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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Plant Site Refrigeration Upgrade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bayer Corporation operates a multi-division manufacturing facility in Bushy Park, South Carolina. Low temperature refrigeration (-4°F) is required by many of the chemical manufacturing areas and is provided by a Plant Site Refrigeration System...

Zdrojewski, R.; Healy, M.; Ramsey, J.

2

FLOATING PRESSURE CONVERSION AND EQUIPMENT UPGRADES OF TWO 3.5KW, 20K, HELIUM REFRIGERATORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5 KW at 20 K, are used at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryogenic-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. New changes to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the control issues that necessitated the controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle “floating pressure” control technology. The controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology was the first application on a helium gas refrigeration system. Previous implementations of the floating pressure technology have been on 4 K liquefaction and refrigeration systems, which have stored liquid helium volumes that have level indications used for varying the pressure levels (charge) in the system for capacity modulation. The upgrades have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e. at various loads in the vacuum chambers). The performance data of the two systems, pre and post upgrading are presented.

J. Homan, V. Ganni, A. Sidi-Yekhlef, J. Creel, R. Norton, R. Linza, G. Vargas, J. Lauterbach, J. Urbin, D. Howe

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

An overview of the planned Jefferson Lab 12-GeV helium refrigerator upgrade  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In February 2006, Jefferson Laboratory in Newport News, VA, received â Critical Decision 1â (CD-1) approval to proceed with the engineering and design of the long anticipated upgrade to increase the beam energy of CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, from 6 GeV to 12 GeV. This will require the installation of 10 new cryomodules, and additional 2.1-K refrigeration beyond the available 4600 W to handle the increased heat loads. Additionally, a new experimental hall, Hall D, is planned that will require the installation of a small, available refrigerator. This paper will present an overview of the integration of the new proposed refrigeration system into CEBAF, the installation of the available refrigerator for Hall D, and includes planned work scope, current schedule plans and project status.

Arenius, Dana; Creel, Jonathan; Dixon, Kelly; Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Wright, Mathew

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

EMS control chosen instead of refrigeration, HVAC upgrade  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Wisconsin supermarket decided on the basis of costs to install an energy management system (EMS) to improve the store's energy efficiency rather than invest in new refrigerating equipment at this time. When the next remodeling occurs in two years, the store will purchase new equipment using energy savings from the EMS to help defray the costs. The store selected an EMS with distributed processing that can expand to control new equipment. It expects a 22% drop in energy bills and a two-year payback of the $50,000 investment. Details of the system's functions describe some of the 53 control points.

Watson, F.

1984-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

5

Steam System Data Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam System Data Management What Does It Include Safety In Motion Wal?Tech?Valve,?Inc. 251?438?2203 The Real Genius Behind Technology Is People ESL-IE-13-05-35 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New... ? Fabrication Training (Six Year Training) ? Welding Certifications ?Retired From Chevron After 25 Years ? Established A Steam System Program ? Planner For Routine Maintenance Work ? Planner For Steam System Improvements ? Wal-Tech Valve, Inc. ? Purchased...

Roberts, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide Alternate Text Narratives and Graphic.............................................................................................................................6 Modules Steam System Scoping Tool (SSST)........................................................................................8 Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

7

Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on deaerators in industrial steam systems provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Steam-system upgrades | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd JumpGTZHolland,0162112°,St.StanlyEnergyInformation

9

Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP steam tip sheet on upgrading boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Steam System Improvements at a Manufacturing Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BWX Technologies, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division (NNFD) is a manufacturing company with a steam system consisting of two Babcock & Wilcox boilers and approximately 350 steam traps. The steam system is used to produce and distribute steam for space...

Compher, J.; Morcom, B.

11

Training: Steam Systems | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steam Systems Training: Steam Systems April 16, 2014 - 6:31pm Addthis Learn about the diverse training sessions offered. The courses are taught by highly qualified instructors who...

12

SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STEAMMASTER: STEAM SYSTEM ANALYSIS SOFTW ARE Greg Wheeler Associate Professor Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 9733 I ABSTRACT As director of Oregon's ]ndustrial Assessment Center, [ have encountered many industrial steam systems during... plant visits. We analyze steam systems and make recommendations to improve system efficiency. [n nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a...

Wheeler, G.

13

Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes how manufacturing plants can save energy and money by making energy efficiency improvements to their industrial steam systems.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Steam System Optimization: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper highlights the study findings in a steam system in a plant from a multinational Petrochemical giant in an European country. The steam system operates with an annual budget of $8.9 million (local currency was converted to US Dollars...

Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

15

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition This sourcebook is...

16

Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy Savings in a Petrochemical Plant Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy Savings in a...

17

Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives...

18

Steam System Improvement: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For industries, this will result in the reduction of production cost. In industry where steam is utilized, the steam production and distribution system consumes a significant portion of energy. Therefore, optimization of steam system is among the biggest energy...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Leigh, N.

19

Steam System Optimization : A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The steam system optimization (generation, distribution, use and condensate return) offers a large opportunity for action to comply with the new levels of energy efficiency standards. Superior design and improved maintenance practices are the two...

Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.; Calogero, M.

20

Savings in Steam Systems (A Case Study)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Savings in Steam Systems (A Case Study) Rich DeBat Steam Systems Engineer Armstrong Service, Inc. Three Rivers, MI ABSTRACT Armstrong Service Inc. (ASI) conducted an engineered evaluation at an Ammonium Nitrate Manufacturing facility during... existing burner system after refractory repair and continue with normal operation of the existing boiler. Annstrong Service cannot guarantee any aspect of this option. Option 2. Armstrong Service, Inc. proposes to evaluate, select and install a...

DeBat, R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

replacing its central plant with a combination of distributed boilers and ground source heat pumps. The results saved more than 1 million MBtu in energy and 19,574 Kgal of water...

22

List of Steam-system upgrades Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:KeystoneSolarList ofPassive SolarRoofsIncentives

23

Steam System Improvement: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

usage) where steam generation accounts for 85% of the total energy used. Therefore, optimization of the steam system has the biggest energy saving potential. This paper mill produces 40,000 pounds of steam at 600 psig and distributes it to the paper...

Leigh, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

24

The Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT): Estimating Steam System Energy, Cost, and Emission Savings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Industrial Technology Program BestPractices Steam effort is developing a number of software tools to assist industrial energy users to improve the efficiency of their steam system. A major new Best...

Wright, A.; Bealing, C.; Eastwood, A.; Tainsh, R.; Hahn, G.; Harrell, G.

25

J.R. Simplot: Burner Upgrade Project Improves Performance and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Company saved energy and money by increasing the efficiency of the steam system in its potato processing plant in Caldwell, Idaho. J.R. Simplot: Burner Upgrade Project Improves...

26

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper,...

27

ORNL/TM-2001/263 Steam System Survey Guide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORNL/TM-2001/263 Steam System Survey Guide Greg Harrell, Ph.D., P.E. #12;DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/TM-2001/263 STEAM SYSTEM SURVEY GUIDE Greg Harrell, Ph.D., P for the U.S. Department of Energy BestPractices Steam Program Prepared by OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

28

Steam Basics: Use Available Data to Lower Steam System Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Industrial steam users recognize the need to reduce system cost in order to remain internationally competitive. Steam systems are a key utility that influence cost significantly, and represent a high value opportunity target. However, the quality...

Risko, J. R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

The Analysis and Development of Large Industrial Steam Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemicals, petroleum, pulp and paper, and many other industries depend heavily on extensive complex steam systems for thermal and mechanical energy delivery. Steam's versatility and desirable characteristics as both a heat transfer medium and a...

Waterland, A. F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Preliminary Results from the Industrial Steam System Market Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper discusses fuel use and potential energy savings in the steam systems of three steam intensive industries: pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining. To determine the energy consumption to generate steam...

McGrath, G. P.; Wright, A. L.

31

Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources. Building on previous research, CNT Energy identified 10 test buildings in Chicago and conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing. A package of common steam balancing measures was assembled and data were collected on the buildings before and after these retrofits were installed to investigate the process, challenges, and the cost effectiveness of improving steam systems through improved venting and control systems. The test buildings that received venting upgrades and new control systems showed 10.2% savings on their natural gas heating load, with a simple payback of 5.1 years. The methodologies for and findings from this study are presented in detail in this report. This report has been updated from a version published in August 2012 to include natural gas usage information from the 2012 heating season and updated natural gas savings calculations.

Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Malone refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It's potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

Swift, G.W.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER (RHIC) REFRIGERATOR SYSTEM AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY: PHASE III OF THE SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND OPERATIONS UPGRADES FOR 2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ongoing program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consists of improving the efficiency of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) cryogenic system and reducing its power consumption. Phase I and I1 of the program addressed plant operational improvements and modifications that resulted in substantial operational cost reduction and improved system reliability and stability, and a compressor input power reduction of 2 MW has been demonstrated. Phase 111, now under way, consists of plans for further increasing the efficiency of the plant by adding a load ''wet'' turbo-expander and its associated heat exchangers at the low temperature end of the plant. This additional stage of cooling at the coldest level will further reduce the required compressor flow and therefore compressor power input. This paper presents the results of the plant characterization, as it is operating presently, as well as the results of the plant simulations of the various planned upgrades for, the plant. The immediate upgrade includes the changes associated with the load expander. The subsequent upgrade will involve the resizing of expander 5 and 6 to increase their efficiencies. The paper summarizes the expected improvement in the plant efficiency and the overall reduction in the compressor power.

SIDI-YEKHLEF,A.; TUOZZOLO,J.; THAN, R.; KNUDSEN, P.; ARENIUS, D.

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

34

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Refrigerator System at Brookhaven National Laboratory: Phase III of the System Performance and Operations Upgrades for 2006  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ongoing program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consists of improving the efficiency of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) cryogenic system and reducing its power consumption. Phase I and II of the program addressed plant operational improvements and modifications that resulted in substantial operational cost reduction and improved system reliability and stability, and a compressor input power reduction of 2 MW has been demonstrated. Phase III, now under way, consists of plans for further increasing the efficiency of the plant by adding a load ''wet'' turbo-expander and its associated heat exchangers at the low temperature end of the plant. This additional stage of cooling at the coldest level will further reduce the required compressor flow and therefore compressor power input. This paper presents the results of the plant characterization, as it is operating presently, as well as the results of the plant simulations of the various planned upgrades for the plant. The immediate upgrade includes the changes associated with the load expander. The subsequent upgrade will involve the resizing of expander 5 and 6 to increase their efficiencies. The paper summarizes the expected improvement in the plant efficiency and the overall reduction in the compressor power.

A. Sidi-Yekhlef; R. Than; J. Tuozzolo; V. Ganni; P. Knudsen; D. Arenius

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

Therkelesen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration coursecourse # 424503.0# 424503.0 v.v. 20122012 8. Heat pumps, heat pipes, cold thermal energy storage Ron on a vapour-compression cycle) /heat_pump.g Heat pumps make use of low- temperature (waste) heat, replacing/vcmfiles/ electricity!) for heating and air conditioning purposes Heat pumps became popular in ://www.bge.c Heat pumps

Zevenhoven, Ron

37

Malone refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical point, without evaporation, as working fluid in a refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling cycle. We discuss relevant properties of appropriate liquids, and describe two Malone refrigerators. The first completed several years ago, established the basic principles of use of liquids in such cycles. The second, now under construction, is a linear, free-piston machine.

Swift, G W

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at constant p #12;Stirling cycle, Stirling engineStirling cycle, Stirling engine See for principle also http://www.cs.sbcc.net/~physics/flash/heatengines/stirlingRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration coursecourse # 424503.0# 424503.0 v.v. 20122012 5. Low temperatures,p liquefied gases Ron Zevenhoven ��bo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory / Värme- och strömningsteknik tel. 3223 ; ron

Zevenhoven, Ron

39

Malone refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It`s potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

Swift, G.W.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

ProSteam- A Structured Approach to Steam System Improvement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the steam system could, therefore, be: ? To calculate the real cost of steam under various operational scenarios ? To identify current energy losses ? To accurately evaluate project savings ? To forecast future steam demand versus production... Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 16-19, 2002 Optimised System eff:85% 77.4MW eff:85% O.OMW 98 Uh 352'C 66 lIh eff:80% 68 lIh Max 100 Vh 18 lIh 80 lIh 50 'c 40 lIh 0.50 MW Po e Re ulrement 5 ba Ollh -0.6 barg Max 20 Vh...

Eastwood, A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Tools to Boost Steam System Efficiency, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program steam software tools can help industrial plants identify steam system improvements to save energy and money.

Not Available

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top Five EEREDepartmentFebruary 4, 2014Biogas

43

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd: ScopeDepartment1, 2011Department of EnergyBobcats

44

Annual Steam System Maintenance Outage (2014) Beginning on Sunday, June 8th  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Annual Steam System Maintenance Outage (2014) Beginning on Sunday, June 8th at 12:00pm (Noon), the Central Utility Plant (CUP), which supplies steam service to over 100 buildings on the Newark campus, will be shut down for the annual Steam System Maintenance Outage. This effort is necessary each year to ensure

Firestone, Jeremy

45

Generating Electricity with your Steam System: Keys to Long Term Savings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The application of combined heat and power principals to existing plant steam systems can help produce electricity at more than twice efficiency of grid generated electricity. In this way, steam plant managers can realize substantial savings...

Bullock, B.; Downing, A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Identifying Steam Opportunity "Impact" Inputs for the Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDENTIFYING STEAM OPPORTUNITY "IMPACT" INPUTS FOR THE STEAM SYSTEM ASSESSMENT TOOL (SSAT) Dr. Greg Harrell, University of Tennessee/Knoxville Dr. Richard Jendrucko, University of Tennessee/Knoxville Dr. Anthony Wright, Oak Ridge National...

Harrell, G.; Jendrucko, R.; Wright, A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy Savings in a Petrochemical Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This DOE Save Energy Now case study describes how Dow Chemical Company saves 272,000 MMBtu and $1.9 million annually after increasing the steam system energy efficiency of a plant in Louisiana.

Not Available

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M.

1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

52

Save with Hybrid Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SAVE WITH HYBRID REFRIGERATION Cheng-Wen (Wayne) Chung, P.E. Fluor Engineers, Inc. Irvine, California ABSTRACT Two level demand makes it possible to use two systems for refrigeration and save energy and money. An example of this type... of refrigeration, consisting of an ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) unit and a mechanical compression refrigera tion (MCR) unit, is presented in this article. This paper will briefly describe process configur ation, advantages and utility consumption...

Chung, C. W.

53

The Steam System Scoping Tool: Benchmarking Your Steam Operations Through Best Practices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system efficiency. The BestPractices Steam effort, a part of the DOE-OIT effort, has developed a new tool that steam energy managers and operations personnel can use to assess their steam operations and improve their steam energy usage -the Steam System...

Wright, A.; Hahn, G.

54

SSST Module Slide 1: Hello, and welcome to this introduction on the Steam System Tool Suite.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) that supports ITP's mission to improve the energy intensity of the U.S. industrial sector through a coordinated steam system pertaining to energy consumption, fuel type, unit costs, maintenance and energy monitoring training, publications, and software tools. Let's get started to show how to begin to develop a list

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

55

Alternative refrigerants and refrigeration cycles for domestic refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project initially focused on using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARMs) in a two-evaporator refrigerator-freezer design using two stages of liquid refrigerant subcooling. This concept was proposed and tested in 1975. The work suggested that the concept was 20% more efficient than the conventional one-evaporator refrigerator-freezer (RF) design. After considerable planning and system modeling based on using a NARM in a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) RF, the program scope was broadened to include investigation of a ``dual-loop`` concept where energy savings result from exploiting the less stringent operating conditions needed to satisfy cooling, of the fresh food section. A steady-state computer model (CYCLE-Z) capable of simulating conventional, dual loop, and L-M refrigeration cycles was developed. This model was used to rank the performance of 20 ozone-safe NARMs in the L-M refrigeration cycle while key system parameters were systematically varied. The results indicated that the steady-state efficiency of the L-M design was up to 25% greater than that of a conventional cycle. This model was also used to calculate the performance of other pure refrigerants relative to that of dichlorodifluoromethane, R-12, in conventional and dual-loop RF designs. Projected efficiency gains for these cycles were more modest, ranging from 0 to 10%. Individual compressor calorimeter tests of nine combinations of evaporator and condenser temperatures usually used to map RF compressor performance were carried out with R-12 and two candidate L-M NARMs in several compressors. Several models of a commercially produced two-evaporator RF were obtained as test units. Two dual-loop RF designs were built and tested as part of this project.

Sand, J.R.; Rice, C.L.; Vineyard, E.A.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates. Citations in this report are divided into the following topics: thermophysical properties; materials compatibility; lubricants and tribology; application data; safety; test and analysis methods; impacts; regulatory actions; substitute refrigerants; identification; absorption and adsorption; research programs; and miscellaneous documents. Information is also presented on ordering instructions for the computerized version.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)] [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Energy-efficiency directory of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is presented about the energy costs of operating refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers and includes the type of refrigerator or refrigerator-freezer, the fresh food volume, the freezer volume, the total volume, and the yearly energy cost. The directory lists all currently marketed electric refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers that have Energy Guide labels. The Federal Trade Commission requires manufacturers who distribute refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers to attach Energy Guide labels to appliances manufactured on or after May 19, 1980. The data have been measured by manufacturers and/or their agents according to US Government standard test procedures.

Statt, T.G.; Coggins, J.L.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

China Refrigerator Information Label  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-246E China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact Jianhong Cheng China National Institute of Standardization Tomoyuki Sakamoto The Institute of Energy

59

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Manufacture of refrigeration oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lubricating oils suitable for use in refrigeration equipment in admixture with fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants are produced by solvent extraction of naphthenic lubricating oil base stocks, cooling the resulting extract mixture, optionally with the addition of a solvent modifier, to form a secondary raffinate and a secondary extract, and recovering a dewaxed oil fraction of lowered pour point from the secondary raffinate as a refrigeration oil product. The process of the invention obviates the need for a separate dewaxing operation, such as dewaxing with urea, as conventionally employed for the production of refrigeration oils.

Chesluk, R.P.; Platte, H.J.; Sequeira, A.J.

1981-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Efficiency Vermont offers financial incentives to cover the incremental costs of energy efficient refrigeration for commercial, industrial, agricultural and institutional buildings. To receive the...

62

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Calm, J.M.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

64

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

65

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition (Book) (Revised)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry was developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), formerly the Industrial Technologies Program. AMO undertook this project as a series of sourcebook publications. Other topics in this series include: compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, process heating and motor and drive systems. For more information about program resources, see AMO in the Where to Find Help section of this publication.

Not Available

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

Calm, J.M.

1992-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

67

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

Not Available

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Stirling-cycle refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Stirling-cycle refrigerator comprises a plurality of Stirling-cycle refrigerator units each having a displacer defining an expansion chamber, a piston defining a compression chamber, and a circuit including a heater and a cooler and interconnecting the expansion chamber and the compression chamber, and a heat exchanger shared by the circuits and disposed between the coolers and the heaters for effecting heat exchange between working gases in the circuits. The heat exchanger may comprise a countercurrent heat exchanger, and the Stirling-cycle refrigerator units are operated in cycles which are 180/sup 0/ out of phase with each other.

Nakamura, K.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

69

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) July 20, 2012 DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an 8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had...

70

Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

Swift, G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

71

Refrigerants in Transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.E. Senior Engineer The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company Hartford,. Connecticut ABSTRACT The massive growth of air conditioning and refrigeration has been a direct result of the development of a class of chemicals called fluorocarbons..., Gordon, "Forty Years Research on Atmospheric Ozone at Oxford: A !Iistory," Applied Optics, March t968, pp. 387-405. 4. Downing, R., "Development of Chloro fluorocarbon Refrigerants," CFCs: Time of Transition, ASHRAE Publication, Atlanta, GA, 1989...

Stouppe, D. E.

72

Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. Thirty-seven percent of the fossil fuel burned in US industry is burned to produce steam. In this paper we will establish baseline energy consumption for steam systems. Based on a detailed analysis of boiler energy use we estimate current energy use in boilers in U.S. industry at 6.1 Quads (6.4 EJ), emitting almost 66 MtC in CO{sub 2} emissions. We will discuss fuels used and boiler size distribution. We also describe potential savings measures, and estimate the economic energy savings potential in U.S. industry (i.e. having payback period of 3 years or less). We estimate the nationwide economic potential, based on the evaluation of 16 individual measures in steam generation and distribution. The analysis excludes the efficient use of steam and increased heat recovery. Based on the analysis we estimate the economic potential at 18-20% of total boiler energy use, resulting in energy savings approximately 1120-1190 TBtu ( 1180-1260 PJ). This results in a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent to 12-13 MtC.

Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

2001-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

73

Downhole pulse tube refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

Swift, G.; Gardner, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Cain, J.M. (Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States))

1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

75

Proceedings: Commercial Refrigeration Research Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving refrigeration systems for commercial use can enhance both utility load factors and supermarket profits. This workshop has pinpointed research needs in commercial refrigeration and systems integration for a supermarket environment.

None

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat recovery from refrigeration machines is a concept which has great potential for implementation in many businesses. If a parallel requirement for refrigeration and hot water exists, the installation of a system to provide hot water as a by...

Jackson, H. Z.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Refrigeration monitor and alarm system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A monitor is described for a refrigeration system including a heat reclaiming system coupled therewith, comprising: a sensor positioned to detect the level of liquid state refrigerant in the system and provide an electrical output signal therefrom; a digital display for displaying the refrigerant level; first circuit means coupling the digital display to the sensor for actuating the digital display; and lockout means coupled with the sensor for deactivating the heat reclaiming system when a preselected refrigerant level is reached.

Branz, M.A.; Renaud, P.F.

1986-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

78

Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

Pecharsky, Vitalij

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

Calm, J.M.

1992-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

80

Refrigerator recycling and CFCs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utility-sponsored refrigerator and freezer pick-up programs have removed almost 900,000 inefficient appliances from the North American electric grid to date. While the CFC-12 refrigerant from the discarded appliances is typically removed and recycled, in all but a few programs the CFC-11 in the foam insulation is not. About a quarter-billion pounds of CFC-11 are banked in refrigerator foam in the United States. Release of this ``bank`` of CFC, combined with that from foam insulation used in buildings, will be the largest source of future emissions if preventive measures are not taken. Methods exist to recover the CFC for reuse or to destroy it by incineration. The task of recycling or destroying the CFCs and other materials from millions of refrigerators is a daunting challenge, but one in which utilities can play a leadership role. E Source believes that utilities can profitably serve as the catalyst for public-private partnerships that deliver comprehensive refrigerator recycling. Rather than treating such efforts solely as a DSM resource acquisition, utilities could position these programs as a multifaceted service delivery that offers convenient appliance removal for homeowners, a solid waste minimization service for landfills, a source of recycled materials for industry, and a CFC recovery and/or disposal service in support of the HVAC industry and society`s atmospheric protection goals and laws. Financial mechanisms could be developed through these public-private enterprises to ensure that utilities are compensated for the extra cost of fully recycling refrigerators, including the foam CFC.

Shepard, M.; Hawthorne, W.; Wilson, A.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

Barclay, J.A.

1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

82

Helium dilution refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 1875" OD exchanger Qu ID copper cap Fig. 6. Assembled view of 3He - He dilution refrigerator. 26 The joint thru the tubing wall and the joining of the two sizes of capillary were silver soldered (35/ silver content). A 0. 250" OD tube... the inert atmosphere inside the refrigerator. After removal from the nitrogen atmosphere the graphite support, was 'attached to the still and mixing chamber using Stycast 2850 GT with catalyst g9 ). The mass of the graphite 26 support 1s 11. 62 grams...

McKee, Thomas Raymond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

83

Enhanced naphthenic refrigeration oils for household refrigerator systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to industry concerns about the successful employment of hydrofluorocarbon-immiscible hydrocarbon oils in refrigeration systems, enhanced naphthenic refrigeration oils have been developed. These products have been designed to be more dispersible with hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, such as R-134a, in order to facilitate lubricant return to the compressor and to ensure proper energy efficiency of the system. Bench tests and system performance evaluations indicate the feasibility of these oils for use in household refrigeration applications. Results of these evaluations are compared with those obtained with polyol esters and typical naphthenic mineral oils employed in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigeration applications.

Reyes-Gavilan, J.L.; Flak, G.T.; Tritcak, T.R. [Witco Corp., Oakland, NJ (United States); Barbour, C.B. [Americold, Cullman, AL (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

84

NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Upgrade Project Execution Plan Revision 1 October 6, 2011 Submitted by: R. Strykowsky NSTX Upgrade Project Manager _____________________________ M. Williams Associate Director, PPPL

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

85

NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Upgrade Project Execution Plan Revision 3 October 12, 2012 Administrative Change Submitted by: ______________________________ R. Strykowsky NSTX Upgrade Project Manager Anthony Indelicato

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

86

Comparison of Several Eco-Friendly Refrigeration Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, the operation principles, thermodynamics characteristics, and technical practicability were compared between thermoelectric refrigeration, magnetic refrigeration and adsorption refrigeration. The TE refrigeration is the most well...

Tang, C.; Luo, Q.; Li, X.; Zhu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Asset Management Equipment Disposal Form -Refrigerant Recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enters the waste stream with the charge intact (e.g., motor vehicle air conditioners, refrigeratorsAsset Management Equipment Disposal Form - Refrigerant Recovery Safe Disposal Requirements Under refrigeration, cold storage warehouse refrigeration, chillers, and industrial process refrigeration) has to have

Sin, Peter

88

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

90

Compact acoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

Bennett, G.A.

1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

91

Compact acoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Multilayer Thermionic Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review is presented of our program to construct an efficient solid state refrigerator based on thermionic emission of electrons over periodic barriers in the solid. The experimental program is to construct a simple device with one barrier layer using a three layers: metal-semiconductor-metal. The theoretical program is doing calculations to determine: (i) the optimal layer thickness, and (ii) the thermal conductivity.

Mahan, G.D.

1999-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

93

Vaccine refrigerator testing. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the Central American Health Clinic Project initiated in 1986, Sandia National Laboratories and the Florida Solar Energy Center recognized the need for a test and evaluation program for vaccine refrigeration systems. At the Florida Solar Energy Center, side-by-side testing of three photovoltaic powered vaccine refrigerators began in 1987. The testing was expanded in 1988 to include a kerosene absorption refrigerator. This report presents observations, conclusions, and recommendations derived from testing the four vaccine refrigeration systems. Information is presented pertaining to the refrigerators, photovoltaic arrays, battery subsystems, charge controllers, and user requirements. This report should be of interest to designers, manufacturers, installers, and users of photovoltaic-powered vaccine refrigeration systems and components.

Ventre, G.G. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Kilfoyle, D.; Marion, B. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

NICE3: Industrial Refrigeration System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy Concepts has developed an absorption-augmented system as a cost-effective means of achieving more cooling capacity with a substantial reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for industrial refrigeration. It cuts fuel consumption by 30% by combining an internal combustion engine with a mechanical compression refrigeration system and an absorption refrigeration system. The absorption system is powered by engine waste heat. Conventional industrial refrigeration uses mechanical vapor compression, powered by electric motors, which results in higher energy costs. By the year 2010, the new system could cut fuel consumption by 19 trillion Btu and greenhouse emissions by more than 1 million tons per year.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

95

Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the Montreal Protocol that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must be resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability. In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results are presented for an 18 cubic foot (0.51 cubic meter), top-mount refrigerator-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R12, R500, R12/Dimethyl-ether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12 /DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Miller, W.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut Businesses' Energy Bills and Carbon Pollution New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut...

97

Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one...

98

Capturing Energy Upgrades  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Provides an overview of how to capture the value of energy efficiency upgrades in the real estate market, from CNT Energy.

99

The refrigerator revolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article discusses how a simple, new technology threw the best-laid plans of the chemical and refrigerator industries into disarray-and provided a new perspective on how future environmental agreements can be reached. In recent years, a series of massive business mergers has mesmerized the industrial world. However in the early 1990s a German environmentalist, triggered global reprocussions in the wake of the mandate to phase out the use of ozone depleting substances. The economic and political background of this is explained in detail.

Ayres, E.; French, H.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

COLD STORAGE DESIGN REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLD STORAGE DESIGN AND REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART 1 \\ "..\\- ,,, T I (Section 1), and F. Bruce Sanford (Section 1) Table of Contents Pages Section 1 - Cold Storage Design to be Considered in the Freezing and Cold Storage of Fishery Products - Preparing, Freezing, and Cold Storage

102

Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present ThesisLoad Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration Lisa Buth Rasmussen Kongens Lyngby 2013 M.Sc.-2013

103

Malone cycle refrigerator development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the progress made in demonstrating a Malone Cycle Refrigerator/Freezer. The Malone cycle is similar to the Stirling cycle but uses a supercritical fluid in place of real gas. In the approach, solid-metal diaphragms are used to seal and sweep the working volumes against the high working fluid pressures required in Malone cycle machines. This feature eliminates the friction and leakage that accounted for nearly half the losses in the best piston-defined Malone cycle machines built to date. The authors successfully built a Malone cycle refrigerator that: (1) used CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, (2) operated at pressures up to 19.3 Mpa (2,800 psi), (3) achieved a cold end metal temperatures of {minus}29 C ({minus}20 F), and (4) produced over 400 Watts of cooling at near ambient temperatures. The critical diaphragm components operated flawlessly throughout characterization and performance testing, supporting the conclusion of high reliability based on analysis of fatigue date and actual strain measurements.

Shimko, M.A.; Crowley, C.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

1988-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

106

BNL Refrigerant Overview Presentation to the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

charge. #12;BNL Refrigeration Management Plan Details how BNL complies with Sections 608 and 609BNL Refrigerant Overview Presentation to the BER and CAC Ed Murphy, PE Chief Engineer / Manager is a heating process. Refrigeration is an engineered "cycle" where the refrigerant is made to evaporate

Homes, Christopher C.

107

Synopsis of residential refrigerator/freezer alternative refrigerants evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental testing on residential refrigerator/freezers (R/Fs) is summarized in this paper. R/F testing focused on two areas: alternative refrigerants and equipment configurations. The refrigerants evaluated consisted of single components, azeotropes, and zeotropes derived from hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrocarbons (HCs). These refrigerants were evaluated in conventional and unconventional R/F designs. Major and minor design modifications were studied. Minor modifications consisted of various capillary tube lengths, door insulations, and compressors, while major modifications included two-evaporator and two-cycle R/F systems. Results obtained from testing the two-cycle system will be discussed in a later paper. This paper presents the experimental results of alternative technologies evaluated as replacements for ozone depleting chemicals.

Baskin, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

Crunkleton, James A. (Cambridge, MA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling. 6 figs.

Crunkleton, J.A.

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

110

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

111

Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the study is discussed in terms of identifying refrigeration intensive processes. Specific and general conclusions are presented to help faci I itate proper industrial refrigeration system design throughout fhe industry. This paper presents the resul ts... custaner's specifications. Most systems fall into two broad categories: Vapor Canpression Refrigeration Cycles - Mechanical or Steam Jet Canpression Systems Absorption Refrigeration Cycles - Heat Operated Cycles As shown in Table I, refrigerations...

Witherell, W. D.

112

Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the Montreal Protocol (UNEP 1987) that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability, In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers (AHAM 1985). The results are presented for an 18 ft{sup 3} (0.51 m{sup 3}), top mount refrigerators-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R 12, R500, R12/dimethylether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12/DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants, indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising (6.8% and 8.5% higher energy consumption, respectively), changes to the refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. It is noted that the test results are only an initial step in determining a replacement for R12.

Sand, J.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US)); Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;#12;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan i Record;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan ii Table of Contents 1 ..............................................................................................................................1 1.2.1 DOE-approved project documents

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

114

NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan i Record/schedule baseline updates #12;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan ii ..............................................................................................................................1 1.2.1 DOE-approved project documents

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

115

DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Final Rule 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers (Appendix A1 after May 2, 2011)...

116

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

years. About 20% of refrigerators and freezers sold in 2000energy efficiency of refrigerators and freezers, Directiveof Energy, for refrigerators and freezers are base unit

Fridley, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Analysis of simultaneous cooling and heating in supermarket refrigeration systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In this master thesis project, conventional supermarket refrigeration systems using R404A are compared with refrigeration system solutions using natural refrigerants such as carbon dioxide… (more)

Marigny, Johan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Energy Efficient, Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes a new family of safe, environmentally friendly, high performance substitute refrigerants for application in manufacturing and facilities operations. Due to the Montreal Protocol and subsequent environmental regulations, CFC...

Nimitz, J.; Glass, S.; Dhooge, P. M.

119

GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Fredrich  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Technologies3 Achema 2012 // heat pumps using ammonia Industrial demand on heat in Germany Heatdemandin

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

120

Analysis of heat recovery in supermarket refrigeration system using carbon dioxide as refrigerant.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The aim of this study is to investigate the heat recovery potential in supermarket refrigeration systems using CO2 as refrigerants. The theoretical control strategy… (more)

Abdi, Amir

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Energy Upgrade California  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Energy Upgrade California program serves as a one-stop shop for California homeowners who want to improve the energy efficiency of their homes. The program connects homeowners with qualified...

122

Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

123

Measure Guideline: Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was written as a resource for professionals involved in multifamily audits, retrofit delivery, and program design, as well as for building owners and contractors. It is intended to serve as a guide for those looking to evaluate and improve the efficiency and operation of one-pipe steam heating systems. In centrally heated multifamily buildings with steam or hydronic systems, the cost of heat for tenants is typically absorbed into the owner's operating costs. Highly variable and rising energy costs have placed a heavy burden on landlords. In the absence of well-designed and relevant efficiency efforts, increased operating costs would be passed on to tenants who often cannot afford those increases. Misinvestment is a common problem with older heating systems -- multiple contractors may inadequately or inappropriately upgrade parts of systems and reduce system functionality and efficiency, or the system has not been properly maintained.

Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Superinsulation in refrigerators and freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results presented here were obtained during Phase 4 of the first CRADA, which had the specific objective of determining the lifetime of superinsulations when installed in simulated refrigerator doors. The second CRADA was established to evaluate and test design concepts proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption in a refrigerator-freezer that is representative of approximately 60% of the US market. The stated goal of this CRADA is to demonstrate advanced technologies which reduce, by 50%, the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard energy consumption for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 L) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. For a unit this size, the goal translates to an energy consumption of 1.003 kWh/d. The general objective of the research is to facilitate the introduction of efficient appliances by demonstrating design changes that can be effectively incorporated into new products. In previous work on this project, a Phase 1 prototype refrigerator-freezer achieved an energy consumption of 1.413 kWh/d [Vineyard, et al., 1995]. Following discussions with an advisory group comprised of all the major refrigerator-freezer manufacturers, several options were considered for the Phase 2 effort, one of which was cabinet heat load reductions.

Vineyard, E.; Stovall, T.K.; Wilkes, K.E.; Childs, K.W.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Loveland Water and Power- Refrigerator Recycling Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Loveland Water and Power is providing an incentive for its customers to recycle their old refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old refrigerator...

126

Cospolich Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5314)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Cospolich Refrigerator had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

127

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an $8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had failed to certify that certain room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

128

Energy Saving with Absorption Refrigeration Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorption refrigeration technology can be an economical and cost effective means of reducing energy cost and/or improving the efficiency and output of your process. We believe the potential benefits of absorption refrigeration technology have...

Davis, R. C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Refrigerator Manufacturers: Order (2013-CE-5341)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Refrigerator Manufacturers had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

130

Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University has upgraded its accelerator facilities to extend research capabilities with both stable and radioactive beams. The upgrade is divided into three major tasks: (1) re-commission the K-150 (88”) cyclotron, couple it to existing beam lines to provide intense stable beams into the K-500 experimental areas and use it as a driver to produce radioactive beams; (2) develop light ion and heavy ion guides for stopping radioactive ions created with the K-150 beams; and (3) transport 1+ ions from the ion guides into a charge-breeding electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (CB-ECR) to produce highly-charged radioactive ions for acceleration in the K-500 cyclotron. When completed, the upgraded facility will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams in a unique energy range in the world.

Clark, Henry [Texas A& M University; Yennello, Sherry [Texas A& M University; Tribble, Robert [Texas A& M University

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

131

Method and apparatus for desuperheating refrigerant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim.

Zess, James A. (Kelso, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

133

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

134

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

Barclay, J.A.

1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

135

NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan i Record 10/12/2012 Update to WBS Level 2 Threshold (top of page 20), Change DOE Federal Project Director and Deputy Federal Project Director. Various OBS changes. #12;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

136

Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by Department Of Energy. Read more: http://go.usa.gov/ivZ

Mitchell, John; Gibson, Murray; Young, Linda; Joachimiak, Andrzej

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

137

Tevatron detector upgrades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. They discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results.

Lipton, R.; /Fermilab

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Biochemical upgrading of oils  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

139

Optimization of Industrial Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A computer program designed to optimize the size of an evaporative condenser in a two-stage industrial refrigeration plant was created. The program sizes both the high-stage and low-stage compressors and an evaporative condenser. Once the initial...

Flack, P. J.; Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L.

140

Direct condensation refrigerant recovery and restoration system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a refrigerant recovery and purification system for removing gaseous refrigerant from a disabled refrigeration unit, cleaning the refrigerant of contaminants, and converting the gaseous refrigerant to a liquid state for storage. It comprises a low pressure inlet section; a high pressure storage section; the low pressure inlet section comprising: an oil and refrigerant gas separator, including a separated oil removal means, first conduit means for connecting an inlet of the separator to the disabled refrigerant unit, a slack-sided accumulator, second conduit means connecting the separator to the slack-sided accumulator, a reclaim condenser, third conduit means connecting the separator and the reclaim condenser in series, an evaporator coil in the reclaim condenser connectable to a conventional operating refrigeration system for receiving a liquid refrigerant under pressure for expansion therein, the evaporator coil forming a condensing surface for condensing the refrigerant gas at near atmospheric pressure in the condenser, a liquid receiver, a reclaimed refrigerant storage tank, fourth conduit means further connecting the liquid receiver in series with the reclaim condenser, downstream thereof, means between the reclaim condenser and the liquid receiver.

Grant, D.C.H.

1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Save Energy Now (SEN) Assessment Helps Expand Energy Management Program at Shaw Industries: Flooring Company Saves $872,000 Annually by Improving Steam System Efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This case study describes how the Shaw Industries plant #20 in Dalton, Georgia, achieved annual savings of $872,000 and 93,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

Not Available

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

HFC supermarket refrigeration demonstration. Phases 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HFC Supermarket Refrigeration Demonstration tested and evaluated HFC refrigerants in a new Shop `n Save supermarket in Glens Falls, New York. This project included laboratory testing of HFC refrigerants for medium- and low-temperature application, the design of a supermarket refrigeration system to accommodate the new refrigerants, installation, start-up, and field monitoring.

Borhanian, H.; Rafuse, L.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell. 5 figs.

Nelson, R.T.; Middleton, M.G.

1983-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

144

Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adsorbents in heat pump cycles: 1. A high usable refrigerant mass per unit mass of adsorbent. 2. A high energy of adsorption and desorption. 3. Heat flows and composition changes occur at constant temperature. The advantages of complex compounds... 2. Useable refrigerant densities. Summarizing, complex compound exhibit inherent characteristics which make them ideal adsorbents in heat pump cycles: 1. A high usable refrigerant mass per unit mass of adsorbent. 2. A high energy of adsorption...

Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

145

IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P. Leblay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3rd IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P on the refrigerant side and louver fins on the air side. The flat tubes are grouped within a header, to use the heat exchangers with round tubes, such as charge reduction and higher heat transfer efficiency. But a reduced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

146

Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial refrigerators and freezers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

147

Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Heat Pump  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Manufactured in the U.S. 2 Problem Statement * Current commercial and industrial heat pumps - Poor coefficient of performance (COP) at low temperatures * HFC refrigerant...

148

Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

vending machines are equipped with controls or software that put the lighting andor refrigeration systems into a low power state at night, on weekends, or other periods of...

149

Requirements for Determining Refrigerant Charge Residential Air Conditioning Measures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Requirements for Determining Refrigerant Charge Residential Air Conditioning Measures Improved Refrigerant Charge Purpose Component packages require in some climate zones that split system air refrigerant charge. For the performance method, the proposed design is modeled with less efficiency

150

Layer of protection analysis applied to ammonia refrigeration systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ammonia refrigeration systems are widely used in industry. Demand of these systems is expected to increase due to the advantages of ammonia as refrigerant and because ammonia is considered a green refrigerant. Therefore, it is important to evaluate...

Zuniga, Gerald Alexander

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

Global Scratch Upgrade in Progress  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the facility is now positioned to meet the performance demands of all its clusters. By upgrading the consolidated Global Scratch, users will be able to continue taking advantage...

152

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

153

Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transport Refrigeration Units Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration Units This project discusses a CARB Level 2+ verified active regeneration...

154

Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate Filters Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate...

155

DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements March 16, 2010 - 4:28pm...

156

2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration...

157

2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule This document...

158

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies...

159

Chapter 7, Refrigerator Recycling Evaluation Protocol: The Uniform...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

environmentally harmful refrigerants and foam and enables the recycling of the plastic, metal, and wiring components. 1 Secondary refrigerators are units not located in the...

160

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Corrosion aspects in indirect systems with secondary refrigerants.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Aqueous solutions of organic or inorganic salts are used as secondary refrigerants in indirect refrigeration systems to transport and transfer heat. Water is known… (more)

Ignatowicz, Monika

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Next Generation Low-Global...

163

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Center. Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration.
Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration....

164

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Lead Performer: National Institute of...

165

Energy Efficiency Upgrades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy efficiency upgrades project at Hardin County General Hospital did not include research nor was it a demonstration project. The project enabled the hospital to replace outdated systems with modern efficient models. Hardin County General Hospital is a 501c3, nonprofit hospital and the sole community provider for Hardin and Pope Counties of Illinois. This project provided much needed equipment and facility upgrades that would not have been possible through locally generated funding. Task 1 was a reroofing of the hospital. The hospital architect designed the replacement to increase the energy efficiency of the hospital roof/ceiling structure. Task 2 was replacement and installation of a new more efficient CT scanner for the hospital. Included in the project was replacement of HVAC equipment for the entire radiological suite. Task 5 was a replacement and installation of a new higher capacity diesel-fueled emergency generator for the hospital replacing a 50+ year old gas-fired generator. Task 7 was the replacement of 50+ year-old walk-in cooler/freezer with a newer, energy efficient model. Task 8 was the replacement of 10+ year-old washing machines in the hospital laundry with higher capacity, energy efficient models. Task 9 was replacement of 50-year old single pane curtain window system with double-pane insulated windows. Additionally, insulation was added around ventilation systems and the curtain wall system.

Roby Williams

2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

166

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

167

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Natural Refrigerant, Geothermal Heating & Cooling Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, January 2013, www.danfoss.com/co2 DIRECT Refrigerant Leakage (GWP) INDIRECT Energy Consumption (COP Geothermal's Direct Exchange System Advantage: · All Natural, Safe & Non-toxic Refrigerant · Highly Efficient Equivalent Warming Impact Commercial Food and Retail Application: Direct Leakage > Energy Consumption Brown

169

Modeling supermarket refrigeration energy use and demand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computer model has been developed that can predict the performance of supermarket refrigeration equipment to within 3% of field test measurements. The Supermarket Refrigeration Energy Use and Demand Model has been used to simulate currently available refrigerants R-12, R-502 and R-22, and is being further developed to address alternative refrigerants. This paper reports that the model is expected to be important in the design, selection and operation of cost-effective, high-efficiency refrigeration systems. It can profile the operation and performance of different types of compressors, condensors, refrigerants and display cases. It can also simulate the effects of store humidity and temperature on display cases; the efficiency of various floating head pressure setpoints, defrost alternatives and subcooling methods; the efficiency and amount of heat reclaim from refrigeration systems; and the influence of other variables such as store lighting and building design. It can also be used to evaluate operational strategies such as variable-speed drive or cylinder unloading for capacity control. Development of the model began in 1986 as part of a major effort, sponsored by the U.S. electric utility industry, to evaluate energy performance of then conventional single compressor and state-of-the-art multiplex refrigeration systems, and to characterize the contribution of a variety of technology enhancement features on system energy use and demand.

Blatt, M.H.; Khattar, M.K. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (US)); Walker, D.H. (Foster Miller Inc., Waltham, MA (US))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

171

Commercial Refrigerator Door: Order (2013-CE-5351)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Commercial Refrigerator Door had failed to certify that a variety of models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

172

North Star Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5355)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding North Star Refrigerator had failed to certify that any basic models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

173

Campus Utility Upgrades | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

will provide essential support for the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility high performance computing upgrades, expected to occur in FY 2018. Campus utility upgrades also support...

174

Dynamic simulation of a reverse Brayton refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A test refrigerator based on the modified Reverse Brayton cycle has been developed in the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently. To study the behaviors of this test refrigerator, a dynamic simulation has been carried out. The numerical model comprises the typical components of the test refrigerator: compressor, valves, heat exchangers, expander and heater. This simulator is based on the oriented-object approach and each component is represented by a set of differential and algebraic equations. The control system of the test refrigerator is also simulated, which can be used to optimize the control strategies. This paper describes all the models and shows the simulation results. Comparisons between simulation results and experimental data are also presented. Experimental validation on the test refrigerator gives satisfactory results.

Peng, N.; Xiong, L. Y.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Lei, L. L.; Tang, J. C. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 China and Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

175

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

177

Steam System Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flanges, control valves, steam turbines, manways, sections of piping, heads on vessels, etc. are uninsulated. If steam is in demand at the steam pressure level of the uninsulated piping and equipment, then the piping and equipment should be insulated... been developed, it is an excellent tool to identify the steam sources. Areas to first look for possible waste are steam turbines and steam let down stations. 161 ESL-IE-98-04-26 Proceedings from the Twentieth National Industrial Energy Technology...

Aegerter, R. A.

178

Steam System Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is being let down. Some projects are independent of the steam balance, such as eliminating high-pressure (HP) steam leaks, insulating HP steam piping, optimizing the boiler operation, and improving the performance of condensing turbines.... If dirty fuels are used, then soot blowing should be frequently performed and the economizers cleaned on a more frequent schedule. For sites with condensing turbines, the turbine blades and the surface condensers must remain clean to maintain...

Aegerter, R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Steam System Survey Guide  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage » SearchEnergyDepartmentScopingOverviewFranklinStatusJ.R. Simplot Don

180

Refrigerator/freezer energy use: Measured values vs. simulation results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EPA Refrigerator Analysis (ERA) program was utilized in the engineering analysis performed to support the proposed refrigerator/freezer standards in the United States. In this paper the accuracy of the ERA program for predicting the energy consumption of domestic refrigerators, freezers, and refrigerator-freezers is studied by comparing the predicted energy consumption with the measured energy consumption.

Hakim, S.H.; Turiel, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

183

PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 as refrigerant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the use of carbon dioxide as refrigerant in supermarket refrigeration systems. The work includes fieldPhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 a PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2

Kazachkov, Ivan

184

Proceedings: commercial refrigeration research workshop. Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this workshop was to identify the state-of-the-art and determine research needs for improving energy use and demand in commercial refrigeration applications. Workshop attendees included research and development, technical operations and marketing people from manufacturers of supermarket refrigeration, space conditioning, and energy management systems equipment, and from supermarket chains and electric utilities. Presentations were given on best current practice and research needs from the perspective of each of these industry segments. Working groups identified ten important research, development and equipment demonstration projects to improve the efficiency of refrigerating equipment, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment, and other energy-using systems in supermarkets.

Blatt, M.H.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Performance of a two-cycle refrigerator/freezer using HFC refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-cycle 18 ft{sup 3} (0.51 m{sup 3}) refrigerator/freezer was tested utilizing American National Standards Institute/Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (ANSI/AHAM) standards for energy consumption testing. A 34.9% energy consumption reduction was realized for a 1984 model refrigerator/freezer (1020 kWh original energy use). This paper presents a proven method of reducing the current Department of Energy (DOE) minimum energy-efficiency standards for refrigerator/freezers to the proposed year 2001 standards utilizing existing technology. For a top-mount, frost-free refrigerator/freezer having the above volume, the current DOE minimum energy standard is 770 kWh/year, and the proposed DOE year 2001 standard is 530 kWh/year (a 31% reduction). Therefore, some significant reductions may be obtained by implementing the modifications discussed in this paper into newer refrigerator/freezer models. The paper gives an overview of the modifications implemented by a Danish university on a US refrigerator/freezer and presents experimental performance testing results of the refrigerator/freezer. The modifications will cause the refrigerator/freezer to be more expensive, but the performance enhancements should offset cost. No cost analysis is presented in this paper, but a detailed cost analysis of a two-cycle refrigerator/freezer is contained in a 1993 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report (EPA 1993). The refrigerator/freezer was tested using four refrigerants and compressors. Two compressors and refrigerants were tested in the freezer cycle, and four were tested in the fresh food cycle.

Baskin, E.; Delafield, F.R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption-recompression refrigeration...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

REFRIGERATION CYCLE ACTUAL VAPOR-COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE VAPOR-COMPRESSION HEAT PUMPS THE EXERGY... and Engineering Center CARNOT REFRIGERATION CYCLE Practical...

188

E-Print Network 3.0 - amr refrigeration cycle Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

COPs, pressure ratios, outlet temperatures of the refrigerants... , Ltd. KEY WORDS: refrigeration; refrigerants; water; comparison; compressor; cycle; heat pump; air... be...

189

Energy use of US residential refrigerators and freezers: function derivation based on household and climate characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

residential refrigerators and freezers: function derivationsecond most-used) refrigerators, and freezers, and residualfor more efficient refrigerators and freezers, as well as

Greenblatt, Jeffery

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along withthe number of refrigerators and freezers in a home alongcompression refrigerators and freezers) in U.S. households.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

MAST Upgrade - Construction Status  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centre piece of the UK fusion research programme. In 2010, a MAST Upgrade programme was initiated with three primary objectives, to contribute to: 1) Testing reactor concepts (in particular exhaust solutions via a flexible divertor allowing Super-X and other extended leg configurations); 2) Adding to the knowledge base for ITER (by addressing important plasma physics questions and developing predictive models to help optimise ITER performance of ITER) and 3) Exploring the feasibility of using a spherical tokamak as the basis for a fusion Component Test Facility. With the project mid-way through its construction phase, progress will be reported on a number of the critical subsystems. This will include manufacture and assembly of the coils, armour and support structures that make up the new divertors, construction of the new set coils that make up the centre column, installation of the new power supplies for powering the divertor coils and enhanced TF coil set, progr...

Milnes, Joe; Dhalla, Fahim; Fishpool, Geoff; Hill, John; Katramados, Ioannis; Martin, Richard; Naylor, Graham; O'Gorman, Tom; Scannell, Rory

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Energy use of icemaking in domestic refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was designed to develop and test a procedure to measure the electrical consumption of ice making in domestic refrigerators. The Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure was modified to include the energy used for icemaking in conventional refrigerators and those equipped with automatic icemakers. The procedure assumed that 500 grams of ice would be produced daily. Using the new test procedure and the existing DOE test (as a benchmark), four refrigerators equipped with automatic icemakers were tested for ice-making energy use. With the revised test, gross electricity consumption increased about 10% (100 kWh/yr) due to automatic icemaking but about 5% (55 kWh/yr) could be attributed to the special features of the automatic icemaker. The test also confirmed the feasibility of establishing procedures for measuring energy use of specific loads and other activities related to domestic refrigerators. Field testing and subsequent retesting revealed a 14% increase in energy use.

Meier, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Martinez, M.S. [ENVEST-SCE, Irwindale, CA (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Of Refrigerators & Regulations | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Regulations Of Refrigerators & Regulations February 8, 2011 - 9:29am Addthis Jesse Lee White House Director of Online Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from...

194

Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

Lucas, Timothy S. (Glen Allen, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study Study ID Nos. 546B, 563 Prepared RECYCLING PROGRAMS Study ID Nos. 546B and 563 Prepared for Southern California Edison Rosemead, California

196

Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that International Refrigeration Products failed to certify a various room air conditioners as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

198

Refrigerator Manufacturers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5341)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

199

Improving Industrial Refrigeration System Efficiency - Actual Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cycle cooling during winter operation, compressor intercooling, direct refrigeration vs. brine cooling, insulation of cold piping to reduce heat gain, multiple screw compressors for improved part load operation, evaporative condensers for reduced system...

White, T. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Cospolich Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5314)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, D.P.

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

203

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, Donald P. (Southold, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum [University of Dayton, Ohio] [University of Dayton, Ohio; Wenning, Thomas J [ORNL] [ORNL; Sever, Franc [University of Dayton, Ohio] [University of Dayton, Ohio; Kissock, Professor Kelly [University of Dayton, Ohio] [University of Dayton, Ohio

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

DOEEA-1178 Assessment 300 Area Steam Plant Replacement, Hanford...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

facilities would not be achieved. 5.3.4 Upgrade Central Steam System Impacts from upgrading the central steam system would include a reduction in the operational costs...

207

LOWELL ADDS ENERGY EFFICIENCY TO HISTORIC UPGRADES | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

LOWELL ADDS ENERGY EFFICIENCY TO HISTORIC UPGRADES LOWELL ADDS ENERGY EFFICIENCY TO HISTORIC UPGRADES LOWELL ADDS ENERGY EFFICIENCY TO HISTORIC UPGRADES Faced with the challenge of...

208

Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Oil Upgrading Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading PNNL report-out at the CTAB webinar on Bio-Oil Upgrading. ctabwebinarbiooilsupgrading.pdf More...

209

Energy Upgrade California Drives Demand From Behind the Wheel...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Upgrade California Drives Demand From Behind the Wheel Energy Upgrade California Drives Demand From Behind the Wheel Photo of a trailer with the Energy Upgrade California logo and...

210

Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Refrigeration Technologies in Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With development of absorption refrigeration technology, the cooling requirement can be met using various optional refrigeration technologies in a CCHP system, including compression refrigeration, steam double-effect absorption refrigeration, steam...

Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Process model and capacity upgrades of the CTI-4000 liquid helium coldbox  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is in the process of re-commissioning a vintage CTI-4000 liquid helium coldbox, initially supplied by CTI-Cryogenics/Sulzer to Los Alamos in 1979. The coldbox was originally designed as a liquid helium refrigerator with capacity of ?1200 W at nominal 4-K. The process utilized LN{sub 2} precooling, in-series operation of two centrifugal gas bearing turboexpanders and final Joule-Thomson (J-T) expansion. At FNAL, the coldbox will be utilized as a liquefier to support 2-K operations. A process model was developed to aid in the upgrade decisions and used to determine the nominal capacity of the liquefier. Capacity upgrades are achieved by safely utilizing the internal LN2 precooler, the addition of a 3-inch reciprocating wet expansion engine and increasing the overall process pressure by recertifying two limiting pressure vessels to a higher MAWP.

Hansen, Benjamin; Klebaner, Arkadiy [Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Quack, Hans [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

212

E-Print Network 3.0 - active magnetic refrigerator Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: : The Perspectives of Patient and Public Health Organizations Aerosols Air Conditioning and Refrigeration... : Refrigerant Alternatives for Chillers Koichi Watanabe,...

213

Potential Refrigerants for Power Electronics Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the past, automotive refrigerants have conventionally been used solely for the purpose of air conditioning. However, with the development of hybrid-electric vehicles and the incorporation of power electronics (PEs) into the automobile, automotive refrigerants are taking on a new role. Unfortunately, PEs have lifetimes and functionalities that are highly dependent on temperature and as a result thermal control plays an important role in the performance of PEs. Typically, PEs are placed in the engine compartment where the internal combustion engine (ICE) already produces substantial heat. Along with the ICE heat, the additional thermal energy produced by PEs themselves forces designers to use different cooling methods to prevent overheating. Generally, heat sinks and separate cooling loops are used to maintain the temperature. Disturbingly, the thermal control system can consume one third of the total volume and may weigh more than the PEs [1]. Hence, other avenues have been sought to cool PEs, including submerging PEs in automobile refrigerants to take advantage of two-phase cooling. The objective of this report is to explore the different automotive refrigerants presently available that could be used for PE cooling. Evaluation of the refrigerants will be done by comparing environmental effects and some thermo-physical properties important to two-phase cooling, specifically measuring the dielectric strengths of potential candidates. Results of this report will be used to assess the different candidates with good potential for future use in PE cooling.

Starke, M.R.

2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

214

Quantum heat engines and refrigerators: Continuous devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum thermodynamics supplies a consistent description of quantum heat engines and refrigerators up to the level of a single few level system coupled to the environment. Once the environment is split into three;a hot, cold and work reservoirs a heat engine can operate. The device converts the positive gain into power;where the gain is obtained from population inversion between the components of the device. Reversing the operation transforms the device into a quantum refrigerator. The quantum tricycle, a device connected by three external leads to three heat reservoirs is used as a template for engines and refrigerators. The equation of motion for the heat currents and power can be derived from first principle. Only a global description of the coupling of the device to the reservoirs is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Optimisation of the devices leads to a balanced set of parameters where the couplings to the three reservoirs are of the same order and the external driving field is in resonance. When analysing refrigerators special attention is devoted to a dynamical version of the third law of thermodynamics. Bounds on the rate of cooling when approaching the absolute zero are obtained by optimising the cooling current. At low temperature all refrigerators show universal behavior. Restrictions on the system imposed by the dynamical version of the third law are studied.

Ronnie Kosloff; Amikam Levy

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

215

EFITviewer UpgradesEFITviewer Upgrades MDSplus Event Management System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summation System. red values indicate an alarm condition. #12;Web Tool Upgrades · Different Signals may is automatic · Signal names saved in a file may be pasted into Web Tool fields · "Memory" of previous entries improved #12;#12;#12;Web Tools can overlay profiles #12;

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

216

Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

775 Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering P. A systems developed specifically for neutron scattering environ- ments. The refrigerators are completely relatively recently however, the lowest temperatures available in almost all neutron scattering laboratories

Boyer, Edmond

217

adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

refrigeration, steam... Zuo, Z.; Hu, W. 2006-01-01 287 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

218

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? July 20, 2012 - 4:35pm Addthis Earlier this week, Amanda wrote about how you can save energy...

219

Proposed Methodology for LEED Baseline Refrigeration Modeling (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This PowerPoint presentation summarizes a proposed methodology for LEED baseline refrigeration modeling. The presentation discusses why refrigeration modeling is important, the inputs of energy models, resources, reference building model cases, baseline model highlights, example savings calculations and results.

Deru, M.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Microcomputer Software for Refrigerant Property and Cycle Analysis Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the thermodynamic properties of ten fluorocarbon refrigerants, (Rll, R12, R13, R14, R22, R23, Rl13, Rl14, R500, R502) and ammonia in the sub-cooled, saturation, 2-phase, and superheat regions. In the sec tions which follow, the theoretical basis... for each fluorocarbon refrigerant, represent curve fits to existing tabular property data. For both ammonia and the fluorocarbon refrigerants, the equations for the following four basic properties of refrigerants are used. - Liquid density as a...

Bierschenk, J. L.; Strohl, S. T.; Schmidt, P. S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Optimal performance of endoreversible quantum refrigerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The derivation of general performance benchmarks is important in the design of highly optimized heat engines and refrigerators. To obtain them, one may model phenomenologically the leading sources of irreversibility ending up with results which are model-independent, but limited in scope. Alternatively, one can take a simple physical system realizing a thermodynamic cycle and assess its optimal operation from a complete microscopic description. We follow this approach in order to derive the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling rate for \\textit{any} endoreversible quantum refrigerator. At striking variance with the \\textit{universality} of the optimal efficiency of heat engines, we find that the cooling performance at maximum power is crucially determined by the details of the specific system-bath interaction mechanism. A closed analytical benchmark is found for endoreversible refrigerators weakly coupled to unstructured bosonic heat baths: an ubiquitous case study in quantum thermodynamics.

Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

222

Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.

Alekseev, A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan Appendix 1 - WBS Dictionary 25 Appendix 1 - NSTX Upgrade Project Work Breakdown Structure This Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) organizes and defines the scope of the NSTX Upgrade using the WBS as established by the original NSTX project and modified

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

224

ATLAS Upgrade for sLHC Motivation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATLAS Upgrade for sLHC · Motivation · LHC Upgrades · ATLAS Upgrade/schedule · R&D Variety · Russian Institutes involvement · Conclusions A.Cheplakov JINR, Dubna (on behalf of the ATLAS Collaboration) Many thanks to ATLAS colleagues for the useful information - N.Hessey, A.Loginov, A.Romaniouk, P

225

ATLAS Upgrade Week 1 November 11, 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATLAS Upgrade Week 1 November 11, 2009 Proposal to Develop On-Detector Array-based Optical Link A. Maettig Universität Wuppertal K.K. Gan A. Pellegrino, T. Sluijk NIKHEF (LHCb) #12;ATLAS Upgrade Week 2;ATLAS Upgrade Week 3 Introduction VCSEL and PIN are available in three forms: single channel or 4

Gan, K. K.

226

Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

Calm, James M.

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

227

Simulation results of single refrigerants for use in a dual-circuit refrigerator/freezer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dual-circuit RFs have been shown to have a theoretical advantage over single-evaporator RFs if the compressor efficiencies of the separate loops are equivalent to the compressor efficiency of the combined system. Single refrigerants were analyzed to determine the optimum pure refrigerant in each of the two separate freezer and fresh food loops. R-152a and R-142b were determined to be the optimum single refrigerants in the dual-circuit system. With the assumptions made, theoretical energy savings of up to 23% of compressor power are possible.

Bare, J.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Method and apparatus for de-superheating refrigerant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim. 7 figs.

Zess, J.A.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.

1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

230

Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC DEFROSTING REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC DEFROSTING REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER Richard F. Topping-efficient refrigerator- freezer prototype involving the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Arthur D refrigerator-freezers. The resulting 16 cubic foot prototype uses significantly less energy than the most

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

232

Fast Nonconvex Model Predictive Control for Commercial Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

its capabil- ity to minimize the total cost of energy for a commercial refrigeration system while multi-zone refrigeration system, consisting of several cooling units that share a common compressor. This corresponds roughly to 2% of the entire electricity consumption in the country. Refrigerated goods constitute

233

Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Form Date 4/4/01 Refrigerant Service Order Form  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recovery Unit ID # : Added Lbs oz Lbs oz Lbs oz Startup Charge Net Refrigerant Added: Lbs oz Parts UsedForm Date 4/4/01 Refrigerant Service Order Form Service ID: Owner: Work Order #: Building: Date: Issued: Completed: Equipment ID: Technicians: Location: Model: Manufact: Serial #: Refrigerant Type

Russell, Lynn

235

Feasibility of Solar-Assisted Refrigerated Transport in Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems. Keywords: refrigeration, transport, photovoltaics, economics. 1 #12;B. Elliston, M. Dennis) modules to minimise the use of diesel generation in refrigerated transport. Sub- sequently, UK supermarket. This report investigates the merit of retrofitting a PV system to assist refrigerated trailers in Australian

236

Helium refrigeration considerations for cryomodule design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, packaged in cryo-modules (CM), which depend on helium refrigeration at sub-atmospheric pressures, nominally 2 K. These specialized helium refrigeration systems are quite cost intensive to produce and operate. Particularly as there is typically no work extraction below the 4.5-K supply, it is important that the exergy loss between this temperature level and the CM load temperature(s) be minimized by the process configuration choices. This paper will present, compare and discuss several possible helium distribution process arrangements to support the CM loads.

Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

237

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

238

2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for residential refrigerators and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on April 10, 2014.

239

Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including refrigerated beverage vending machines, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Alternative Refrigerants for Building Air Conditioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The majority of building air conditioning has traditionally been achieved with vapor compression technology using CFC-I I or HCFC-22 as refrigerant fluids. CFC-11 is being successfully replaced by HCFC-123 (retrofit or new equipment) or by HFC- 134a...

Bivens, D. B.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water...

Braud, H. J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Retail refrigeration systems -- The use of ammonia and two-level secondary refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of a secondary refrigeration system for high-temperature use as investigated in 1991, and a design for a full high-temperature system was completed the following year. In late 1992, a supermarket chain commissioned a study of the feasibility of turning the design into a practical application and assisted the project in 1993 by commissioning a test facility for single-temperature secondary refrigeration at one of the company`s factory sites. Results and conclusions from this trial work pointed toward the need for a total secondary refrigeration system, including a low-temperature system for frozen food display cases, and the possibility of utilizing environmentally friendly ammonia as the primary refrigerant. Therefore, in late 1993/early 1994, a low-temperature system was developed and commissioned at the test facility. Full collaboration between the supermarket company and the contractor resulted in the funding of practical trial work and feasibility studies for both secondary refrigeration and a fully detailed proposal for the use of ammonia in a public retail environment. In May 1995, the first UK ammonia and two-level secondary refrigeration system began operation in a supermarket in Horsham, Sussex England.

Thomas, A.S. [Westward Refrigeration, Gloucester (United Kingdom)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Dilution cycle control for an absorption refrigeration system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dilution cycle control system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The control system includes a time delay relay for sensing shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system and for generating a control signal only after expiration of a preselected time period measured from the sensed shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system, during which the absorption refrigeration system is not restarted. A dilution cycle for the absorption refrigeration system is initiated in response to generation of a control signal by the time delay relay. This control system is particularly suitable for use with an absorption refrigeration system which is frequently cycled on and off since the time delay provided by the control system prevents needless dilution of the absorption refrigeration system when the system is turned off for only a short period of time and then is turned back on.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case has its own refrigeration unit; low-charge direct expansion--similar to conventional multiplex refrigeration systems but with improved controls to limit charge. Means to integrate store HVAC systems for space heating/cooling with the refrigeration system have been investigated as well. One approach is to use heat pumps to recover refrigeration waste heat and raise it to a sufficient level to provide for store heating needs. Another involves use of combined heating and power (CHP) or combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems to integrate the refrigeration, HVAC, and power services in stores. Other methods including direct recovery of refrigeration reject heat for space and water heating have also been examined.

Baxter, VAN

2003-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

246

Canada's heavy oil, bitumen upgrading activity is growing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heavy oil and bitumen upgrading activity in Canada is surging with the recent start-up of two new upgraders and with plans to build others. These new upgraders make use of modern hydrocracking technology. Articles in this special report on upgrading focus on Canada's oil and bitumen reserves, the promising technologies that upgrade them, and present details of some of the current upgrader projects. This article covers the following areas: Canada's heavy oils; Upgrading expands; Upgrading technologies; Test results; Regional upgraders; High-quality light product.

Corbett, R.A.

1989-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

247

The alternative refrigerant dilemma for refrigerator-freezers: Truth or consequences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to select a refrigerant that has minimal impact on energy consumption and the environment, a screening analysis of potential refrigerants was performed that resulted in the selection of six candidates. The screening results show that R-134a, R-134, R-152a, R-134a/R-152a, R-22/R-152a/R-124, and R-134a/R-152a/R-124 are the most promising refrigerants based on the following criteria: ozone depletion potential, greenhouse warming potential, coefficient of performance, and safety. Energy consumption tests were performed for the three pure refrigerants in accordance with the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results indicate an increased energy consumption of 6.8%, 7.3%, and 7.3%, respectively for R-134, R-152a, and R-134a in the most efficient oil. However, when the effects of compressor efficiency are taken into account, the normalized energy consumption results in an increase of only 2.7% for R-152a and 5.5% for both R-134a and R-134. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

Vineyard, E.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

The application of Stirling cooler to refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The application field of the free-piston Stirling Cooler, Model 100A of Global Cooling BV in the refrigeration has been studied. The cooling effectiveness of the free-piston Stirling Cooler which means small capacity with better efficiency, large range of temperature and capacity modulated operation is of much use to cool a space insulated well. One practicable application is suggested here, in which FPSC and secondary heat transfer fluid are used to the single temperature refrigerator (60 liter) instead of conventional vapor compression machines. In the freezer operation at {minus}20 C inside cabinet, the steady-state test results show 25% improvement in energy consumption over original one. The application of free-piston Stirling Cooler to a freezer at lower temperature shows great potentials also.

Kim, S.Y.; Chung, W.S.; Shin, D.K.; Cho, K.S. [LG Electronics Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Living System Lab.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

249

Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed, that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modelling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.

Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

250

An electric utility's adventures in commercial refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article provides a look at the history of energy conservation efforts in supermarket refrigeration from World War II to the present and a goal for the future. A supermarket is a low profit margin business, typically netting 1 percent on annual sales. The typical supermarket's annual electric bill equals or exceeds the annual profits. With all of these data, it looked like energy conservation in the supermarket industry was going to be an easy task. Change the lighting to a more energy-efficient system and lower the head pressure and raise the suction pressure in the refrigeration. Any owner, CEO, or general manager who could easily increase his bottom-line profit by 10 to 30 percent would jump at the opportunity, especially when the electric utility was willing to support a portion of the cost for the changes.

Flannick, J.A. (Wisconsin Electric Co., Milwaukee, WI (United States)); Stamm, R.H. (Industrial Refrigeration, Sandy, OR (United States)); Calle, M.M. (Technical Resources, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (United States)); Gomolla, J.C. (Gomolla (Jerry C.), Milwaukee, WI (United States))

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

MICHIGAN SWEEPS NEIGHBORHOODS WITH ENERGY UPGRADES | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

on supporting local businesses and employment. BetterBuildings for Michigan developed a sustainable market for energy efficiency upgrades and thousands of qualified professionals...

252

Jefferson Lab accelerator upgrade completed: Initial operations...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DOE to begin initial operations of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) as part of its ongoing 338 million upgrade. With the approval of Critical...

253

Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

HVAC's Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Comfort by Design Steve Jones Commercial Sales Manager for Mitsubishi Southwest Business Unit HVAC?s Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Technology HVAC Industry Overview HVAC Market Dollar Volume $18 Billion Source:;NABH Research....2M Systems Ductless is a small percent of the U.S. HVAC market but current building and energy usage trends indicate a large growth opportunity Determining the Proper Application Worldwide Usage-Opportunity Window Unitary Chillers...

Jones, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

Swift, Gregory W. (Sante Fe, NM); Olson, Jeffrey R. (San Mateo, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Process for the production of refrigerator oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for producing a high quality refrigerator oil from an oil fraction boiling at a temperature within boiling point of lubricating oil by contacting said oil fraction with a solvent to extract undesirable components thereby lowering % C..cap alpha.. of said oil fraction, hydrogenating said solvent extracted fraction under the specific conditions, and then contacting said hydrogenated oil with a solid absorbant to remove impurities; said oil fraction being obtained from a low grade naphthenic crude oil.

Kunihiro, T.; Tsuchiya, K.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

257

Cool energy savings opportunities in commercial refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The commercial sector consumes over 13 quads of primary energy annually. Most of this consumption (two-thirds) meets the energy needs of lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. The largest consuming group of the remaining one-third is commercial refrigeration at about one quad annually (990 trillion Btu), valued at over $7 billion per year to the commercial sector consumer. Potential energy savings are estimated to be about 266 trillion Btu, with consumer savings valued at about $2 billion. This study provides the first known estimates of these values using a bottom-up approach. The authors evaluated numerous self-contained and engineered commercial refrigeration systems in this study, such as: supermarket central systems, beverage merchandisers, ice machines, and vending machines. Typical physical characteristics of each equipment type were identified at the component level for energy consumption. This information was used to form a detailed database from which they arrived at the estimate of 990 trillion Btu energy consumption for the major equipment types used in commercial refrigeration. Based on the implementation of the most cost-effective technology improvements for the seven major equipment types, they estimated an annual potential energy savings of 266 trillion Btu. Much of the savings can be realized with the implementation of high-efficiency fan motors and compressors. In many cases, payback can be realized within three years.

Westphalen, D.; Brodrick, J.; Zogg, R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Method of reducing chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant emissons to the atmosphere  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for reducing chloroflurocarbon (CFC) refrigerant emissions during removal or transfer or refrigerants from a vapor compression cooling system or heat pump which comprises contacting the refrigerant with a suitable sorbent material. The sorbent material allows for the storage and retention or the chlorofluorocarbon in non-gaseous form so that it does not tend to escape to the atmosphere where it would cause harm by contributing to ozone depletion. In other aspects of the invention, contacting of CFC refrigerants with sorbent material allows for purification and recycling of used refrigerant, and a device containing stored sorbent material can be employed in the detection of refrigerant leakage in a cooling system or heat pump.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Fairchild, Phillip D. (Clinton, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

The Upgraded D0 detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U./Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco deQuito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS; ,

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Process Options for Nominal 2-K Helium Refrigeration System Designs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nominal 2-K helium refrigeration systems are frequently used for superconducting radio frequency and magnet string technologies used in accelerators. This paper examines the trade-offs and approximate performance of four basic types of processes used for the refrigeration of these technologies; direct vacuum pumping on a helium bath, direct vacuum pumping using full or partial refrigeration recovery, cold compression, and hybrid compression (i.e., a blend of cold and warm sub-atmospheric compression).

Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

262

Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-4 Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory Chaoyi Tan Jianlong Liu Fennan Tang Yang Liu Hunan University of Technology... fiber ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-4 2. REFRIGERATION SYSTEM SUPERIOR DESIGN PROPOSAL IN MUCILAGE GLUE FIBER FACTORY 2.1 Refrigeration system superior design proposal in mucilage glue fiber factory...

Tan, C.; Liu, J.; Tang, F.; Liu, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA)

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

264

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x} Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing. 27 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

265

Compressor calorimeter performance of refrigerant blends: Comparative methods and results for a refrigerator/freezer application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A protocol was developed to define calorimeter operating pressures for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARMs) which corresponded with the saturated evaporator and condenser temperatures commonly used for pure refrigerants. Compressor calorimeter results were obtained using this equivalent-mean-temperature (EMT) approach and a generally applied Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) procedure at conditions characteristic of a domestic refrigerator-freezer application. Tests with R-12 and two NARMs indicate that compressor volumetric and isentropic efficiencies are nearly the same for refrigerants with similar capacities and pressure ratios. The liquid-line temperature conditions specified in the AHAM calorimeter rating procedure for refrigerator-freezer compressors were found to preferentially derate NARM performance relative to R-12. Conversion of calorimeter data taken with a fixed liquid-line temperature to a uniform minimal level of condenser subcooling is recommended as a fairer procedure when NARMs are involved. Compressor energy-efficiency-ratio (EER) and capacity data measured as a result of the EMT approach were compared to system performance calculated using an equivalent-heat-exchanger-loading (EHXL) protocol based on a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) refrigerator-freezer modeling program. The EHXL protocol was used to transform the calorimeter results into a more relevant representation of potential L-M cycle performance. The EMT method used to set up the calorimeter tests and the AHAM liquid-line conditions combined to significantly understate the cycle potential of NARMs relative to that predicted at the more appropriate EHXL conditions. Compressor conditions representative of larger heat exchanger sizes were also found to give a smaller L-M cycle advantage relative to R-12.

Rice, C K; Sand, J R

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

Jardine, D.M.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

267

High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact space. Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially...

268

Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for Impact Evaluation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Impact Evaluation Focus...

269

DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The Department of Energy has issued one subpoena and two data requests to three companies in response to allegations that the companies are selling refrigerator-freezers that...

270

New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Solstice N40 offer supermarkets an easy solution to reduce their refrigeration system's electricity consumption, save energy, and cut greenhouse gas emissions. The Building...

271

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Supermarket refrigeration assessment for the New England Electric System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a project to assess the impact of energy efficient supermarket refrigeration on the electric capacity requirements of the New England Electric System (NEES) service territories. The leading supermarket chains in the NEES service territories were contacted and the number of supermarkets and the types of refrigeration systems employed were established. Estimates were then made of the potential demand and energy savings that NEES and the supermarkets could realize if energy efficient refrigeration systems were employed. On the basis of this analysis, possible incentives to accelerate the implementation of energy efficient refrigeration equipment in NEES service territories were recommended. 4 refs., 10 figs., 27 tabs.

Tsaros, T.L.; Walker, D.H. (Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the...

274

Polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants and refrigerant oils colored with fluorescent dyes and method for their use as leak detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A leak detectable refrigeration composition is described comprising: (A) a refrigeration liquid selection from the group consisting of: (1) a polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant; (2) a refrigeration oil selected from the group consisting of naphthenic oils, paraffinic oils, alkylated benzenes, silicones, polyglycols, diesters or triesters of dicarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids, and polyalkyl silicate oils, and (3) a mixture of A(1) and A(2), and (B) a fluorescent dye compound or composition comprising the dye selected from the group consisting of: (1) a fluorescent dye selected from the group consisting of perylene, naphthoxanthene, monocyclic aromatic compounds having an organometallic compound, (2) a solution of fluorescent dye in a solvent, and (3) a mixture of B(1) and B(2). The fluorescent dye compound or composition is soluble in the refrigeration liquid. The concentration of the dye being at least 0.001 grams per 100 grams of the refrigeration liquid.

Parekh, M.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

275

SND data acquisition system upgrade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The data acquisition (DAQ) system of the SND detector successfully operated during four data-taking seasons (2010-2013) at the e+e- collider VEPP-2000. Currently the collider is shut down for planned reconstruction, which is expected to increase the VEPP-2000 luminosity and data flow from the SND detector electronics by up to 10 times. Since current DAQ system implementation (electronics and computer part) does not have enough reserve for selection of events in the new environment without compromising quality, there arose the need for the system upgrade. Here we report on the major SND data acquisition system upgrade which includes developing new electronics for digitization and data transfer, complete redesign of the data network, increasing of the DAQ computer farm processing capacity and making the event building process concurrent. These measures will allow us to collect data flow from the most congested detector subsystems in parallel in contrast to the current situation. We would like to discuss also the possibility to implement full software trigger solution in the future.

A. G. Bogdanchikov; V. P. Druzhinin; A. A. Korol; S. V. Koshuba; A. I. Tekutiev; Yu. V. Usov

2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

276

Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

277

Reliability Design and Case Study of a Refrigerator Compressor Subjected to Repetitive Loads, International Journal of Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A newly designed crankshaft of a compressor for a side-by-side (SBS) refrigerator was studied. Using mass and energy conservation balances, a variety of compressor loads typically found in a refrigeration cycle were analyzed. The laboratory failure... vis-a´-vis de la fiabilite´ et e´tude de casArticle history: Received 18 March 2008 Received in revised form 6 May 2008 Accepted 21 July 2008 Published online 31 July 2008 Keywords: Refrigeration system Compression system Reciprocating compressor...

Woo, S.; O'Neal, D.L.; Pecht, M.

278

Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

279

NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan 6 PPPL Laboratory Director S.Prager Deputy Director.Gentile Centerstack Dsgn & Fab J. Chrzanowski NSTX Upgrade Project Manager R. Strykowsky Deputy and Construction Manager E. Perry Project Controls S. Langish NSTXCenterstack Manager L. Dudek NSTXNeutral Beam Manager T

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

280

Work Authorization Document NSTX Upgrade Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Work Authorization Document NSTX Upgrade Project Control Account #: 1302 Title: WBS 1.1.11 Title Functional Manager P. Heitzenroeder Approvals Signature Date NSTX-U Project Manager R. Strykowsky 4- WBS and includes design modifications and upgrade of the coil assembly stand; procedures for assembling the Center

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The Bottom Line Space@Penn Upgrade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Bottom Line Space@Penn Upgrade Coming Soon! A project is underway to upgrade the current that allows designated users in the field to update certain elements of their space. This project, whose: Grants & Projects ­ Used for invoice generation, overhead and revenue recognition, and award and project

Sharp, Kim

282

NSTXpool Computer Upgrade December 9, 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NSTXpool Computer Upgrade WP #1685 Bill Davis December 9, 2010 #12;Work Scope Upgrade Operating System, Application Software, and Programs that run on NSTX computers using Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3. nstxpool computers + nstxops nstxWindowsPC (Control Room Display Wall) Big Blue cluster for EFIT Selected

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

283

Weatherization and Workforce Guidelines for Home Energy Upgrades...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

for Home Energy Upgrades Fact Sheet Weatherization and Workforce Guidelines for Home Energy Upgrades Fact Sheet This fact sheet provides essential information about the 2011...

284

Shared Space vs. In-Unit Upgrades in Multifamily Buildings |...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Shared Space vs. In-Unit Upgrades in Multifamily Buildings Shared Space vs. In-Unit Upgrades in Multifamily Buildings Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multifamily Peer...

285

Sandia National Laboratories: Solar Test Facility Upgrades Complete...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Upgrades Complete, Leading to Better Sandia Capabilities to Support Power Industry Solar Test Facility Upgrades Complete, Leading to Better Sandia Capabilities to Support...

286

Federal Finance Facilities Available for Energy Efficiency Upgrades...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Federal Finance Facilities Available for Energy Efficiency Upgrades and Clean Energy Deployment Federal Finance Facilities Available for Energy Efficiency Upgrades and Clean Energy...

287

ENERGY STAR Webinar: Financing Energy Efficient Upgrades with...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ENERGY STAR Webinar: Financing Energy Efficient Upgrades with ENERGY STAR ENERGY STAR Webinar: Financing Energy Efficient Upgrades with ENERGY STAR October 21, 2014 2:00PM to...

288

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption refrigerator system Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: a direct expansion (DX) rack system with multiple refrigerated cases. The basic simulation software handles... interactions between the refrigerated cases and the...

289

E-Print Network 3.0 - adsorption refrigeration system Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: a direct expansion (DX) rack system with multiple refrigerated cases. The basic simulation software handles... interactions between the refrigerated cases and the...

290

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption refrigeration machines Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

refrigeration systems (2-3) htm systems (2-3) Thermo... ) Absorption: used more for air conditioning and for refrigeration- Absorption: used more for air conditioning... air...

291

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

each document... an individual study related to the interaction between refrigeration and air conditioning use, its environmental... , regarding refrigerant emission policy...

292

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption refrigerating machine Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

refrigeration systems (2-3) htm systems (2-3) Thermo... ) Absorption: used more for air conditioning and for refrigeration- Absorption: used more for air conditioning... air...

293

Cascade and secondary coolant supermarket refrigeration systems : modelling and new frost correlations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Nowadays traditional (direct expansion) supermarket refrigeration systems are mostly employed in supermarket establishments for refrigerating food products and beverages in the store. However, the installations… (more)

Haile-Michael, Getu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

1991 & 1992 trade-in refrigerator metering project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under SMUD`s Equipment Efficiency Improvement Program the District offers an incentive of $100 to customers who trade in an older refrigerator in conjunction with the purchase of a new model. More than 40,000 refrigerators have been traded in this program as of January 1993. This program has provided 36.5% of the total reported savings from all SMUD`s conservation programs through April 1993. Of this 36.5% reported savings, 84.7% is attributed to the trading in of an old refrigerator for a new model, and only 15.3% to purchases of a new refrigerators without trading in their older model. In 1992 two laboratory studies were undertaken to quantify energy use of older, close to retirement, domestic residential refrigerators from participants in SMUD`s refrigerator trade-in program. One study focused on annual energy use from older model refrigerators received from this program, and the second study focused on potential energy savings from condenser coil cleaning from this same stock of refrigerators. To determine the performance of these refrigerators, a sample of 79 units was randomly selected for testing. Each unit was tested to obtain annual energy use (kWh/yr) and to document physical and operational conditions. A subset of 28 units from this sample was also tested to determine energy savings as a result of cleaning condenser coils. This was done by comparing test results of annual energy use before and after coil cleaning. These refrigerators were tested to the same conventional procedures (commonly called the {open_quotes}DOE{close_quotes} test, or AHAM test procedures) used to arrive at annual energy use labeled on all new refrigerators. Although laboratory results do not exactly replicate field (in-home) results, they have been found to still be a reasonably good predictor of energy use as reported in a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory study , discussed in the following section.

Bos, W.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Refrigeration Cycle 1 Refrigeration Cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of refrigerators and heat pumps is expressed in terms of coefficient of performance (COP): innet H HP innet L R W Q specified temperature levels. It sets the highest theoretical COP. The coefficient of performance for Carnot Evaporator QH Expansion valve h4 = h3 Compressor 3 2 1 4 Superheated vapor Saturated vapor Saturated liquid

Bahrami, Majid

296

ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nigh...

Dimitrov, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Simmons, B; Undrus, A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year�¢����s average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

Kara Berst; Maria Howeth

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

1st TECCS meeting, 26th April 2007 Adsorption Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TECCS meeting, 26th April 2007 Adsorption refrigerators and heat pumps These machines ADsorb cycles for: Heat pumps Refrigerators Air conditioning Driven by heat from: Fossil fuels Bio fuels Waste of concept forced convection adsorption machine [#1] · Generating temperature 225° C · Heat rejection

Davies, Christopher

299

NBSIFI 86-3373 Impact of Refrigerant Property  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of performance prediction to refrigerant properties for a residential, split heat pump operating in the cooling mode. The NBS steady-state heat pump model, HPSIM, was used in this study. The individual influence and refrigerant mass flow rate are also given in the report. iii #12;Discrepancy between heat pump laboratory test

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

300

Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd{sub 0.54}Er{sub 0.46})AlNi alloys having a relatively constant {Delta}Tmc over a wide temperature range. 16 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd.sub.0.54 Er.sub.0.46)AlNi alloys having a relatively constant .DELTA.Tmc over a wide temperature range.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

Control of Refrigeration Systems for Trade-off between Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control of Refrigeration Systems for Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss Ph and Technology (DMST) under Grant: 2002-603/4001-93. CMBC consists of seven industrial companies, three academic of the three academic partners in the center. The refrigeration research activities within CMBC were initiated

Skogestad, Sigurd

303

Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems with EnergyPlus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supermarket refrigeration capabilities were first added to EnergyPlus in 2004. At that time, it was possible to model a direct expansion (DX) rack system with multiple refrigerated cases. The basic simulation software handles all the building energy uses, typically on a 5 to 10 minute time step throughout the period of interest. The original refrigeration module included the ability to model the sensible and latent interactions between the refrigerated cases and the building HVAC system, along with some basic heat recovery capabilities. Over the last few years, the refrigeration module has been expanded to handle more complex systems, such as secondary loops, shared condensers, cascade condensers, subcoolers, and walk-in coolers exchanging energy with multiple conditioned zones.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training Date | 2Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training #12;Date | 2Refrigeration operating pressure (MOP) 5. De-humidifying (Te control) 6. Defrost funtions 7. Loss of charge detection (LOC control) 6. Defrost funtions 7. Loss of charge detection (LOC) 8. Bleed function 9. Sensor placement tips

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

306

LHCb PID Upgrade Technical Design Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The LHCb upgrade will take place in the second long shutdown of the LHC, currently scheduled to begin in 2018. The upgrade will enable the experiment to run at luminosities of $2 \\times 10^{33}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ and will read out data at a rate of 40MHz into a exible software-based trigger. All sub-detectors of LHCb will be re-designed to comply with these new operating conditions. This Technical Design Report presents the upgrade plans of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) system, the calorimeter system and the muon system, which together provide the particle identication capabilities of the experiment.

LHCb Collaboration

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 1: Refrigerant Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of measuring thermodynamic properties R125, R410A and R507A, measuring viscosity and thermal conductivity of R410A and R507A and comparing data to mixture models in NIST REFPROP database. For R125, isochoric (constant volume) heat capacity was measured over a temperature range of 305 to 397 K (32 to 124 C) at pressures up to 20 MPa. For R410A, isochoric heat capacity was measured along 8 isochores with a temperature range of 303 to 397 K (30 to 124 C) at pressures up to 18 MPa. Pressure-density-temperature was also measured along 14 isochores over a temperature range of 200 to 400 K (-73 to 127 C) at pressures up to 35 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. For R507A, viscosity was measured along 5 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 421 K (28 to 148 C) at pressures up to 83 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. Mixture models were developed to calculate the thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures containing R32, R125, R134a and/or R125. The form of the model is the same for all the blends considered, but blend-specific mixing functions are required for the blends R32/125 (R410 blends) and R32/134a (a constituent binary of R407 blends). The systems R125/134a, R125/143a, R134a/143a, and R134a/152a share a common, generalized mixing function. The new equation of state for R125 is believed to be the most accurate and comprehensive formulation of the properties for that fluid. Likewise, the mixture model developed in this work is the latest state-of-the-art for thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant blends. These models were incorporated into version 7 of NIST REFPROP database.

Mark O. McLinden; Arno Laesecke; Eric W. Lemmon; Joseph W. Magee; Richard A. Perkins

2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

308

An Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the environmental impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.

Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Upgrade Your Refinery for Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Upgrading existing refineries for efficient energy utilization imposes strict restraints upon design engineers. Present and future production requirements must be defined. Reliable operating data must be obtained from historical records and test...

Johnnie, D. H., Jr.; Klooster, H. J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

RECOVERY ACT: TAPOCO PROJECT: CHEOAH UPGRADE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under Funding Opportunity Announcement Number: DE-FOA-0000120, Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Modernization, Alcoa Power Generating Inc. (APGI), a fully owned subsidiary of Alcoa Inc., implemented major upgrades at its Cheoah hydroelectric facility near Robbinsville, North Carolina.

Paul Tran; 293 Highway 740; Baden, NC 28009

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

311

Economic Options for Upgrading Waste Heat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are at least six major types of equipment that upgrade waste heat: (1) thermocompressor; (2) electric drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat...

Erickson, D. C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project - Materials  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

An upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by DOE - http://go.usa.gov/ivZ -- will help scientists break through bottlenecks in materials design in order to develop materials with desirable functions.

Gibbson, Murray;

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

313

Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project - Energy  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

An upgrade to the Advanced Photon Source (announced by DOE - http://go.usa.gov/ivZ) will help scientists better understand complex environments such as in catalytic reactions.

Gibson, Murray; Chamberlain, Jeff; Young, Linda

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

314

Steam System Forecasting and Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by manipulation of operating schedules to avoid steam balances that result in steam venting, off gas-flaring, excessive condensing on extraction/condensing turbines, and ineffective use of extraction turbines. For example, during the fourth quarter of 1981... minimum turndown levels. Several boilers would have oeen shut down; by-product fuel gas would have been flared; and surplus low level steam would have been vented to the atmosphere. Several scenarios were studied with SFC and evaluated based...

Mongrue, D. M.; Wittke, D. O.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Steam Systems | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativeEnvironment,Institutes and1 Special Report: OAS-RA-14-01AwardsStateStatesAboutSteam

316

Product Refrigerator Freezer Fresh, in shell 4 to 5 weeks Don't freeze  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Product Refrigerator Freezer Eggs Fresh, in shell 4 to 5 weeks Don't freeze Raw yolks, whites 2 recommended storage times are for quality only. Refrigerator & Freezer Storage Chart Product Refrigerator, opened 3 days Don't freeze unopened 10 days 1 year Mayonnaise, commercial Refrigerate after opening 2

Burke, Peter

317

High Flux Isotope Reactor power upgrade status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A return to 100-MW operation is being planned for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Recent improvements in fuel element manufacturing procedures and inspection equipment will be exploited to reduce hot spot and hot streak factors sufficiently to permit the power upgrade without an increase in primary coolant pressure. Fresh fuel elements already fabricated for future use are being evaluated individually for power upgrade potential based on their measured coolant channel dimensions.

Rothrock, R.B.; Hale, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Cheverton, R.D. [Delta-21 Resources Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Page 1 of 17 NSTX Upgrade Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INFORMATION Project Title: NSTX Upgrade Project at PPPL Total Project Cost (TPC) Range: $74.7M to $92.9M CD-0 Range 2.1 Total Project Cost Range The preliminary total project cost (TPC) range is $74.7M - $92.9M. 2Page 1 of 17 NSTX Upgrade Project Acquisition Strategy April 5, 2010 #12;Page 2 of 17 Change Log

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

319

CDF central preshower and crack detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R&D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed.

Artikov, A.; Boudagov, J.; Chokheli, D.; Drake, G.; Gallinaro, M.; Giunta, M.; Grudzinski, J.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, M.; /Dubna, JINR /Argonne /Rockefeller

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Effect of parasitic refrigeration on the efficiency of magnetic liquefiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our studies have shown that magnetic refrigerators have the potential to liquefy cryogens very efficiently. High efficiency is especially important for liquid hydrogen and natural gas applications where the liquefaction costs are a significant fraction of the total liquid cost. One of the characteristics of magnetic refrigerators is the requirement for a high-field superconducting magnet. Providing a 4.2-K bath for this magnet will require a small amount of parasitic refrigeration at 4.2 K even though the rest of the liquefier may be at 110 K (liquid natural gas) or higher. For several different refrigeration power levels at 4.2 K, we have calculated the efficiency of the magnetic liquefier as a function of power, temperature and the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency. The results show that if the ratio of the thermal load at 4.2 K to the main refrigerator power is 0.001 or less, the effect on the efficiency of the liquefier is negligible at all temperatures below room temperature provided the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency is high.

Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Zha, Shitong [Hillphoenix] [Hillphoenix

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Combined refrigeration system with a liquid pre-cooling heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compressor-pump unit for use in a vapor-compression refrigeration system is provided. The compressor-pump unit comprises a driving device including a rotatable shaft. A compressor is coupled with a first portion of the shaft for compressing gaseous refrigerant within the vapor-compression refrigeration system. A liquid pump is coupled with a second portion of the shaft for receiving liquid refrigerant having a first pressure and for discharging the received liquid refrigerant at a second pressure with the second pressure being higher than the first pressure by a predetermined amount such that the discharged liquid refrigerant is subcooled. A pre-cooling circuit is connected to the liquid pump with the pre-cooling circuit being exposed to the gaseous refrigerant whereby the gaseous refrigerant absorbs heat from the liquid refrigerant, prior to the liquid refrigerant entering the liquid pump.

Gaul, Christopher J.

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

New energy test procedures for refrigerators and other appliances  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many innovations in refrigerator design rely on microprocessors, sensors, and algorithms to control automatic defrost, variable speed,and other features. Even though these features strongly influence energy consumption, the major energy test procedures presently test only a refrigerator's mechanical efficiency and ignore the ''software'' aspects. We describe a new test procedure where both ''hardware'' and ''software'' tests are fed into a dynamic simulation model. A wide range of conditions can be tested and simulated. This approach promotes international harmonization because the simulation model can also be programmed to estimate energy use for the ISO, DOE, or JIS test. The approach outlined for refrigerators can also be applied to other appliances.

Meier, Alan; Ernebrant, Stefan; Kawamoto, Kaoru; Wihlborg, Mats

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

Lubell, M.S.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

325

Refrigerator with a clearance seal compressor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a Stirling refrigeration system in which a displacer is driven in a reciprocating motion within a cold finger by a pressure differential between helium gas in the cold finger and helium gas in a gas spring volume, the reciprocating piston compressor for the working volume has a clearance seal between the working volume and a control volume. The only lubricant in that seal is the helium gas. The mean pressure of the working volume relative to the control volume can be controlled by varying the length of the clearance seal throughout the stroke of the piston. Preferably, the seal is between alumina ceramic sleeves. The clearance seal compressor may also be used in a Gifford-McMahon cycle.

Holland, N. J.

1985-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

326

Comprehensive Compressor Calorimeter Testing of Lower-GWP Alternative Refrigerants for Heat Pump and Medium Temperature Refrigeration Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. This paper reports one of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributions to AREP. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants to that of R-410A and R-404A for heat pump and medium temperature applications, respectively. The alternatives reported in this paper are: R-32, DR-5, and L-41a for R-410A and ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and a mixture of R-32 and R-134a for R-404A. All performance comparison tests were conducted using scroll compressors of ~1.85 tons (6.5 kW) cooling capacity. Tests were conducted over a range of combinations of saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures for both compressors. The tests showed that, in general, energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity of R-410A alternative refrigerants were slightly lower than that of the baseline refrigerant with a moderate increases in discharge temperature. On the other hand, R-404A alternative refrigerants showed relative performance dependence on saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures and larger increases in discharge temperature than for the R-410A alternatives. This paper summarizes the relative performance of all alternative refrigerants compared to their respective baseline.

Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

IPNS upgrade: A feasibility study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) scientific staff members were very active in R&D work related to accelerator-based spoliation sources in the 1970s and early 1980s. In 1984, the Seitz/Eastman Panel of the National Academy of Sciences reviewed U.S. materials science research facilities. One of the recommendations of this panel was that the United States build a reactor-based steady-state source, the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Subsequently, R&D activities related to the design of an accelerator-based source assumed a lower priority. The resumption of pulsed-source studies in this country started simultaneously with design activities in Europe aimed at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The European Community funded a workshop in September 1991 to define the parameters of the ESS. Participants in this workshop included both accelerator builders and neutron source users. A consortium of European countries has proposed to build a 5-MW pulsed source, and a feasibility study is currently under way. Soon after the birth of the ESS, a small group at ANL set about bringing themselves up to date on pulsed-source information since 1984 and studied the feasibility of upgrading ANL`s Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) to 1 MW by means of a rapidly cycling synchrotron that could be housed, along with its support facilities, in existing buildings. In early 1993, the Kohn panel recommended that (1) design and construction of the ANS should be completed according to the proposed project schedule and (2) development of competitive proposals for cost-effective design and construction of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source should be authorized immediately.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Availability of refrigerants for heat pumps in Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

grids Smart cities #12;8 Residential HPs Refrigerants Use of aero-geo- +hydrothermal renewable energy cooling and heating Residential Future: Heating of electric cars and cooling the batteries Future: Smart

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

329

Applications Tests of Energy Efficient, Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

development efforts for Ikon® C, an energy efficient R-22 replacement, will also be described. The Ikon® refrigerants are nonflammable, non-ozone-depleting, have low global warming, relatively low toxicity, are thermally stable, and are compatible with most...

Nimitz, J.; Glass, S.; McCullough, E.; Dhooge, P.

330

Reliability of Heat Pumps Containing R410-A Refrigerant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on alternate refrigerants. One major manufacturer announced a formation of black smudge on internal surfaces of field trial units using HFCs. Several causes were suggested but none were published. Reports of capillary tube plugging were wide spread. Polyol...

McJimsey, B. A.; Cawley, D.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

absorption refrigeration system: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L. 12 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

332

absorption refrigeration systems: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L. 12 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

333

Supermarket refrigeration modeling and field demonstration: Interim report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a project to investigate supermarket refrigeration. The objectives of this project are (1) to develop an energy use and demand model of supermarket refrigeration systems and (2) to carry out an extensive field test of such systems in an operating supermarket. To accomplish these goals, a supermarket owned by Safeway Stores, Inc., and located in Menlo Park, CA, with an existing conventional refrigeration system utilizing single compressor units, was equipped with a state-of-the-art system with multiplexed parallel compressors. The store and both refrigeration systems were thoroughly instrumented and a test schedule was prepared and executed. Presented in this report are the preliminary results of this field test along with the initial validation of the energy use and demand model. 62 figs., 47 tabs.

Walker, D.H.; Deming, G.I.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

335

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

336

Commercial Refrigerator Door: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5351)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

337

Optimal Sequencing of Central Refrigeration Equipment in an Industrial Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model was developed to find a viable solution to the problem of selecting the optimal sequence of refrigeration equipment (chillers, cooling towers, pumps) to operate in a Central Utility Plant. The optimal equipment sequence is that sequence...

Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Design and construction of the astronautics refrigerator magnet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reports on the design, construction, and testing of a 7-Tesla, 4-in. bore superconducting magnet for use in the Astronautics Refrigerator Experiment. The magnet is a single-strand, layer-wound, potted solenoid wound with Formvar-insulated SSC strands. The magnet was constructed by American Magnetics, Inc. of Oak Ridge and has been installed in the Astronautics Refrigerator Experiment at the Astronautics Technology Center in Madison, Wisconsin.

Dresner, L.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Improving the energy efficiency of refrigerators in India  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Five state-of-the-art, production refrigerators from different manufacturers in India were subjected to a variety of appliance rating and performance evaluation test procedures in an engineering laboratory. Cabinet heat loss, compressor calorimeter, high-ambient pull-down, and closed-door energy consumption tests were performed on each unit to assess the current status of commercially available Indian refrigerators and refrigerator component efficiencies. Daily energy consumption tests were performed at nominal line voltages and at 85% and 115% of nominal voltage to assess the effect of grid voltage variations. These test results were also used to indicate opportunities for effective improvements in energy efficiency. A widely distributed ``generic`` computer model capable of simulating single-door refrigerators with a small interior freezer section was used to estimate cabinet heat loss rates and closed door energy consumption values from basic cabinet and refrigeration circuit inputs. This work helped verify the model`s accuracy and potential value as a tool for evaluating the energy impact of proposed design options. Significant differences ranging from 30 to 90% were seen in the measured performance criterion for these ``comparable`` refrigerators suggesting opportunities for improvements in individual product designs. Modeled cabinet heat loadings differed from experimentally extrapolated values in a range from 2--29%, and daily energy consumption values estimated by the model differed from laboratory data by as little as 3% or as much as 25%, which indicates that refinement of the model may be needed for this single-door refrigerator type. Additional comparisons of experimentally measured performance criteria such as % compressor run times and compressor cycling rates to modeled results are given. The computer model is used to evaluate the energy saving impact of several modest changes to the basic Indian refrigerator design.

Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohman, R.H. [Consulting Engineer, Cedar Rapids, IA (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants. [Foreign Trip Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Refrigerator design for the ambulatory and wheelchair-using elderly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of limitations snd their higher degree of dependence on products. An important arse in product design which has seldom been considered is that of kitchen appliances, and, more specifically, rafr igerators. Refrigerator design has changed little in the last... For the elderly or disabled is a relatively unexplored ares. The present research is an attempt to rectify this neglect. LITERATURE REVIEW Ther s is a striking lack of information in the literature specifically concerned with refrigerators. Those few studies...

Mills, Mary Sue

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Demand Side Management (DSM) Through Absorption Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT (DSM) TIIROUGH ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS Peter Y. Chao, PhD, Deepak Shukla, PhD, Sr. Process Engineers, TENSA Services, Inc. Ammi Amarnath, Sr. Project Manager, Electrical Power Research Institute Ed. Mergens.... They are Peak Clipping, Valley filling, Load Shifting, Strategic Conservation, Strategic Load Growth, and Flexible Load Shaping. Absorption Refrigeration from waste heat offers a viable option for DSM. This will either reduce the peak load (peak clipping...

Chao, P. Y.; Shukla, D.; Amarnath, A.; Mergens, E.

343

Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO{sub 2}.

Pertl, A., E-mail: andreas.pertl@boku.ac.a [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 107, A-1190 Wien (Austria); Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G. [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 107, A-1190 Wien (Austria)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

A review of lubrication and preformance issues in refrigeration systems using an HFC (R-134a) refrigerant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been considered critical for refrigerant and compressor lubricant to be miscible with each other over part of the range of operating conditions of refrigerant systems. Adequate miscibility, many believe, provides oil return to the compressor. Presently, synthetic polyol esters have been selected for use with HFC refrigerants, such as R-134a, which are considered appropriate alternatives to CFCs. The authors will review the mechanical issues in miscible vs non-miscible naphthenic hydrocarbon oil-based lubricants. Extensive lab, test stand and cabinet testing has been conducted and data will be presented which show responsible and predictable performance based on the chemical and physical properties of the lubricant and refrigerant. Many non-miscible systems show satisfactory performance with the proper selection of lubricant, additives and mechanical configuration. 3 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Reyes-Gavilan, J.; Eckard, A.; Flak, T.; Tritak, T. [Witco Corporation, Oakland, NJ (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigeration System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption Pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-10-4 Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigerating System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption... in order to lay a theoretical foundation of improving the performance of whole LBAC. 2. THE PRINCIPLE OF ENHANCING ABSORPTION EFFICIENCY OF THE ABSORBER It is well known that the absorption of ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC...

Xie, G.; Sheng, G.; Li, G.; Pan, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

MAVIS III -- A Windows 95/NT Upgrade  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MAVIS (Modeling and Analysis of Explosive Valve Interactions) is a computer program that simulates operation of explosively actuated valve. MAVIS was originally written in Fortran in the mid 1970`s and was primarily run on the Sandia Vax computers in use through the early 1990`s. During the mid to late 1980`s MAVIS was upgraded to include the effects of plastic deformation and it became MAVIS II. When the Vax computers were retired, the Gas Transfer System (GTS) Development Department ported the code to the Macintosh and PC platforms, where it ran as a simple console application. All graphical output was lost during these ports. GTS code developers recently completed an upgrade that provides a Windows 95/NT MAVIS application and restores all of the original graphical output. This upgrade is called MAVIS III version 1.0. This report serves both as a user`s manual for MAVIS III v 1.0 and as a general software development reference.

Hardwick, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). GTS Engineering Dept.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Bitumen and heavy oil upgrading in Canada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review is presented of the heavy oil upgrading industry in Canada. Up to now it has been based on the processing of bitumen extracted from oil sands mining operations at two sites, to produce a residue-free, low sulfur, synthetic crude. Carbon rejection has been the prime process technology with delayed coking being used by Suncor and FLUID COKING at Syncrude. Alternative processes for recovering greater amounts of synthetic crude are examined. These include a variety of hydrogen addition processes and combinations which produce pipelineable materials requiring further processing in downstream refineries with expanded capabilities. The Newgrade Energy Inc. upgrader, now under construction in Regina, will use fixed-bed, catalytic, atmospheric-residue, hydrogen processing. Two additional products, also based on hydrogenation, will use ebullated bed catalyst systems: the expansion of Syncrude, now underway, is using the LC Fining Process whereas the announced Husky Bi-Provincial upgrader is based on H-Oil.

Chrones, J.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Bitumen and heavy oil upgrading in Canada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review is presented of the heavy oil upgrading industry in Canada. Up to now it has been based on the processing of bitumen extracted from oil sands mining operations at two sites, to produce a residue-free, low sulphur, synthetic crude. Carbon rejection has been the prime process technology with delayed coking being used by Suncor and FLUID COKING at Syncrude. Alternative processes for recovering greater amounts of synthetic crude are examined. These include a variety of hydrogen addition processes and combinations which produce pipelineable materials requiring further processing in downstream refineries with expanded capabilities. The Newgrade Energy Inc. upgrader now under construction in Regina, will use fixed-bed, catalytic, atmospheric-residue, hydrogen processing. Two additional projects, also based on hydrogenation, will use ebullated bed catalyst systems; the expansion of Syncrude, now underway, is using the LC Fining Process whereas the announced Husky Bi-Provincial upgrader is based on H-Oil.

Chrones, J. (Chrones Engineering Consultants Inc., 111 Lord Seaton Road, Willowdale, Ontario (CA)); Germain, R.R. (Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority, Edmonton, AB (Canada))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Spotlight on Austin, Texas: Best Offer Ever Produces Upgrades...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

and Refrigeration Institute certificate, and any other documentation (i.e. load calculation, test reports, andor drawings from contractor as needed) 3) Verify the...

351

Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.

Spauschus, Hans O. (Stockbridge, GA); Starr, Thomas L. (Roswell, GA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Combination cooler and freezer for refrigerating containers and food in outer space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A refrigeration apparatus for cooling containers and food in the microgravity conditions of outer space is described comprising: (a) a housing defining a refrigeration compartment for supporting the containers in a container storage area and food in a refrigerated food storage area, and freezer compartment; (b) cold plate means within the refrigeration compartment for cooling the containers and food by conduction; (c) thermoelectric refrigeration means for maintaining the cold plates at temperatures which cool the contents of the refrigeration compartment, and the freezer compartment.

Rudick, A.G.

1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

353

Performance of HCFC22 alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, 14 refrigerant mixtures composed of R32, R125, R134a, R152a, R290(Propane) and R1270(Propylene) were tested in a breadboard heat pump in an attempt to replace R22 used in residential air-conditioners. The test heat pump was of 1 ton capacity with water as the secondary heat transfer fluids. All tests were conducted under ARI test A condition. Test results how that ternary mixtures composed of R32, R125, and R134a have 4 {approximately} 5% higher coefficient of performance(COP) and capacity than R22. Hence they seem to be promising alternatives for R22. On the other hand, ternary mixtures containing R125, R134a, and R152a have lower COPs and capacities than R22. R290/R134 azeotrope also shows 3--4% increases in COP and capacity. The compressor discharge and dome temperatures of all the mixtures tested are lower than those of R22 by 15.9--34.7 C and 5.5--14.3 C respectively, indicating that these mixtures would offer better system reliability and longer life time than R22. Finally, the test results with a suction line heat exchanger (SLHX) indicated that SLHX must be used with special care in air-conditioners since its effect is fluid dependent.

Jung, D.; Kim, C.B.; Song, Y.J.; Park, B.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Unique Solar Thermal Laboratory Gets an Upgrade | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Unique Solar Thermal Laboratory Gets an Upgrade Unique Solar Thermal Laboratory Gets an Upgrade September 10, 2010 - 2:54pm Addthis This power tower is part of the...

355

EECBG Success Story: HVAC Upgrade Saving Money, Protecting History...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

HVAC Upgrade Saving Money, Protecting History EECBG Success Story: HVAC Upgrade Saving Money, Protecting History November 2, 2010 - 5:37pm Addthis A new heating and cooling system...

356

When Energy Efficiency Upgrades and Ghost Stories Meet | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

When Energy Efficiency Upgrades and Ghost Stories Meet When Energy Efficiency Upgrades and Ghost Stories Meet October 31, 2011 - 5:21pm Addthis Homewood Public Library at Night |...

357

UPGRADE AND EVALUATION OF A LIGHTNING DETECTION SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/11/2004 page 3 of 17 1 INTRODUCTION KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute) has upgraded itsUPGRADE AND EVALUATION OF A LIGHTNING DETECTION SYSTEM Hans Beekhuis Iwan Holleman the Netherlands

Stoffelen, Ad

358

Upgrading : an alternative approach towards housing reform in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thesis is a study on urban housing upgrading in China. The main objective is to look at upgrading, which has been widely used in many developing countries, as an alternative approach to solving the existing urban housing ...

He, Fang, 1956-

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

The development of a proff of principle superfluid Joule-Thomson refrigerator for cooling below 1 Kelvin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new type of sub-Kelvin refrigerator, the superfluid Joule-Thomson refrigerator, has been developed and its performance has been experimentally verified. This refrigerator uses a liquid superfluid mixture of He and 4He ...

Miller, Franklin K., 1970-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Investment and Upgrade in Distributed Generation under Uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

utility tari?s, the electricity price may be revised only Investment and Upgrade in Distributed Generation

Siddiqui, Afzal

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Advanced Photon Source Upgrade —Creating a Better Quality of Life  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The upgrade will enable ultrafast X-ray pulses that could point the way to more efficient electronics and vehicles.

Linda Young

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

362

Environmental assessment for proposed energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Environmental Assessment (EA) on the candidate energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1500 through 1508. The proposed energy conservation standard (Level 1) and the alternative standards are being reviewed in an energy-efficiency standards rulemaking that the Department has undertaken pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act. The EA presents the associated environmental impacts from four energy conservation standards for this type of household appliance. For purposes of this EA, each standard is an alternative action and is compared to what is expected to happen if no new standards for this type of product were finalized, i.e., the no action alternative. Of the four energy conservation standard levels considered, standard level 4 has the highest level of energy efficiency and the largest environmental impact. The proposed action implementing Standard Level 1 would have the least environmental impacts, through emission reductions, of the four alternatives. The description of the standards results from the appliance energy-efficiency analyses conducted for the rulemaking. The presentation of environmental impacts for each of the alternatives appears at Section 3 of the EA.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

The JLAB 12 GeV Energy Upgrade of CEBAF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation should describe the progress of the 12GeV Upgrade of CEBAF at Jefferson Lab. The status of the upgrade should be presented as well as details on the construction, procurement, installation and commissioning of the magnet and SRF components of the upgrade.

Harwood, Leigh H. [JLAB

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Guidelines for Home Energy Upgrade Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Multifamily Energy Upgrades (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet provides essential information about the 2011 publication of the Workforce Guidelines for Multifamily Home Energy Upgrades, including their origin, their development with the help of industry leaders to create the standard work specifications for retrofit work.

Not Available

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Steam turbine upgrades: A utility based approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the increasingly competitive power generation markets utilities must strive towards lower electricity generation costs, whilst relying on an aging steam turbine fleet. By the year 2000 more than 25% of the global steam turbine capacity will be older than 30 years. The heat rate of such units is generally considerably higher than that of equivalent new plant, and such equipment can be further disadvantaged by increased maintenance costs and forced outage rates. Over the past decade steam turbine conversion, modification, and upgrade packages have become an increasingly important part of the European steam turbine market. Furthermore, many utilities now realize that enhanced cost-effectiveness can often be obtained by moving away from the original equipment manufacturer (OEM), and the upgrading of other manufacturers' plant is now routine within the steam turbine industry. By working closely with customers, GE has developed a comprehensive range of steam turbine upgrade packages, including advanced design steampaths which can increase the performance of existing turbine installations to levels comparable with new plant. Such packages are tailor-made to the requirements of each customer, to ensure that the most cost-effective engineering solution is identified. This paper presents an overview of GE's state-of-the-art steam turbine technology, and continues to describe typical economic models for turbine upgrades.

Wakeley, G.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

MAST-Upgrade Advancing compact fusion sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of innovation. It will also put the UK in a leading position to develop engineering systems for the future to the drive towards commercial fusion power. 1. Testing reactor concepts. MAST-Upgrade will be the first machine to include the Super-X divertor design, an innovative plasma exhaust system that, if successful

367

Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

T-Farm complex alarm upgrades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

Roberts, J.B.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Work Authorization Document NSTX Upgrade Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Work Authorization Document NSTX Upgrade Project Control Account #: 7900 Title: WBS 1.7.3 Title Functional Manager L. Dudek Approvals Signature Date NSTX-U Project Manager R. Strykowsky 4- WBS Dictionary procedures and documents to support the integrated tests, and to support performance of the pre

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

370

Development of energy-efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The application of advanced techniques in engineering simulation and economic analysis for the development of efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators is illustrated in this paper. A key feature of this methodology is refrigerator simulation to generate energy savings for a set of energy-efficient design options and life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis with these design options. The LCC of a refrigerator is analyzed as a function of five variables: nominal discount rate, fuel price, appliance lifetime, incremental price, and incremental energy savings. The frequency of occurrence of the LCC minimum at any design option indicates the optimum efficiency level or range. Studies carried out in the US and European Economic Community show that the location of the LCC minimum under different scenarios (e.g., variable fuel price, life-time, discount rate, and incremental price) is quite stable. Thus, an efficiency standard can be developed based on the efficiency value at the LCC minimum. This paper examines and uses this methodology in developing efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators. The potential efficiency standard value is indicated to be 0.65 kWh/day for a 165-liter, CFC-based, manual defrost, single-door refrigerator-freezer.

Bhatia, P.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Control of household refrigerators. Part 1: Modeling temperature control performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial household refrigerators use simple, cost-effective, temperature controllers to obtain acceptable control. A manually adjusted airflow damper regulates the freezer compartment temperature while a thermostat controls operation of the compressor and evaporator fan to regulate refrigerator compartment temperature. Dual compartment temperature control can be achieved with automatic airflow dampers that function independently of the compressor and evaporator fan thermostat, resulting in improved temperature control quality and energy consumption. Under dual control, freezer temperature is controlled by the thermostat while the damper controls refrigerator temperature by regulating airflow circulation. A simulation model is presented that analyzes a household refrigerator configured with a conventional thermostat and both manual and automatic dampers. The model provides a new paradigm for investigating refrigerator systems and temperature control performance relative to the extensive verification testing that is typically done by manufacturers. The effects of each type of control and damper configuration are compared with respect to energy usage, control quality, and ambient temperature shift criteria. The results indicate that the appropriate control configuration can have significant effects and can improve plant performance.

Graviss, K.J.; Collins, R.L.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Energy performance listings: Residential refrigerator/freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Performance Listings series provides comparative information across manufacturers on products. The Refrigerator/Freezers Listings include more than 2900 models that meet or exceed federal standards contained in the Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products. Information on model energy efficiency levels, performance characteristics, and manufacturer names permits easy selection of top-performing equipment. Each Energy Performance Listing includes an introductory section, two sections of model listings, and an appendix with manufacturer contacts. The first model-listing section presents information in descending order of efficiency for all manufacturers. These efficiency-ordered listings also include banners or symbols to identify voluntary efficiency thresholds for U.S. DOE/U.S. EPA`s Energy Star Program and U.S. DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Products listed above each banner meet or exceed the efficiency level established by the Energy Star program. All models noted with the symbol meet or exceed FEMP levels. With these listings, users can quickly identify the most efficient product in a particular size range, identify products that meet the efficiency criteria of a specific program, or determine an efficiency threshold that will include a specific number of manufacturers. The second section of model listings presents products grouped by manufacturer and catalog number, allowing users to quickly find and identify performance information on specific models. Energy Performance Listings are tools that support purchasing and procurement by federal, state, and local governments and others, including utility companies, energy interest groups, and research organizations. The listings may be used for program design and planning purposes, equipment selection, specification, and purchasing decisions. The listings are a product of the Energy-Efficient Procurement Collaborative, Inc. and are available through NYSERDA.

NONE

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use of vapor compression system configurations including multi-functional integrated heat pumps, multi

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

374

Next Generation Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants R&D...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

accelerate the transition to low-GWP refrigerants across the entire heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industry. The schedule of R&D activities...

375

Modeling the effects of Refrigerant Charging on Air Conditioner Performance Characteristics For Three Expansion Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental and analytical study concerned with the off-design refrigerant charging of air conditioners is presented. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of refrigerant charge and type of expansion device...

Farzad, Mohsen

376

Application Availability of Insulation Heat of the Terrace in a Rebuilt Refrigerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dealing with the terrace in rebuilt refrigerators influences the performance characteristics, performance safety and construction costs. This paper researches the heat transfer of the terrace of the rebuilt refrigerator by the numerical method...

Qu, C.; Sun, Y.; Chen, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Upgrade of CEBAF from 6 Gev To 12 Gev: Status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CEBAF accelerator is being upgraded from 6 GeV to 12 GeV by the US Department of Energy. The accelerator upgrade is being done within the existing tunnel footprint. The accelerator upgrade includes: 10 new srfbased high-performance cryomodules plus RF systems, doubling the 2K helium plant's capability, upgrading the existing beamlines to operate at nearly double the original performance envelope, and adding a beamline to a new experimental area. Construction is over 75% complete with final completion projected for late FY13. Details of the upgrade and status of the work will be presented.

Harwood, Leigh [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Ave, Newport News, VA, 23606 (United States)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

378

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption refrigeration cycle Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Content Distribution Psy Press Titles Summary: applications, including absorption refrigeration, air liquefaction, automotive 973 Downloaded... optimization of vapor...

379

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to investigate the film formation properties of refrigeration lubricants using the ultrathin film elastohydrodynamic (EHD) interferometry technique and to study the effects of refrigerants on film formation. Film thickness measurements were conducted as a function of lubricant viscosity, speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. Based on the EHD film thickness data, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated for the test fluids at different temperatures and the effects of refrigerants on pressure-viscosity properties were investigated.

Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Effects of refrigeration in a transportable cryogenic aerospace application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary feasibility studies, based on refrigeration thermodynamics, have been conducted for candidate power conditioning components in a 1MWe terrestrial/transportable cryogenic power system. The cryogenic power system being considered has a super conducting generator for high power applications such as the power source for a Ground Based Radar (GBR) System. While the superconducting generator operates at 77K or lower, the present analysis indicates that significant benefits cannot be derived by cooling the various components of the power conditioning system to such low temperatures. It was found that, by operating the power conditioning component at 150K instead of at 77K the overall system efficiency was not jeopardized by way of large input power requirements to dissipate small refrigerator loads. This is an acute problem as current cryogenic refrigeration systems allow for very low levels of energy dissipation while performing at about 7 to 10% of the Carnot coefficients of performance (COP) between 300K and 77K.

Donovan, B.D.; Mahefkey, T. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Ramalingam, M.L. [UES, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Frost sensor for use in defrost controls for refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for measuring the total thermal resistance to heat flow from the air to the evaporative cooler fins of a refrigeration system. The apparatus is a frost sensor that measures the reduction in heat flow due to the added thermal resistance of ice (reduced conduction) as well as the reduction in heat flow due to the blockage of airflow (reduced convection) from excessive ice formation. The sensor triggers a defrost cycle when needed, instead of on a timed interval. The invention is also a method for control of frost in a system that transfers heat from air to a refrigerant along a thermal path. The method involves measuring the thermal conductivity of the thermal path from the air to the refrigerant, recognizing a reduction in thermal conductivity due to the thermal insulation effect of the frost and due to the loss of airflow from excessive ice formation; and controlling the defrosting of the system.

French, Patrick D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Butz, James R. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Veatch, Bradley D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); O'Connor, Michael W. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

Goli, Sasank; McKane, Aimee; Olsen, Daniel

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

383

SYMPOSIUM PAPER TC7.1 -DOMESTIC REFRIGERATORS AND FOOD FREEZERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;SYMPOSIUM PAPER FOR TC7.1 - DOMESTIC REFRIGERATORS AND FOOD FREEZERS THE ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURE OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC DEFROSTING REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER by Raymond H. Bohman, P.E. Robert REFRIGERATOR - FREEZER 1. INTRODUCTION This paper describes the engineering effort and method of manufacture

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

384

Refrigerated Warehouses Introduction Page 8-1 2008 Nonresidential Compliance Manual August 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, including both coolers and freezers. Coolers are defined as refrigerated spaces cooled between 32°F (0°C) and 55°F (13°C). Freezers are #12;Page 8-2 Refrigerated Warehouses ­ Introduction 2008 Nonresidential Efficiency Standards do not address walk-in refrigerators and freezers, as these are covered by the Appliance

385

Balancing Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Balancing Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration System J. Cai and J- tion of commercial refrigeration system, featuring balanced system energy consumption and food quality energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient condition, in a supermarket refrigeration

Skogestad, Sigurd

386

Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Paper No. 206 IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants, Delft, The Netherlands, 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

outside the buildings for devices having the refrigerant charge of small heat pumps for space heatingPaper No. 206 10th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants, Delft, The Netherlands by subcooling of the refrigerant in the cold water tank (not used for cooling during winter). The water tank

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

388

RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, indirect refrigeration systems renews interest as they enable to notably reduce the use of environmental the refrigeration applications to the air-conditioning systems. However, this kind of process only remainsRHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING. Mylène

Boyer, Edmond

389

Chapter 4: Refrigeration Process Control: Simulation Model 64 44.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 4: Refrigeration Process Control: Simulation Model 64 44.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN of the simulation model for the two-stage refrigeration system is presented. The model is based on the mathematical, it is #12;Chapter 4: Refrigeration Process Control: Simulation Model 65 translated into FORTRAN or C

Skogestad, Sigurd

390

Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77 K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.; Henke, M.D.; Kalash, K.E.

1986-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

391

Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

Barclay, John A. (Madison, WI); Stewart, Walter F. (Marshall, WI); Henke, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM); Kalash, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

New compressor systems seen paring refrigeration costs 15%  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Manufacturers claim that a parallel arrangement of three to five compressors of varying capacities can lower a store's refrigerating costs over 15%. The energy savings come from the more-precise matching of compressor capacity with refrigeration demand. The 500 stores that have installed uneven compressor systems are achieving a payback in under a year. Because it is important for controls to match a system for maximum efficiency, manufacturers are introducing tailor-made microprocessor controllers. A table summarizes three supermarket case histories. (DCK)

Barber, J.

1983-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

393

Supermarket with Ground Coupled Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

refrigeration remains the last big subsector and the strongest emission source of the fluorinated hydrocarbons (HFC) in Germany? - Kauffeld [4] About 65 % of the cooling needs in Germany for frozen and refrigerated food products ? over 50.000 GWh.../a [2] In 2011, 72.4 % of the sales share of food retail industry realized in discounters and supermarkets in Germany [1] Supermarket: ? 600 ? 2.000 kWh/m2.a (PE) [3] Normal building: 200 ? 400 kWh/m2.a (PE) [4] [1] EHI retail institute 2012...

Rehault, N.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Evaluation of ozone-friendly hydrofluoropropane-based zeotropic refrigerant mixtures in a Lorenz-Meutzner refrigerator/freezer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of the Lorenz-Meutzner refrigerator/freezer has two evaporators (located in the freezer and fresh food compartments), which makes it a leading candidate for use of zeotropic refrigerant mixtures. Zeotropic mixtures can have significant temperature glides during evaporation and condensation. Performance of the zeotropic mixture can be maximized in the LM design by permitting the lower end of the temperature glide to occur in the freezer compartment evaporator and the higher end in the fresh food compartment evaporator. Several hydrofluoropropane-based zeotropes (e.g., R-227 ea/R-245ca) have been shown through steady-state modeling to outperform R-134a by up to 15%. Results from previous testing of this refrigerator/freezer using R-32/R-124 (zeotropic mixture) were published in an ASHRAE paper (Sand et al. 1993). Their results showed performance gains of approximately 3% over R-12. In the study presented in this paper, the Lorenz-Meutzner refrigerator/freezer having two evaporators and two intercoolers was experimentally tested in an environmental chamber according to Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers/Department of Energy (AHAM/DOE) testing standards using several hydrofluoropropane-based zeotropic mixtures. The results are compared to baseline testing with R-134a. The R-245ca/R-134a and R-245ca/R-152a mixtures performed comparably to R-134a. R-245ca/R-270 outperformed all zeotropic mixtures and R-134a by at least 16%. Also, a refrigerant sampling loop is added to determine the running composition of the mixture and its effects on the performance of the refrigerator/freezer.

Baskin, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Bayoglu, E.S.; Delafield, F.R. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

395

An Upgrade Proposal from the PHENIX Collaboration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this document the PHENIX collaboration proposes a major upgrade to the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. This upgrade, sPHENIX, enables an extremely rich jet and beauty quarkonia physics program addressing fundamental questions about the nature of the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP), discovered experimentally at RHIC to be a perfect fluid. The startling dynamics of the QGP on fluid-like length scales is an emergent property of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), seemingly implicit in the Lagrangian but stubbornly hidden from view. QCD is an asymptotically free theory, but how QCD manifests as a strongly coupled fluid with specific shear viscosity near $T_C$, as low as allowed by the uncertainty principle, is as fundamental an issue as that of how confinement itself arises.

Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Asano, H; Atomssa, E T; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Bai, X; Bandara, N; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Baron, O; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumgart, S; Bazilevsky, A; Beaumier, M; Beckman, S; Belmont, R; Benjamin, G; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Blackburn, J; Blau, D S; Bobrek, M; Bok, J; Boose, S; Boyle, K; Britton,, C L; Brooks, M L; Bryslawskyj, J; Bumazhnov, V; Butler, C; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Carollo, A; Chai, J -S; Chen, C -H; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choi, S; Chollet, S; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Cronin, N; Crossett, N; Csanád, M; D'Orazio, L; Dairaku, S; Danley, D; Datta, A; Daugherity, M S; David, G; DeBlasio, K; Debraine, A; Dehmelt, K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Ding, L; Dion, A; Diss, P B; Do, J H; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Eberle, L; Efremenko, Y V; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Feege, N; Fields, D E; Finger, M; FingerJr., M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gainey, K; Gal, C; Gallus, P; Garg, P; Garishvili, A; Garishvili, I; Gastaldi, F; Ge, H; Giannotti, P; Giordarno, F; Glenn, A; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gu, Y; Gunji, T; Guragain, H; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamilton, H F; Han, S Y; Hanks, J; Hasegawa, S; Haseler, T O S; Hashimoto, K; Hayano, R; Hayashi, S; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hoefferkamp, M; Hollis, R S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hori, Y; Hoshino, T; Huang, J; Huang, S; Hutchins, J R; Ichihara, T; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imazu, Y; Imrek, J; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Isinhue, A; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Ivanov, V; Jacak, B V; Jeon, S J; Jezghani, M; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kamin, J; Kanda, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kehayias, H -J; Key, J A; Khachatryan, V; Khandai, P K; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, C; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E -J; Kim, H J; Kim, K -B; Kim, M; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kimelman, B; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kitamura, R; Klatsky, J; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Koblesky, T; Kochenda, L; Kofarago, M; Komatsu, Y; Komkov, B; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Kravtsov, P; Krizek, F; Kurita, K; Kuriyama, M; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, G H; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S; Lee, S H; Lefferts, R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitgab, M; Lewis, B; Li, X; Lim, S H; Lipski, A; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Lynch, M; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Malakhov, A; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Maruyama, T; Masumoto, S; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKay, R; McKinney, C; Meles, A; Mendoza, M; Menegasso, R; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Milov, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J T; Miyasaka, S; Mizuno, S; Mohanty, A K; Montuenga, P; Moon, T; Morrison, D P; Moskowitz, M; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Mwai, A; Nagae, T; Nagamiya, S; Nagashima, K; Nagle, J L; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakagomi, H; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nattrass, C; Nederlof, A; Netrakanti, P K; Nihashi, M; Niida, T; Ninomiya, K; Nishimura, S; Northacker, D; Nouicer, R; Novak, T; Novitzky, N; Nukariya, A; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Oide, H; Okada, K; Koop, J D Orjuela; Osborn, J D; Oskarsson, A; Österman, L; Ozawa, K; Pancake, C; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J S; Park, S; Park, S K; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Patel, M; Peng, J -C; Perepelitsa, D; Perera, G D N; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Perry, J; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pinson, R; Pisani, R P; Popule, J; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Radhakrishnan, S; Rak, J; Ramson, B J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reynolds, D; Reynolds, R; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Rinn, T; Riveli, N; Roach, D; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Roschin, E; Rowan, Z; Rubin, J G; Rukoyatkin, P; Ryu, M S; Safonov, A; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sano, M; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schaefer, B; Schmoll, B K; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Sekiguchi, Y; Sen, A; Seto, R; Sett, P; Sexton, A; Shafto, E; Sharma, D; Shaver, A; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sicho, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sippach, F W; Skolnik, M; Snowball, M; Solano, S; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Soumya, M; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stevens, L; Stoll, S P; Stone, M R; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sumita, T; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

CHALLENGES FOR THE SNS RING ENERGY UPGRADE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source accumulator ring presently operates at a beam power of about 1 MW with a beam energy of about 910 MeV. A power upgrade is planned to increase the beam energy to 1.3 GeV. For the accumulator ring this mostly involves modifications to the injection and extraction sections. A variety of modifications to the existing injection section were necessary to achieve 1 MW, and the tools developed and the lessons learned from this work are now being applied to the design of the new injection section. This paper will discuss the tools and the lessons learned, and also present the design and status of the upgrades to the accumulator ring.

Plum, Michael A [ORNL; Gorlov, Timofey V [ORNL; Holmes, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Hunter, W Ted [ORNL; Roseberry, Jr., R Tom [ORNL; Wang, Jian-Guang [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

JEFFERSON LAB 12 GEV CEBAF UPGRADE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The existing continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) is a 5-pass, recirculating cw electron Linac operating at approx6 GeV and is devoted to basic research in nuclear physics. The 12 GeV CEBAF Upgrade is a $310 M project, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics, that will expand its research capabilities substantially by doubling the maximum energy and adding major new experimental apparatus. The project received construction approval in September 2008 and has started the major procurement process. The cryogenic aspects of the 12 GeV CEBAF Upgrade includes: doubling the accelerating voltages of the Linacs by adding ten new high-performance, superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cryomodules (CMs) to the existing 42 1/4 cryomodules; doubling of the 2 K cryogenics plant; and the addition of eight superconducting magnets.

Rode, C. H. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, 23606 (United States)

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

398

The PS Upgrade Program: Recent Advances  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The LHC Injectors Upgrade project (LIU) has been initiated to improve the performances of the existing injector complex at CERN to match the future requirements of the HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC). In this framework, the Proton Synchrotron (PS) will undergo fundamental changes for many of its main systems: the injection energy will be increased to reduce space-charge effects, the transverse damper will be improved to cope with transverse instabilities, and the RF systems will be upgraded to accelerate higher beam intensity and brightness. These hardware improvements are triggered by a series of studies meant to identify the most critical performance bottlenecks, like space charge, impedances, longitudinal and transverse instabilities, as well as electron-cloud. Additionally, alternative production schemes for the LHC-type beams have been proposed and implemented to circumvent some of the present limitations. A summary of the most recent advances of the studies, as well as the proposed hardware improvements is...

Gilardoni, SS; Bertone, C; Biancacci, N; Blas, A; Damjanovic, S; Bodart, D; Borburgh, J; Chiggiato, P; Damerau, H; Devine, JD; Dobers, T; Gourber-Pace, M; Hancock, S; Huschauer, A; Iadarola, G; Lopez Hernandez, LA; Masi, A; Mataguez, S; M´etral, E; Paoluzzi, M; Persichelli, S; Pittet, S; Rossi, C; Roesler, S; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Steerenberg, R; Sterbini, G; Vollaire, J; Wasef, R; Ventura, L; Yin Vallgren, C; Migliorati, M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

An Upgrade Proposal from the PHENIX Collaboration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this document the PHENIX collaboration proposes a major upgrade to the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. This upgrade, sPHENIX, enables an extremely rich jet and beauty quarkonia physics program addressing fundamental questions about the nature of the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP), discovered experimentally at RHIC to be a perfect fluid. The startling dynamics of the QGP on fluid-like length scales is an emergent property of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), seemingly implicit in the Lagrangian but stubbornly hidden from view. QCD is an asymptotically free theory, but how QCD manifests as a strongly coupled fluid with specific shear viscosity near $T_C$, as low as allowed by the uncertainty principle, is as fundamental an issue as that of how confinement itself arises.

A. Adare; S. Afanasiev; C. Aidala; N. N. Ajitanand; Y. Akiba; R. Akimoto; J. Alexander; K. Aoki; N. Apadula; H. Asano; E. T. Atomssa; T. C. Awes; B. Azmoun; V. Babintsev; M. Bai; X. Bai; N. Bandara; B. Bannier; K. N. Barish; O. Baron; B. Bassalleck; S. Bathe; V. Baublis; S. Baumgart; A. Bazilevsky; M. Beaumier; S. Beckman; R. Belmont; G. Benjamin; A. Berdnikov; Y. Berdnikov; J. Blackburn; D. S. Blau; M. Bobrek; J. Bok; S. Boose; K. Boyle; C. L. Britton, Jr.; M. L. Brooks; J. Bryslawskyj; V. Bumazhnov; C. Butler; S. Butsyk; S. Campbell; A. Carollo; J. -S. Chai; C. -H. Chen; S. Chernichenko; C. Y. Chi; M. Chiu; I. J. Choi; J. B. Choi; S. Choi; S. Chollet; P. Christiansen; T. Chujo; V. Cianciolo; Z. Citron; B. A. Cole; N. Cronin; N. Crossett; M. Csanád; L. D'Orazio; S. Dairaku; D. Danley; A. Datta; M. S. Daugherity; G. David; K. DeBlasio; A. Debraine; K. Dehmelt; A. Denisov; A. Deshpande; E. J. Desmond; O. Dietzsch; L. Ding; A. Dion; P. B. Diss; J. H. Do; M. Donadelli; O. Drapier; A. Drees; K. A. Drees; J. M. Durham; A. Durum; L. Eberle; Y. V. Efremenko; T. Engelmore; A. Enokizono; S. Esumi; K. O. Eyser; B. Fadem; N. Feege; D. E. Fields; M. Finger; M. FingerJr.; F. Fleuret; S. L. Fokin; J. E. Frantz; A. Franz; A. D. Frawley; Y. Fukao; T. Fusayasu; K. Gainey; C. Gal; P. Gallus; P. Garg; A. Garishvili; I. Garishvili; F. Gastaldi; H. Ge; P. Giannotti; F. Giordarno; A. Glenn; X. Gong; M. Gonin; Y. Goto; R. Granier de Cassagnac; N. Grau; S. V. Greene; M. Grosse Perdekamp; Y. Gu; T. Gunji; H. Guragain; T. Hachiya; J. S. Haggerty; K. I. Hahn; H. Hamagaki; H. F. Hamilton; S. Y. Han; J. Hanks; S. Hasegawa; T. O. S. Haseler; K. Hashimoto; R. Hayano; S. Hayashi; X. He; T. K. Hemmick; T. Hester; J. C. Hill; M. Hoefferkamp; R. S. Hollis; K. Homma; B. Hong; Y. Hori; T. Hoshino; J. Huang; S. Huang; J. R. Hutchins; T. Ichihara; Y. Ikeda; K. Imai; Y. Imazu; J. Imrek; M. Inaba; A. Iordanova; D. Isenhower; A. Isinhue; A. Isupov; D. Ivanischev; V. Ivanov; B. V. Jacak; S. J. Jeon; M. Jezghani; J. Jia; X. Jiang; B. M. Johnson; K. S. Joo; D. Jouan; D. S. Jumper; J. Kamin; S. Kanda; B. H. Kang; J. H. Kang; J. S. Kang; J. Kapustinsky; K. Karatsu; D. Kawall; A. V. Kazantsev; H. -J. Kehayias; J. A. Key; V. Khachatryan; P. K. Khandai; A. Khanzadeev; K. M. Kijima; C. Kim; D. H. Kim; D. J. Kim; E. -J. Kim; H. J. Kim; K. -B. Kim; M. Kim; Y. -J. Kim; Y. K. Kim; B. Kimelman; Á. Kiss; E. Kistenev; R. Kitamura; J. Klatsky; D. Kleinjan; P. Kline; T. Koblesky; L. Kochenda; M. Kofarago; Y. Komatsu; B. Komkov; J. Koster; D. Kotchetkov; D. Kotov; P. Kravtsov; F. Krizek; K. Kurita; M. Kuriyama; M. Kurosawa; Y. Kwon; R. Lacey; Y. S. Lai; J. G. Lajoie; A. Lebedev; G. H. Lee; J. Lee; K. B. Lee; K. S. Lee; S. Lee; S. H. Lee; R. Lefferts; M. J. Leitch; M. A. L. Leite; M. Leitgab; B. Lewis; X. Li; S. H. Lim; A. Lipski; A. Litvinenko; M. X. Liu; B. Love; D. Lynch; M. Lynch; C. F. Maguire; Y. I. Makdisi; M. Makek; A. Malakhov; A. Manion; V. I. Manko; E. Mannel; T. Maruyama; S. Masumoto; M. McCumber; P. L. McGaughey; D. McGlinchey; R. McKay; C. McKinney; A. Meles; M. Mendoza; R. Menegasso; B. Meredith; Y. Miake; T. Mibe; A. C. Mignerey; A. Milov; D. K. Mishra; J. T. Mitchell; S. Miyasaka; S. Mizuno; A. K. Mohanty; P. Montuenga; T. Moon; D. P. Morrison; M. Moskowitz; S. Motschwiller; T. V. Moukhanova; T. Murakami; J. Murata; A. Mwai; T. Nagae; S. Nagamiya; K. Nagashima; J. L. Nagle; M. I. Nagy; I. Nakagawa; H. Nakagomi; Y. Nakamiya; K. R. Nakamura; T. Nakamura; K. Nakano; C. Nattrass; A. Nederlof; P. K. Netrakanti; M. Nihashi; T. Niida; K. Ninomiya; S. Nishimura; D. Northacker; R. Nouicer; T. Novak; N. Novitzky; A. Nukariya; A. S. Nyanin; E. O'Brien; C. A. Ogilvie; H. Oide; K. Okada; J. D. Orjuela Koop; J. D. Osborn; A. Oskarsson; L. Österman; K. Ozawa; C. Pancake; V. Pantuev; V. Papavassiliou; I. H. Park; J. S. Park; S. Park; S. K. Park; S. F. Pate; L. Patel; M. Patel; J. -C. Peng; D. Perepelitsa; G. D. N. Perera; V. Peresedov; D. Yu. Peressounko; J. Perry; R. Petti; C. Pinkenburg; R. Pinson; R. P. Pisani; J. Popule; M. L. Purschke; H. Qu; S. Radhakrishnan; J. Rak; B. J. Ramson; I. Ravinovich; K. F. Read; D. Reynolds; R. Reynolds; V. Riabov; Y. Riabov; E. Richardson; T. Rinn; N. Riveli; D. Roach; S. D. Rolnick; M. Rosati; E. Roschin; Z. Rowan; J. G. Rubin; P. Rukoyatkin; M. S. Ryu; A. Safonov; B. Sahlmueller; N. Saito; T. Sakaguchi; H. Sako; V. Samsonov; M. Sano; M. Sarsour; S. Sato; S. Sawada; B. Schaefer; B. K. Schmoll; K. Sedgwick; J. Seele; R. Seidl; Y. Sekiguchi; A. Sen; R. Seto; P. Sett; A. Sexton; E. Shafto; D. Sharma; A. Shaver; I. Shein; T. -A. Shibata; K. Shigaki; M. Shimomura; K. Shoji; P. Shukla; P. Sicho; A. Sickles; C. L. Silva; D. Silvermyr; B. K. Singh; C. P. Singh; V. Singh; F. W. Sippach; M. Skolnik; M. Snowball; S. Solano; A. Soldatov; R. A. Soltz; W. E. Sondheim; S. P. Sorensen; M. Soumya; I. V. Sourikova; P. W. Stankus

2015-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

400

2014-07-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule Correction  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule correction regarding test procedures for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on July 10, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

NSTX-U Control System Upgrades  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) is undergoing a wealth of upgrades (NSTX-U). These upgrades, especially including an elongated pulse length, require broad changes to the control system that has served NSTX well. A new fiber serial Front Panel Data Port input and output (I/O) stream will supersede the aging copper parallel version. Driver support for the new I/O and cyber security concerns require updating the operating system from Redhat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) v4 to RedHawk (based on RHEL) v6. While the basic control system continues to use the General Atomics Plasma Control System (GA PCS), the effort to forward port the entire software package to run under 64-bit Linux instead of 32-bit Linux included PCS modifications subsequently shared with GA and other PCS users. Software updates focused on three key areas: (1) code modernization through coding standards (C99/C11), (2) code portability and maintainability through use of the GA PCS code generator, and (3) support of 64-bit platforms. Central to the control system upgrade is the use of a complete real time (RT) Linux platform provided by Concurrent Computer Corporation, consisting of a computer (iHawk), an operating system and drivers (RedHawk), and RT tools (NightStar). Strong vendor support coupled with an extensive RT toolset influenced this decision. The new real-time Linux platform, I/O, and software engineering will foster enhanced capability and performance for NSTX-U plasma control.

Erickson, K G; Gates, D A; Gerhardt, S P; Lawson, J E; Mozulay, R; Sichta, P; Tchilinguirian, G J

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Upgrades to Monteburns, version 3.0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monteburns, a Monte Carlo burnup code which has the flexibility to model time-dependent isotopic changes for a variety of nuclear systems by linking the neutron transport code MCNP/X to a production/depletion code, has undergone several performance upgrades recently that have increased the code's capabilities. Once limited to a specific number of regions, enhancements have been implemented that afford a much greater number of burn materials, such that users will be more limited by the physical constraints of their computing environment as opposed to inherent limits built into the coding of Monteburns. In conjunction with the increase in the number of burn materials, parallel execution of a production/depletion code of choice has been implemented, such that users have the option of using CINDER90, 0RIGEN2, or the newly released version of ORIGEN. Finally, the recoverable energy per fission calculation was upgraded to include capture gamma energy deposited in all specified materials as a function of irradiation time. The sum of the prompt and delayed recoverable energies from fission was obtained as before. These upgrades were first tested on a rigorous 1/8 core model of a Pressurized Water Reactor with fresh, once- and twice-burned fuel. We can now model several orders of magnitude more materials using Monte Carlo techniques, which is a significant advance in the reactor modeling world. (authors)

Galloway, J. D.; Trellue, H. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, 30 Bikini Atoll Rd., Los Alamos, NM 87545-0001 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants Paul BYRNE and to install heat pumps in unoccupied spaces. Nevertheless manufacturers keep working on components for hydrocarbons. In the frame of a research project on heat pumps for simultaneous heating and cooling, an R407C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator Amikam Levy and Ronnie Kosloff  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 07.20.Pe,05.30.-d I. INTRODUCTION The adsorption chiller is a refrigerator which employs a heat source to replace mechanical work for driving a heat pump [1]. The first device was developed in 1850 c J h P Tc Th Tw - - - 0 FIG. 1: The quantum trickle: A quantum heat pump des- ignated

Kosloff, Ronnie

405

Dry dilution refrigerator with 4He-1K-loop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article we summarize experimental work on cryogen-free 3He/4He dilution refrigerators which, in addition to the dilution refrigeration circuit, are equipped with a 4He-1K-stage. This type of DR becomes worth considering when high cooling capacities are needed at T ~ 1 K to cool cold amplifiers and heat sink cables. In our application, the motivation for the construction of this type of cryostat was to do experiments on superconducting quantum circuits for quantum information technology and quantum simulations. In other work, DRs with 1K-stage were proposed for astro-physical cryostats. For neutron scattering research, a top-loading cryogen-free DR with 1K-stage was built which was equipped with a standard commercial dilution refrigeration insert. Cooling powers of up to 100 mW have been reached with our 1K-stage, but higher refrigeration powers were achieved with more powerful pulse tube cryocoolers and higher 4He circulation rates in the 1K-loop. Several different versions of a 1K-loop have been test...

Uhlig, Kurt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the assumed electrical energy cost is $0.04 per kWh.cost (the cost is given in US$ per kWh at 80.4°K) andThe cost of nitrogen refrigeration given in $ per kWh at

green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

445 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator Onrawee Laguerre UMR GĂ©nie Industriel........................................................................447 16.2.2 Heat Transfer and Airflow Near a Vertical Plate..................................................448 16.2.3 Heat Transfer and Airflow in Empty Closed Cavity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

408

Energy consumption testing of innovative refrigerator-freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high ambient temperature of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the AHAM/DOE Refrigerator-Freezer Energy Consumption Standards is intended to compensate for the lack of door openings and other heat loads. Recently published results by Meier and Jansky (1993) indicate labeled consumption overpredicting typical field consumption by 15%. In-house field studies on conventional models showed labeled consumption overpredicting by about 22%. The Refrigerator-Freezer Technology Assessment (RFTA) test was developed to more accurately predict field consumption. This test has ambient temperature and humidity, door openings, and condensation control set at levels intended to typify Canadian household conditions. It also assesses consumption at exactly defined compartment rating temperatures. Ten conventional and energy-efficient production models were laboratory tested. The RFTA results were about 30% lower than labeled. Similarly, the four innovative refrigerator-freezer models, when field tested, also had an average of 30% lower consumption than labeled. Thus, the results of the limited testing suggest that the RFTA test may be a more accurate predictor of field use. Further testing with a larger sample is recommended. Experimental results also indicated that some innovative models could save up to 50% of the energy consumption compared with similar conventional units. The technologies that contributed to this performance included dual compressors, more efficient compressors and fan motors, off-state refrigerant control valve, fuzzy logic control, and thicker insulation. The larger savings were on limited production models, for which additional production engineering is required for full marketability.

Wong, M.T.; Howell, B.T.; Jones, W.R. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Long, D.L. [Statistical Solutions, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

409

Procurement and commissioning of the CHL refrigerator at CEBAF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CEBAF Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) provides 2K refrigeration to the 338 superconducting niobium cavities in two 400 MeV linacs and one 45 MeV injector. The CHL consists of three first stage and three second stage compressors, a 4.5K cold box, a 2K cold box, liquid and gaseous helium storage, liquid nitrogen storage, and transfer lines. Figure 1 presents a block diagram of the CHL refrigerator. The system was designed to provide 4.8 kW of primary refrigeration at 2K, 12 kW of shield refrigeration at 45K for the linac cryomodules, and 10 g/s of liquid flow for the end stations. In April 1994, stable 2K operation of the previously uncommissioned cold compressors was achieved. The cold compressors are a cold vacuum pump with an inlet temperature of circa 3.0K. These compressors operate on magnetic bearing,s and therefore eliminate the possibility of contamination due to any air leaks into the system. Operational data and commissioning experience as they relate to the warm gaseous helium compressors, turbines, instrumentation and control, and the cold compressors are presented.

Chronis, W.C.; Arenius, D.M.; Bevins, B.S.; Ganni, V.; Kashy, D.H.; Keesee, M.M.; Reid, T.R.; Wilson, J.D.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Simulating effects of multispeed compressors on refrigerator/freezer performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simulation analyses suggest that a multispeed compressor could increase steady-state operating efficiency by 4% to 14%. An additional 0.5% to 4% energy savings might be obtained from the reduction in the cycling frequency of the refrigerator. Several aspects of the robustness of the capillary tube-suction line heat exchanger design for the two-speed compressor system were also examined with the simulation model. It was shown that a system optimized for low-speed operation, when operating at the high speed, could have as much capacity as the original base case high-speed system. A relatively simple control strategy was proposed, one that requires measurement of on-cycle time and one or two compartment air temperatures. The effects of varying the speed of the evaporator or condenser fans at both compressor speeds were examined over a range of ambient temperatures. One energy-saving scenario was identified: decreasing the condenser fan speed for refrigerators operating at low ambient temperatures. By affecting the distribution of refrigerant change throughout the system, the decrease in condenser fan speed reduces the superheat in the evaporator and increases the overall UA of the evaporator. The resulting increase in evaporator capacity more than offsets the decrease in condenser UA and the energy use of the refrigerator is decreased.

Woodall, R.J. [International Paper Technology, Mobile, AL (United States); Bullard, C.W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

411

Analysis of household refrigerators for different testing standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study highlights the salient differences among various testing standards for household refrigerator-freezers and proposes a methodology for predicting the performance of a single evaporator-based vapor-compression refrigeration system (either refrigerator or freezer) from one test standard (where the test data are available-the reference case) to another (the alternative case). The standards studied during this investigation include the Australian-New Zealand Standard (ANZS), the International Standard (ISO), the American National Standard (ANSI), the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), and the Chinese National Standard (CNS). A simple analysis in conjunction with the BICYCLE model (Bansal and Rice 1993) is used to calculate the energy consumption of two refrigerator cabinets from the reference case to the alternative cases. The proposed analysis includes the effect of door openings (as required by the JIS) as well as defrost heaters. The analytical results are found to agree reasonably well with the experimental observations for translating energy consumption information from one standard to another.

Bansal, P.K. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; McGill, I. [Fischer and Paykel Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Embedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Embedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1 Leon Reznik and Shane Spiteri School of Communications and Informatics Victoria University PO Box 14428, Melbourne City MC VIC 8001 2-5, 2001 Abstract. The paper describes the development of a smart embedded fuzzy system for reefer

Reznik, Leon

413

TEMPERATURE PREDICTION IN DOMESTIC REFRIGERATOR: DETERMINIST AND STOCHASTIC APPROACHES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the calculation of air and load temperatures. An analysis of the predicted temperatures was undertaken temperature and thermostat setting, on air and load temperatures in non ventilated domestic refrigerator was studied. A simplified steady state heat transfer model was developed which takes into account heat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

414

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-4837E Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Sasank thereof or The Regents of the University of California. #12;Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto- DR) due

415

HANDLING FRESH FISH REFRIGERATION OF FISH -PART 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Fishery Leaflet 427) Cold-Storage Design and Refrigeration Equipment Part 3 (Fisher y Leaflet 429) Factors to be Considered in the Freezing and Cold Storage of Fishery Products Part 4 (Fishery Leaflet 430) -- Preparation, Freezing, and Cold Storage of Fish, Shellfish, and Precooked Fishery Products Part 5 (Fishery Leaflet 431

416

Superefficient Refrigerators: Opportunities and Challenges for Efficiency Improvement Globally  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As an energy-intensive mainstream product, residential refrigerators present a significant opportunity to reduce electricity consumption through energy efficiency improvements. Refrigerators expend a considerable amount of electricity during normal use, typically consuming between 100 to 1,000 kWh of electricity per annum. This paper presents the results of a technical analysis done for refrigerators in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative. Beginning from a base case representative of the average unit sold in India, we analyze efficiency improvement options and their corresponding costs to build a cost-versus-efficiency relationship. We then consider design improvement options that are known to be the most cost effective and that can improve efficiency given current design configurations. We also analyze and present additional super-efficient options, such as vacuum-insulated panels. We estimate the cost of conserved electricity for the various options, allowing flexible program design for market transformation programs toward higher efficiency. We estimate ~;;160TWh/year of energy savings are cost effective in 2030, indicating significant potential for efficiency improvement in refrigerators in SEAD economies and China.

Shah, Nihar; Park, Won Young; Bojda, Nicholas; McNeil, Michael A.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Removing Odors from Refrigerators and Freezers after Food has Spoiled  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ER-005 6-06 Extension Family and Consumer Science Specialists The Texas A&M University System If food has spoiled in a refrigerator or freezer because of a power failure or some other reason, undesirable odors can develop. To eliminate these odors...

FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

418

REVIEW OF SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETOMETERS AND CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION TECHNIQUES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3. REVIEW OF SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETOMETERS AND CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION TECHNIQUES By W. S. GOREE of the macroscopic quantum nature of the superconducting state. Several of these properties have direct application a closed superconducting path must remain constant as long as the path remains superconducting

Boyer, Edmond

419

Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration in a Meat Processing Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A case study is reviewed on a heat recovery system installed in a meat processing facility to preheat water for the plant hot water supply. The system utilizes waste superheat from the facility's 1,350-ton ammonia refrigeration system. The heat...

Murphy, W. T.; Woods, B. E.; Gerdes, J. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Leducq, Roche, Macchi-Tejeda , Fournaison, Guilpart Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction, Cemagref Antony, France, 2009 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leducq, Roche, Macchi-Tejeda , Fournaison, Guilpart IIR 1st Workshop on Refrigerant Charge, Antony cedex, 92 163,, France denis.leducq@cemagref.fr ABSTRACT A design of a low charge refrigerating on refrigerant charge and energy performance has been evaluated experimentally for a cold room refrigerating unit

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

Lowe, K.T.

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

422

Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

THREE VIRGINIA PROGRAMS OVERCOME BARRIERS TO UPGRADES | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

upgrades. RREA used a home energy makeover contest to educate homeowners and drive demand. RREA also engaged faith-based institutions and neighborhood associations in its...

424

UNIVERSITY PARK SCHOOLS SMALL TOWNS ON UPGRADES | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

performance benchmarks to create a list of preferred contractors and provided quality control on the upgrades performed through the program. KEY TAKEAWAYS By piloting STEP in...

425

Idaho Power- Easy Upgrades for Simple Retrofits Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Idaho Power offers incentives for its commercial and industrial customers in Idaho and Oregon to upgrade to more efficient equipment in facilities. They provide incentives for lighting equipment...

426

Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities Case study details the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Exchange (formerly the Army and Air Force...

427

Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Algal Lipid Upgrading...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Algal Biofuels Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction...

428

California Member Connects Solar Adoption With Upgrades | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Photo of a young man working on solar panels. Studies on the connection between solar adoption and energy upgrades by Better Buildings Residential Network member Center for...

429

Media Advisory - Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade Groundbreaking...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for its 310 million 12 GeV Upgrade project. When: Tuesday, April 14, 2009. Where: CEBAF Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue,...

430

Conceptual design report for Project W-420, stack monitoring upgrade  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the Conceptual Design for the upgrade of seven designated Tank Farm stacks to meet NESHAP Title 40, CFR, Part 61, Sub-part H requirements.

Lott, D.T., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

431

asdex upgrade results: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

physical control system would do. The real time emulation of both, fusion Zachmann, Gabriel 3 Ghost surfaces and island detection Application to LHD and ASDEX Upgrade...

432

asdex upgrade divertor: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

physical control system would do. The real time emulation of both, fusion Zachmann, Gabriel 7 Ghost surfaces and island detection Application to LHD and ASDEX Upgrade...

433

asdex upgrade enhancements: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

physical control system would do. The real time emulation of both, fusion Zachmann, Gabriel 3 Ghost surfaces and island detection Application to LHD and ASDEX Upgrade...

434

Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy Upgrades Summary (Fact Sheet), Guidelines For Home Energy Professionals, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home...

435

Community based outreach strategies in residential energy upgrade programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Home energy upgrades can reduce residential energy consumption and improve indoor conditions, thereby realizing environmental, economic, health and other social benefits. Utilities, government and other actors have established ...

McEwen, Brendan (Brendan Carl Francis)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

PHOENIX ENERGIZES LIGHT RAIL CORRIDOR WITH UPGRADES | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

duct sealing; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) upgrades; sunscreens; and solar water heaters. Energize Phoenix eventually expanded its service area beyond the...

437

Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities: Best Management Practice Case Study 11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment (Brochure), Federal Energy...

438

What's Working in Residential Energy Efficiency Upgrade Programs...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Texas: Best Offer Ever Produces 564 Upgrades in Record Time Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Home Accomplishments History Better Buildings Partners Stories Interviews Videos...

439

Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal...

440

EA-1190: Wastewater Treatment Capability Upgrade, Amarillo, Texas  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposed upgrade of the U.S. Department of Energy Pantex Plant Wastewater Treatment Plant in Amarillo, Texas.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis Site Upgrade  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis site is currently being upgraded to better serve on audience. Please check back shortly.

442

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the last five years, China's refrigerator market has grown rapidly, and now urban markets are showing signs of saturation, with ownership rates in urban households reaching 92%. Rural markets continue to grow from a much lower base. As a result of this growth, the Chinese government in 2006 decided to revise the refrigerator standards and its associated efficiency grades for the mandatory energy information label. In the Chinese standards process, the efficiency grades for the information label are tied to the minimum standards. Work on the minimum standards revision began in 2006 and continued through the first half of 2007, when the draft standard was completed under the direction of the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS). Development of the information label grades required consideration of stakeholder input, continuity with the previous grade classification, ease of implementation, and potential impacts on the market. In this process, CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing technical input to the process, comment and advice on particular technical issues, and evaluation of the results. After three months of effort and three drafts of the final grade specifications, this work was completed. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. The new information label thresholds to be implemented in 2008 maintain the approach first adopted in 2005 of establishing efficiency levels relative to the minimum standard, but increased the related required efficiency levels by 20% over those established in 2003 and implemented in 2005. The focus of improvement was on the standard refrigerator/freezer (class 5), which constitutes the bulk of the Chinese market. Indeed, the new requirements to achieve grade 1 on the label are now virtually as stringent as those for US Energy Star-qualified or EU A-grade refrigerators. When the energy information label went into effect in March 2005, refrigerator manufacturers were required to display their declared level of efficiency on the label and report it to the China Energy Label Center (CELC), a newly established unit of CNIS responsible for label program management. Because of the visible nature of the label, it was found, through a METI/IEEJ-supported study, that MEPS non-compliance dropped from 4% to zero after the label became mandatory, and that the percentage of higher-grade refrigerators increased. This suggests that the label itself does have potential for shifting the market to higher-efficiency models (Lin 2007). One challenge, however, of assessing this potential impact is the lack of a comprehensive baseline of market efficiency and a program to evaluate the market impact on a yearly basis. As a result, the impact evaluation in this study draws upon the market transformation experience of the related EU energy information label, for which quantitative assessments of its market impact exist. By assuming a parallel process unfolding in China, it is possible to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. The results of the analysis demonstrates that a robust market transformation program in China focused on the energy information label could save substantial amounts of electricity by 2020, totaling 16.4 TWh annually by that year, compared to a case in which the efficiency distribution of refrigerators was frozen at the 2007 level. Remarkably, the impact of a successful market transformation program with the label would essentially flatten the consumption of electricity for refrigerator use throughout most of the next decade, despite the expectations of continued growth in total stock by nearly 190 million units. At the end of this period, total consumption begins to rise again, as the least efficient of the units have been mostly removed from the market. Such a level of savings would reduce CO{sub

Fridley, David; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Lin, Jiang; Jianhong, Cheng; Sakamoto, Tomoyuki

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Upgrading the Vanadium Redox Battery | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II Field Emission SEM with EDAXUpdated CapitalMichaelUpgrading

445

The value of steam turbine upgrades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technological advances in mechanical and aerodynamic design of the turbine steam path are resulting in higher reliability and efficiency. A recent study conducted on a 390 MW pulverized coal-fired unit revealed just how much these new technological advancements can improve efficiency and output. The empirical study showed that the turbine upgrade raised high pressure (HP) turbine efficiency by 5%, intermediate pressure (IP) turbine efficiency by 4%, and low pressure (LP) turbine efficiency by 2.5%. In addition, the unit's highest achievable gross generation increased from 360 MW to 371 MW. 3 figs.

Potter, K.; Olear, D.; [General Physics Corp. (United States)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Jefferson Lab awards upgrade contracts | Jefferson Lab  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfraredJefferson Lab Click onLaserLabLabawards upgrade contracts

447

DOE/AHAM advanced refrigerator technology development project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the effort to improve residential energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse emissions from power plants, several design options were investigated for improving the energy efficiency of a conventionally designed domestic refrigerator-freezer. The program goal was to reduce the energy consumption of a 20-ft{sup 3} (570-L) top-mount refrigerator-freeze to 1.00 kWh/d, a 50% reduction from the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard. The options--such as improved cabinet and door insulation, a high-efficiency compressor, a low-wattage fan, a large counterflow evaporator, and adaptive defrost control--were incorporated into prototype refrigerator-freezer cabinets and refrigeration systems. The refrigerant HFC-134a was used as a replacement for CFC-12. The baseline energy performance of the production refrigerator-freezers, along with cabinet heat load and compressor calorimeter test results, were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. The project consisted of three main phases: (1) an evaluation of energy-efficient design options using computer simulation models and experimental testing, (2) design and testing of an initial prototype unit, and (3) energy and economic analyses of a final prototype. The final prototype achieved an energy consumption level of 0.93 kWh/d--an improvement of 45% over the baseline unit and 54% over the 1993 NAECA standard for 20-fg{sup 3} (570-L) units. The manufacturer`s cost for those improvements was estimated at $134; assuming that cost is doubled for the consumer, it would take about 11.4 years to pay for the design changes. Since the payback period was thought to be unfeasible, a second, more cost-effective design was also tested. Its energy consumption level was 1.16 kWh/d, a 42% energy savings, at a manufacturer`s cost increase of $53. Again assuming a 100% markup, the payback for this unit would be 6.6 years.

Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Rice, C.K.; Linkous, R.L.; Hardin, C.V.; Bohman, R.H.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

CEBAF Upgrade: Cryomodule Performance And Lessons Learned  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is currently engaged in the 12 GeV Upgrade Project. The goal of the 12 GeV Upgrade is a doubling of the available beam energy of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) from 6 GeV to 12 GeV. This increase in beam energy will be due in large part to the addition of ten C100 cryomodules plus associated new RF in the CEBAF linacs. The C100 cryomodules are designed to deliver 100 MeV per installed cryomodule. Each C100 cryomodule is built around a string of eight seven-cell, electro-polished, superconducting RF cavities. While an average performance of 100MV per cryomodule is needed to achieve the overall 12 GeV beam energy goal, the actual performance goal for the cryomodules is an average energy gain of 108 MV to provide operational headroom. Cryomodule production started in December 2010. All ten of the C100 cryomodules are installed in the linac tunnels and are on schedule to complete commissioning by September 2013. Performance during Commissioning has ranged from 104 MV to 118 MV. In May, 2012 a test of an early C100 achieved 108 MV with full beam loading. This paper will discuss the performance of the C100 cryomodules along with operational challenges and lessons learned for future designs.

Drury, Michael A.; Davis, G. Kirk; Hogan, John P.; Hovater, J. Curt; King, Lawrence; Marhauser, Frank; Park, HyeKyoung; Preble, Joe; Reece, Charles E.; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Haipeng; Wiseman, Mark A.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Bitumen utilization via partial upgrading and emulsification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Further development of the oil sands resources of Alberta, Canada, is constrained by the ability of downstream refineries to process the high sulfur, high viscosity, and high asphaltene content bitumen. Recent engineering studies have demonstrated that high conversion processing of bitumen to produce synthetic crude oil shows at best marginal economics. In this paper, an alternative concept of bitumen upgrading and heavy bottoms utilization is presented. The proposed method of Phased Partial Upgrading (PPU) involves, first, separation of the bitumen into a light overhead fraction and a heavy bottom fraction using conventional processes, such as distillation or solvent deasphalting. The light overhead fraction, which resembles a typical light sour crude, can be marketed directly, or can be hydrotreated to reduce sulfur and enhance quality as catalytic cracker feedstock. The PPU heavy fraction is converted to an emulsion fuel using new techniques and a proprietary surfactant formulation. This fuel can replace coal and other heavy fuels in electrical utilities. Emulsion fuel prepared in a continuous pilot unit was successfully burned in several combustion test programs.

Sankey, B.M.; Ghosh, M.; Chakrabarty, T. [Imperial Oil Resources Limited, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

451

The enhanced ASDEX Upgrade pellet centrifuge launcher  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pellets played an important role in the program of ASDEX Upgrade serving both for investigations on efficient particle fuelling and high density scenarios but also for pioneering work on Edge Localised Mode (ELM) pacing and mitigation. Initially designed for launching fuelling pellets from the magnetic low field side, the system was converted already some time ago to inject pellets from the magnetic high field side as much higher fuelling efficiency was found using this configuration. In operation for more than 20 years, the pellet launching system had to undergo a major revision and upgrading, in particular of its control system. Furthermore, the control system installed adjacent to the launcher had to be transferred to a more distant location enforcing a complete galvanic separation from torus potential and a fully remote control solution. Changing from a hybrid system consisting of PLC S5/S7 and some hard wired relay control to a state of the art PLC system allowed the introduction of several new operational options enabling more flexibility in the pellet experiments. This article describes the new system architecture of control hardware and software, the operating procedure, and the extended operational window. First successful applications for ELM pacing and triggering studies are presented as well as utilization for the development of high density scenarios.

Plöckl, B.; Lang, P. T. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

Heat powered refrigeration compressor. Semi-annual technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to develop and improve the design of previously started prototypes of the Heat Powered Refrigeration Compressor. To build this prototype and ready it for testing by the University of Evansville is another goal. This prototype will be of similar capacity as the compressor that will eventually be commercially produced. This unit can operate on almost any moderate temperature water heat source. This heat source could include such applications as industrial waste heat, solar, wood burning stove, resistance electrical heat produced by a windmill, or even perhaps heat put out by the condenser of another refrigeration system. Work performed in the past four months has consisted of: engineering of HX-1; comparisons of specifications from different companies to ensure state of the art applications of parts for project; coordinating project requirements with machine shop; designing condenser; and partial assembly of HX-1.

Goad, R.R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

New age water chillers with water as refrigerant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vacuum-process technology producing chilled water needs no refrigerant of the conventional kind, but water from the process itself is used to generate cooling. This eye-catching novelty incorporates many of the considerations about the future of refrigerants: "ozone friendly", no extra demands for safety measures or for skilful operators, no special requirements concerning the installation's components, lower maintenance costs since leakages can be accommodated from the system. Vacuum-process technology may be used not only for production of chilled water but also for Binary Ice - pumpable suspension of minute ice crystals in an aqueous solution. This means that all the advantages related to a latent heat system may become available.

Kühnl-Kinel, J

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Cryogenics for superconductors: Refrigeration, delivery, and preservation of the cold  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Applications in superconductivity have become widespread, enabled by advancements in cryogenic engineering. In this paper, the history of cryogenic refrigeration, its delivery, its preservation and the important scientific and engineering advancements in these areas in the last 100 years will be reviewed, beginning with small laboratory dewars to very large scale systems. The key technological advancements in these areas that enabled the development of superconducting applications at temperatures from 4 to 77 K are identified. Included are advancements in the components used up to the present state-of-the-art in refrigeration systems design. Viewpoints as both an equipment supplier and the end-user with regard to the equipment design and operations will be presented. Some of the present and future challenges in these areas will be outlined. Most of the materials in this paper are a collection of the historical materials applicable to these areas of interest.

Venkatarao Ganni, James Fesmire

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Free displacer and Ringbom displacer for a Malone refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Malone refrigeration uses a liquid near its critical point (instead of the customary gas) as the working fluid in a Stirling, Brayton, or similar regenerative or recuperative cycle. Thus far, we have focused on the Stirling cycle, to avoid the difficult construction of the high-pressure-difference counterflow recuperator required for a Brayton machine. Our first Malone refrigerator used liquid propylene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}) in a double-acting 4-cylinder Stirling configuration. First measurements with a free displacer used in a liquid working fluid are presented. The displacer was operated both in harmonic mode and in Ringbom mode, in liquid carbon dioxide. The results are in reasonable agreement with expectations.

Swift, G.W.; Brown, A.O.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Guide for the selection of supermarket refrigeration systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an evaluation of supermarket refrigeration involving the use of conventional and multiplex compressor systems. Computer simulations of these systems were performed for six representative sites. The performance predictions generated in this fashion were tabulated to allow hand calculation of electric costs for any prevailing electric rate schedule. A methodology was also developed to allow economic assessment of the conventional and multiplex systems and of various enhancements employed with the multiplex system. The results of the evaluation showed the multiplex refrigeration system produced a reasonable payback for all sites examined, depending upon the enhancements employed. System features that had the greatest impact on payback were heat reclaim, hot gas defrost, and floating head pressure. 25 figs., 28 tabs.

Walker, D.H.; Tsaros, T.L.; Deming, G.I. (Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (USA))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

page 1 of 4 TkF Vrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

kJ/kg. a. Calculate the heat of vaporisation of the R-40 at 30°C and -20°C, and calculate with methylchloride (CH3Cl, R-40) as refrigerant. The evaporator operates at Te = -20 °C and exchanges heat-1), closing the cycle. The following data is given for these states: T °C p bar h kJ/kg s kJ/(kg·K) 1 -20 1

Zevenhoven, Ron

458

Aluminum tunnel junction detector operation in an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Superconducting tunnel junction detectors are being developed as both particle and X-ray detectors. Aluminum junctions are desirable for detectors because of their strong native oxide barriers, and because the small energy gap of aluminum is a good match to ballistic phonons generated by particle interactions in single crystals of silicon or other low acoustic-loss insulating crystals. Aluminum tunnel junction detectors must be operated near 0.1 T{sub C} which is 110 mK for aluminum. To operate detectors at these temperatures, we have developed adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs) for the laboratory and prototype ADRs for space based operation. These cryogenic systems are simpler, more convenient and more portable than most dilution refrigerators. We have demonstrated that the magnetic field of the ADR need not compromise the performance of aluminum tunnel junctions. We have recently initiated a program to develop superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) as high resolution X-ray detectors and low energy threshold particle detectors. This complements our existing program in which we are developing high resolution X-ray microcalorimeter detectors. One of our goals for both of these cryogenic detector development efforts is to observe X-ray emission from cosmic sources. This requires a refrigeration system that can operate under zero gravity space flight conditions. For the microcalorimeter project, temperatures of 100 mK and below are required to sufficiently reduce the heat capacity of the device. We have therefore developed an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) system which can be configured for space flight.

Labov, S.; Silver, E.; Le Gros, M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Bland, R.W.; Dickson, S.C.; Dignan, T.G.; Laws, K.; Johnson, R.T.; Simon, M.W.; Stricker, D.A.; Watson, R.M. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)); Madden, N.; Landis, D. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1992-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

459

Novel 4-Way Refrigerant Reversing Valve for Heat Pumps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is nearing completion. Since the last progress report (November, 1999), all experimental tests have been completed. Preliminary analysis shows the refrigerant pressure drops through the reversing valve were reduced by an average of about 60{percent}, when compared to traditional reversing valves. Also, the prototype reversing valve reduced the overall coefficient of performance (COP) by an average of only 0.45{percent}.

Darin W. Nutter

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

460

Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

Wilkinson, William H. (Columbus, OH)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

Boeder, A; Zimm, C

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

462

Rebates Cut the Price of Big-Time Efficiency Upgrades  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

One of the smartest ways for homeowners to save money on major appliance upgrades is to hook into an energy efficiency rebate program. The Neighborhood Energy Connection (NEC), a non-profit organization in St. Paul, Minnesota, helps local residents take advantage of Xcel Energy’s rebate programs that cut the cost of whole-house energy efficiency upgrades.

463

Recent ASDEX Upgrade Research in Support of ITER and DEMO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Conference, OV2/2, St. Petersburg, Russia, 13.10.2014 · ASDEX Upgrade: machine and programme allowed (?) Virtually no disruptions #12;ASDEX Upgrade has a powerful H&CD system Neutral Beam Injection;Stagnation of core density build-up due to fuelling limit (source shifts to SOL) High SOL density leads

464

Computer Physics Communications 1 Optical Link ASICs for LHC Upgrades  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Layer or IBL) for the ATLAS detector for the first phase of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The ASICs are a high) at CERN will be upgraded in two phases, resulting in ten times higher luminosity. The ATLAS experiment in the lab followed by an irradiation with 24 GeV protons at the T7 irradiation facility at CERN. The results

Gan, K. K.

465

Entrainment of refrigerated air curtains down a wall  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refrigerated air curtains are used in open supermarket display cases as a barrier between the warm ambient air and the cold refrigerated air. Entrainment of ambient air into the curtain by shear layer mixing contributes to both the sensible and the latent heat load on the display case. To better understand the fluid dynamics which govern entrainment, velocity and temperature measurements of the curtains were made in a refrigerated display case, which was modified to allow a more fundamental flow. In particular, a vertical solid wall was installed to approximately represent a fully-stocked configuration. As such, negatively-buoyant wall jets (with high inflow turbulence) in the Reynolds number range of 4200-8000 and in the Richardson number range of 0.13-0.58 were examined. To define the air curtain vortex structures, flow visualization of the curtain interface was employed. The results of which showed that the entrainment of the ambient air was found to be governed by a variety of eddy engulfing structures. Particle Image Velocimetry was used to examine the velocity profiles of the air curtains in a non-intrusive manner, the measurements of which indicated negatively-buoyant acceleration following the jet exhaust, followed by a more linear curtain growth characteristic of isothermal wall jets. In addition, thermocouples were used to obtain the net increase in temperature of the curtain due to entrainment, where it was found that the dimensionless thermal energy loss decreased with decreasing Reynolds number.

Field, Brandon S.; Loth, Eric [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

Brant, B.; Brueske, S. [Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States); Erickson, D.; Papar, R. [Energy Concepts Co., Annapolis, MD (United States)

1998-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

467

Solid-vapor adsorption-refrigeration system development. Final report, March 1990-May 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study describes the development of heat-activated industrial refrigeration systems using ammoniated complex compound sorption media. The focus was on single-stage cycles for low temperature (+20 F and below) refrigeration. Compared to vapor compression refrigeration, these cycles have the advantages of lower operating energy costs, reduction of peak electrical demand and associated demand charges, and reduced maintenance costs due to replacement of the compressor with solid-state sorbers. In many cases, particularly for refrigeration at -40 F and below, complex compound sorption cycles also have the potential for lower first cost than conventional electrically driven refrigeration systems. Technical issues addressed included the following: economic optimization of sorber design, demonstration of cyclic stability of the sorption reactions, construction material compatibility, and reactor scale-up. Sorption reactions for refrigeration at -40 F, and -70 F were demonstrated. Optimum heat exchanger configuration, complex compound loading, and cycle time were determined.

Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.; Graebel, B.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

The LSST Camera 500 watt -130 degC Mixed Refrigerant Cooling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LSST Camera has a higher cryogenic heat load than previous CCD telescope cameras due to its large size (634 mm diameter focal plane, 3.2 Giga pixels) and its close coupled front-end electronics operating at low temperature inside the cryostat. Various refrigeration technologies are considered for this telescope/camera environment. MMR-Technology’s Mixed Refrigerant technology was chosen. A collaboration with that company was started in 2009. The system, based on a cluster of Joule-Thomson refrigerators running a special blend of mixed refrigerants is described. Both the advantages and problems of applying this technology to telescope camera refrigeration are discussed. Test results from a prototype refrigerator running in a realistic telescope configuration are reported. Current and future stages of the development program are described. (auth)

Bowden, Gordon B.; Langton, Brian J.; /SLAC; Little, William A.; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA; Powers, Jacob R; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC; Spektor, Sam; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

469

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Spauschus, H.O.; Starr, T.L.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

471

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1997-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

472

The 12 GeV Energy Upgrade at Jefferson Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two new cryomodules and an extensive upgrade of the bending magnets at Jefferson Lab has been recently completed in preparation for the full energy upgrade in about one year. Jefferson Laboratory has undertaken a major upgrade of its flagship facility, the CW re-circulating CEBAF linac, with the goal of doubling the linac energy to 12 GeV. I will discuss here the main scope and timeline of the upgrade and report on recent accomplishments and the present status. I will then discuss in more detail the core of the upgrade, the new additional C100 cryomodules, their production, tests and recent successful performance. I will then conclude by looking at the future plans of Jefferson Laboratory, from the commissioning and operations of the 12 GeV CEBAF to the design of the MEIC electron ion collider.

Pilat, Fulvia C.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

U.S. And Russia Complete Nuclear Security Upgrades Under Bratislava...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

And Russia Complete Nuclear Security Upgrades Under Bratislava Initiative U.S. And Russia Complete Nuclear Security Upgrades Under Bratislava Initiative December 23, 2008 - 9:18am...

474

E-Print Network 3.0 - asdex upgrade edge Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Upgrade Team presented by Sibylle Gnter MPI fr Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching, Germany, EURATOM... collaborating institutes: 12;ASDEX Upgrade programme ... Source:...

475

E-Print Network 3.0 - asdex upgrade h-mode Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Upgrade Team presented by Sibylle Gnter MPI fr Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching, Germany, EURATOM... collaborating institutes: 12;ASDEX Upgrade programme ... Source:...

476

E-Print Network 3.0 - asdex upgrade team Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Upgrade Team presented by Sibylle Gnter MPI fr Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching, Germany, EURATOM... Overview of ASDEX Upgrade Results - Development of integrated operating...

477

Sandia National Laboratories: Upgrades to SNL-EFDC: A Tool to...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ClimateECEnergyComputational Modeling & SimulationUpgrades to SNL-EFDC: A Tool to Balance Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Generation Efficiency with Environmental Response Upgrades to...

478

A Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Computer Model in EnergyPlus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the variable refrigerant flow heat pump computer model included with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlusTM whole-building energy simulation software. The mathematical model for a variable refrigerant flow heat pump operating in cooling or heating mode, and a detailed model for the variable refrigerant flow direct-expansion (DX) cooling coil are described in detail.

Raustad, Richard A. [Florida Solar Energy Center

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

9-056-462-00 (3557) EXPLOSION-PROOF REFRIGERATOR, FREEZER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, FREEZER AND REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER Models 3557, 3557SS, 3557LHSS, 3557-2, 3557-4 o I At Lab-Line, we take in this manual include: Models 3557, 3557SS, 3557LHSS: Model 3557-2: Freezer Model 3557-4: Refrigerator-Freezer9-056-462-00 (3557) kN 4/88 ^INiyiAL LAB-LIIME lAB-LINE FRIGID-CAB EXPLOSION-PROOF REFRIGERATOR

Kleinfeld, David

480

Development of Versatile Compressor Modeling using Approximation Techniques for Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refrigerants are the life-blood of vapor compression systems that are widely used in Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) applications. The HVAC&R community is currently transitioning from main-stream refrigerants that have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) to alternative lower-GWP refrigerants. During this transition, it is important to account for the life cycle climate performance of alternative refrigerants since their performance will be different than that of higher-GWP refrigerants. This requires the evaluation of the system performance with the new refrigerants. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to predict the realistic performance of new alternative refrigerants without experimental validation. One of the main challenges in this regard is modeling the compressor performance with high fidelity due to the complex interaction of operating parameters, geometry, boundary conditions, and fluid properties. High fidelity compressor models are computationally expensive and require significant pre-processing to evaluate the performance of alternative refrigerants. This paper presents a new approach to modeling compressor performance when alternative refrigerants are used. The new modeling concept relies on using existing compressor performance to create an approximate model that captures the dependence of compressor performance on key operating parameters and fluid properties. The model can be built using a myriad of approximation techniques. This paper focuses on Kriging-based techniques to develop higher fidelity approximate compressor models. Baseline and at least one alternative refrigerant performance data are used to build the model. The model accuracy was evaluated by comparing the model results with compressor performance data using other refrigerants. Preliminary results show that the approximate model can predict the compressor mass flow rate and power consumption within 5%.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refrigerators steam-system upgrades" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two naphthenic mineral oils (NMO), four polyolesters (POE), and two polyvinyl ether (PVE) fluids. These fluids represented viscosity grades of ISO 32 and ISO 68 and are shown in a table. Refrigerants studied included R-22, R-134a, and R-410A. Film thickness measurements were conducted at 23 C, 45 C, and 65 C with refrigerant concentrations ranging from zero to 60% by weight.

Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Using R-134a and R-22 in supermarket refrigeration applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports on tests of the performance of refrigerants R-134a and R-22 in medium and low temperature refrigeration systems. These tests were performed to determine the accuracy of predictions that R-134a would be a suitable replacement for CFC refrigerants in supermarkets. The testing resulted in extensive modifications to compressors, lubricating oil and control systems while using standard piping systems, expansion valves and installation practices.

Albrecht, R.H. (New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, NY (United States)); Borhanian, H.; Rafuse, L.J. (Aspen Systems Inc., Marlborough, MA (United States)); Matthews, T.J. (Hannaford Bros., Co., Scarborough, ME (United States))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption refrigeration unit Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

;Priority Barriers Limitations of existing refrigeration technologies High capital costs of units coupled... potential for improved ortho--para conversion technologies (lower...

484

E-Print Network 3.0 - adsorption refrigerator powered Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

;Priority Barriers Limitations of existing refrigeration technologies High capital costs of units coupled... potential for improved ortho--para conversion technologies (lower...

485

Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation contains provisions for facilities and service related to electricity, natural gas, water, heating, refrigeration, and street railways. The chapter addresses the construction and...

486

Some studies on industrial Refrigeration system integrated With encapsulated pcm in cool Thermal energy storage system;.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The widespread use of refrigeration and air conditioning utilities newlineespecially in the developing countries has increased manifold during the last newlinedecade This additional load on… (more)

Cheralathan M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Energy use test procedures for appliances: A case study of Japanese refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy test procedure provides a consistent measurement of refrigerator energy consumption, which can be used by engineers, utility forecasters, and consumers. The U.S. and Japanese test procedures for refrigerators differ significantly, so it is impossible to directly compare the performance of unique features, or even determine which units are more efficient. The energy use of 12 Japanese refrigerators (of which 9 were unique models) were measured under the U.S. DOE energy test procedure and compared to that reported by the manufacturers under the Japanese test procedure. The Japanese refrigerators used substantially more electricity with the DOE test.

Meier, A.K.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Refrigerator/freezer directory: sorted by type and volume, based on 1979 standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This directory identifies refrigerators, freezers and combinations thereof, that have been certified as complying with the regulations that became effective on November 3, 1979.

Not Available

1980-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

489

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Saving Strategies for Cold Storage Facilities." Process-Refrigeration Systems for Cold Storage. Pacific Gas andDR Strategies for Cold Storage - Barriers to Implementation.

Lekov, Alex

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

E-Print Network 3.0 - arti refrigerant database Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-- &i Supplementary Laboratory Testing William M. Toscano... ENERGY-EFFICIENT SUPERMARKET REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS VOLUME 2 SUPPLEMENTAL ... Source: Oak Ridge National Laboratory -...

491

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in significant energy and demand savings for refrigeratedbe modified to reduce energy demand during demand responsein refrigerated warehouse energy demand if they are not

Lekov, Alex

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Development and Testing of a Screw Compressor Supermarket Refrigeration System: Phase II, Final Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laboratory prototype screw compressor refrigeration system was designed, fabricated and tested under various evaporator and ambient conditions. The design is based on a Dunham-Bush vertical hermetic screw compressor and other standard refrigeration components. Results indicate that a screw compressor rack with vapor injection can increase the thermodynamic efficiency of low temperature refrigeration in supermarkets by 20 to 28% compared to multiple reciprocating compressor racks. The payback period of the screw compressor refrigeration system relative to multiple reciprocating compressor systems is 1.1 to 1.5 years and the net present value savings range from 15 to 22 thousand dollars.

Borhanian, H. Hamed; Toscano, William M.; Lee, Kang P.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Options for reducing refrigerant emissions from supermarket systems. Final report, February-September 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characterizes the design of typical supermarket refrigeration systems and focuses on why these types of systems have high rates of refrigerant emissions. Three case studies are provided of companies that have successfully implemented emission-reducing practices and technologies. The report discusses a variety of technical and procedural options that can be applied to existing systems and in new construction.

Troy, E.F.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Dynamic Modeling and Cascaded Control for a Multi-Evaporator Supermarket Refrigeration System.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The survey from US Department of Energy showed that about one-third of energy consumption in US is due to air conditioning and refrigeration systems. This… (more)

Gupta, Ankush 1986-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

LCLS LLRF Upgrades to the SLAC Linac  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC will be the brightest X-ray laser in the world when it comes on line. In order to achieve the brightness a 200fS length electron bunch is passed through an undulator. To create the 200fS, 3kA bunch, a 10pS electron bunch, created from a photo cathode in an RF gun, is run off crest on the RF to set up a position to energy correlation. The bunch is then compressed by chicanes. The stability of the RF system is critical in setting up the position to energy correlation. Specifications derived from simulations require the RF system to be stable to below 200fS in several critical injector stations and the last kilometer of linac. The SLAC linac RF system is being upgraded to meet these requirements.

Akre, R.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Hong, B.; Kotturi, K.; Krejcik, P.; Wu, J.; /SLAC; Byrd, J.; /LBL, Berkeley

2007-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

496

Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

Peltier, R.

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

497

Upgrading the TFTR Transrex Power Supplies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to provide improved and expanded experimental capabilities, the existing Transrex power supplies at PPPL are to be upgraded and modernized. Each of the 39 power supplies consists of two six pulse silicon controlled rectifier sections forming a twelve pulse power supply. The first modification is to split each supply into two independent six pulse supplies by replacing the existing obsolete twelve pulse firing generator with two commercially available six pulse firing generators. The second change replaces the existing control link with a faster system, with greater capacity, which will allow for independent control of all 78 power supply sections. The third change replaces the existing Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) based fault detector with an Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) compatible unit, eliminating the obsolete CAMAC modules. Finally the remaining relay logic and interfaces to the "Hardwired Control System" will be replaces with a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).

J. E. Lawson, R. Marsala, S. Ramakrishnan, X. Zhao, P. Sichta

2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

498

Upgraded HFIR Fuel Element Welding System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The welding of aluminum-clad fuel plates into aluminum alloy 6061 side plate tubing is a unique design feature of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel assemblies as 101 full-penetration circumferential gas metal arc welds (GMAW) are required in the fabrication of each assembly. In a HFIR fuel assembly, 540 aluminum-clad fuel plates are assembled into two nested annular fuel elements 610 mm (24-inches) long. The welding process for the HFIR fuel elements was developed in the early 1960 s and about 450 HFIR fuel assemblies have been successfully welded using the GMAW process qualified in the 1960 s. In recent years because of the degradation of the electronic and mechanical components in the old HFIR welding system, reportable defects in plate attachment or adapter welds have been present in almost all completed fuel assemblies. In October 2008, a contract was awarded to AMET, Inc., of Rexburg, Idaho, to replace the old welding equipment with standard commercially available welding components to the maximum extent possible while maintaining the qualified HFIR welding process. The upgraded HFIR welding system represents a major improvement in the welding system used in welding HFIR fuel elements for the previous 40 years. In this upgrade, the new inner GMAW torch is a significant advancement over the original inner GMAW torch previously used. The innovative breakthrough in the new inner welding torch design is the way the direction of the cast in the 0.762 mm (0.030-inch) diameter aluminum weld wire is changed so that the weld wire emerging from the contact tip is straight in the plane perpendicular to the welding direction without creating any significant drag resistance in the feeding of the weld wire.

Sease, John D [ORNL

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Adapted from FDA refrigerator and freezer guidelines: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ResourcesForYou/HealthEducators/UCM109315.pdf Have you ever wondered how long you should keep things in the refrigerator or freezer? If so, then the chart below can he  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adapted from FDA refrigerator and freezer guidelines: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ResourcesForYou/HealthEducators/UCM109315.pdf Have you ever wondered how long you should keep things in the refrigerator or freezer? If so to preserve quality. Refrigerator & Freezer Storage Chart Product Refrigerator Freezer Product Refrigerator

500

Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

Gaul, Christopher J. (Thornton, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z