In support of Hanford's waste certification and delivery of tank waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked by the Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the effectiveness of mixing and transferring tank waste in a Double Shell Tank (DST) to the WTP Receipt Tank. The work discussed in this report (Phase III) address the impacts cohesive simulants have on mixing and batch transfer performance. The objective of the demonstrations performed in Phase III was to determine the impact that cohesive particle interactions in the simulants have on tank mixing using 1/22{sup nd} scale mixing system and batch transfer of seed particles. This testing is intended to provide supporting evidence to the assumption that Hanford Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) testing in water is conservative. The batch transfers were made by pumping the simulants from the Mixing Demonstration Tank (MDT) to six Receipt Tanks (RTs), and the consistency in the amount of seed particles in each batch was compared. Tests were conducted with non-Newtonian cohesive simulants with Bingham yield stress ranging from 0.3 Pa to 7 Pa. Kaolin clay and 100 {mu}m stainless steel seed particles were used for all the non-Newtonian simulants. To specifically determine the role of the yield stress on mixing and batch transfer, tests were conducted with a Newtonian mixture of glycerol and water with at viscosity of 6.2 cP that was selected to match the Bingham consistency (high shear rate viscosity) of the higher yield stress kaolin slurries. The water/glycerol mixtures used the same 100 {mu}m stainless steel seed particles. For the transfer demonstrations in Phase III, the mixer jet pumps were operated either at 10.0 gpm (28 ft/s nozzle velocity, U{sub o}D=0.63 ft{sup 2}/s) or 8.0 gpm (22.4 ft/s nozzle velocity, U{sub o}D=0.504 ft{sup 2}/s). All batch transfers from the MDT to the RTs were made at 0.58 gpm (MDT suction velocity 3.95 ft/s). The demonstrations that used simulants that ranged from 1.6 Pa to 7 Pa yield stress had the most successful batch transfer of solids to the RTs in terms of the total quantity of seed particles transferred. Testing suggest that when mixing water/seed particles and transferring, water provides the least desired batch transfer of solids based on the total quantity transferred. For the water tests, large dead zones of solids formed in the MDT and fewer solids get transferred to the RTs. For simulants with a yield stress of 0.3 Pa and below, the batch transfer behavior in terms of total transfer of seed particles was slightly higher than water test results. The testing did show somewhat more batch-to-batch variation in the transfer of seed particles with the slurries in comparison to water. A comparison of batch transfers with the kaolin slurries that had Bingham consistencies (viscosities) that wernearly the same as the Newtonian glycerol/water mixtures showed that the kaolin slurries with Bingham yield stresses of 1.6 and 7 Pa gave better batch transfer of seed particles based on the total quantities transferred. Overall, the batch transfer testing results show that testing with water is conservative, since using a simulant with a yield stress and/or elevated viscosity always resulted in a better total transfer of solids.

  20. Transport and Storage Properties of CST Slurries for the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, P.A.; Hewitt, J.D.; Hylton, T.D.; Kent, T.E.

    1999-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing tests to address issues related to the handling and storage of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) recycle treatment program. The DWPF recycle treatment program and the SRS Salt Disposition Alternatives program share many common concerns related to CST slurry transport. Therefore, the DWPF recycle treatment program scope was modified to better address the salt disposition concerns. These tests evaluated the physical and chemical compatibility of CST with the operating environments that could be experienced during treatment of the SRS high-level tank waste or DWPF recycle stream, and subsequent handling, storage, and transport of the CST.

  1. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jianyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-05-29

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  2. Coal-water-slurry autoignition in a high-speed Detroit diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwalb, J.A.; Ryan, T.W. III.; Kakwani, R.M.; Winsor, R.E.

    1994-10-01

    Autoignition of coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel in a two-stroke engine operating at 1900 RPM has been achieved. A Pump-Line-Nozzle (PLN) injection system, delivering 400mm{sup 3} injection of CWS, was installed in one modified cylinder of a Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 8V-149TI engine, while the other seven cylinders remained configured for diesel fuel. Coal Combustion was sustained by maintaining high gas and surface temperatures with a combination of hot residual gases, warm inlet air admission, ceramic insulated components and increased compression ratio. The coal-fueled cylinder generated 85kW indicated power (80 percent of rated power), and lower NO{sub x} levels with a combustion efficiency of 99.2 percent. 6 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Enhanced conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using a CNT-incorporated TiO{sub 2} slurry-based photoanode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Jiaoping; Chen, Zexiang Li, Jun; Wang, Yan Zhang, Jijun; Li, Hai; Xiang, Dong

    2015-02-15

    A new titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO{sub 2} photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared TiO{sub 2} photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO{sub 2} slurry-based DSSC was ∼63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO{sub 2} slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the TiO{sub 2} slurry was examined. More specifically, the effect of varying the concentration of the CNTs in this slurry on the performance of the resulting DSSCs was studied. The chemical state of the CNTs-incorporated TiO{sub 2} photoanode was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A high energy conversion efficiency of 6.23% was obtained at an optimum CNT concentration of ∼0.06 wt.%. The obtained efficiency corresponds to a 63% enhancement when compared with that obtained from a DSSC based on a commercial TiO{sub 2} slurry. The higher efficiency was attributed to the improvement in the collection and transport of excited electrons in the presence of the CNTs.

  4. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies. Commercial power plant tests blend of refuse-derived fuel and coal to generate electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    MSW can be converted to energy in two ways. One involves the direct burning of MSW to produce steam and electricity. The second converts MSW into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) by reducing the size of the MSW and separating metals, glass, and other inorganic materials. RDF can be densified or mixed with binders to form fuel pellets. As part of a program sponsored by DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory participated in a cooperative research and development agreement to examine combustion of binder-enhanced, densified refuse-derived fuel (b-d RDF) pellets with coal. Pelletized b-d RDF has been burned in coal combustors, but only in quantities of less than 3% in large utility systems. The DOE project involved the use of b-d RDF in quantities up to 20%. A major goal was to quantify the pollutants released during combustion and measure combustion performance.

  5. Design, operation, and performance of a modern air pollution control system for a refuse derived fuel combustion facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, E.H.; Azzinnari, C.

    1997-12-01

    The Robbins, Illinois refuse derived fuel combustion facility was recently placed into service. Large and new, the facility is designed to process 1600 tons of waste per day. Twenty-five percent of the waste, or 400 tons per day, is separated out in the fuel preparation process. The remaining 1200 tons per day is burned in two circulating fluidized bed boilers. The system is designed to meet new source performance standards for municipal waste combustion facilities, including total particulate, acid gases (HCl, SO{sub 2}, HF), heavy metals (including mercury), and dioxins. The system utilizes semi-dry scrubbers with lime and activated carbon injected through dual fluid atomizers for control of acid gases. Final polishing of acid gas emissions, particulate control, heavy metals removal, and control of dioxins is accomplished with pulse jet fabric filters. This paper discusses the design of the facility`s air pollution control system, including all auxiliary systems required to make it function properly. Also discussed is the actual operation and emissions performance of the system.

  6. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidised bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagland, S.T.; Kilgallon, P.; Coveney, R.; Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.

    2011-06-15

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidised bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal + 10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal + 10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

  7. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 5, [October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-30

    Studies involving the tubular furnace are in the process of identifying the ideal experimental coal-to-refuse derived fuel(RDF) ratio for use in the AFBC system. A series of experiments with this furnace has been performed to determine the possible chemical pathway for formation of chlorinated organic compounds during the combustion of various RDF sources. Phenol and chlorine appear to be likely reactants necessary for the formation of these compounds. The main goal of these experiment is to determine the exact experimental conditions for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds, as well as methods to inhibit their development. Work on the fluidized bed combustor has involved five combustion runs, in which a combustion efficiency of greater than 96% and with a consistent CO{sub 2} concentration of approximately 13% was obtained. Modifications responsible for these improvements include the addition of the underbed fuel feed system and revision of the flue gas sampling system. New methods of determining combustion efficiency and percentage of SO{sub 2} capture using TG techniques to analyze combustion products are being developed. The current outlook using this TGA/FTIR method is very promising, since previously obscured reactions are being studied. the analysis of combustion products is revealing a more complete picture of the combustion process within the AFBC system.

  8. Chemical and toxicological characterization of slurry reactor biotreatment of explosives-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Vass, A.A.; Ho, C.H.

    1998-08-01

    Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil in the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP) soil slurry bioreactor (SSBR) eliminated detectable TNT but left trace levels of residual monoamino and diamino metabolites under some reactor operating conditions. The reduction of solvent-extractable bacterial mutagenicity in the TNT-contaminated soil was substantial and was similar to that achieved by static pile composts at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA) field demonstration. Aquatic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia from TNT in the leachates of TNT-contaminated soil was eliminated in the leachates of JAAP SSBR product soil. The toxicity of soil product leachates to Ceriodaphnia dubia was reasonably predicted using the specific toxicities of the components detected, weighted by their leachate concentrations. In samples where TNT metabolites were observed in the soil product and its leachates, this method determined that the contribution to predicted toxicity values was dominated by trace amounts of the diamino-metabolites, which are very toxic to ceriodaphnia dubia. When the SSBR operating conditions reduced the concentrations of TNT metabolites in the product soils and their leachates to undetectable concentrations, the main contributors to predicted aquatic toxicity values appeared to be molasses residues, potassium, and bicarbonate. Potassium and bicarbonate are beneficial or benign to the environment, and molasses residues are substantially degraded in the environment. Exotoxins, pathogenic bacteria, inorganic particles, ammonia, and dissolved metals did not appear to be important to soil product toxicity.

  9. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

    1988-01-01

    A cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst (CO/MgO/silica) was reduced and slurried in combination with reduced Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]0[sub 3] water-gas-shift catalyst. Combined catalyst system was run at fixed process conditions for more than 400 hours. The system showed stable selectivity. The Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]0[sub 3] water-gas-shift catalyst remained reasonably active in the presence of the cobalt catalyst. Hydrocarbon selectivity of the cobalt and Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]0[sub 3] catalyst system compared favorably to selectivity of iron-based catalysts. Methane selectivity was slightly higher for the cobalt-based system, but C[sub 5][sup +] selectivity was essentially the same. The hydrocarbon product distribution appeared to exhibit a double-a behavior. a[sub 1] was near 0.80 which is higher than that of iron catalysts, while a[sub 2] was calculated to be 0.86 which is somewhat lower than would be typical for an iron-based catalyst.

  10. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  11. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1990-09-28

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program with the objective of demonstrating the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in industrial boilers designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in oil-designed industrial boilers without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of three phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, and (3) demonstration and evaluation. The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits. Progress is reported. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. EA-342-A Royal Bank of Canada | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -A Royal Bank of Canada EA-342-A Royal Bank of Canada Order authorizing Royal Bank of Canada to export electric energy to Canada. PDF icon EA-342-A RBC (CN).pdf More Documents & Publications EA-328-A RBC Energy Services LP Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-328-A RBC Energy Services LP EA-97-D Portland General Electric Company

  13. IADG Energy Bank Revolving Loan Program | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Authority and Iowa Area Development Group Website http:www.iadg.comservicesfinancial-assistanceiadg-energy-bank.aspx Funding Source American Recovery and...

  14. World Bank Climate Innovation Centers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    America and the Caribbean) for this property. References Climate Innovation Center Business Plans1 InfoDev2 World Bank Climate Innovation Centers Screenshot "The CIC works...

  15. Making Development Climate Resilient: A World Bank Strategy for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development Climate Resilient: A World Bank Strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Making Development Climate Resilient: A World...

  16. Red Bank, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Redirected from Red Bank, NJ) Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.3470543, -74.0643065 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":...

  17. Ex-Im Bank Environmental Export Finance Program | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Environmental Export Financing Webpage 1 "Ex-Im Bank's financing helps mitigate risk for U.S. environmental companies and also offers competitive financing terms to...

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX SOLIDS WITH LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.

    2011-11-11

    Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). In the summer of 2011, Tank 50H contained two standard slurry pumps and two quad volute slurry pumps. Current requirements for mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste moved both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that were failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to mix solids with liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange Process (SCIX), SRNL computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, Tank 50H operating experience, and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters of pumps needed to mix the solid particles with the liquid in Tank 50H. The analysis determined pump requirements to suspend the solids with no 'dead zones', but did not determine the pump requirements to produce a homogeneous suspension. In addition, the analysis determined the pump requirements to prevent the accumulation of a large amount of solid particles under the telescoping transfer pump. The conclusions from this analysis follow: (1) The analysis shows that three Quad Volute pumps should be able to suspend the solid particles expected ({approx}0.6 g/L insoluble solids, {approx}5 micron) in Tank 50H. (2) Three standard slurry pumps may not be able to suspend the solid particles in Tank 50H; (3) The ability of two Quad Volute pumps to fully suspend all of the solid particles in Tank 50H is marginal; and (4) One standard slurry pump should be able to achieve a cleaning radius larger than 43.5 feet, which will prevent large amounts of solid particles from settling under the telescoping transfer pump (TTP). The report recommends a pump operating approach to maximize the achieved cleaning radius.

  19. Demonstration of Mixing and Transferring Settling Cohesive Slurry Simulants in the AY-102 Tank - 12323

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2012-07-01

    In support of Hanford's feed delivery of high level waste (HLW) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), pilot-scale testing and demonstrations with simulants containing cohesive particles were performed as a joint collaboration between Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff. The objective of the demonstrations was to determine the impact that cohesive particle interactions in the simulants, and the resulting non- Newtonian rheology, have on tank mixing and batch transfer of large and dense seed particles. The work addressed the impacts cohesive simulants have on mixing and batch transfer performance in a pilot-scale system. Kaolin slurries with a range of wt% concentrations to vary the Bingham yield stress were used in all the non-Newtonian simulants. To study the effects of just increasing the liquid viscosity (no yield stress) on mixing and batch transfers, a glycerol/water mixture was used. Stainless steel 100 micron particles were used as seed particles due to their density and their contrasting color to the kaolin and glycerol. Testing results show that water always transfers less seed particles, and is conservative when compared to fluids with a higher yield stress and/or higher viscosity at the same mixing/transfer parameters. The impact of non-Newtonian fluid properties depends on the magnitude of the yield stress. A higher yield stress in the carrier fluid resulted in more seed particles being transferred to the RTs. A dimensional analysis highlighting the role of a yield stress (due to cohesive particle interactions) defined four regions of behavior and indicates how the results obtained in this study can be applied to the full-scale mixing behavior of a high level waste tank. The analysis indicates that the regions of behavior for full-scale mixing have been adequately represented by the current small-scale tests. (authors)

  20. EA-330 The Royal Bank of Scotland plc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Royal Bank of Scotland plc EA-330 The Royal Bank of Scotland plc Order authorizing The Royal Bank of Scotland plc to export electric energy to Canada PDF icon EA-330 The Royal ...

  1. EA-330-A The Royal Bank of Scotland plc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -A The Royal Bank of Scotland plc EA-330-A The Royal Bank of Scotland plc Order authorizing The Royal Bank of Scotland plc to export electric energy to Canada PDF icon EA-330-A The ...

  2. EA-331-A The Royal Bank of Scotland plc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA-331-A The Royal Bank of Scotland plc Order authorizing The Royal Bank of Scotland plc to export eelctric energy to Mexico PDF icon EA-331-A The Royal Bank of Scotland plc More ...

  3. EA-331 The Royal Bank of Scotland plc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA-331 The Royal Bank of Scotland plc Order authorizing The Royal Bank of Scotland plc to export electric energy to Mexico PDF icon EA-331 The Royal Bank of Scotland plc More ...

  4. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), `Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States`, the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD{sub 50} < 10 {mu}g/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants.

  5. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean C. Emerson; Timothy D. Davis; A. Peles; Ying She; Joshua Sheffel; Rhonda R. Willigan; Thomas H. Vanderspurt; Tianli Zhu

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood to hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide was repeatedly demonstrated in batch reactors varying in size from 50 mL to 7.6 L. The different wood sources (e.g., swamp maple, poplar, and commercial wood flour) were converted in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst and base at relatively low temperatures (e.g., 310 ???????°C) at sub-critical pressures sufficient to maintain the liquid phase. Both precious metal and base metal catalysts were found to be active for the liquid phase hydrolysis and reforming of wood. Pt-based catalysts, particularly Pt-Re, were shown to be more selective toward breaking C-C bonds, resulting in a higher selectivity to hydrogen versus methane. Ni-based catalysts were found to prefer breaking C-O bonds, favoring the production of methane. The project showed that increasing the concentration of base (base to wood ratio) in the presence of Raney Ni catalysts resulted in greater selectivity toward hydrogen but at the expense of increasing the production of undesirable organic acids from the wood, lowering the amount of wood converted to gas. It was shown that by modifying Ni-based catalysts with dopants, it was possible to reduce the base concentration while maintaining the selectivity toward hydrogen and increasing wood conversion to gas versus organic acids. The final stage of the project was the construction and testing of a demonstration unit for H2 production. This continuous flow demonstration unit consisted of wood slurry and potassium carbonate feed pump systems, two reactors for hydrolysis and reforming, and a gas-liquid separation system. The technical challenges associated with unreacted wood fines and Raney Ni catalyst retention limited the demonstration unit to using a fixed bed Raney Ni catalyst form. The lower activity of the larger particle Raney Ni in turn limited the residence time and thus the wood mass flow feed rate to 50 g min-1 for a 1 wt% wood slurry. The project demonstrated continuous H2 yields with unmodified, fixed bed Raney Ni, from 63% to 100% with correspond

  6. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture. Semi-annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhasin, A.K.; Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Ames, L.B.; Ronzio, N.J.

    1985-03-01

    The Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), has initiated a program to determine the feasibility and potential applications for direct firing of coal and coal-derived fuels in heat engines, specifically gas turbines and diesel engines. AMAX Extractive Research and Development, Inc. supplied METC with two lots of highly beneficiated coal slurry fuel for use in the Heat Engines programs. One of the lots was of ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (UCCSF) for which a two-stage caustic and acid leaching procedure was developed to chemically clean the coal. As a part of the contract, AMAX R and D developed a conceptual design and preliminary cost estimate for a commercial-scale process for UCCSF manufacture. The contract was extended to include the following objectives: define chemical cleaning and slurry preparation process conditions and costs more precisely; investigate methods to reduce the product cost; and determine the relationship, in dollars per million Btu, between product cost and fuel quality. Laboratory investigations have been carried out to define the chemical cleaning process conditions required to generate fuels containing from 0.17 to 1.0% ash. Capital and operating cost refinements are to be performed on the basis of the preferred process operating conditions identified during the laboratory investigations. Several such areas for cost reductions have been identified. Caustic strengths from 2 to 7% NaOH are currently anticipated while 25% NaOH was used as the basis for the preliminary cost estimate. In addition, leaching times for each of the process steps have been reduced to half or less of the times used for the preliminary cost estimate. Improvement of fuel quality has been achieved by use of a proprietary hot-water leaching step to reduce the residual alkali content to less than 250 ppM (Na/sub 2/O plus K/sub 2/O) on a dry coal basis. 2 refs., 3 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2000-01-01

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacting a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  8. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2003-05-27

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  9. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Jeffry

    2007-02-13

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  10. METHOD FOR THE PREPARATION OF STABLE ACTINIDE METAL OXIDE-CONTAINING SLURRIES AND OF THE OXIDES THEREFOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, R.S.; Minturn, R.E.

    1958-02-25

    This patent deals with a method of preparing actinide metal oxides of a very fine particle size and of forming stable suspensions therefrom. The process consists of dissolving the nitrate of the actinide element in a combustible organic solvent, converting the solution obtained into a spray, and igniting the spray whereby an oxide powder is obtained. The oxide powder is then slurried in an aqueous soiution of a substance which is adsorbable by said oxides, dspersed in a colloid mill whereby a suspension is obtained, and electrodialyzed until a low spectiic conductance is reached.

  11. Performance and economics of co-firing a coal/waste slurry in advanced fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.R.; Zaharchuk, R.; Reuther, R.B.; Bonk, D.L.

    1996-09-01

    This study`s objective was to investigate co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor with coal and refuse-derived fuel for the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of waste. Performance evaluation of the pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) power plant co-fired with refuse-derived fuel showed only slightly lower overall thermal efficiency than similar sized plants without waste co-firing. Capital costs and costs of electricity are within 4.2 percent and 3.2 percent, respectively, of waste-free operation. The results also indicate that there are no technology barriers to the co-firing of waste materials with coal in a PFBC power plant. The potential to produce cost-competitive electrical power and support environmentally acceptable waste disposal exists with this approach. However, as part of technology development, there remain several design and operational areas requiring data and verification before this concept can realize commercial acceptance. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction. [partial liquefaction of coal in slurry, filtration and gasification of residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longanbach, J.R.

    1981-11-13

    A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300 to 550/sup 0/C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400 to 500/sup 0/C for a limited time of only about 1 to 5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300/sup 0/C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.

  13. Examination Of Sulfur Measurements In DWPF Sludge Slurry And SRAT Product Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C. J.; Wiedenman, B. J.

    2012-11-29

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to re-sample the received SB7b WAPS material for wt. % solids, perform an aqua regia digestion and analyze the digested material by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), as well as re-examine the supernate by ICP-AES. The new analyses were requested in order to provide confidence that the initial analytical subsample was representative of the Tank 40 sample received and to replicate the S results obtained on the initial subsample collected. The ICP-AES analyses for S were examined with both axial and radial detection of the sulfur ICP-AES spectroscopic emission lines to ascertain if there was any significant difference in the reported results. The outcome of this second subsample of the Tank 40 WAPS material is the first subject of this report. After examination of the data from the new subsample of the SB7b WAPS material, a team of DWPF and SRNL staff looked for ways to address the question of whether there was in fact insoluble S that was not being accounted for by ion chromatography (IC) analysis. The question of how much S is reaching the melter was thought best addressed by examining a DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Product sample, but the significant dilution of sludge material, containing the S species in question, that results from frit addition was believed to add additional uncertainty to the S analysis of SME Product material. At the time of these discussions it was believed that all S present in a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt sample would be converted to sulfate during the course of the SRAT cycle. A SRAT Product sample would not have the S dilution effect resulting from frit addition, and hence, it was decided that a DWPF SRAT Product sample would be obtained and submitted to SRNL for digestion and sample preparation followed by a round-robin analysis of the prepared samples by the DWPF Laboratory, F/H Laboratories, and SRNL for S and sulfate. The results of this round-robin analytical study are the second subject of this report.

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF MIXING AND TRANSFERRING SETTLING COHESIVE SLURRY SIMULANTS IN THE AY-102 TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, D.; Gauglitz, P.

    2012-01-03

    In support of Hanford's feed delivery of high level waste (HLW) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), pilot-scale testing and demonstrations with simulants containing cohesive particles were performed as a joint collaboration between Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff. The objective of the demonstrations was to determine the impact that cohesive particle interactions in the simulants, and the resulting non-Newtonian rheology, have on tank mixing and batch transfer of large and dense seed particles. The work addressed the impacts cohesive simulants have on mixing and batch transfer performance in a pilot-scale system. Kaolin slurries with a range of wt% concentrations to vary the Bingham yield stress were used in all the non-Newtonian simulants. To study the effects of just increasing the liquid viscosity (no yield stress) on mixing and batch transfers, a glycerol/water mixture was used. Stainless steel 100 micron particles were used as seed particles due to their density and their contrasting color to the kaolin and glycerol. In support of Hanford's waste certification and delivery of tank waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the effectiveness of mixing and transferring tank waste in a Double Shell Tank (DST) to the WTP Receipt Tank. The work addresses the impacts cohesive simulants have on mixing and batch transfer performance. This work is follow-on to the previous tasks 'Demonstration of Mixer Jet Pump Rotational Sensitivity on Mixing and Transfers of the AY-102 Tank' and 'Demonstration of Simulated Waste Transfers from Tank AY-102 to the Hanford Waste Treatment Facility'. The cohesive simulants were investigated and selected jointly by SRNL and PNNL and a white paper was written on this evaluation. The testing and demonstrations of cohesive simulants was a joint effort performed as collaboration between SRNL and PNNL staff. The objective of the demonstrations was to determine the impact that cohesive particle interactions in the simulants have on tank mixing using the 1/22nd scale mixing system and batch transfer of seed particles. Seed particles are particles of contracting color added to mixing tank for visual inspection and an indicator of how well the contents of the tank are mixing. Also the seed particles serve as a measuring stick for how well the contents of the tank are transferred from the mixing tank during batch transfers. This testing is intended to provide supporting evidence to the assumption that Hanford Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) testing in water is conservative.

  15. Forensic DNA data banking by state crime labortaories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEwen, J.E.

    1995-06-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of the responsible crime laboratories in the first 19 states with legislation establishing forensic DNA data banks. The survey inquired into the labs` policies and procedures regarding the collection, storage, and analysis of samples; the retention of samples and data; search protocols; access to samples and data by third parties; and related matters. The research suggests that (1) the number of samples collected from convicted offenders for DNA data banking has far surpassed the number that have been analyzed; (2) data banks have already been used in a small but growing number of cases, to locate suspects and to identify associations between unresolved cases; (3) crime labs currently plan to retain indefinitely the samples collected for their data banks; and (4) the nature and extent of security safeguards that crime labs have implemented for their data banks vary among states. The recently enacted DNA Identification Act (1994) will provide $40 million in federal matching grants to states for DNA analysis activities, so long as states comply with specified quality-assurance standards, submit to external proficiency testing, and limit access to DNA information. Although these additional funds should help to ease some sample backlogs, it remains unclear how labs will allocate the funds, as between analyzing samples for their data banks and testing evidence samples in cases without suspects. The DNA Identification Act provides penalties for the disclosure or obtaining of DNA data held by data banks that participate in CODIS, the FBI`s evolving national network of DNA data banks, but individual crime labs must also develop stringent internal safeguards to prevent breaches of data-bank security. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Data banks for risk assessment at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durant, W.S.; Lux, C.R.; Baughman, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Savannah River Site maintains a compilation of operating problems and equipment failures that have occurred in the fuel reprocessing and other areas in the form of computerized data banks. 14 refs., 25 figs.

  17. Energy Secretary Moniz and Export-Import Bank Chairman Hochberg...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (Ex-Im Bank) for a tour of the First Solar manufacturing plant in Perrysburg, ... these investments are making to the nation's goal of a low-carbon energy future. ...

  18. DOE's Disposition of Excess Real Property Status of Banked Square...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This report details the Department's excess area elimination efforts through FY 2014. ... FY 2014 Net Banked Area (square feet) 24,035,398 1,212,147 25,247,545 8,583,326 422,521 ...

  19. BankInvest Technology AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that manages the BankInvest New Energy Solutions fund as well as funds in IT and biotechnology. Coordinates: 55.67631, 12.569355 Show Map Loading map......

  20. Red Bank, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Red Bank is a borough in Monmouth County, New Jersey. It falls under New Jersey's 6th...

  1. Red Bank, Tennessee: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Red Bank is a city in Hamilton County, Tennessee. It falls under Tennessee's 3rd...

  2. Building America Expert Meeting: Energy Savings You Can Bank On |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Energy Savings You Can Bank On Building America Expert Meeting: Energy Savings You Can Bank On On October 12, 2011, Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation conducted an Expert Meeting on the topic of performance guarantees and financing vehicles for Energy Efficiency Upgrades. The meeting brought together technical, policy, and financial experts, including researchers, experienced installation contractors, and innovative energy business

  3. Tube Bank C - metal wastage: status report, August 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Experimental Pressurised Fluidized Bed Combustion Facility at Grimethorpe, South Yorkshire, UK incorporates an in-bed tube bank. During the operation of the facility between June and September 1982, an unexpectedly high degree of metal wastage occurred from the external surfaces of this tube bank. Measures were taken to reduce the rate of metal wastage and extend the life of the tube bank, which was subsequently replaced in July 1983 after a total operating period of 1222 hours of coal burning. Using small-scale fluidized bed cold models, experimental investigations were carried out to determine measures to reduce the metal wastage. The results indicated that metal wastage would be reduced by the following changes: a reduction in the fluidizing velocity; the attachment of studs or axial fins to the tubes; a reduction in the height of the space between the distributor plate and the bottom of the tube bank; and the elimination, where possible of any large gaps within the tube bank. Such changes have been incorporated into the design of the replacement tube bank. This has now been installed and has experienced significantly less metal wastage. 9 references, 6 tables, 34 figures.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLOW MODEL FOR FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gribik; Steven P. Antal

    2010-09-01

    The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The model includes heat generation due to the exothermic chemical reaction, as well as heat removal from a constant temperature heat exchanger. Results of the CMFD simulations (similar to those shown in Figure 1) will be presented.

  5. Clean energy from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klosky, M.

    1996-07-02

    This progress report describes a slurry grinding trial where a carbonized refuse derived fuel was dispersed in water. The RDF slurry produced in this study is to subjected to dioxin combustion tests.

  6. Design of slurry bubble column reactors: novel technique for optimum catalyst size selection contractual origin of the invention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamwo, Isaac K.; Gidaspow, Dimitri; Jung, Jonghwun

    2009-11-17

    A method for determining optimum catalyst particle size for a gas-solid, liquid-solid, or gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed reactor such as a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) for converting synthesis gas into liquid fuels considers the complete granular temperature balance based on the kinetic theory of granular flow, the effect of a volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the liquid and the gas, and the water gas shift reaction. The granular temperature of the catalyst particles representing the kinetic energy of the catalyst particles is measured and the volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the gas and liquid phases is calculated using the granular temperature. Catalyst particle size is varied from 20 .mu.m to 120 .mu.m and a maximum mass transfer coefficient corresponding to optimum liquid hydrocarbon fuel production is determined. Optimum catalyst particle size for maximum methanol production in a SBCR was determined to be in the range of 60-70 .mu.m.

  7. An innovative catalyst system for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas-shift catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satterfield, C.N.; Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.

    1991-07-01

    The feasibility of using a mechanical mixture of a Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis in a slurry reactor has been established. Such a mixture can combine the superior product distribution from cobalt with the high activity for the WGS reaction characteristic of iron. Weight ratios of Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} to Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 0.27 and 0.51 for the two catalysts were studied at 240{degrees}C, 0.79 MPa, and in situ H{sub 2}/CO ratios between 0.8 and 3.0. Each catalyst mixture showed stable Fischer-Tropsch activity for about 400 hours-on-stream at a level comparable to the cobalt catalyst operating alone. The Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst exhibited a very slow loss of activity under these conditions, but when operated alone it was stable in a slurry reactor at 200--220{degrees}C, 0.79--1.48 MPa, and H{sub 2}/CO in situ ratios between 1.0 and 2.0. The presence of the water-gas-shift catalyst did not affect the long-term stability of the primary Fischer-Tropsch selectivity, but did increase the extent of secondary reactions, such as l-alkene hydrogenation and isomerization.

  8. Development of the Cummins 5.9 L for the Gale Banks Engineering...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Cummins 5.9 L for the Gale Banks Engineering Dodge Dakota Sidewinder Development of the Cummins 5.9 L for the Gale Banks Engineering Dodge Dakota Sidewinder 2003 DEER ...

  9. Surface Tension Estimates for Droplet Formation in Slurries with Low Concentrations of Hydrophobic Particles, Polymer Flocculants or Surface-Active Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Bamberger, Judith A.

    2011-06-10

    In support of the K-Basin project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was requested to evaluate the appropriate surface tension value to use in models predicting the formation of droplets from spray leaks of K-Basin slurries. The specific issue was whether it was more appropriate to use the surface tension of pure water in model predictions for all plausible spray leaks or to use a lower value. The surface tension of K-Basin slurries is potentially affected not only by particles but by low concentrations of nonionic polyacrylamide flocculant and perhaps by contaminants with surfactant properties, which could decrease the surface tension below that of water. A lower surface tension value typically results in smaller droplets being formed with a larger fraction of droplets in the respirable size range, so using the higher surface tension value of pure water is not conservative and thus needs a strong technical basis.

  10. Radiolytic gas generation rates from Hanford RHO-CAW sludge and double-shell slurry immobilized in grout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.A.; Dole, L.R.; Gilliam, T.M.; Rogers, G.C.

    1985-06-01

    Cement-based grouts will be used to immobilize low-level waste solutions at the Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO) in Richland, Washington. The radioactivity in these aqueous encapsulated waste solutions can cause decomposition of the pore water in these grouts. Concern has been expressed over the potential for pressurizing the waste packages used to contain this material and the flammability and explosion hazards from hydrogen gas from this decomposition. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) undertook the task of establishing the radiolytic gas production rates for the two types of RHO waste streams - current acid waste (CAW) and double-shell slurry (DSS) - and determining the composition of the generated gases, the effects of surface-to-volume ratio of the samples, waste slurry particle sizes, and the water content of the waste form. The alpha exposure of the grouts containing RHO-CAW sludge (with NO/sub 3//sup -/) produced H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ at almost a 2:1 ratio, with a trace of N/sub 2/O. The alpha irradiation of the grouts containing the DSS solution (with both NO/sub 3//sup -/ and NO/sub 2//sup -/) produced mainly N/sub 2/O, H/sub 2/, and a trace of CH/sub 4/. In this case, O/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were either produced or consumed, depending upon when the sample was collected. During the gamma radiolysis of the grouts containing the DSS solution, N/sub 2/O, H/sub 2/O, N/sub 2/, and a trace of CH/sub 4/ were produced. In this case, O/sub 2/ from the air in the system was consumed. The average G/sub t/ value for the grout containing the RHO-CAW sludge exposed to alpha irradiation was 0.42 molec/100 eV, which is close to that for the gamma exposure of pure water (0.45 molec/100 eV). A G/sub t/ value of 0.12 molec/100 eV was obtained for the grout containing the DSS solution from the alpha exposure. As expected, a smaller G/sub t/ value of 0.018 molec/100 eV was obtained for the gamma exposure of the grout with DSS solutions.

  11. Environmental effects of SO{sub 2} trading and banking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtraw, D.; Mansur, E.

    1999-10-15

    The widely acknowledged innovation of Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is sulfur dioxide allowance trading, which is designed to encourage the electricity industry to minimize the cost of reducing emissions. Few studies have examined the environmental effects of trading, and none have explored the effects of banking. The authors used an integrated assessment computer model, the Tracking and Analysis Framework, to evaluate changes in emissions of SO{sub 2}, atmospheric concentrations of sulfates and deposition of sulfur, and public health benefits from reduced exposure to SO{sub 2} and particulate matter. They assessed geographic and temporal changes at the state level that result from trading and banking and compared them with estimated cost savings. The findings are not consistent with the feats of the program's critics. In the East and Northeast including New York State, an area of particular concern, the authors found that health benefits increase and sulfur deposition decrease slightly as a result of trading. Nationally, trading results in health-related benefits in addition to significant cost savings. Banking changes the timing of emissions, but the geographic consequence of banking is varied.

  12. Banking on Solar: New Opportunities for Lending (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. solar industry is a $13.7 billion market with roughly 450,000 systems in place. Bank and credit union lending for solar system deployment represents a valuable new opportunity for lenders to expand their consumer and commercial customer relationships, bring on new relationships and open a new asset class category.

  13. DOE Hosts Festival to Collect Items for Area Food Banks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman and a representative of the Capital Area Food Bank are among the guest speakers at an event this Tuesday, July 31, to collect food items for the DOE Feeds Families drive.

  14. EM Rockets Past Target for Donations to Stock Food Banks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – EM donated close to 50,000 pounds of non-perishable items to the Fourth Annual Feds Feed Families Campaign, easily surpassing its target of 19,120 pounds. All donations were delivered directly to food banks to provide goods to the needy.

  15. THE USE OF DI WATER TO MITIGATE DUSTING FOR ADDITION OF DWPF FRIT TO THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, E.

    2010-07-21

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) presently is in the process to determine means to reduce water utilization in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process, thus reducing effluent and processing times. The frit slurry addition system mixes the dry frit with water, yielding approximately a 50 weight percent slurry containing frit and the other fraction water. This slurry is discharged into the SME and excess water is removed via boiling. To reduce this water load to the SME, DWPF has proposed using a pneumatic system in conveying the frit to the SME, in essence a dry delivery system. The problem associated with utilizing a dry delivery system with the existing frit is the generation of dust when discharged into the SME. The use of water has been shown to be effective in the mining industry as well in the DOE complex to mitigate dusting. The method employed by SRNL to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting in dry powders was effective, between a lab and bench scale tests. In those tests, it was shown that as high as five weight percent (wt%) of water addition was required to mitigate dust from batches of glass forming minerals used by the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford, Washington. The same method used to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting was used in this task to determine the quantity of water to mitigate this dusting using as-received frit. The ability for water to mitigate dusting is due to its adhesive properties as shown in Figure 1-1. Wetting the frit particles allows for the smaller frit particles (including dust) to adhere to the larger frit particles or to agglomerate into large particles. Fluids other than water can also be used, but their adhesive properties are different than water and the quantity required to mitigate dusting is different, as was observed in reference 1. Excessive water, a few weight percentages greater than that required to mitigate dusting can cause the resulting material not to flow. The primary objective of this task is to perform bench scale testing on various frits that have been used at DWPF or in test programs at SRNL to determine the quantity of de-ionized (DI) water required to mitigate dusting per mass basis of frit. The quantity of DI water required was determined visually by observing the effluent port of the mixer, and DI water addition was made to the point where no visible dust was observed leaving the effluent port. A total of eight different frits were selected for testing. Secondary objectives in this task include the following: (1) Video taping of the de-dusting procedure, (2) Particle size distribution analyses of the dry and wetted frits at the weight fraction of water required for de-dusting, (3) Plate flow tests to determine angle of flow and quantity of material remaining on plate at 90 degrees, (4) Microscopy of dry and wetted frit, and (5) Effect of excess water for selected frits on plate flow. The above analyses were performed within one hour of water addition, to minimize the effect of evaporative water losses. To better understand the size of dust particles, perform settling tests on selected frits and capture the fines. Analyze the fines for particle size distribution. Finally, it is expected that the surface area of frit is an important parameter in the quantity of water required for dust mitigation. An analysis of particle size distribution (PSD) data of as-received frit analyzed by SRNL over the past two to three years will be performed to determine the variation in the distribution of as-received frit. The following objectives were stated in the Technical Task Request4 as objectives that given adequate time would provide insight in helping DWPF in assessing equipment or processes for de-dusting and processing of dry frit. Due to time constraints, commercial methods for dedusting are provided. These results are detailed in section 3.7. Obtain design information from Hanford with respective to equipment used for dedusting. Suggestions on enhanced design features, such as flush water, pipe air purges, humidified compresse

  16. Incorporation of Reaction Kinetics into a Multiphase, Hydrodynamic Model of a Fischer Tropsch Slurry Bubble Column Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Guillen, PhD; Anastasia Gribik; Daniel Ginosar, PhD; Steven P. Antal, PhD

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) model of the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). The CMFD model is fundamentally based which allows it to be applied to different industrial processes and reactor geometries. The NPHASE CMFD solver [1] is used as the robust computational platform. Results from the CMFD model include gas distribution, species concentration profiles, and local temperatures within the SBCR. This type of model can provide valuable information for process design, operations and troubleshooting of FT plants. An ensemble-averaged, turbulent, multi-fluid solution algorithm for the multiphase, reacting flow with heat transfer was employed. Mechanistic models applicable to churn turbulent flow have been developed to provide a fundamentally based closure set for the equations. In this four-field model formulation, two of the fields are used to track the gas phase (i.e., small spherical and large slug/cap bubbles), and the other two fields are used for the liquid and catalyst particles. Reaction kinetics for a cobalt catalyst is based upon values reported in the published literature. An initial, reaction kinetics model has been developed and exercised to demonstrate viability of the overall solution scheme. The model will continue to be developed with improved physics added in stages.

  17. Characterization and Correlation of Particle-Level Interactions to the Macroscopic Rheology of Powders, Granular Slurries, and Colloidal Suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poloski, Adam P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Rector, David R.; Bredt, Paul R.; Buck, Edgar C.; Berg, John C.; Saez, Avelino E.

    2006-09-29

    Hanford TRU tank sludges are complex mixtures of undissolved minerals and salt solids in an aqueous phase of high ionic strength. They show complex rheological behavior resulting from interactions at the macroscopic level, such as interparticle friction between grains in the coarse fraction, as well as from interactions at the nano-scale level, such as the agglomeration of colloidal particles. An understanding of how phenomena such as interparticle friction and aggregate stability under shear will allow better control of Hanford TRU tank sludges being processed for disposal. The project described in this report had two objectives. The first was to understand the physical properties and behavior of the Hanford transuranic (TRU) tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging, and transportation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The second objective was to develop a fundamental understanding of sludge physical properties by correlating the macroscopic behavior with interactions occurring at the particle/colloidal scale. These objectives were accomplished by: 1) developing continuum models for coarse granular slurries and 2) studying the behavior of colloidal agglomerates under shear and under irradiation.

  18. REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES AND HYDRODYNAMIC DATA FOR VALIDATION OF CFD BASED PREDICTIONS FOR SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; Daniel S. Wendt

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the review of several open-literature sources of both experimental capabilities and published hydrodynamic data to aid in the validation of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based model of a slurry bubble column (SBC). The review included searching the Web of Science, ISI Proceedings, and Inspec databases, internet searches as well as other open literature sources. The goal of this study was to identify available experimental facilities and relevant data. Integral (i.e., pertaining to the SBC system), as well as fundamental (i.e., separate effects are considered), data are included in the scope of this effort. The fundamental data is needed to validate the individual mechanistic models or closure laws used in a Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) simulation of a SBC. The fundamental data is generally focused on simple geometries (i.e., flow between parallel plates or cylindrical pipes) or custom-designed tests to focus on selected interfacial phenomena. Integral data covers the operation of a SBC as a system with coupled effects. This work highlights selected experimental capabilities and data for the purpose of SBC model validation, and is not meant to be an exhaustive summary.

  19. REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES AND HYDRODYNAMIC DATA FOR VALIDATION OF CFD-BASED PREDICTIONS FOR SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; Daniel S. Wendt; Steven P. Antal; Michael Z. Podowski

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the review of several open-literature sources of both experimental capabilities and published hydrodynamic data to aid in the validation of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based model of a slurry bubble column (SBC). The review included searching the Web of Science, ISI Proceedings, and Inspec databases, internet searches as well as other open literature sources. The goal of this study was to identify available experimental facilities and relevant data. Integral (i.e., pertaining to the SBC system), as well as fundamental (i.e., separate effects are considered), data are included in the scope of this effort. The fundamental data is needed to validate the individual mechanistic models or closure laws used in a Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) simulation of a SBC. The fundamental data is generally focused on simple geometries (i.e., flow between parallel plates or cylindrical pipes) or custom-designed tests to focus on selected interfacial phenomena. Integral data covers the operation of a SBC as a system with coupled effects. This work highlights selected experimental capabilities and data for the purpose of SBC model validation, and is not meant to be an exhaustive summary.

  20. Non-Newtonian temperature and pressure effects of a lubricant slurry in a rotating hydrostatic step bearing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J.; Finn, W.E.; Dareing, D.W. |

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the pressure and temperature effects of graphite powder lubricant when added to a Newtonian carrier fluid and applied in a rotating hydrostatic step bearing. Temperature and pressure profiles were determined both analytically and experimentally. The rheological behavior of the non-Newtonian lubricant was modeled using a power law model previously shown to approximate experimental data for this fluid. Ethylene glycol was used as the Newtonian lubricant, providing a check on the test apparatus and a base line for comparison with the non-Newtonian graphite slurry. Data revealed a temperature increase with bearing rotational speed for both fluids and compared favorably with the mathematical predictions. A significantly higher temperature rise was seen in the non- Newtonian lubricant due to the higher shear rates. The pressure profile was not directly dependent on bearing rotational speed in the mathematical model, but experimental data demonstrated a reduction in pressure at higher rotation speeds. This loss was greater for the non-Newtonian lubricant and attributed to temperature dependence of power law constants. It was concluded that the effects of operating speed and temperature on a non-Newtonian lubricant should be considered as well as their greater load-carrying capacity.

  1. Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. Annual technical progress report No. 1, July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudukovic, M.P.; Fan, L.S.; Chang, Min

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research and Engineering Company is to improve the basis for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. The first year of this three year program was spent on developing and tuning the experimental tools that can provide accurate measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field and holdup distribution, for validation of hydrodynamic models. Advances made in preparing the unique Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracing (CARPT) technique for use in high pressure systems are described in this report The work done on developing a reliable beat transfer coefficient measurement probe at operating conditions of interest is also described. Finally, the work done in preparing the Exxon pilot plant facilities for high pressure runs and pertinent hydrodynamic measurements is outlined together with preliminary studies of matching the fluid dynamics program predictions and data in a two dimensional column.

  2. Evaluation of Ohio fly ash/hydrated lime slurries and Type 1 cement sorbent slurries in the U.C. Pilot spray dryer facility. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Meyers, G.R.

    1995-02-01

    The objectives of this year`s work included an evaluation of the performance of fly ash/hydrated lime as well as hydrated cement sorbents for spray drying adsorption (SDA) of SO{sub 2} from a simulated high-sulfur flue gas. These sorbents were evaluated for several different hydration methods, and under different SDA operating conditions. In addition, the physical properties of surface area and porosity of the sorbents was determined. The most reactive fly ash/hydrated lime sorbent studied was prepared at room temperature with milled fly ash. Milling fly ash prior to hydration with lime did have a beneficial effect on calcium utilization. No benefit in utilization was experienced either by hydrating the slurries at a temperature of 90{degrees}C as compared to hydration at room temperature, or by increasing hydration time. While the surface areas varied greatly from sorbent to sorbent, the pore size distributions indicated ``ink bottle`` pores with surface porosity on the order of 0.5 microns. No correlation could be drawn between the surface area of the sorbents and calcium utilization. These results suggest that the composition of the resulting sorbent might be more important than its surface area. The most effective sorbent studied this year was produced by hydrating cement for 3 days at room temperature. This sorbent provided a removal efficiency and a calcium utilization over 25 percent higher than baseline results at an approach to saturation temperature of 30{degrees}F and a stoichiometric ratio of 0.9. A maximum SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of about 90 percent was experienced with this sorbent at an approach to saturation temperature of 20{degrees}F.

  3. Analysis of crystallization data in the Protein Data Bank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkwood, Jobie; Hargreaves, David; O’Keefe, Simon; Wilson, Julie

    2015-09-23

    In a large-scale study using data from the Protein Data Bank, some of the many reported findings regarding the crystallization of proteins were investigated. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is the largest available repository of solved protein structures and contains a wealth of information on successful crystallization. Many centres have used their own experimental data to draw conclusions about proteins and the conditions in which they crystallize. Here, data from the PDB were used to reanalyse some of these results. The most successful crystallization reagents were identified, the link between solution pH and the isoelectric point of the protein was investigated and the possibility of predicting whether a protein will crystallize was explored.

  4. Expert Meeting Report: Energy Savings You Can Bank On

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Savings You Can Bank On Mark Berman, Jeremy Springer, Pepper Smith, and Erik Porse Alliance for Residential Building Innovation )HEUXDU\ 2013 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy,

  5. Review and Assessment of Commercial Vendors/Options for Feeding and Pumping Biomass Slurries for Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berglin, Eric J.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2012-11-01

    The National Advanced Biofuels Consortium is working to develop improved methods for producing high-value hydrocarbon fuels. The development of one such method, the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process, is being led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The HTL process uses a wet biomass slurry at elevated temperatures (i.e., 300 to 360°C [570 to 680°F]) and pressures above the vapor pressure of water (i.e., 15 to 20 MPa [2200 to 3000 psi] at these temperatures) to facilitate a condensed-phase reaction medium. The process has been successfully tested at bench-scale and development and testing at a larger scale is required to prove the viability of the process at production levels. Near-term development plans include a pilot-scale system on the order of 0.5 to 40 gpm, followed by a larger production-scale system on the order of 2000 dry metric tons per day (DMTPD). A significant challenge to the scale-up of the HTL process is feeding a highly viscous fibrous biomass wood/corn stover feedstock into a pump system that provides the required 3000 psi of pressure for downstream processing. In October 2011, PNNL began investigating commercial feed and pumping options that would meet these HTL process requirements. Initial efforts focused on generating a HTL feed and pump specification and then providing the specification to prospective vendors to determine the suitability of their pumps for the pilot-scale and production-scale plants. Six vendors were identified that could provide viable equipment to meet HTL feed and/or pump needs. Those six vendors provided options consisting three types of positive displacement pumps (i.e., diaphragm, piston, and lobe pumps). Vendors provided capabilities and equipment related to HTL application. This information was collected, assessed, and summarized and is provided as appendices to this report.

  6. ANALYSES OF HTF-48-12-20/24 (FEBRUARY, 2012) AND ARCHIVED HTF-E-05-021 TANK 48H SLURRY SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Peters, T.

    2012-08-02

    Personnel characterized a Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) archived sample of Tank 48H slurry (HTF-E-05-021) in addition to the composite of samples HTF-48-12-20 and HTF-48-12-24, which were both retrieved in February 2012. The combined February 2012 sample is referred to as HTF-48-12-20/24 in this report. The results from these analyses are compared with Tank 48H samples analyzed in 2003, 2004, and 2005. This work supports the effort to demonstrate copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) of organic content in this material. The principal findings with respect to the chemical and physical characteristics of the most recent sample are: (1) The measured potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) solid concentration is 1.76 wt %; (2) Titanium was in line with 2004 and 2005 slurry measurements at 897 mg/L, it represents 0.1535 {+-} 0.0012 wt % monosodium titanate (MST); (3) The measured insoluble solids content was 1.467 wt %; (4) The free hydroxide concentration in the Tank 48H filtrate sample (1.02 {+-} 0.02 M) is close to the Tank 48H limit (1.0 M); (5) Carbonate reported by total inorganic carbon (TIC, 1.39 {+-} 0.03 M) is more than double the concentrations measured in past (2003-2005) samples; (6) The soluble potassium content (measured at 286 {+-} 23 mg/L) in the filtrate is in line with all past measurements; and (7) The measured {sup 137}Cs concentration is 7.81E + 08 {+-} 3.9E + 07 dpm/mL of slurry (1.33 {+-} 5% Ci/gallon or 3.18E + 05 {+-} 5% curies of {sup 137}Cs in the tank) in the slurry which is in agreement with the 2005 report of 3.14E + 05 {+-} 1.5% curies of {sup 137}Cs in the tank. The filtrate {sup 137}Cs concentration is 2.57E + 07 {+-} 2.6E + 05 dpm/mL. This result is consistent with previous results. Significant analytical data are summarized in Table 1.

  7. Wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry: Assessment, conclusions, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkey, P.L.; Sundell, R.C.; Bailey, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Wetland mitigation banks are already in existence in the United States, and the number is increasing. To date, most of these banks have been created and operated for mitigation of impacts arising from highway or commercial development and have not been associated with the oil and gas industry. Argonne National Laboratory evaluated the positive and negative aspects of wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry by examining banks already created for other uses by federal, state, and private entities. Specific issues addressed in this study include (1) the economic, ecological, and technical effectiveness of existing banks; (2) the changing nature of local, state, and federal jurisdiction; and (3) the unique regulatory and jurisdictional problems affecting bank developments associated with the oil and gas industry.

  8. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia; Shipley, Rochelle

    2003-11-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. FY 2002 was used to continue seasonal fish and lakewide creel surveys and adjust methods and protocols as needed. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 meters deep, with 16-17 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until August when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-meters deep. Secchi depths ranged from 2.5-8 meters and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in October 2002 and May and July 2003 using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Yellow Perch Perca flavescens (32 %) and cottid spp. (22 %) dominated the nearshore species composition in October; however, by May yellow perch (12 %) were the third most common species followed by smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (34 %) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (14 %). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during October (78 %) and May (81 %). Fish diet analysis indicated that juvenile fishes consumed primarily insects and zooplankton, while adult piscivores consumed cottids spp. and yellow perch most frequently. For FY 2002, the following creel statistics are comprehensive through August 31, 2003. The highest angling pressure occurred in June 2003, when anglers were primarily targeting walleye and smallmouth bass. Boat anglers utilized Steamboat State Park more frequently than any other boat ramp on Banks Lake. Shore anglers used the rock jetty at Coulee City Park 76 % of the time, with highest use occurring from November through April. An estimated total of 11,915 ({+-}140 SD) smallmouth bass, 6,412 ({+-}59 SD) walleye, 5,470 ({+-}260 SD) rainbow trout, and 1,949 ({+-}118 SD) yellow perch were harvested from Banks Lake in FY 2002. Only 3 kokanee were reported in the catch during the FY 2002 creel survey. In the future, data from the seasonal surveys and creel will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP will also evaluate the success of several rearing and stocking strategies for hatchery kokanee in Banks Lake.

  9. Case Study: Fuel Cells Increase Reliability at First National Bank of Omaha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    A case study of the First National Bank of Omaha fuel cell system, covering 1999 through October 2009. The system reduced heating bills by more than $1 million.

  10. Tips for Running an Air Conditioner Without Breaking the Bank | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Tips for Running an Air Conditioner Without Breaking the Bank Tips for Running an Air Conditioner Without Breaking the Bank July 22, 2014 - 3:15pm Addthis Cooling your home doesn't have to break the bank, with these tips you can save money and stay comfortable.| Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/galinast Cooling your home doesn't have to break the bank, with these tips you can save money and stay comfortable.| Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/galinast Elizabeth Spencer

  11. World Bank-The Role of Nonmotorized Transport | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website: siteresources.worldbank.orgINTURBANTRANSPORTResourceschapter9.pdf Cost: Free World Bank-Role of Nonmotorized Transport Screenshot References: The Role of...

  12. Radiological Worker (RW) and Radiological Control Technician (RCT) Training Exam Banks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Examination banks are available to DOE Contractors for use with the radiation safety training Handbooks. Questions and answers for these courses have also been prepared by DOE.

  13. Case Study: Fuel Cells Increase Reliability at First National Bank of Omaha

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    A case study of the First National Bank of Omaha fuel cell system, covering 1999 through October 2009. The system reduced heating bills by more than $1 million.

  14. Data banks for risk assessment at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durant, W.S.; Townsend, C.S.; Baughman, D.F.; Hang, P.

    1992-01-01

    One of the lessons learned from many years of risk assessment experience is that mistakes of the past are soon forgotten if no method is available to retrieve and review these events. Savannah River Site has maintained a computerized data bank system for recording, retrieving and reviewing its incident history. The system is based on a series of compilations developed primarily for risk assessment but has been found to be invaluable for many other uses such as equipment reliability, project justification, and incident investigations.

  15. Data banks for risk assessment at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durant, W.S.; Townsend, C.S.; Baughman, D.F.; Hang, P.

    1992-11-01

    One of the lessons learned from many years of risk assessment experience is that mistakes of the past are soon forgotten if no method is available to retrieve and review these events. Savannah River Site has maintained a computerized data bank system for recording, retrieving and reviewing its incident history. The system is based on a series of compilations developed primarily for risk assessment but has been found to be invaluable for many other uses such as equipment reliability, project justification, and incident investigations.

  16. Characterization of ashes from co-combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal, wood and bark in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M.

    1998-12-31

    The technical and environmental feasibility of co-combustion of a recovered fuel (RF) prepared from combustible waste fractions (separated at the source), together with coal, peat, wood or wood-waste in thermal power/electricity generation has been studied in several R and D projects within Finland. The current work focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of RF with coal, wood or bark, which could lead to bed agglomeration, slagging, fouling and even corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced in a 15 kW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustion reactor, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analyzed by XRF. The sintering tendency behavior of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at Aabo Akademi University. Earlier, a screening program involved ashes from RF (from a waste separation scheme in Finland) co-combustion with peat, wood and bark, in which ash pellets were thermally treated in air. This showed significant sintering below 600 C as well as above 800 C for RF/wood and RF/bark, but not for RF/peat. This seemed to correlate with alkali chloride and sulfate concentrations in the ashes. The current work addresses a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark, coal, bark+coal, wood, and wood+coal (eight tests). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1,000 C. Ash from 100% RDF combustion does not sinter, 25% RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of a 25% coal fraction (on energy basis) seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows that, in general, an increased level of alkali chlorides and sulfates gives increased sintering. At the same time, increased amounts calcium salts in the ash appear to reduce sintering tendency. Thus, the results suggest that a calcium based sorbent for SO{sub 2} and HCl capture might reduce problems related to ash sintering. An extensive literature exists, however, that states otherwise.

  17. Materials experience of the public domain portions of Tube Bank E' during Test Series A2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The tube banks at the Grimethorpe pressurized fluidized bed combustion facility are discussed. Tube Bank E'' was designed for operation as the in bed heat exchanger during Test Series A2 at the Grimethorpe PFBC Establishment between March and November 1987. The supply of the tube bank resulted from an agreement between Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC), the US Department of Energy, and the Operating Agent for the British Coal/CEGB Joint Programme on PFBC. The tube bank incorporated features, designed to produce acceptable and predictable wastage characteristics, suggested by both FWDC and BCC/CEGB interests. As part of the agreement between the various parties, it was agreed only data from 55% of the tube bank would enter the public domain. This report describes the tube bank, and describes and discusses the public domain wastage results following a total operating period approaching 1450 hours. It is concluded that although conditions varied throughout Test Series A2, there were no major differences in the aggressiveness of the bed. Armouring devices suggested by FWDC were not successful, but their chromised coatings offered promise. The results from UK proprietary parts of the tube bank indicated that the tube bank metal wastage need not be a life limiting problem for PFBC in-bed heat exchangers. 5 refs., 48 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR BATCH ACCEPTABILITY AND TEST CASES OF THE PRODUCT COMPOSITION CONTROL SYSTEM WITH THORIUM AS A REPORTABLE ELEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T.

    2010-10-07

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which is operated by Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR), has recently begun processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) by combining it with Frit 418 at a nominal waste loading (WL) of 36%. A unique feature of the SB6/Frit 418 glass system, as compared to the previous glass systems processed in DWPF, is that thorium will be a reportable element (i.e., concentrations of elemental thorium in the final glass product greater than 0.5 weight percent (wt%)) for the resulting wasteform. Several activities were initiated based upon this unique aspect of SB6. One of these was an investigation into the impact of thorium on the models utilized in DWPF's Product Composition and Control System (PCCS). While the PCCS is described in more detail below, for now note that it is utilized by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to evaluate the acceptability of each batch of material in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) before this material is passed on to the melter. The evaluation employs models that predict properties associated with processability and product quality from the composition of vitrified samples of the SME material. The investigation of the impact of thorium on these models was conducted by Peeler and Edwards [1] and led to a recommendation that DWPF can process the SB6/Frit 418 glass system with ThO{sub 2} concentrations up to 1.8 wt% in glass. Questions also arose regarding the handling of thorium in the SME batch acceptability process as documented by Brown, Postles, and Edwards [2]. Specifically, that document is the technical bases of PCCS, and while Peeler and Edwards confirmed the reliability of the models, there is a need to confirm that the current implementation of DWPF's PCCS appropriately handles thorium as a reportable element. Realization of this need led to a Technical Task Request (TTR) prepared by Bricker [3] that identified some specific SME-related activities that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to conduct. SRNL issued a Task Technical and Quality Assurance (TT&QA) plan [4] in response to the SRR request. The conclusions provided in this report are that no changes need to be made to the SME acceptability process (i.e., no modifications to WSRC-TR-95-00364, Revision 5, are needed) and no changes need to be made to the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) itself (i.e. the spreadsheet utilized by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) for acceptability decisions does not require modification) in response to thorium becoming a reportable element for DWPF operations. In addition, the inputs and results for the two test cases requested by WSE for use in confirming the successful activation of thorium as a reportable element for DWPF operations during the processing of SB6 are presented in this report.

  19. Banking on Solar: Debt Finance in Today's Distributed Market (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louder, T.

    2014-10-01

    Over the last two years, several entities - from banks to credit unions to solar finance companies -have rolled out distributed solar-specific loan programs in the United States. These solar-specific loans are a distinct loan in that the underwriting, loan terms, lender security interest, and other programmatic aspects are designed exclusively for the financing of solar installations. Until recently, loan financing for distributed solar installations was largely through home equity loans, commercial loans, and other standardized loan products available to homeowners and businesses for general expenditures. However, as the U.S. solar market matures, so too are its financing options, and solar-specific loans stand to gain market share. This poster was presented at the Solar Power International conference in Las Vegas, NV in October 2014.

  20. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1991--February 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jianyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-05-29

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  1. An innovative catalyst system for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas-shift catalyst. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satterfield, C.N.; Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.

    1991-07-01

    The feasibility of using a mechanical mixture of a Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis in a slurry reactor has been established. Such a mixture can combine the superior product distribution from cobalt with the high activity for the WGS reaction characteristic of iron. Weight ratios of Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} to Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 0.27 and 0.51 for the two catalysts were studied at 240{degrees}C, 0.79 MPa, and in situ H{sub 2}/CO ratios between 0.8 and 3.0. Each catalyst mixture showed stable Fischer-Tropsch activity for about 400 hours-on-stream at a level comparable to the cobalt catalyst operating alone. The Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst exhibited a very slow loss of activity under these conditions, but when operated alone it was stable in a slurry reactor at 200--220{degrees}C, 0.79--1.48 MPa, and H{sub 2}/CO in situ ratios between 1.0 and 2.0. The presence of the water-gas-shift catalyst did not affect the long-term stability of the primary Fischer-Tropsch selectivity, but did increase the extent of secondary reactions, such as l-alkene hydrogenation and isomerization.

  2. HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS FOR SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT ALSO INCLUDES THE QUARTERLY TECHNICAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD 01/01/1997 - 03/31/1997.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DIMITRI GIDASPOW

    1997-08-15

    The objective of this study is to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamic (CFD) three phase model. It predicts the gas, liquid and solid hold-ups (volume fractions) and flow patterns in the industrially important bubble-coalesced (churn-turbulent) regime. The input into the model can be either particulate viscosities as measured with a Brookfield viscometer or effective restitution coefficient for particles. A combination of x-ray and {gamma}-ray densitometers was used to measure solid and liquid volume fractions. There is a fair agreement between the theory and the experiment. A CCD camera was used to measure instantaneous particle velocities. There is a good agreement between the computed time average velocities and the measurements. There is an excellent agreement between the viscosity of 800 {micro}m glass beads obtained from measurement of granular temperature (random kinetic energy of particles) and the measurement using a Brookfield viscometer. A relation between particle Reynolds stresses and granular temperature was found for developed flow. Such measurement and computations gave a restitution coefficient for a methanol catalyst to be about 0.9. A transient, two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for production of methanol from syn-gas in an Air Products/DOE LaPorte slurry bubble column reactor was developed. The model predicts downflow of catalyst at the walls and oscillatory particle and gas flow at the center, with a frequency of about 0.7 Hertz. The computed temperature variation in the rector with heat exchangers was only about 5 K, indicating good thermal management. The computed slurry height, the gas holdup and the rate of methanol production agree with LaPorte's reported data. Unlike the previous models in the literature, this model computes the gas and the particle holdups and the particle rheology. The only adjustable parameter in the model is the effective particle restitution coefficient.

  3. Case Study: Fuel Cells Increase Reliability at First National Bank of Omaha

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Increase Reliability at First National Bank of Omaha Case Study: Fuel Cells Increase Reliability at First National Bank of Omaha First National Bank of Omaha installed a fuel cell system in 1999 to provide primary power to its data center in Omaha, Nebraska. In more than 89,000 hours of operation through October 2009, the system is estimated to have reduced heating bills by more than $1 million. An independent third party verified that the designed total power system

  4. Energy Secretary Moniz and Export-Import Bank Chairman Hochberg to Visit

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    First Solar Facility in Perrysburg, Ohio | Department of Energy Secretary Moniz and Export-Import Bank Chairman Hochberg to Visit First Solar Facility in Perrysburg, Ohio Energy Secretary Moniz and Export-Import Bank Chairman Hochberg to Visit First Solar Facility in Perrysburg, Ohio February 14, 2015 - 6:35pm Addthis News Media Contact 202 586 4940 RSVP@hq.doe.gov Energy Secretary Moniz and Export-Import Bank Chairman Hochberg to Visit First Solar Facility in Perrysburg, Ohio WASHINGTON- On

  5. In-bed tube bank for a fluidized-bed combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemenway, Jr., Lloyd F.

    1990-01-01

    An in-bed tube bank (10) for a fluidized bed combustor. The tube bank (10) of the present invention comprises one or more fluid communicating boiler tubes (30) which define a plurality of selectively spaced boiler tube sections (32). The tube sections (32) are substantially parallel to one another and aligned in a common plane. The tube bank (10) further comprises support members (34) for joining adjacent tube sections (32), the support members (34) engaging and extending along a selected length of the tube sections (32) and spanning the preselected space therebetween.

  6. Feds Feed Families Wraps Up Successful Campaign to Stock Area Food Banks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – The fourth annual Feds Feed Families, an effort by DOE and other federal agencies to stock area food banks, has entered the homestretch of its campaign that ends this month.

  7. World Bank eAtlas of Global Development | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    World Bank eAtlas of Global Development1 "This eAtlas, a new online companion to Atlas of Global Development, third edition, builds on the Atlas topics, allowing you to...

  8. World Bank-MENA Regional-NAMAs and Corresponding Climate Finance...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    analysis, Background analysis Website http:www.worldbank.org UN Region Northern Africa, Western Asia References World Bank1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  9. World Bank-Morocco Study on the Impact of Climate Change on the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Morocco Study on the Impact of Climate Change on the Agricultural Sector Jump to: navigation, search Name World Bank-Morocco Study on the Impact of Climate Change on the...

  10. EM Employees at West Valley Help Beat Goal for Food Banks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WEST VALLEY, N.Y. – EM employees and their contractor counterparts at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) have supported their local food banks for several years, and this year was no exception.

  11. Tube bank metal wastage in the Grimethorpe PFBC. [Pressurized fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    During hot commissioning tests of the Grimethorpe PFBC plant, a significant degree of metal wastage was observed on the fireside surfaces of the tube bank. The investigation of this wastage is described and the remedial measures taken are discussed.

  12. SIMULATIONS OF THE AGS MMPS STORING ENERGY IN CAPACITOR BANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARNERIS,I.; BADEA, V.S.; BONATI, R.; ROSER, T.; SANDBERG, J.

    2007-06-25

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps, +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. The generator is 3 phase 7500 Volts rated at 50 MVA. The peak power requirements come from the stored energy in the rotor of the motor/generator. The motor generator is about 45 years old, made by Siemens and it is not clear if companies will be manufacturing similar machines in the future. We are therefore investigating different ways of storing energy for future AGS MMPS operations. This paper will present simulations of a power supply where energy is stored in capacitor banks. Two dc to dc converters will be presented along with the control system of the power section. The switching elements will be IGCT's made by ABB. The simulation program used is called PSIM version 6.1. The average power from the local power authority into the power supply will be kept constant during the pulsing of the magnets at +/-50 MW. The reactive power will also be kept constant below 1.5 MVAR. Waveforms will be presented.

  13. National incinerator testing and evaluation program: The environmental characterization of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) Combustion Technology, Mid-Connecticut Facility, Hartford, Connecticut. Final report, June 1987-March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finklestein, A.; Klicius, R.D.

    1994-12-01

    The report gives results of an environmental characterization of refuse-derived (RDF) semi-suspension burning technology at a facility in Hartford, Connecticut, that represents state-of-the-art technology, including a spray dryer/fabric filter flue-gas cleaning (FGC) system for each unit. Results were obtained for a variety of steam production rates, combustion conditions, flue gas temperatures, and acid gas removal efficiencies. All incoming wastes and residue streams were weighed, sampled, and analyzed. Key combustor and FGC system operating variables were monitored on a real time basis. A wide range of analyses for acid gases, trace organics, and heavy metals was carried out on gas emissions and all ash residue discharges.

  14. The Asian Development Bank`s role in promoting cleaner production in the People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huq, A.; Lohani, B.N.; Jalal, K.F.; Ouano, E.A.R.

    1999-09-01

    The People`s Republic of China (PRC) has the fastest growing economy in the world and is the third largest producer and consumer of energy. At the same time, the PRC`s industrial sector contributes heavily to air and water pollution. Because of the linkages between the production and use of energy and environmental degradation, the PRC, with the active support of bilateral and multilateral aid agencies, including the Asian Development Bank (ADB), is adopting measures that link economic growth to improvements in the environment. The PRC is pursuing a two-pronged strategy that involves implementing priority investment programs and promoting economic reforms. The ADB`s experience shows that the concept of cleaner production (CP) has been widely accepted, but the widespread adoption of CP requires a new way of thinking and new management capacities. In this regard, the PRC is at an early stage of promoting CP, and inadequacies in coordination among relevant agencies remain a key obstacle. To support CP activities, the ADB is participating in a cluster of activities within China that include policy development, capacity building, and financing environmental investments. This article describes the ADB`s current efforts to promote CP in PRC and analyzes the effectiveness of those efforts.

  15. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Topical report No.1, Effects of supports and promoters on cobalt F-T catalyst behavior in fixed bed vs. slurry bubble column reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oukaci, R.; Marcelin, G.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.

    1995-01-17

    A series of cobalt-based F-T catalysts supported on alumina, silica, or titania were prepared with Ru and/or ZrO{sub 2} as promoters. All catalysts were extensively characterized by different methods. The catalysts were evaluated in terms of their activity and selectivity both in fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactors. Similar trends were observed in both reactors for support effects. However, this was not the case for the effects of promoters. Noble metal promotion effects were much more accentuated in the fixed bed reactor than under slurry bubble column reaction conditions, while the opposite seemed to hold true in the case of ZrO{sub 2} promotion effects, at least for SiO{sub 2}-supported Co catalysts.

  16. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Topical report No.3, Zirconia promotion of Fischer-Tropsch cobalt catalysts: Behavior in fixed-bed and slurry bubble column reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oukaci, R.; Marcelin, G.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.

    1995-01-17

    A series of cobalt-based F-T catalysts supported on alumina and silica were prepared with different loadings of Zr and different sequences of impregnation of Co and Zr. All catalysts were extensively characterized by different methods. The catalysts were evaluated in terms of their activity and selectivity both in fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactors. Addition of ZrO{sub 2} to both Co/SiO{sub 2} and Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts resulted in at least a twofold increase in the catalyst activity for F-T synthesis in the fixed bed reactor. In the slurry bubble column reactor, a similar promotion effect was observed for the SiO{sub 2}-supported catalysts, while the addition of Zr to a cobalt/alumina catalyst had a less significant effect.

  17. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst. [Quarterly] report, October 1, 1988--December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

    1988-12-31

    A cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst (CO/MgO/silica) was reduced and slurried in combination with reduced Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} water-gas-shift catalyst. Combined catalyst system was run at fixed process conditions for more than 400 hours. The system showed stable selectivity. The Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} water-gas-shift catalyst remained reasonably active in the presence of the cobalt catalyst. Hydrocarbon selectivity of the cobalt and Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} catalyst system compared favorably to selectivity of iron-based catalysts. Methane selectivity was slightly higher for the cobalt-based system, but C{sub 5}{sup +} selectivity was essentially the same. The hydrocarbon product distribution appeared to exhibit a double-a behavior. a{sub 1} was near 0.80 which is higher than that of iron catalysts, while a{sub 2} was calculated to be 0.86 which is somewhat lower than would be typical for an iron-based catalyst.

  18. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1992--February 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  19. Implementing an X-ray validation pipeline for the Protein Data Bank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gore, Swanand; Velankar, Sameer; Kleywegt, Gerard J.

    2012-04-01

    The implementation of a validation pipeline, based on community recommendations, for future depositions of X-ray crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank is described. There is an increasing realisation that the quality of the biomacromolecular structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive needs to be assessed critically using established and powerful validation methods. The Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) organization has convened several Validation Task Forces (VTFs) to advise on the methods and standards that should be used to validate all of the entries already in the PDB as well as all structures that will be deposited in the future. The recommendations of the X-ray VTF are currently being implemented in a software pipeline. Here, ongoing work on this pipeline is briefly described as well as ways in which validation-related information could be presented to users of structural data.

  20. A cost effective battery bank for I sup 2 t testing and evaluation of electrical switchgear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reass, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the electrical design and mechanical construction of a 50 kA step switched'' battery bank. Individual fuses protect each of the forty parallel isolated strings of three series (12 V) batteries. Step current waveforms of 12.5 kA, 25 kA, 37.5 kA, and 50 kA are produced by 8 sets of pneumatically driven 20 pole step switches and current limiting stainless steel trombone'' resistors. Inexpensive, yet conservatively designed, Group 65 Motorcraft car batteries are used to give an I{sup 2}t capability of better than 5 {times} 10{sup 9}. The battery bank has well over 1500 shots, with testing of commercial switchgear continuing. In addition to the battery bank engineering data, results of repetitive testing of vacuum interrupters at their I{sup 2}t limit will be provided. 8 figs.

  1. Energy Secretary Moniz, EPA Administrator McCarthy and World Bank President

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kim to Keynote ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit | Department of Energy Moniz, EPA Administrator McCarthy and World Bank President Kim to Keynote ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit Energy Secretary Moniz, EPA Administrator McCarthy and World Bank President Kim to Keynote ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit December 9, 2015 - 2:05pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-0976 DOENews@hq.doe.gov WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy today announced that U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz, U.S.

  2. Extractive industries and sustainable development: an evaluation of World Bank Group experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andres Liebenthal; Roland Michelitsch; Ethel Tarazona

    2005-07-01

    How effectively has the World Bank Group assisted its clients in enhancing the contribution of the extractive industries to sustainable development? (Extractive industries include oil, gas, and mining of minerals including coals and metals.) This evaluation finds that with its global mandate and experience, comprehensive country development focus, and overarching mission to fight poverty, the World Bank Group is well positioned to help countries overcome the policy, institutional, and technical challenges that prevent them from transforming resource endowments into sustainable benefits. Furthermore, the World Bank Group's achievements are many. On the whole, its extractive industries projects have produced positive economic and financial results, though compliance with its environmental and social safeguards remains a challenge. Its research has broadened and deepened understanding of the causes for the disappointing performance of resource-rich countries. Its guidelines for the mitigation of adverse environmental and social impacts have been widely used and appreciated. More recently, it has begun to address the challenge of country governance with a variety of instruments. The World Bank Group can, however, do much to improve its performance in enhancing the extractive industry sector's contribution to sustainable development and poverty reduction. The report identifies three main areas for improvement - formulating an integrated strategy, strengthening implementation and engagement of stakeholders. 5 annexes.

  3. Clean energy from municipal solid waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klosky, M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project was to demonstrate the environmental and combustion performance advantages of a carbonized refuse derived fuel (RDF) slurry, produced from EnerTech`s slurry carbonization process, using continuous pilot scale equipment and its suitability as an alternative fuel for utility and industrial boilers.

  4. Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

    2014-10-14

    A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

  5. Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

    2014-05-20

    A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

  6. The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe): bringing structure to biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velankar, Sameer; Kleywegt, Gerard J.

    2011-04-01

    Some future challenges for the PDB and its guardians are discussed and current and future activities in structural bioinformatics at the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) are described. The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) is the European partner in the Worldwide PDB and as such handles depositions of X-ray, NMR and EM data and structure models. PDBe also provides advanced bioinformatics services based on data from the PDB and related resources. Some of the challenges facing the PDB and its guardians are discussed, as well as some of the areas on which PDBe activities will focus in the future (advanced services, ligands, integration, validation and experimental data). Finally, some recent developments at PDBe are described.

  7. Clean energy from municipal solid waste. ERIP technical progress report No. 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klosky, M.

    1995-07-14

    Just prior to this award and reporting period but as part of this program, EnerTech initiated preliminary pilot scale slurry carbonization experiments with Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) and preliminary pilot scale combustion experiments with the carbonized RDF slurry fuel. For this award and the time period April 1995--July 1995, several modifications to the pilot plant facilities were completed to improve operational reliability, system performance, and characteristics of the carbonized slurry fuel, based upon the previous plant experiments.

  8. Energy in Europe and Central Asia: A sector strategy for the World Bank Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    Many countries in the Europe and Central Asia region have had an excess production capacity, lower quality supply, decreasing demand, and inefficient consumption in the energy sector since the late 1980s. This report outlines the four main objectives that form the World Bank Group`s strategy for reform: assisting governments to protect the public interest, supporting economic transition, facilitating private investments, and promoting regional initiatives to increase energy trade.

  9. Clean energy for development investment framework: the World Bank Group action plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-03-06

    In September 2005 the Development Committee requested the World Bank to develop an Investment Framework for Clean Energy and Development - in the context of the Gleneagles Communique on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development which was issued in July 2005. This Action Plan provides an update of work undertaken to date as well as actions planned by the World Bank Group (WBG) in support of the Clean Energy for Development Investment Framework (CEIF). The Action Plan relies on partnerships, including with the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) and the private sector. While it concentrates on maximizing and extending existing instruments, it provides for continued dialogue with governments and the private sector on new approaches to accelerate the transition to a low carbon economy. In addition to increased investments, the private sector has an important role to play in closing the investment gap in many countries. Projects such as Bujagali (Uganda), Nam Theun II (Laos) and China and India Thermal Power Plant Rehabilitation projects are examples of how partnerships with the private sector can work, both on financing but also on enhancing the overall regulatory framework for enhanced partnerships. The report was prepared for the 15 April 2007 Development Committee meeting, a joint committee of the Board of Governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the transfer of real resources to developing countries. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 5 annexes.

  10. Slope and bank erosional stability of the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, UMTRA disposal site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared in response to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) comments received in a letter of 8 March 1994. This letter included discussions of the US Department of Energy (DOE) 21 May 1993 geomorphic report for the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, site. To clarify the NRC`s position, a DOE/NRC conference call was held on 12 April 1994. The NRC clarified that it did not require a preliminary erosion protection design for the Canonsburg site, but directed the DOE to address a ``one-bad-year`` scenario. The NRC wants confirmation that one bad year of stream flooding and landsliding will not release residual radioactive material (RRM) from the Canonsburg site into the creek. The NRC is concerned that a bad year theoretically could occur between postcell-closure inspections. These annual inspections are conducted in September or October. The NRC suggested that the following procedures should be conducted in this analysis: a flooding analysis, including the maximum saturation levels (flood water elevations) anticipated during a 100-year flood; a stream bank erosion analysis to determine how much of the bank adjacent to the site may be removed in a bad year; a slope stability analysis to determine how far back the site would be disturbed by slope instability that could be triggered by a bad year of stream bank erosion; and a ``critical cross section`` study to show the relationship of the RRM located outside the disposal cell to the maximum computer estimated erosion/landslide activity.

  11. Tube bank wastage in the Grimethorpe pressurized fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    The coal-fired pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) at Grimethorpe, England, was run for over 3600 hours of combustion testing under the joint sponsorship of the governments of the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, and the US. Early in the course of these tests, significant metal wastage was experienced, especially on the inbed heat transfer tubes. This paper describes the modifications to design and new alloys which were tested in the PFBC. Operating conditions for three tube banks are given. A new tube bank, D, has been designed which incorporates a variety of alloy types, a number of tubes designed to operate at higher temperatures than those typical of the rest of the tube bank, and some tubes fitted with fins. The datum fluidizing velocity has been reduced to 0.8 m/sec. The effects of these variables: metal surface temperature, alloy chromium content, fin or stud arrangements, and fluidizing velocity, will be investigated in a continuing program funded by British Coal and the Central Electricity Generating Board of the UK, with some participation from the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute. 3 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  12. Incident report. Tube Bank C-metal wastage status report, November 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    During the Hot Commissioning tests in preparation for Test Series 2, a significant degree of metal wastage occurred on the external surfaces of Tube Bank 'C'. The extent of the metal wastage was unexpected and has been a matter of concern to the Project. The report provides a history of the operational period for Tube Bank 'C' and details the measurements of metal wastage that have been recorded. The project has initiated an extensive study of the possible cause, or causes, of the metal wastage and these are discussed. Operational tests are to be carried out at Grimethorpe, CURL and CRE with a view to determining the mechanism of metal wastage that exists within the fluidized bed. The results of these tests will be reported and will form the basis for the design of a new bank, which will be installed in the combustor in due course, if required. The Project is taking necessary steps to ensure that the cause of the metal wastage is fully investigated and that the resultant slippage in the Test Series 2 schedule is minimised.

  13. DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING ARP PRODUCT SIMULANT AND SB4 TANK 40 SLUDGE SLURRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D; John Pareizs, J; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Stone, M; Damon Click, D; Erich Hansen, E; Kim Crapse, K; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-14

    The radioactive startup of two new SRS processing facilities, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side-Solvent-Extraction Unit (MCU) will add two new waste streams to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The ARP will remove actinides from the 5.6 M salt solution resulting in a sludge-like product that is roughly half monosodium titanate (MST) insoluble solids and half sludge insoluble solids. The ARP product will be added to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) at boiling and dewatered prior to pulling a SRAT receipt sample. The cesium rich MCU stream will be added to the SRAT at boiling after both formic and nitric acid have been added and the SRAT contents concentrated to the appropriate endpoint. A concern was raised by an external hydrogen review panel that the actinide loaded MST could act as a catalyst for hydrogen generation (Mar 15, 2007 report, Recommendation 9). Hydrogen generation, and it's potential to form a flammable mixture in the off-gas, under SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processing conditions has been a concern since the discovery that noble metals catalyze the decomposition of formic acid. Radiolysis of water also generates hydrogen, but the radiolysis rate is orders of magnitude lower than the noble metal catalyzed generation. As a result of the concern raised by the external hydrogen review panel, hydrogen generation was a prime consideration in this experiment. Testing was designed to determine whether the presence of the irradiated ARP simulant containing MST caused uncontrolled or unexpected hydrogen production during experiments simulating the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) due to activation of titanium. A Shielded Cells experiment, SC-5, was completed using SB4 sludge from Tank 405 combined with an ARP product produced from simulants by SRNL researchers. The blend of sludge and MST was designed to be prototypic of planned DWPF SRAT and SME cycles. As glass quality was not an objective in this experiment, no vitrification of the SME product was completed. The results from this experiment were compared to the results from experiment SC-1, a similar experiment with SB4 sludge without added ARP product. This report documents: (1) The preparation and subsequent composition of the ARP product. (2) The preparation and subsequent compositional characterization of the SRAT Receipt sample. Additional details will be presented concerning the noble metal concentration of the ARP product and the SRAT receipt sample. Also, calculations related to the amount of formic and nitric acid added during SRAT processing will be presented as excess formic acid will lead to additional hydrogen generation. (3) Highlights from processing during the SRAT cycle and SME cycle (CPC processing). Hydrogen generation will be discussed since this was the prime objective for this experiment. (4) A comparison of CPC processing between SC-1 (without ARP simulant) and SC-5. This work was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP)6, and analyses were guided by an Analytical Sample Support Matrix (ASSM)7. This Research and Development (R&D) was completed to support operation of DWPF.

  14. KINETIC MODELING OF A FISCHER-TROPSCH REACTION OVER A COBALT CATALYST IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR FOR INCORPORATION INTO A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLUID DYNAMICS MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anastasia Gribik; Doona Guillen, PhD; Daniel Ginosar, PhD

    2008-09-01

    Currently multi-tubular fixed bed reactors, fluidized bed reactors, and slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) are used in commercial Fischer Tropsch (FT) synthesis. There are a number of advantages of the SBCR compared to fixed and fluidized bed reactors. The main advantage of the SBCR is that temperature control and heat recovery are more easily achieved. The SBCR is a multiphase chemical reactor where a synthesis gas, comprised mainly of H2 and CO, is bubbled through a liquid hydrocarbon wax containing solid catalyst particles to produce specialty chemicals, lubricants, or fuels. The FT synthesis reaction is the polymerization of methylene groups [-(CH2)-] forming mainly linear alkanes and alkenes, ranging from methane to high molecular weight waxes. The Idaho National Laboratory is developing a computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) model of the FT process in a SBCR. This paper discusses the incorporation of absorption and reaction kinetics into the current hydrodynamic model. A phased approach for incorporation of the reaction kinetics into a CMFD model is presented here. Initially, a simple kinetic model is coupled to the hydrodynamic model, with increasing levels of complexity added in stages. The first phase of the model includes incorporation of the absorption of gas species from both large and small bubbles into the bulk liquid phase. The driving force for the gas across the gas liquid interface into the bulk liquid is dependent upon the interfacial gas concentration in both small and large bubbles. However, because it is difficult to measure the concentration at the gas-liquid interface, coefficients for convective mass transfer have been developed for the overall driving force between the bulk concentrations in the gas and liquid phases. It is assumed that there are no temperature effects from mass transfer of the gas phases to the bulk liquid phase, since there are only small amounts of dissolved gas in the liquid phase. The product from the incorporation of absorption is the steady state concentration profile of the absorbed gas species in the bulk liquid phase. The second phase of the model incorporates a simplified macrokinetic model to the mass balance equation in the CMFD code. Initially, the model assumes that the catalyst particles are sufficiently small such that external and internal mass and heat transfer are not rate limiting. The model is developed utilizing the macrokinetic rate expression developed by Yates and Satterfield (1991). Initially, the model assumes that the only species formed other than water in the FT reaction is C27H56. Change in moles of the reacting species and the resulting temperature of the catalyst and fluid phases is solved simultaneously. The macrokinetic model is solved in conjunction with the species transport equations in a separate module which is incorporated into the CMFD code.

  15. Case Study - Compressed Natural Gas Refuse Fleets

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    CNG ........................................................................................................................................ 4 Financial Benefits ........................................................................................................................................................... 4 Environment and Energy Benefits .............................................................................................................................. 4 Other Benefits

  16. Regional geology of Georges Bank basin - OCS Sale 42 drilling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    High, L.R. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Industry bid aggressively in OCS Sale 42, spending $816 million. Eight wildcats were drilled in 1981-82 to test 5 major plays. All wells were dry; no potential reservoir or source rocks were found. The tectonic-stratigraphic framework of the Georges Bank basin is that of an Atlantic-type plate margin. Two major unconformities divide the section into prerift, synrift, and postrift sequences. The prerift sequence consists of Paleozoic metasediments in basement fault blocks. Synrift sediments consist of Newark Group equivalents: the Argo Salt and the Iroquoi Formation. The postrift sequence consists of Mohican red beds overlain by progradational wedges, with the carbonate Abenaki Formation at the base. The objective in 4 of the 8 wildcats was the Iroquois Formation. Mobil 312-1 and Shell 357-1 were drilled into a seismic anomaly interpreted to be a reef. This structure was found to be a complex carbonate mound. Exxon 975-1 was drilled on a seismic amplitude anomaly variously interpreted to be the result of salt, coal, or porous carbonates. This anomaly proved to be caused by a salt bed. The objective in Shell 410-1R was carbonate banks over a basement horst block. No significant zones of porosity were found. The remaining 4 wildcats were drilled on Abenaki prospects. Mobil 273-1, Tenneco 187-1d, and Conoco 145-1 were drilled for possible carbonate banks over a salt structure. Only thin oolitic grainstone intervals were found. Exxon 133-1 was based on a seismic anomaly interpreted to be a patch reef. This feature was found to be a volcanic cone.

  17. The green bank northern celestial cap pulsar survey. I. Survey description, data analysis, and initial results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, K.; Dartez, L. P.; Ford, A. J.; Garcia, A.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Leake, S.; Lynch, R. S.; Archibald, A. M.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Day, D.; Flanigan, J.; Kaplan, D. L.; Boyles, J.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I.; and others

    2014-08-10

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts, at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4096 channels every 81.92 μs. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope (δ > –40°, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane will be sensitive enough to detect slow pulsars and low dispersion measure (<30 pc cm{sup –3}) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with a 0.08 duty cycle down to 1.1 mJy. For pulsars with a spectral index of –1.6, we will be 2.5 times more sensitive than previous and ongoing surveys over much of our survey region. Here we describe the survey, the data analysis pipeline, initial discovery parameters for 62 pulsars, and timing solutions for 5 new pulsars. PSR J0214+5222 is an MSP in a long-period (512 days) orbit and has an optical counterpart identified in archival data. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very short-period (96 minutes) orbit with a very low mass companion (8 M{sub J}). PSR J0645+5158 is an isolated MSP with a timing residual RMS of 500 ns and has been added to pulsar timing array experiments. PSR J1434+7257 is an isolated, intermediate-period pulsar that has been partially recycled. PSR J1816+4510 is an eclipsing MSP in a short-period orbit (8.7 hr) and may have recently completed its spin-up phase.

  18. Speakers: Adam Sieminski, Deutsche Bank Stephen P. A. Brown, Resources for the Future

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5: "Energy and the Economy" Speakers: Adam Sieminski, Deutsche Bank Stephen P. A. Brown, Resources for the Future Donald L. Paul, University of Southern California Energy Institute David Sandalow, DOE Christof Rühl, Group Chief Economist, BP [Note: Recorders did not pick up introduction of panel (see biographies for details on the panelists) or introduction of session.] Adam: Microphone. So, we've lost a little bit of time because of all of the sessions running a bit over, but here is

  19. Low jitter spark gap switch for repetitively pulsed parallel capacitor banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    A two-section air insulated spark gap has been developed for switching multi-kilojoule plus-minus charged parallel capacitor banks which operate continuously at pulse rates up to 20 pps. The switch operates with less than 2 ns jitter, recovers its dielectric strength within 2 to 5 ms and has not shown degraded performance in sequential test runs totaling over a million shots. Its estimated life with copper electrodes is > 10/sup 7/ shots. All preliminary tests indicate that the switch is suitable for continuous running multi-kilojoule systems operating to at least 20 pps.

  20. Tube bank metal wastage in the Grimethorpe PFBC. [Pressurized fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    The 2 m x 2 m PFBC facility at Grimethorpe, England is designed to explore the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of coal over a wide range of conditions. A significant degree of metal wastage was observed on the fireside surfaces of the tube bank which occurred during 468 coal-burning hours of hot shakedown and hot commissioning testing. This paper described the operating conditions during testing, the erosion of the metal surfaces, and the repair and modifications undertaken. 1 reference, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Design, fabrication, and integration testing of the Garden Banks 388 subsea production template

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ledbetter, W.R.; Smith, D.W.; Pierce, D.M.; Padilla, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Enserch Exploration`s Garden Banks 388 development has a production scheme based around a floating drilling and production facility and subsea drilling/production template. The Floating Production Facility (FPF) is a converted semisubmersible drilling rig that will drill and produce through a 24-well slot subsea template. This development is located in Block 388 of the Garden Banks area in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 200 miles southwest of New Orleans, Louisiana. The production system is being installed in an area of known oil and gas reserves and will produce to a shallow water platform 54 miles away at Eugene Island 315. The FPF will be permanently moored above the template. The subsea template has been installed in 2190 feet of water and will produce through a 2,000 foot free-standing production riser system to the FPF. The produced fluids are partially separated on the FPF before oil and gas are pumped through the template to export gathering lines that are connected to the shallow water facility. The system designed through-put is 40,000 BOPD of oil and 120 MMSCFD of gas.

  2. Longitudinal Bank for Serum, Plasma and DNA for Detection of Biomarkers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, David C

    2009-07-20

    With the support of this DOE appropriation, NVCI has established a biorepository for serum, plasma, DNA and urine specimens. Over 2,500 patients have been consented which is over 90% of all new patients seen at NVCI. The specimens have been coded, centrifuged, aliquoted and frozen at -80?C in a rapid manner so that they are all processed in less than 1 hour from the acquisition. There are over 28,000 aliquoted, coded tubes in our inventory. Specimens from 200 control volunteer subjects without any history of cancer also have been banked. The patient specimens are encoded and the demographics and therapeutic treatments are linked to the Oncore software. This computer program catalogues the specimens and provides a rapid conduit between the biorepository and the NVCI electronic medical record.

  3. Longitudinal Bank for Serum, Plasma, and DNA for Detection of Biomarkers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogelzang, Nicolas; Fink, Louis

    2007-11-12

    The discovery of genetic or biochemical markers to discriminate malignant cancers from normal or benign disease states, markers to stage cancer or monitor disease progression and markers that provide an early indication of an individuals response to chemotherapy have become a major research objectives of the oncology community over the past few years. The goal of the project is to create a patient speciment bank of serum, plasma, urine and tissues from approximately 1500 individuals. The collection of samples from individuals on a longitudinal basis provided proteomic and biochemical data to be correlated with clinical endpoints. This greatly enhanced our ability to identify biiomarkers for staging different cancers and to detect patient responsiveness to therapy at an early state in the treatment process.

  4. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project Annual Report : Fiscal Year 2008 (March 1, 2008 to February 1, 2009).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polacek, Matt

    2009-07-15

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration, and continued project tasks in 2008. The objective was to evaluate factors that could limit kokanee in Banks Lake, including water quality, prey availability, harvest, and acute predation during hatchery releases. Water quality parameters were collected twice monthly from March through November. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in May and stratification was apparent by July. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to 15 meters deep, with temperatures of 21-23 C in the epilimnion and 16-19 C in the hypolimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 8 mg/L until August when they dropped near or below 5 mg/L deeper than 20-meters. Secchi depths ranged from 3.2 to 6.2 meters and varied spatially and temporally. Daphnia and copepod densities were the highest in May and June, reaching densities of 26 copepods/liter and 9 Daphnia/liter. Fish surveys were conducted in July and October 2008 using boat electrofishing, gill netting, and hydroacoustic surveys. Lake whitefish (71%) and yellow perch (16%) dominated the limnetic fish assemblage in the summer, while lake whitefish (46%) and walleye (22%) were the most abundant in gill net catch during the fall survey. Piscivore diets switched from crayfish prior to the release of rainbow trout to crayfish and rainbow trout following the release. The highest angling pressure occurred in May, when anglers were primarily targeting walleye and smallmouth bass. Boat anglers utilized Steamboat State Park more frequently than any other boat ramp on Banks Lake. Shore anglers used the rock jetty at Coulee City Park 45% of the time, with highest use occurring from November through April. Ice fishing occurred in January and February at the south end of the lake. An estimated total of 4,397 smallmouth bass, 11,106 walleye, 371 rainbow trout, and 509 yellow perch were harvested from Banks Lake in 2008. No kokanee were reported in the creel; however, local reports indicated that anglers were targeting and catching kokanee. The economic benefit of the Banks Lake fishery was estimated at $2,288,005 during 2008. Abundance estimates from the hydroacoustic survey in July were 514,435 lake whitefish and 10,662 kokanee, with an overall abundance estimate of 626,061 limnetic fish greater than 100 mm. When comparing spring fry, fall fingerling and yearling net pen release strategies of kokanee, 95% were of hatchery origin, with the highest recaptures coming from the fall fingerling release group.

  5. Stored Guthrie cards as DNA [open quotes]Banks[close quotes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEwen, J.E.; Reilly, P.R. )

    1994-07-01

    Recently there has been much discussion about the possibility of using dried blood spots on Guthrie cards as a source of DNA for research or testing purposes. The collections of Guthrie cards stored by state newborn-screening laboratories can thus be viewed as inchoate [open quotes]DNA banks[close quotes]. This has generated concern among some persons who are interested in preserving the privacy of medical records. This study examines the policies of state newborn-screening laboratories in the United States, regarding their retention of Guthrie cards and the degree to which they permit the sharing of those cards with various third parties. The authors found that although most laboratories retain their cards, if at all, for only a short time, a growing number plan to keep them for an extended period-and, in several cases, indefinitely. They also found that although most laboratories would decline to release individually identifiable blood spots from the cards to third parties without a written release or other explicit authorization, a large number would at least consider sharing anonymous cards for research purposes. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Longwall data bank. Semiannual project report, May 28-November 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This is the first semiannual report on Contract No. DE-AC01-81FE00080 entitled Longwall Data Bank. The objectives of the program are to compile and transfer to the coal industry comprehensive longwall operational data representing 95 percent of the US longwall installations and to provide abstracts of domestic and foreign literature published since 1975 related to longwall production, productivity, and dust control. The number of longwall faces operating in the US is steadily increasing, but their full production potential has not been achieved due to problems such as respirable-dust control, excessive move time, roof control, etc. Generally, longwall operators are not knowledgeable of operational data for longwall operations other than their own, nor of results from current longwall research. Therefore, the purpose of this program is to establish more effective technology-transfer procedures. The literature search was completed, except for an ongoing review of weekly abstract publications. Working cards were completed for the comprehensive index file for all longwall publications of interest; abstracts were prepared for selected longwall publications. Revised questionnaire forms, with information from the original questionnaires, were forwarded for updating to nearly all companies presently in the questionnaire file. Selected operational data were tabulated and compared.

  7. Biological Macromolecular Structures Data from the RCSB Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB) is a non-profit consortium that works to improve understanding of the function of biological systems through the study of the 3-D structure of biological macromolecules. The RCSB PDB is one of three sites serving as deposition, data processing, and distribution sites of the Protein Data Bank Archive. Each site provides its own view of the primary data, thus providing a variety of tools and resources for the global community. RCSB is also the official keeper for the PDB archive, with sole access authority to the PDB archive directory structure and contents. The RCSB PDB Information Portal for Biological Macromolecular Structures offers online tools for search and retrieval, for visualizing structures, for depositing, validating, or downloading data, news and highlights, a discussion forum, and links to other areas of related research. The PDB archive is a repository of atomic coordinates and other information describing proteins and other important biological macromolecules. Structural biologists use methods such as X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy to determine the location of each atom relative to each other in the molecule. They then deposit this information, which is then annotated and publicly released into the archive by the wwPDB. Results can be viewed as 3-D images or models.

  8. Ground water flow velocity in the bank of the Columbia River, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballard, S.

    1995-12-01

    To properly characterize the transport of contaminants from the sediments beneath the Hanford Site into the Columbia River, a suite of In Situ Permeable Flow Sensors was deployed to accurately characterize the hydrologic regime in the banks of the river. The three dimensional flow velocity was recorded on an hourly basis from mid May to mid July, 1994 and for one week in September. The first data collection interval coincided with the seasonal high water level in the river while the second interval reflected conditions during relatively low seasonal river stage. Two flow sensors located approximately 50 feet from the river recorded flow directions which correlated very well with river stage, both on seasonal and diurnal time scales. During time intervals characterized by falling river stage, the flow sensors recorded flow toward the river while flow away from the river was recorded during times of rising river stage. The flow sensor near the river in the Hanford Formation recorded a component of flow oriented vertically downward, probably reflecting the details of the hydrostratigraphy in close proximity to the probe. The flow sensor near the river in the Ringold Formation recorded an upward component of flow which dominated the horizontal components most of the time. The upward flow in the Ringold probably reflects regional groundwater flow into the river. The magnitudes of the flow velocities recorded by the flow sensors were lower than expected, probably as a result of drilling induced disturbance of the hydraulic properties of the sediments around the probes. The probes were installed with resonant sonic drilling which may have compacted the sediments immediately surrounding the probes, thereby reducing the hydraulic conductivity adjacent to the probes and diverting the groundwater flow away from the sensors.

  9. SIMULATION RESULTS OF RUNNING THE AGS MMPS, BY STORING ENERGY IN CAPACITOR BANKS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARNERIS, I.

    2006-09-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to equivalent maximum proton energy of 29 GeV. The AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps, +/-go00 Volts. The peak magnet power is 49.5 Mwatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. The motor is rated at 9 MW, input voltage 3 phase 13.8 KV 60 Hz. The generator is rated at 50 MVA its output voltage is 3 phase 7500 Volts. Thus the peak power requirements come from the stored energy in the rotor of the motor/generator. The rotor changes speed by about +/-2.5% of its nominal speed of 1200 Revolutions per Minute. The reason the power supply is powered by the Generator is that the local power company (LIPA) can not sustain power swings of +/- 50 MW in 0.5 sec if the power supply were to be interfaced directly with the AC lines. The Motor Generator is about 45 years old and Siemens is not manufacturing similar machines in the future. As a result we are looking at different ways of storing energy and being able to utilize it for our application. This paper will present simulations of a power supply where energy is stored in capacitor banks. The simulation program used is called PSIM Version 6.1. The control system of the power supply will also be presented. The average power from LIPA into the power supply will be kept constant during the pulsing of the magnets at +/-50 MW. The reactive power will also be kept constant below 1.5 MVAR. Waveforms will be presented.

  10. Long-term monitoring of reef corals at the Flower Garden Banks (northwest Gulf of Mexico): Reef coral population changes and historical incorporation of barium in Montastrea annularis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deslarzes, K.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Reef coral populations were monitored from 1988 to 1991 at the Flower Garden Banks located in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. The status of reef coral populations, and natural or man-made factors potentially affecting their well-being were determined. Man-made chronic disturbances are degrading coral reef resources on a global scale. Yet, the Flower Garden coral reefs seem to have been sheltered from the effects of regional stresses generated by population growth and increased industrial activity. Since 1974, reef coral population levels have remained unchanged in the Montastrea-Diploria Zones at the Flower Garden Banks. Live coral cover ranges between 46 and 46.5%. Montastrea annularis and Diploria strigosa comprise 80% of the coral cover on either bank. The remainder of the cover is mostly shared by eight other taxa. Coral taxa appear to be more homogeneously distributed on the West Bank. The relatively greater number of Agaricia spp., Madracis decastis, and P. astreoides colonies on the East Bank may be the source of a decreased evenness. The health of reef corals was assessed using repetitive and non-repetitive photographic methods, and accretionary growth measurements of M. annularis. Reef corals have undergone small scale changes at the Flower Gardens probably reflecting natural disturbance, predation, disease, and inter-specific competition. White mat disease (ridge disease) is shown to generate more tissue loss than any of the three bleaching events that took place at the Flower Gardens (1989, 1990, and 1991). Advance to retreat linear ratios of encrusting growth revealed a net tissue gain on the East Bank and a net tissue loss on the West Bank. Growth rates of M. annularis were highly variable. The annual barium content from 1910 in 1989 in a M. annularis colony from the West Flower Garden did not reveal trends associated with the extensive oil and gas exploration in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  11. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  12. Longwall data bank. Quarterly project status report, February 28-May 28, 1982 and semiannual report No. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    During the period of February through May 1982, five updated longwall questionnaires were received from operators and two additional longwalls were added to the questionnaire file. Two requests for information from the Data Bank were received and processed. Data from questionnaires were tabulated and analyzed. Also, relevant coal-mining publications were reviewed for longwall references and 29 were added to the index file. Thirty abstracts were prepared from selected R and D reports, conference papers, and articles in professional journals. These and 15 others prepared since the first semiannual report appear in Appendix B.

  13. Development of alternative fuels from coal derived syngas. Topical report: Task 2.2, Demonstration of a one-step slurry-phase process for the production of dimethyl ether/methanol mixtures at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report documents engineering, modification, and operations efforts of demonstration of dimethyl-ether/methanol coproduction in a slurry-phase reactor, carried out in a 2-ft diameter bubble column reactor. Equipment modifications made it possible to remove the product DME and by-product CO{sub 2} from the reactor effluent. Coproduction of dimethyl-ether (DME) and methanol (MeOH) was accomplished in the slurry reactor by physically mixing two different catalysts. The catalyst used to produce MeOH from syngas was manufactured by BASF (type S3-86); the catalyst used to convert MeOH to DME was Catapal {gamma}-alumina. Ratio of MeOH to DME catalysts determined the selectivity towards DME. The demonstration sought to study effect of cocatalyst ratio on product selectivity. Three different proportions of DME catalyst were examined: 0, 6.6, and 19.3 wt % alumina. At each catalyst proportion, the plant was operated at two different gas space velocities. Some process variables were maintained at fixed conditions; most important variables included: reactor temperature (482F), reactor pressure (750 psig), and reactor feed gas composition (35% H{sub 2}, 51% CO,13% CO{sub 2} 1% other, nominal-molar basis).

  14. Coal-water slurry atomization characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    The overall objective of this work was to fully characterize the CWS fuel sprays of a medium-speed diesel engine injection system. Specifically, the spray plume penetration as a function of time was determined for a positive-displacement fuel injection system. The penetration was determined as a function of orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the engine, and fuel line pressure. Preliminary droplet information also was obtained. The results of this study will assist CWS engine development by providing much needed insight about the fuel spray. In addition, the results will aid the development and use of CWS engine cycle simulations which require information on the fuel spray characteristics.

  15. Circulation in gas-slurry column reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, N.; Kuhlman, J.; Celik, I.; Gross, R.; Nebiolo, E.; Wang, Yi-Zun.

    1990-08-15

    Circulation in bubble columns, such as those used in fischer-tropsch synthesis, detracts from their performance in that gas is carried on average more rapidly through the column, and the residence time distribution of the gas in the column is widened. Both of these factors influence mass-transfer operations in bubble columns. Circulation prediction and measurement has been undertaken using probes, one-dimensional models, laser Doppler velocimetry, and numerical modeling. Local void fraction was measured using resistance probes and a newly developed approach to determining air/water threshold voltage for the probe. A tall column of eight inch diameter was constructed of Plexiglas and the distributor plate was manufactured to distribute air evenly through the base of the column. Data were gathered throughout the volume at three different gas throughputs. Bubble velocities proved difficult to measure using twin probes with cross-correlation because of radial bubble movement. A series of three-dimensional mean and RMS bubble and liquid velocity measurements were also obtained for a turbulent flow in a laboratory model of a bubble column. These measurements have been made using a three-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV), to determine velocity distributions non-intrusively. Finally, the gas-liquid flow inside a vertically situated circular isothermal column reactor was simulated numerically. 74 refs., 170 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Radiolytic gas generation in crystalline silicotitanate slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-12-15

    This study measured the impact of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) solids on the rate of formation and composition of radiolytically generated gases in simulated Savannah River Site liquid waste.

  17. Monitoring bank erosion at the Locke Island Archaeological National Register District: Summary of 1996/1997 field activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nickens, P.R.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Nickens, P.R.; Cadoret, N.A.; Wright, M.K.

    1998-08-01

    Locke Island is located in the Columbia River in south-central Washington. The US Department of Energy (DOE) owns Locke Island as part of its Hanford Site. In the 1960s and 1970s, as a result of intensive irrigation developments on the inland shoreline to the east of the island, the White Bluffs, which form the eastern boundary of the Columbia River channel in this area, began to show geological failures as excess irrigation water seeped out along the bluffs. One of the largest such failures, known as the Locke Island Landslide, is located just east of Locke Island. By the early 1980s, this landslide mass had moved westward into the river channel toward the island and was diverting the current at the island`s eastern perimeter. Erosion of the bank in the center of the island accelerated, threatening the cultural resources. By the early 1990s, the erosion had exposed cultural features and artifacts along the bank, leading to the beginning of intermittent monitoring of the cutbank. In 1994, DOE initiated more scheduled, systematic monitoring of island erosion to better understand the physical processes involved as well as mitigate ongoing loss of the archaeological record.

  18. Longwall data bank. Quarterly project status report, August 28-November 28, 1982 and semiannual report No. 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of the program are to compile and transfer to the coal industry comprehensive operational data on US longwall installations, and to provide abstracts of domestic and foreign literature related to longwall production, productivity, and dust control published since 1975. During the period of August through November 1982, five updated longwall questionnaires were received from operators and two additional longwalls were added to the questionnaire file. Three requests for information from the Data Bank were received and processed. Data from questionnaires were tabulated and analyzed. Also, relevant coal-mining publications were reviewed for articles on longwall mining. Fifteen abstracts were prepared from selected R and D reports, conference papers, and articles in professional journals. These abstracts are included in Appendix B.

  19. NJ Compressed Natural Gas Refuse Trucks, Shuttle Buses and Infrastructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  20. NJ Compressed Natural Gas Refuse Trucks, Shuttle Buses and Infrastructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  1. NJ Compressed Natural Gas Refuse Trucks, Shuttle Buses and Infrastructure |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy February 3, 2011 Preventing Sensitization and Disease from Beryllium Exposure The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) requests assistance in preventing beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease. Development of these conditions requires exposure to beryllium and is affected by both job tasks and genetic factors. Some jobs or tasks involve exposures that increase the risk of sensitization and disease. Some people have inherited genes that make

  2. Combustion characteristics of refuse derived fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, W.; Macek, A.; Domalski, E.; Walker, J.A.; Charagundla, S.R.; Colbert, J.C.; Kirklin, D.R.; Ledford, A.E. Jr.; Decker, P.H.; Ryan, R.V.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the laboratory studies presented here is to furnish preliminary input to the technologists in the sense of providing relative rankings through comparisons of appropriate coal and MSW combustion related properties. Support for a future program of sub-scale (demonstration or pilot) experiments to expand on the concepts and quantify them for scale-up to industrial sizes should be provided. A complete plan for this second phase study is included as an appendix to this report. With respect to the actual experimental investigations; these consist of three main tasks. Specifically: (a) static measurements (calorimetry, proximates and ultimate analysis; (b) dynamic measurements using the full range of modern thermoanalytical instrumentation; and (c) combustion of particulates in a specially constructed laboratory furnace as well as studies on the entrainment properties of MSW. The first two tasks deal mainly with the chemical properties of municipal solid waste and is of general utility. The latter is more specifically orientated. The scale of laboratory instrumentation set definite to the limits particle size with respect to the intrainment and combustion studies. Thus the most straightforward application is to combustion in stokers, including semi-suspension units.

  3. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE ZPECTROMETER CO(1-0) OBSERVATIONS OF THE STRONGLY LENSED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES FROM THE HERSCHEL ATLAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frayer, D. T.; Maddalena, R.; Harris, A. I.; Baker, A. J.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, Ian; Negrello, M.; Aretxaga, I.; Baes, M.; Birkinshaw, M.; Bonfield, D. G.; Burgarella, D.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Cooray, A.; Dannerbauer, H.

    2011-01-10

    The Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) has uncovered a population of strongly lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). The Zpectrometer instrument on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was used to measure the redshifts and constrain the masses of the cold molecular gas reservoirs for two candidate high-redshift lensed sources. We derive CO(1-0) redshifts of z = 3.042 {+-} 0.001 and z = 2.625 {+-} 0.001, and measure molecular gas masses of (1-3) x10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, corrected for lens amplification and assuming a conversion factor of {alpha} = 0.8 M{sub sun}( K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1}. We find typical L(IR)/L'(CO) ratios of 120 {+-} 40 and 140 {+-} 50 L{sub sun}( K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1}, which are consistent with those found for local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and other high-redshift SMGs. From analysis of published data, we find no evidence for enhanced L(IR)/L'(CO(1-0)) ratios for the SMG population in comparison to local ULIRGs. The GBT results highlight the power of using the CO lines to derive blind redshifts, which is challenging for the SMGs at optical wavelengths given their high obscuration.

  4. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klass, D.L. ); Khwaja, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Tubing wastage in fluidized-bed coal combustors (Grimethorpe PFBC (pressurized fluidized-bed combustion) Tube Bank E'')

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherell, C.E.

    1989-10-04

    Samples of evaporator tubing from Tube Bank E'' of the Grimethorpe pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) facility in the UK were examined in the third of a series of studies being conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The program is being conducted to identify the mechanism or mechanisms responsible for metal loss (wastage) of in-bed carbon-steel evaporator tubes in bubbling-bed coal combustors. Results of examination suggest that bed conditions were less aggressive than in previous experiments in this combustor; however, tubing wastage was observed in some samples. Observations made on these tubes are consistent with the hypothesis of tubing wastage proposed in reports of previous LLNL studies conducted under this program that the dominant cause of metal loss is exfoliation of the normally-protective oxide scale by impacting bed particulates. Good correlation was also observed with trends noted earlier that microstructure of the tubing steel plays a role in its wastage response. 12 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Stromatolites, ooid dunes, hardgrounds, and crusted mud beds, all products of marine cementation and microbial mats in subtidal oceanic mixing zone on eastern margin of Great Bahama Bank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dill, R.F.; Kendall, C.S.C.G.; Steinen, R.P.

    1989-03-01

    The interisland channels along the eastern margin of the Great Bahamas Bank contain lithified structures that owe their origin to recent marine cementation. This cementation appears to be commonly associated with a complex microbial community of plants and microorganisms living within a bank-margin oceanographic mixing zone. In this region, reversing tidal and wind-driven currents flow up to 3 knots (150 cm/sec) three hours out of each six-hour tidal period. Here, marine-cement crusted, carbonate mud beds are found interbedded within migrating ooid sand bars and dunes and are associated with growing, lithified stromatolites up to 2 m in height. These laminated mud beds are found with thicknesses of up to 1 m in subtidal depths of 4 to 8 m (12 to 25 ft). The muds appear to be homogeneous, but closer examination by SEM and under a microscope reveals they are composed of pelletoid aggregates of needle-shaped aragonite crystals with diameters of up to 50 ..mu... The size of these soft pellets is similar to the smaller grains of ooid sands that are abundant in the area. This size similarity could explain why both the mud beds are found in similar high-energy hydraulic regimes as the ooid sands, but does not suggest how or why the aggregates of pure aragonite needles form. A high production of ooid sand within this bank margin environment permits the formation of natural levees along the margins of tidal channels. The back sides of these levees are being lithified by marine cements to form hardgrounds. Skeletal and ooid sand dunes stabilized by Thallasia in channel bottoms also are becoming lithified. Grapestones form at the distributaries of flood tidal deltas of ooid sand. All of these features have a common attribute: they are continually in contact with the turbulent mixing-zone waters.

  7. NY Green Bank

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    capital markets for large scale infrastructure are deep and robust. These markets enjoy economies of scale with low relative transaction costs and well-understood risk. These...

  8. Longwall data bank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    Sixteen longwall questionnaires were received from operators and two additional longwalls were added to the questionnaire file. Data from questionnaires were tabulated and analyzed. Relevant coal mining publications were reviewed for longwall references and 25 were added to the index file. Fifteen abstracts from selected R and D reports and professional journal articles were prepared.

  9. Clean energy from municipal solid waste. Technical progress report No. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klosky, M.

    1996-04-08

    This report documents progress made for the time period of January to April, 1996 in developing and testing a slurry carbonization plant at the Energy and Environment Research Center (EERC) in North Dakota. Various combinations of paper and plastics were carbonized` Performance parameters were assessed and the resulting refuse derived fuel pellets were analyzed for chemical composition and caloric values. Difficulties with performance and reliability of the equipment are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of slurry injection technology for management of drilling wastes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Dusseault, M. B.

    2003-02-19

    Each year, thousands of new oil and gas wells are drilled in the United States and around the world. The drilling process generates millions of barrels of drilling waste each year, primarily used drilling fluids (also known as muds) and drill cuttings. The drilling wastes from most onshore U.S. wells are disposed of by removing the liquids from the drilling or reserve pits and then burying the remaining solids in place (called pit burial). This practice has low cost and the approval of most regulatory agencies. However, there are some environmental settings in which pit burial is not allowed, such as areas with high water tables. In the U.S. offshore environment, many water-based and synthetic-based muds and cuttings can be discharged to the ocean if discharge permit requirements are met, but oil-based muds cannot be discharged at all. At some offshore facilities, drilling wastes must be either hauled back to shore for disposal or disposed of onsite through an injection process.

  11. Process for preparing a stabilized coal-water slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N.; Kang, Doohee

    1987-01-01

    A process for preparing a stabilized coal particle suspension which includes the steps of providing an aqueous media substantially free of coal oxidizing constituents, reducing, in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, the particle size of the coal to be suspended to a size sufficiently small to permit suspension thereof in the aqueous media and admixing the coal of reduced particle size with the aqueous media to release into the aqueous media coal stabilizing constituents indigenous to and carried by the reduced coal particles in order to form a stabilized coal particle suspension. The coal stabilizing constituents are effective in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to maintain the coal particle suspension at essentially a neutral or alkaline pH. The coal is ground in a nonoxidizing atmosphere such as an inert gaseous atmosphere to reduce the coal to a sufficient particle size and is admixed with an aqueous media that has been purged of oxygen and acid-forming gases.

  12. Process for preparing a stabilized coal-water slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, E.N.; Kang, D.

    1987-06-23

    A process is described for preparing a stabilized coal particle suspension which includes the steps of providing an aqueous media substantially free of coal oxidizing constituents, reducing, in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, the particle size of the coal to be suspended to a size sufficiently small to permit suspension thereof in the aqueous media and admixing the coal of reduced particle size with the aqueous media to release into the aqueous media coal stabilizing constituents indigenous to and carried by the reduced coal particles in order to form a stabilized coal particle suspension. The coal stabilizing constituents are effective in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to maintain the coal particle suspension at essentially a neutral or alkaline pH. The coal is ground in a nonoxidizing atmosphere such as an inert gaseous atmosphere to reduce the coal to a sufficient particle size and is admixed with an aqueous media that has been purged of oxygen and acid-forming gases. 2 figs.

  13. SCALED EXPERIMENTS EVALUATING PULSE JET MIXING OF SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Minette, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Baer, Ellen BK; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Snyder, Sandra F.

    2009-11-13

    Pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid were conducted at three geometric scales to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The test data will be used to develop mixing models. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate, the concentration of solids near the vessel floor and the minimum velocity predicted to lift solids can be calculated. The test objective was to observe the influence of vertically downward-directed jets on noncohesive solids in a series of scaled tanks with several bottom shapes. The test tanks and bottom shapes included small-and large-scale tanks with elliptical bottoms, a mid-scale tank with a spherical bottom, and a large-scale tank with an F&D bottom. During testing, the downward-directed jets were operated in either a steady flow condition or a pulsed (periodic) flow condition. The mobilization of the solids resulting from the jets was evaluated based on: the motion/agitation of the particulate on the tank floor and the elevation the solids reach within the tank; the height the solids material reaches in the tank is referred to as the cloud height (HC).

  14. SLURRY PUMP MIXING EFFECTIVENESS IN TANK 50H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2008-04-15

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models of Tank 50 with different numbers of pumps and operational modes, including pump rotation, have been developed to estimate flow patterns and the resultant sludge mixing. Major solid obstructions including the tank wall, the pump housing, the pump columns, and the 82-in central support column were included in the model. Transient analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed with FLUENT{trademark}, a commercial CFD code. All analyses were based on three-dimensional results. Recommended operational guidance was developed assuming that local fluid velocity and characteristic measures of local turbulence could be used as indicators of sludge suspension and spatial mixing. The calculation results show that three pumps, the maximum number of pumps studied, will give acceptable homogeneous mixing in about 6 minutes in terms of flow patterns and turbulent energy dissipation. These qualitative results are consistent with literature results. Sensitivity calculations have also been performed to assess the impact of different operating modes on sludge suspension and mixing. Two-pump operation provides a marginal level of sludge suspension and turbulent mixing, while one pump does not provide acceptable flow patterns and turbulent eddies for good mixing.

  15. Microhole Arrays Drilled With Advanced Abrasive Slurry Jet Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    heat removal from a larger volume of stimulated rock matrix Location of Project Tulsa, OK Impacts This technology could increase the volume of hot rock from which heat can be...

  16. Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, C.M.; Quiring, M.S.; Jensen, K.L.; Hickey, R.F.; Gillham, L.D.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes a process for the separation of catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The separation is accomplished by extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic. The purified catalyst can be upgraded by various methods.

  17. Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puneet Gupta

    2002-07-31

    This report summarizes the procedures used and results obtained in determining radial gas holdup profiles, via gamma ray scanning, and in assessing liquid and gas mixing parameters, via radioactive liquid and gas tracers, during Fischer Tropsch synthesis. The objectives of the study were (i) to develop a procedure for detection of gas holdup radial profiles in operating reactors and (ii) to test the ability of the developed, previously described, engineering models to predict the observed liquid and gas mixing patterns. It was shown that the current scanning procedures were not precise enough to obtain an accurate estimate of the gas radial holdup profile and an improved protocol for future use was developed. The previously developed physically based model for liquid mixing was adapted to account for liquid withdrawal from the mid section of the column. The ability of our engineering mixing models for liquid and gas phase to predict both liquid and gas phase tracer response was established and illustrated.

  18. IMPROVED IRON CATALYSTS FOR SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Victor Carreto-Vazquez; Dr. Wen-Ping Ma

    2001-11-28

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.

  19. Manifold to uniformly distribute a solid-liquid slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kern, Kenneth C.

    1983-01-01

    This invention features a manifold that divides a stream of coal particles and liquid into several smaller streams maintaining equal or nearly equal mass compositions. The manifold consists of a horizontal, variable area header having sharp-edged, right-angled take-offs which are oriented on the bottom of the header.

  20. Mesozoic stratigraphy and paleoenvironments of the Exxon 975-1 well, Georges Bank Basin, U. S. North Atlantic outer continental shelf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poppe, L.J.; Poag, C.W. . Quissett Labs.)

    1993-03-01

    The Exxon 975--1 well, located in the southeastern part of the Georges Bank Basin, was drilled to a total depth of 4,452 m relative to the Kelly Bushing. The oldest sediments penetrated by the well are Middle Jurassic (Bajocian-Early Bathonian), but unambiguous seismic correlations with the COST G--1 and G--2 wells show that about 6,860 m of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks rest on the Paleozoic basement at the 975--1 wellsite. The Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in the well is placed at 1,673 m; the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary occurs at 384 m. Limestone is predominant below 3,966 m (Iroquois Formation), and at the intervals 3,810--3,246 m and 1,897--1,654 m (lower and upper tongues of the Abenaki Formation). Siliciclastics of the Mohican, undivided Mic Mac-Mohawk, Missisauga, Logan Canyon, and Dawson Canyon Formations dominate the remainder of the Mesozoic section. The Exxon 975--1 well penetrated updip, more terrestrial lithofacies than the COST G--2, Conoco 145--1, and Mobil 312--1 wells. Salt, anhydrite, dolomite, and the micritic textures of the carbonates in the Iroquois Formation of the Exxon 975--1 well suggest hypersaline restricted marine and supratidal depositional environments. The predominantly nonmarine deltaic siliciclastics of the Mohican, Misaine Shale, and Mic Mac-Mohawk units are thicker in the Exxon 975--1 well, whereas marine carbonates of the Scatarie and Bacarro Limestones are usually thinner than at the downdip (seaward) wellsites. Similarly, the Early Cretaceous Missisauga and Logan Canyon Formations represent lower delta plain (alluvial and swamp) and delta front (beach, bar, and lagoon) facies at the Exxon 975--1 wellsite, whereas correlative downdip facies represent shallow marine to delta front deposition.

  1. World Bank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    interested in REDD+. The FCPF thus seeks to create an enabling environment and garner a body of knowledge and experiences that can facilitate development of a much larger global...

  2. New Report Compares Performance of Compressed Natural Gas Refuse Haulers to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Development & Launch visit: on.sce.com/ideas Mark Podorsky Principal Manager; Implementation & Information Governance Southern California Edison New Program Development & Launch visit: on.sce.com/ideas Southern California Edison An Edison International Company - Serving Customers for 125 Years Serves a population of more than 14 million people in a 50,000 square mile area of Central, Coastal, and Southern California Southern California Edison 2 New Program Development &

  3. Production of liquid fuels out of plant biomass and refuse: Methods, cost, potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woick, B.; Friedrich, R.

    1981-09-01

    Different ways of producing biomass and its conversion into high grade fuel for vehicles are reviewed with particular reference to physical and geographical factors, pertaining in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Even with the potentially small amount of biomass in the FRG, the fueling of diesel engines with rape oil or modified ethanol, which can be obtained from any cellulosic feedstock, seems to pose the fewest difficulties and promises greatest efficiency. However, the amount of fuel produced from biomass can probably only meet a very small percentage of the total amount required.

  4. Method for recovery of hydrocarbons form contaminated soil or refuse materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ignasiak, Teresa; Turak, Ali A.; Pawlak, Wanda; Ignasiak, Boleslaw L.; Guerra, Carlos R.; Zwillenberg, Melvin L.

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for separating an inert solid substantially inorganic fraction comprising sand or soil from a tarry or oily organic matter in a feedstock. The feedstock may be contaminated soil or tarry waste. The feedstock is combined with pulverized coal and water. The ratio (oil or tar to dry weight of coal) of about 1.0:10 to about 4.0:10 at a temperature in the range of 60.degree.-95.degree. C. The mixture is agitated, the coarse particles are removed, and up to about 0.10% by weight (based on weight of coal) of a frothing agent is added. The mixture is then subjected to flotation, and the froth is removed from the mixture.

  5. Overall review of work carried out at Grimethorpe in collaboration with US DOE and EPRI and under IEA Agreement on PFBC (pressurised fluidised bed combustion), 1985-1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    Between 1984 and 1988, the Grimethorpe Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Facility was operated for the UK BCC/CEGB Joint Programme on PFBC. Additional funding was obtained from the US Department of Energy (for investigation of operation using a wet slurry feed system), EPRI (for testing an advanced gas filtration device) and as an extension of the IEA Agreement in PFBC (for design of the wet slurry feed system, and further studies into the use of wet slurry). Co-operation with the US DOE extended to the investigation of metal wastage in a new tube bank, Tube Bank E', involving a US boiler manufacture, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation. The report outlines the results of this collaborative work including combustor performance, operation and performance of the wet slurry feeding system, operation and performance of the EPRI HTHP Filter, and performance of research instrumentation. It also summarizes materials aspects of the collaborative work, including those aspects of the tube bank metal wastage investigation which can be released into the public domain. 39 refs., 27 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Garden Banks 388 ROV interface systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granhaug, O.; Brewster, D.; Soliah, J.; Dubea, C.

    1995-12-31

    ROV systems integration has become an important part of the planning and implementation of deep water field development. This paper provides an overview of the GB 388 subsea development project and describes the ROV interface systems in use on the various subsea production components. The paper continues with an account of the purpose-built ROV system developed for the project. Finally, the paper describes in some detail the specialized ROV tooling and intervention systems that have been developed to assist in the installation, operation and maintenance of the subsea production equipment. The subsea intervention solutions developed for the GB 388 development project have direct application to all deep water field development projects. ROV interface systems are an integral part of current and future subsea completion technology.

  7. Garden Banks 388 subsea production control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goggans, T.; MacNeill, J.; Blincow, M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the design, analysis and performance requirements of an electrohydraulic production control system for a 24 well deepwater development controlled from a Floating Production Facility (FPF) in the Gulf of Mexico. The controls include not only topside FPF installed equipment, but subsea template and tree mounted equipment, including control umbilicals.

  8. Asian Development Bank Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Address: Kasumigaseki Building 8F 3-2-5, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Place: Tokyo, Japan Phone Number: + 81-3-3593-5500 Website: www.adbi.org Coordinates: 35.6894875,...

  9. African Development Bank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    field and country offices across the continent." Shareholders Regional Members Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad...

  10. RecycleBank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Address: 95 Morton Street Place: New York, New York Region: Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area Sector: Efficiency Number of Employees: 51-200 Website: www.recyclebank.com...

  11. Bank of Italy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBankofItaly&oldid767465" Categories: Organizations Research Institutions Public Institutions Stubs Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

  12. World Bank Data Catalog | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to be updated as additional data resources are added. These resources include databases, pre-formatted tables and reports. Each of the listings includes a description of...

  13. Asian Development Bank - Transport | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    sectorstransportmain Transport Toolkit Region(s): Asia Related Tools TRANSfer - Towards climate-friendly transport technologies and measures List of Publications from GIZ...

  14. Asian Development Bank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kazakhstan-Clean Technology Fund (CTF) Malaysia-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in Developing Asia Mekong Brahmaputra Clean Development Fund L.P....

  15. World Bank Safeguard Policies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topics: Policiesdeployment programs Resource Type: Guidemanual, Training materials, Lessons learnedbest practices Website: web.worldbank.orgWBSITEEXTERNALPROJECTS...

  16. RESULTS FOR THE SECOND QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eibling, R.

    2011-08-25

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, the DDA (Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment) process, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are listed in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Second Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on April 4, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limit for {sup 59}Ni is above the requested limit from Reference 2 but below the established limit in Reference 3. (3) The reported detection limit for {sup 94}Nb is above the requested limit from Reference 2; however, it is below the established limits in Reference 3. (4) The reported concentration of {sup 242m}Am is above the target in Listed in Attachment 8.4 of the Saltstone WAC. (5) {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 2. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3. (6) The reported detection limit for Norpar 13{sup 5} is greater than the limit from Table 4 and Attachment 8.2 of the WAC. (7) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (8) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the instrument; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  17. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.

    2010-01-27

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, the DDA (Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment) process, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are listed in the current Saltstone WAC. SRS Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2009 Fourth Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on October 2, 2009 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report. This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2009 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (3) The reported detection limits for {sup 59}Ni and {sup 94}Nb are above the requested limits from Reference 4. However, they are each below the limits established in Reference 3. (4) The reported detection limit for isopropanol is greater than the requested limit from Table 4 of the WAC. (5) The reported detection limits for {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 4. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3. (6) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the GC/MS; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  18. RESULTS FOR THE FIRST QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.

    2011-06-15

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2011 First Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section; (2) The reported detection limit for {sup 59}Ni is above both the requested limits from Reference 2 and the established limits in Reference 3; (3) The reported detection limit for {sup 94}Nb is above the requested limit from Reference 2; however, it is below the established limits in Reference 3. This is a change from previously reported results; (4) The reported concentration of {sup 242m}Am is above the target in Listed in Attachment 8.4 of the Saltstone WAC. This is a change from the previously reported results; (5) {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 2. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3; (6) The reported detection limit for Norpar 13 is greater than the limit from Table 4 and Attachment 8.2 of the WAC; (7) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC; and (8) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the instrument; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  19. RESULTS FOR THE THIRD QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.

    2011-10-20

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Third Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on July 7, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report.

  20. RESULTS FOR THE FIRST QUARTER 2012 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C.

    2012-06-06

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2012 First Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this memorandum: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section; (2) The reported detection limit for {sup 94}Nb is above the requested limit from Reference 2 but below the estimated limit in Reference 3; (3) {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 2. however, they are below the limits established in Reference 3; (4) The reported detection limit for Norpar 13 is greater than the limit from Table 4 and Attachment 8.2 of the WAC; (5) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC; (6) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples, the values reported in this report are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the instrument; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50; and (7) The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

  1. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2011 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C.

    2012-01-31

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low-level waste (LLW) streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, and the decontaminated salt solution product from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (ARP/MCU) process are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. The LLW must meet the specified waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before it is processed into saltstone. The specific chemical and radionuclide contaminants and their respective WAC limits are in the current Saltstone WAC. Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform quarterly analysis on saltstone samples. The concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants are measured to ensure the saltstone produced during each quarter is in compliance with the current WAC. This report documents the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants for the 2011 Fourth Quarter samples collected from Tank 50 on October 12, 2011 and discusses those results in further detail than the previously issued results report.

  2. RESULTS FOR THE THIRD QUARTER 2010 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.

    2010-12-09

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2010 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (i) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (ii) The reported detection limits for {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 4. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3. (iii) The reported detection limit for {sup 242m}Am is greater than the requested limit from Attachment 8.4 of the WAC. (iv) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (v) The reported concentration of Isopropanol is greater than the limit from Table 4 of the WAC. (vi) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the GC/MS; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  3. RESULTS FOR THE SECOND QUARTER 2010 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.

    2010-08-04

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2010 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC).1 Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limits for {sup 94}Nb and {sup 144}Ce are above both the established and requested limits from References 4 and 6. (3) The reported detection limits for {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 4. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 6. (4) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (5) A measurable concentration of Norpar 13 is present in the sample. The reported concentration is greater than the requested limit from Table 4 and Attachment 8.2 of the WAC. (6) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the GC/MS; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50. (7) The detection limit for isopropanol has been lowered from 0.5 mg/L to 0.25 mg/L{sup 7}. This revised limit now satisfies the limit in Table 4 of the WAC.

  4. RESULTS FOR THE FIRST QUARTER 2010 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.

    2010-05-05

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2010 First Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (3) The reported detection limits for {sup 59}Ni and {sup 94}Nb are above the requested limits from Reference 4. However, they are each below the limits established in Reference 6. (4) The reported detection limit for isopropanol is greater than the requested limit from Table 4 of the WAC. (5) The reported detection limits for 247Cm and 249Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 4. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 6. (6) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the GC/MS; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  5. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2010 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.

    2011-02-22

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2010 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limits for {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 2. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3. (3) There is an estimated concentration of trimethylbenzene (2.25 mg/L). This is not a WAC analyte, but it is the first time this organic compound has been detected in a quarterly WAC sample from Tank 50. (4) The reported detection limit for Norpar 13 is greater than the limit from Table 4 and Attachment 8.2 of the WAC. (5) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (6) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the GC/MS; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  6. Alkali slurry ozonation to produce a high capacity nickel battery material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackovitz, John F.; Pantier, Earl A.

    1984-11-06

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  7. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  8. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.

    1985-02-22

    Test work centered on investigation of HCl leaching parameters. Some initial hot-water leaching tests were also performed.

  9. Results for the second quarter 2014 tank 50 WAC slurry sample chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C.

    2014-09-04

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  10. Results For The Third Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-11-26

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  11. Results For The Fourth Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.

    2015-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the Calendar Year (CY) 2014 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  12. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2013 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C.

    2014-04-01

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report:  SRR WAC targets or limits were met for all analyzed chemical and radioactive contaminants unless noted in this section.  {sup 59}Ni, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm, {sup 249}Cf, and {sup 251}Cf are above the requested SRR target concentrations. However, they are below the detection limits established by SRNL.  Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits compared with the Saltstone WAC. The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility of these materials in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.  The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species. The semivolatile organic analysis (SVOA) method employed in the measurement of Norpar 13 and tributyl phosphate (TBP) has resulted in the erroneous reporting of a variety of small chain alcohols, including 4-methyl-3-hexanol and 5-methyl-3-hexanol, in previous quarterly sample reports. It has now been determined that these alcohols are an artifact of the sample preparation. Further work is being conducted in SRNL to delineate the conditions that produce these alcohols, and these findings will be reported separately.

  13. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-11-11

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

  14. Results For The Second Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-07-31

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Saltstone Facility Engineering (SFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  15. Development and process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Withers, H.P. ); Bukur, D.B.; Rosynek, M.P. )

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this contract is to develop a consistent technical data base on the use of iron-based catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactions. This data base will be developed to allow the unambiguous comparison of the performance of these catalysts with each other and with state-of-the-art iron catalyst compositions. Particular attention will be devoted to generating reproducible kinetic and selectivity data and to developing reproducible improved catalyst compositions.

  16. Development and process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Withers, H.P. ); Bukur, D.B.; Rosynek, M.P. )

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this contract is to develop a consistent technical data base on the use of iron-based catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactions. This data base will be developed to allow the unambiguous comparison of the performance of these catalysts with each other and with state-of-the-art iron catalyst comparisons. Particular attention will be devoted to generating reproducible kinetic and selectivity data and to developing reproducible improved catalyst compositions.

  17. Development and process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Withers, H.P. ); Bukur, D.B.; Rosynek, M.P. )

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this contract is to develop a consistent technical data base on the use of iron-based catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactions. This data base will be developed to allow the unambiguous comparison of the performance of these catalysts with each other and with state-of-the-art iron catalyst compositions. Particular attention will be devoted to generating reproducible kinetic and selectivity data and to developing reproducible improved catalyst compositions.

  18. MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY STUDIES OF IRON CATALYSTS USED IN SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.P. Huffman; K. R. P. M. Rao; F.E. Huggins

    1998-02-01

    Iron and cobalt are the two principal choices as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. As discussed in a recent review by Wender each metal has certain advantages and disadvantages. Davis and co-workers have recently discussed the advantages of iron-based F-T catalysts in some detail. In order to understand the catalytic reaction mechanisms of iron during F-T synthesis, it is critical to identify the active catalytic phases. Moreover, from a practical point of view, it is equally important to identify the reactions and transformations that deactivate the catalysts. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy is perhaps the best technique available for quantitative characterization of the iron phases in complex samples. For the past several years, our group has been using Moessbauer spectroscopy to characterize the iron-based catalysts prepared and tested for F-T synthesis in a number of DOE-sponsored programs. The results of this investigation have been summarized in detail in DOE reports and in a number of publications released over the past few years. A list of the principal publications resulting from this work is given. A brief summary of the highlights of the results presented in these papers is presented in the current report.

  19. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors. Sixth technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidaspow, D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to convert the gas-solid-liquid fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid and particulate phases. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. This report presents measurements of granular temperature of Air Products catalyst. The report is in the form of a preliminary paper, entitled ``Dynamics of Liquid-Solid Fluidized Beds with Small Catalyst Particles.`` The principal results are as follows: (1) For the liquid-solid system the granular temperature is much smaller than for a corresponding gas-solid system. This may be due to the larger viscosity of the liquid in comparison to air. (2) The collisional viscosity of the catalyst is correspondingly much smaller than that of catalyst particles in the air. (3) The dominant frequency of density oscillations is near two Hertz, as expected for a gas-solid fluidized bed. There exists a link between this low frequency and the high frequency of catalyst particle oscillations. The Air Products fluidized bed reactor is designed to produce methanol and synthetic fuels from synthesis gas.

  20. Development of process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Withers, H.P. ); Bukur, D.B.; Rosynek, M.P. )

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this contract is to develop a consistent technical data base on the use of iron-based catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactions. This data base will be developed to allow the unambiguous comparison of the performance of these catalysts with each other and with state-of-the-art iron catalyst compositions. Particular attention will be devoted to generating reproducible kinetic and selectivity data and to developing reproducible improved catalyst compositions.

  1. Development and process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Withers, H.P. ); Bukur, D.B.; Rosynek, M.P. )

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this contract is to develop a consistent technical data base on the use of iron-based catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis reactions. This data base will be developed to allow the unambiguous comparison of the performance of these catalysts with each other and with state-of-the-art iron catalyst compositions. Particular attention will be devoted to generating reproducible kinetic and selectivity data and to developing reproducible improved catalyst compositions.

  2. Hydrodynamics of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in slurry bubble column reactors: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukur, D.B.; Daly, J.G.; Patel, S.A.; Raphael, M.L.; Tatterson, G.B.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes studies on hydrodynamics of bubble columns for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. These studies were carried out in columns of 0.051 m and 0.229 m in diameter and 3 m tall to determine effects of operating conditions (temperature and gas flow rate), distributor type (sintered metal plate and single and multi-hole perforated plates) and liquid media (paraffin and reactor waxes) on gas hold-up and bubble size distribution. In experiments with the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) derived paraffin wax (FT-300) for temperatures between 230 and 280/sup 0/C there is a range of gas velocities (transition region) where two values of gas hold-up (i.e., two flow regimes) are possible. Higher hold-ups were accompanied by the presence of foam (''foamy'' regime) whereas lower values were obtained in the absence of foam (''slug flow'' in the 0.051 m column, or ''churn-turbulent'' flow regime in the 0.229 m column). This type of behavior has been observed for the first time in a system with molten paraffin wax as the liquid medium. Several factors which have significant effect on foaming characteristics of this system were identified. Reactor waxes have much smaller tendency to foam and produce lower hold-ups due to the presence of larger bubbles. Finally, new correlations for prediction of the gas hold-up and the specific gas-liquid interfacial area were developed on the basis of results obtained in the present study. 49 refs., 99 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.A.; Satterfield, C.N.

    1989-01-01

    Most of this quarter has been devoted to design, construction and installation of a new external catalyst reduction unit. In this report, methods of reducing cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts are reviewed, in an effort to develop an understanding of the important parameters which affect the reduction of cobalt catalysts. Design considerations for the external reduction unit are also presented.

  4. Method and product for phosphosilicate slurry for use in dentistry and related bone cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S.; Primus, Carolyn

    2006-08-01

    The present invention is directed to magnesium phosphate ceramics and their methods of manufacture. The composition of the invention is produced by combining a mixture of a substantially dry powder component with a liquid component. The substantially dry powder component comprises a sparsely soluble oxide powder, an alkali metal phosphate powder, a sparsely soluble silicate powder, with the balance of the substantially dry powder component comprising at least one powder selected from the group consisting of bioactive powders, biocompatible powders, fluorescent powders, fluoride releasing powders, and radiopaque powders. The liquid component comprises a pH modifying agent, a monovalent alkali metal phosphate in aqueous solution, the balance of the liquid component being water. The use of calcined magnesium oxide as the oxide powder and hydroxylapatite as the bioactive powder produces a self-setting ceramic that is particularly suited for use in dental and orthopedic applications.

  5. Torsional rheometer for granular materials slurries and gas-solid mixtures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, C.; Rajagopal, K.R.; Yalamanchili, R.C.

    1997-03-11

    A torsional rheometer apparatus for determining rheological properties of a specimen is provided. A stationary plate and a rotatable plate are in generally coaxial position and structured to receive a specimen there between. In one embodiment, at least one of the plates and preferably both have roughened specimen engaging surfaces to serve to reduce undesired slippage between the plate and the specimen. A motor is provided to rotate the rotatable plate and a transducer for monitoring forces applied to the stationary plate and generating output signals to a computer which determines the desired rheological properties are provided. In one embodiment, the roughened surfaces consist of projections extending toward the specimen. Where granular material is being evaluated, it is preferred that the roughness of the plate is generally equal to the average size of the granular material being processed. In another embodiment, an air-solid mixture is processed and the roughened portions are pore openings in the plates. Air flows through the region between the two pore containing plates to maintain the solid materials in suspension. In yet another embodiment, the base of the stationary plate is provided with a deformable capacitance sensor and associated electronic means. 17 figs.

  6. Torsional rheometer for granular materials slurries and gas-solid mixtures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Chandrika (Allison Park, PA); Rajagopal, Kumbakonam R. (Allison Park, PA); Yalamanchili, Rattaya C. (Allison Park, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A torsional rheometer apparatus for determining rheological properties of a specimen is provided. A stationary plate and a rotatable plate are in generally coaxial position and structured to receive a specimen therebetween. In one embodiment, at least one of the plates and preferably both have roughened specimen engaging surfaces to serve to reduce undesired slippage between the plate and the specimen. A motor is provided to rotate the rotatable plate and a transducer for monitoring forces applied to the stationary plate and generating output signals to a computer which determines the desired rheological properties are provided. In one embodiment, the roughened surfaces consist of projections extending toward the specimen. Where granular material is being evaluated, it is preferred that the roughness of the plate is generally equal to the average size of the granular material being processed. In another embodiment, an air-solid mixture is processed and the roughened portions are pore openings in the plates. Air flows through the region between the two pore containing plates to maintain the solid materials in suspension. In yet another embodiment, the base of the stationary plate is provided with a deformable capacitance sensor and associated electronic means.

  7. Michrohole Arrays Drilled with Advanced Abrasive Slurry Jet Technology to Efficiently Exploit Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oglesby, Kenneth; Finsterle, Stefan; Zhang, Yingqi; Pan, Lehua; Dobson, Parick; Mohan, Ram; Shoham, Ovadia; Felber, Betty; Rychel, Dwight

    2014-03-12

    This project had two major areas of research for Engineered/ Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) development - 1) study the potential benefits from using microholes (i.e., bores with diameters less than 10.16 centimeters/ 4 inches) and 2) study FLASH ASJ to drill/ install those microbores between a well and a fracture system. This included the methods and benefits of drilling vertical microholes for exploring the EGS reservoir and for installing multiple (forming an array of) laterals/ directional microholes for creating the in-reservoir heat exchange flow paths. Significant benefit was found in utilizing small microbore sized connecting bores for EGS efficiency and project life. FLASH ASJ was deemed too complicated to optimally work in such deep reservoirs at this time.

  8. Scaling Theory for Pulsed Jet Mixed Vessels, Sparging, and Cyclic Feed Transport Systems for Slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhn, William L.; Rector, David R.; Rassat, Scot D.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Minette, Michael J.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Josephson, Gary B.; Wells, Beric E.; Berglin, Eric J.

    2013-09-27

    This document is a previously unpublished work based on a draft report prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) in 2012. Work on the report stopped when WTPs approach to testing changed. PNNL is issuing a modified version of the document a year later to preserve and disseminate the valuable technical work that was completed. This document establishes technical bases for evaluating the mixing performance of Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) pretreatment process tanks based on data from less-than-full-scale testing, relative to specified mixing requirements. The technical bases include the fluid mechanics affecting mixing for specified vessel configurations, operating parameters, and simulant properties. They address scaling vessel physical performance, simulant physical performance, and scaling down the operating conditions at full scale to define test conditions at reduced scale and scaling up the test results at reduced scale to predict the performance at full scale. Essentially, this document addresses the following questions: Why and how can the mixing behaviors in a smaller vessel represent those in a larger vessel? What information is needed to address the first question? How should the information be used to predict mixing performance in WTP? The design of Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT) is being addressed in other, complementary documents.

  9. Microhole Arrays Drilled with Advanced Abrasive Slurry Jet Technology to Efficiently Exploit Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advance & adapt microhole & ASJ/FLASH ASJTMdrilling for EGS; optimize microhole array configurations to maximize heat removal from expanded volume of reservoir rock.

  10. A KINETIC S'FUDY OF METHANOL SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY REACTOR USING

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    H2(CO+CO2) ratios, the extent of the reverse water gas shift reaction decreases with ... between experimental meffianol and water production rates with these obtained by ...

  11. Results For The First Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C. J.

    2013-05-14

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 First Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: SRR WAC targets or limits were met for all analyzed chemical and radioactive contaminates unless noted in this section; {sup 59}Ni, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm, {sup 249}Cf, and {sup 251}Cf are above the requested SRR target concentrations. However, they are below the detection limits established by SRNL; Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits compared with the Saltstone WAC. The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50; and, The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

  12. Results For The Fourth Quarter 2012 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C. J.

    2013-02-05

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2012 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC).Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: The concentration of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC Limits and Targets, unless noted in this section; Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits compared with the Saltstone WAC. The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50; Diisooctyl adipate (or diisooctyl hexanedioate) and 5-methyl-3-hexanol, plasticizers, were measured at 1.30E+00 mg/L and 3.00E+00 mg/L, respectively, in one of two replicate measurements conducted on an at-depth sample. The organic analysis of the at-depth sample was conducted at the request of SRR. These analytes were below the detection limits for the surface sample; and, The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

  13. Results For The First Quarter 2012 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminant Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C. J.

    2012-07-16

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2012 First Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this memorandum: The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted; The reported detection limit for {sup 94}Nb is above the requested limit but below the estimated limit; {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits. However, they are below the limits established; The reported detection limit for Norpar 13 is greater than the limit from the WAC; The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from WAC; Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples; The values reported in this report are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the instrument, however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50; The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

  14. Results for the Third Quarter 2012 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical and Radionuclide Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C. J.

    2012-10-26

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2012 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  15. Design and performance requirements for a fluidized bed boiler firing municipal refuse derived fuel in Ravenna, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M.L.

    1999-07-01

    In early 1998, the City of Ravenna, Italy, commissioned a fluid bed boiler/waste-to-energy system to combust approximately 50,000 tonnes per year of processed municipal waste and generate electrical power. Much of the fuel preparation and processing equipment was already in place and the primary focus of this project was to implement an environmentally acceptable energy conversion process compatible with the 6.0 tonnes/hr of fuel being processed. The fluid bed boiler system being provided will incorporate state of the art environmental controls for abatement of all pollutants, including products of incomplete combustion (PICs), NO{sub x}, acid gases, and particulates. The project will deliver an average of 70,000 pounds per hour of steam to generate approximately 7 MW of electricity. The following is a description of the process and equipment being utilized for the energy conversion and boiler island, including the environmental abatement equipment. Design specifications for the plant including fuel and emission limits are presented herein. The facility is scheduled for startup in mid-1999.

  16. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 10, January 1997--March 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1997-02-28

    In previous progress reports, we reported our study on the proposed mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organics during combustion, in which molecular chlorine is thought to be the key starting material. The objective of this quarter of study was to quantitatively test the inhibiting effect of SO{sub 2} on the formation of Cl{sub 2} during the combustion of MSW. The experiments were conducted under conditions close to those employed in the AFBC system. The principle analytical technique used for identification of the products from these experiments was GC/MS system. The results indicate that the production of Cl{sub 2} decreases when the concentration of SO{sub 2} in the gaseous mixture increases.

  17. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Progress report No. 3, [April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-05-31

    The Thermogravimetric Analyzer-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer-Mass Spectrometer (TG-FTIR-MS) system was used to identify molecular chlorine, along with HCl, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and various hydrocarbons in the gaseous products of the combustion of PVC resin in air. This is a significant finding that will lead us to examine this combustion step further to look for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds. The combination of TG-FTIR and TG-MS offers complementary techniques for the detection and identification of combustion products from coals PVC, cellulose, shredded newspaper, and various blends of these materials. The pilot atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) at Western Kentucky University has been tested. The main purpose of these preliminary AFBC runs were to determine the compatibility of coal and pelletized wood in blends and to explore the effects of flue/air ratio. Our objective is to conduct AFBC burns with 90 percent sulfur capture and more then 96% combustion efficiency.

  18. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 1, [September--November 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1994-11-30

    This project is being coordinated with an ongoing project at Western Kentucky University that is being supported by the Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program through the Tennessee Valley Authority. Fluidized bed combustion tests will be performed on municipal solid waste blended with high-sulfur and high-chlorine coals in a laboratory scale combustor. The purpose of the tests is to evaluate combustion performance, the extent of the inorganic acid gases (HCl and SO{sub x}) and chlorinated organic compound formation, the effect of chlorine species on SO{sub 2} removal with a sorbent, and the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organic compounds from MSW for a range of bed temperatures, excess air levels, MSW/coal ratios, and S/Cl ratios. Flue gas samples will be collected and analyzed at three locations: free board, cyclone inlet, and cyclone outlet. Analytical methods used will include ion chromatography, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry. Waste stream ash samples will be collected from the cyclone catch and analyzed for unburned carbon, chlorine, chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated phenols, dioxins, furans, and metal content. Major, minor, and trace elements in the ash will be determined by x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Accomplishments for the first quarter are presented.

  19. Co-firing High Sulfur Coal with Refuse Derived Fuels. Technical Progress Report {number_sign}11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.; Lloyd, William G.

    1997-05-31

    The objective of this quarter of study was to prepare fuel pellets containing PVC, newspaper and plastics to be co-fired with coal in the AFBC combustor. The Western Kentucky University atmospheric fluidized bed combustion system requires the fuel to fall from a bunker into a lock-hopper, and from there into a mixing box where the fuel is auger-fed under pressure into the bottom of the fluidized bed. The fuel must flow freely out of the bunker and through the lock- hopper for proper feeding into the combustor. In order for the fuel to continuously fall through these units and into the mixing box during combustion, the density of the fuel and the size of the particles must meet certain requirements. The particles must be no larger than 3/8 inches in diameter and must have a density approaching that of coal. Loose materials such as sawdust, shredded paper products and most shredded plastics do not feed properly in the WKU AFBC system. Bridging and blockage of feed chutes result, even with constant vibration of parts of the feed mechanism. It is not possible to run the AFBC system powered solely by these loose materials.

  20. Banking on Solar: An Analysis of Banking Opportunities in the U.S. Distributed Photovoltaic Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, D.; Lowder, T.

    2014-11-01

    This report provides a high-level overview of the developing U.S. solar loan product landscape, from both a market and economic perspective. It covers current and potential U.S. solar lending institutions; currently available loan products; loan program structures and post-loan origination options; risks and uncertainties of the solar asset class as it pertains to lenders; and an economic analysis comparing loan products to third party-financed systems in California.

  1. System and method for programmable bank selection for banked memory subsystems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Hoenicke, Dirk; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2010-09-07

    A programmable memory system and method for enabling one or more processor devices access to shared memory in a computing environment, the shared memory including one or more memory storage structures having addressable locations for storing data. The system comprises: one or more first logic devices associated with a respective one or more processor devices, each first logic device for receiving physical memory address signals and programmable for generating a respective memory storage structure select signal upon receipt of pre-determined address bit values at selected physical memory address bit locations; and, a second logic device responsive to each of the respective select signal for generating an address signal used for selecting a memory storage structure for processor access. The system thus enables each processor device of a computing environment memory storage access distributed across the one or more memory storage structures.

  2. An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H.

    2008-07-01

    Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

  3. RESULTS FOR THE THIRD QUARTER 2007 TANK 50H WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-07-11

    The Saltstone Facility is designed and permitted to immobilize and dispose of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site. Low activity wastewater streams from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), H-Canyon, and the high level waste (HLW) storage tanks, are stored as a mixture in Tank 50H until it can be pumped to the Saltstone Facility for treatment and disposal. Specific waste acceptance criteria (WAC) must be met for the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Saltstone Facility. Low level waste which meets the WAC can be transferred, stored and treated in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) for subsequent disposal as saltstone in the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested through a Technical Task Request (TTR) that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measure the concentrations of chemical and radionuclide contaminants listed in the currently approved Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). A Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan and Analytical Study Plan has been written for this request. WAC determinations are needed on a quarterly basis for chemical contaminants and every first and third quarter for radioactive contaminants. This memorandum presents the results for the chemical and radionuclide contaminants in the third quarter, from the samples taken from Tank 50 in September, 2007.

  4. Pre-Ceramic Monocomposite and Ceramic Coatings by Sol-Gel-Pyrolysis and Slurry-Pyrolysis Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T

    1997-01-29

    This presentation provides information on the relevant coating systems, the starting materials, and properties of the coatings.

  5. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF SALTSTONE FORMULATED USING 1Q11, 2Q11 AND 3Q11 TANK 50 SLURRY SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.; Nichols, R.

    2012-06-27

    As part of the Saltstone formulation work requested by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing Saltstone samples for fresh property analysis and hydraulic conductivity measurements using actual Tank 50 salt solution rather than simulated salt solution. Samples of low level waste salt solution collected from Tank 50H during the first, second, and third quarters of 2011 were used to formulate the Saltstone samples. The salt solution was mixed with premix (45 wt % slag, 45 wt % fly ash, and 10 wt % cement), in a ratio consistent with facility operating conditions during the quarter of interest. The fresh properties (gel, set, bleed) of each mix were evaluated and compared to the recommended acceptance criteria for the Saltstone Production Facility. ASTM D5084-03, Method C was used to measure the hydraulic conductivity of the Saltstone samples. The hydraulic conductivity of Saltstone samples prepared from 1Q11 and 2Q11 samples of Tank 50H is 4.2E-9 cm/sec and 2.6E-9 cm/sec, respectively. Two additional 2Q11 and one 3Q11 sample were not successfully tested due to the inability to achieve stable readings during saturation and testing. The hydraulic conductivity of the samples made from Tank 50H salt solution compare well to samples prepared with simulated salt solution and cured under similar conditions (1.4E-9 - 4.9E-8 cm/sec).

  6. Development and process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October--31 December 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Withers, H.P.; Bukur, D.B.; Rosynek, M.P.

    1988-12-31

    The objective of this contract is to develop a consistent technical data base on the use of iron-based catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactions. This data base will be developed to allow the unambiguous comparison of the performance of these catalysts with each other and with state-of-the-art iron catalyst compositions. Particular attention will be devoted to generating reproducible kinetic and selectivity data and to developing reproducible improved catalyst compositions.

  7. Development of process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April--30 June 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Withers, H.P.; Bukur, D.B.; Rosynek, M.P.

    1988-12-31

    The objective of this contract is to develop a consistent technical data base on the use of iron-based catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactions. This data base will be developed to allow the unambiguous comparison of the performance of these catalysts with each other and with state-of-the-art iron catalyst compositions. Particular attention will be devoted to generating reproducible kinetic and selectivity data and to developing reproducible improved catalyst compositions.

  8. Development and process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 July--30 September 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Withers, H.P.; Bukur, D.B.; Rosynek, M.P.

    1988-12-31

    The objective of this contract is to develop a consistent technical data base on the use of iron-based catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis reactions. This data base will be developed to allow the unambiguous comparison of the performance of these catalysts with each other and with state-of-the-art iron catalyst compositions. Particular attention will be devoted to generating reproducible kinetic and selectivity data and to developing reproducible improved catalyst compositions.

  9. Carbon number distribution of Fischer-Tropsch products formed on an iron catalyst in a slurry reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satterfield, C.N.; Huff, G.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Studies at 234 to 269/sup 0/C and at 790 kPa showed a precise linear relationship between the log of mole fraction m/sub n/ of products of carbon number n, and n, as predicted by the Flory molecular-weight distribution provided that all products, including oxygenated species, are considered. The relationship held over more than four orders of magnitude of m/sub n/, values of n of from 1 to about 20, and over a wide range of gas composition. The chain growth probability factor, ..cap alpha.., increased slightly from 0.67 at 269/sup 0/C to 0.71 at 234/sup 0/C. 8 figures, 1 table.

  10. New and improved dispersion and recovery techniques for slurry phase catalysis. Quarterly report, January-March, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarrer, A.R.; Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tatarchuk, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for predicting the effects of various parameters such as recycle rate, permanent and temporary deactivation rate constants on catalyst activity. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the importance of the ease with which a catalyst can be regenerated and to identify important catalyst properties associated with regeneration. A reactor (hydrotreater)-regenerator system having equal catalyst inventory in each unit is used as a basis for modeling. A fixed amount of fresh catalyst supply and spent catalyst withdrawal are assumed to be applicable to the reactor. The analysis shows that a small percent increase in the permanent deactivation rate constant relative to total deactivation rate constant decreases the mean activity of the catalyst in the reactor significantly. In most cases, the mean activity of the catalyst increased with increasing recycle rate. The effect of regeneration rate constant on the catalyst activity was not significant compared to that of permanent deactivation rate constant. 13 references, 3 figures.

  11. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  12. Co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system with coal and refuse derived fuels and/or sludges. Task 16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1994-01-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal waste. Leading this approach, the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The fluidized bed, with its stability of combustion, reduces the amount of thermochemical transients and provides for easier process control. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire-derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  13. Brazil-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1.1 Sao Paulo Metro Line 5 Project 1.2 BR-GEF Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Project (STAQ) 1.3 First Programmatic Development Policy Loan for Sustainable...

  14. Armenia-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "The objective of the Second GeoFund Geothermal Project for Armenia is to assess the feasibility of exploratory drilling of the geothermal site with the estimated highest...

  15. Outer Banks Ocean Energy Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Wind energy Product: Privately-held company that plans to develop a 200-600MW offshore wind farm in federal lease blocks near North Carolina's barrier islands, known as...

  16. Agreement for Minority Financial Institutions Participation in the Bank

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deposit Financial Assistance Program | Department of Energy (BDFAP), the Minority Financial lnstitution fully agrees to comply with the intent of the program, the instructions provided by the Administrative Financial lnstitutions (AFls), which serve as "trustees" for the Depositor, and the terms set forth below. In this Agreement the term "Depositor" refers to the U.S. Department of Energy and the term "Regulatory Agency" refers to the Federal Deposit Insurance

  17. Agreement for Minority Financial Institutions Participation in the Bank

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deposit Financial Assistance Program | Department of Energy (BDFAP), the Minority Financial lnstitution fully agrees to comply with the intent of the program, the instructions provided by the Administrative Financial lnstitutions (AFls), which serve as "trustees" for the Depositor, and the terms set forth below. In this Agreement the term "Depositor" refers to the U.S. Department of Energy and the term "Regulatory Agency" refers to the Federal Deposit Insurance

  18. Jordan-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The first component of the project is development of a promotional wind Independent Power Producer (IPP) power plant. This component involve the following sub-components: (a)...

  19. Asian Development Bank Technical Assistance Report on Building...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Authority to promote private sector investment in renewable energy projects and develop policy and financial instruments for them." Click here to view document References ...

  20. Vietnam-The World Bank Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Morocco Implement climate change mitigation policy as part of National Plan against Global Warming. PMR Support: Establish MRV framework. Identify and develop crediting NAMAs...