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Sample records for refrigerators led exit

  1. List of LED Exit Signs Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    upgrades Water Heaters Whole House Fans LED Exit Signs CHPCogeneration Biomass Photovoltaics Yes Energy Optimization (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Program...

  2. REA Refrigerated Display Case LED Lighting Performance Specification |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy REA Refrigerated Display Case LED Lighting Performance Specification REA Refrigerated Display Case LED Lighting Performance Specification A Retailer Energy Alliances (REA) Project rea_refrig_display_spec.pdf (300.24 KB) More Documents & Publications CBEA LED Site Lighting Specification - Version 1.3, Released 2/15/2012 Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires, V2.0 CBEA High-Efficiency Parking Structure Lighting Specification

  3. LED exit signs: Improved technology leads the way to energy savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sardinsky, R.; Hawthorne, S.

    1994-12-31

    Recent innovations in light-emitting diode (LED) exit signs may make LED signs the best choice among the energy efficient options available. In the past, LED signs have offered low power consumption, projected long lamp life, and low maintenance requirements. Now, the best of the LED signs also offer improved optical designs that reduce their already low power consumption while improving visibility and appearance, and even reduce their cost. LED exit signs are gaining market share, and E Source expects this technology to eventually dominate over incandescent, compact fluorescent, and electroluminescent signs. More research is needed, however, to confirm manufacturers` claims of 20-year operating lives for LED signs. Conservative estimates place the number of exit signs in US buildings at about 40 million. Although each sign represents a very small part of a building`s load, exit signs are ready targets for energy efficiency upgrades -- they operate continuously and most use inefficient incandescent sources. With an LED sign, annual energy and maintenance costs can be reduced by more than 90 percent compared to a typical incandescent sign. Low annual costs help to offset the LED sign`s relatively high first cost. More than 25 utilities offer DSM incentives for energy efficient exit signs, and efficient alternatives are becoming more readily available. Recent improvements in optical designs enable many LED signs to visually out perform other sources. In addition to these benefits, LED exit signs have lower life cycle cost than most other options. The biggest barrier to their success, however, is that their first cost has been considerably higher than competing technologies. LED sign prices are falling rapidly, though, because manufacturers are continually improving optical designs of the fixtures to use fewer LEDs and thus even less energy while providing better performance.

  4. REA Refrigerated Display Case LED Lighting Performance Specification...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A Retailer Energy Alliances (REA) Project PDF icon rearefrigdisplayspec.pdf More Documents & Publications CBEA LED Site Lighting Specification - Version 1.3, Released 2152012 ...

  5. LED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cost The high-brightness, rapidly pulsed, multicolor light-emitting diode (LED) driver delivers lighting performance that exceeds that of conventional (laserarc-light) sources ...

  6. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Buchwald, Melvin I.; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement.

  7. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, R.I.; Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1995-09-05

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement. 6 figs.

  8. LED Exit Signs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Category: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

  9. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It's potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  10. LED Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SSL Basics » LED Basics LED Basics Unlike incandescent lamps, LEDs are not inherently white light sources. Instead, LEDs emit nearly monochromatic light, making them highly efficient for colored light applications such as traffic lights and exit signs. However, to be used as a general light source, white light is needed. White light can be achieved with LEDs in three ways: Phosphor conversion, in which a phosphor is used on or near the LED to convert the colored light to white light RGB

  11. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G W

    1992-01-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical point, without evaporation, as working fluid in a refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling cycle. We discuss relevant properties of appropriate liquids, and describe two Malone refrigerators. The first completed several years ago, established the basic principles of use of liquids in such cycles. The second, now under construction, is a linear, free-piston machine.

  12. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-06-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It`s potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  13. CAMD Microfabrication Exit Sheet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microfabrication User Exit Sheet Upon completion of all work at CAMD, the exiting procedures outlined below are to be completed by the User for administrative and logistic purposes. The User is responsible for completing the tasks and presenting them to the specified staff member. The signature of the indicated personnel should be added after verification of completed tasks. If you have any questions, please consult the cleanroom staff. User Name _____________________________________ ________ /

  14. Thermoacoustic refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, S.L.; Hofler, T.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Shortly after their introduction, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used as working fluids in a vapor compression (Rankine) refrigeration cycle became dominant in almost all small and medium-scale food refrigerator/freezer and building/residential air-conditioning applications. That situation is about to change dramatically and, at this moment, unpredictably. Two recent events are responsible for the new era in refrigeration that will dawn before the beginning of the 21st Century. The most significant of these is the international ban on the production of CFCs which were found to be destroying the Earth's protective ozone layer. The second event was the discovery of high temperature superconductors and the development of high speed and high density electronic circuits that require active cooling. It is the purpose of this article to introduce an entirely new approach to refrigeration that was first discovered in the early 1980s. This new approach-thermoacoustic refrigeration-uses high intensity sound waves to pump heat, with inert gases as the working fluid.

  15. EERE Success Story-New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supermarket Display Cases | Department of Energy Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases EERE Success Story-New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases February 20, 2015 - 4:55pm Addthis EERE Success Story—New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases Research supported by the Energy Department's Building Technologies Office that led to a major breakthrough in refrigeration systems' efficiency is now being

  16. LED North America - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding SSL » LED Basics LED Basics Unlike incandescent lamps, LEDs are not inherently white light sources. Instead, LEDs emit nearly monochromatic light, making them highly efficient for colored light applications such as traffic lights and exit signs. However, to be used as a general light source, white light is needed. White light can be achieved with LEDs in three ways: Phosphor conversion, in which a phosphor is used on or near the LED to convert the colored light to white light RGB

  17. Records Management Exit Procedures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Records Management Exit Procedures For Departing Federal and contractor Employees PRESERVATION OF FEDERAL RECORDS The Federal Records Act requires the Department of Energy (DOE) Records Officer to remind departing Federal and contractor employees that Federal records may not be removed from Government custody nor may they be destroyed except in accordance with a records disposition schedule that has been approved by the Archivist of the United States. The creation of adequate documentation and

  18. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Seiber, Larry E.; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2007-09-11

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  19. Refrigeration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pagani, R.F.; Clarke, K.J.; Avon, E.J.

    1986-11-11

    This patent describes a chamber including an expandable refrigerant system associated therewith. The system comprises reservoir containing an expandable refrigerant coolant and lead piping connecting the reservoir to conduits carrying the coolant therein. The chamber comprises top, bottom and side walls, accordingly defining an interior and an exterior to the chamber, one of the walls comprises a door affording access into the chamber, each of the walls being insulated with insulating material. At least one of the walls comprises a first layer of the insulating material extending thereover adjacent the exterior and a second layer of the insulating material extending thereover adjacent the interior. The reservoir, lead piping and conduits are disposed intermediate the first and second layers of insulating material thereby isolating them from both the interior and exterior. Heat transferring through the at least one wall is substantially absorbed by the coolant and the insulating material cooled by the coolant, before it is able to penetrate through the at least one wall, permitting a product placed in the chamber to effectively maintain or substantially maintain a selected even temperature.

  20. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  1. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  2. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  3. Refrigerant recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, A.W.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes improvement in a refrigerant recovery apparatus of the type having inlet means for connecting to a refrigerant air system to withdraw refrigerant from the system, expansion means for converting refrigerant received from the system in liquid phase to a gaseous refrigerant, a compressor having a suction chamber with a suction inlet for receiving and pressurizing the gaseous refrigerant, the compressor having a housing containing oil for lubricating the compressor, a condenser for receiving the pressurized gaseous refrigerant and condensing it to liquid refrigerant, and a storage chamber for storing the liquid refrigerant. The improvement comprises in combination: oil separator means mounted exterior of the housing to one end of an inlet line, which has another end connected to the suction inlet of the compressor for receiving the flow of refrigerant from the refrigerated air system for separating out oil mixed with the refrigerant being received from the refrigerated air system prior to the refrigerant entering the suction inlet of the compressor; and the oil separator means being mounted at a lower elevation than the suction inlet of the compressor, the inlet line being unrestricted for allowing refrigerant flow to the compressor and oil from the compressor for draining oil in the housing of the compressor above the suction inlet back through the inlet line into the oil separator means when the compressor is not operating.

  4. LED Pulser

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cost The high-brightness, rapidly pulsed, multicolor light-emitting diode (LED) driver delivers lighting performance that exceeds that of conventional (laserarc-light) sources ...

  5. Magnetocaloric Refrigeration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnetocaloric Refrigeration Magnetocaloric Refrigeration Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system.
    Photo courtesy of General Electric Researchers ...

  6. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  7. LED Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Mark L.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2006-09-01

    This article, which will appear in RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING MAGAZINE, interviews PNNL's Kelly Gordon and presents the interview in question and answer format. The topic is a light emitting diode (LED) lighting also known as solid state lighting. Solid state lighting will be a new category in an energy efficient lighting fixture design competition called Lighting for Tomorrow sponsored by the US Department of Energy Emerging Technologies Office, the American Institute for Lighting, and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency. LED technology has been around since the ’60s, but it has been used mostly for indicator lights on electronics equipment. The big breakthrough was the development in the 1990s of blue LEDs which can be combined with the red and green LEDs that already existed to make white light. LEDs produce 25 to 40 lumens of light per watt of energy used, almost as much as a CFL (50 lumens per watt) and much more efficient than incandescent sources, which are around 15 lumens per watt. They are much longer lived and practical in harsh environments unsuitable for incandescent lighting. They are ready for niche applications now, like under-counter lighting and may be practical for additional applications as technological challenges are worked out and the technology is advancing in leaps and bounds.

  8. LED lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  9. New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Research supported by the Energy Departments Building Technologies Office has led to a major breakthrough in refrigeration systems efficiency, and the result may yield big energy savings for...

  10. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A.; Young, Robert R.

    1985-01-01

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  11. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  12. LED R&D Challenges | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Understanding SSL » LED Basics LED Basics Unlike incandescent lamps, LEDs are not inherently white light sources. Instead, LEDs emit nearly monochromatic light, making them highly efficient for colored light applications such as traffic lights and exit signs. However, to be used as a general light source, white light is needed. White light can be achieved with LEDs in three ways: Phosphor conversion, in which a phosphor is used on or near the LED to convert the colored light to white light RGB

  13. Magnetocaloric Refrigerator Freezer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnetocaloric Refrigerator Freezer 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review CRADA PARTNER General Electric P.I: Ayyoub M. Momen, momena@ornl.gov R&D Staff, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline: Start date: Aug 1 st , 2013 (FY14) Planned end date: Sept 30 th , 2016 Key Milestones 1. Determine requirements for refrigeration circuit seals and hydraulics; 31-March-2014 2. Develop breadboard refrigerator-freezer design; Achieve target goals with breadboard design;

  14. Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration.<br /> Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration. Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Brian Fricke

  15. Commercial Refrigeration Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Vermont offers financial incentives to cover the incremental costs of energy efficient refrigeration for commercial, industrial, agricultural, and institutional buildings. 

  16. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1998-08-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  17. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  18. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  19. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  20. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  1. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  2. Magnetocaloric Refrigeration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    compression cycle and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions by eliminating the use of high-global-warming-potential refrigerants. Refrigeration technologies based on MCE are...

  3. Magnetic Refrigeration | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Johnson, a materials scientist and project leader on GE's magnetic refrigeration project. ... materials would further improve the competitiveness of magnetic refrigeration technology. ...

  4. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

  5. Refrigerated cryogenic envelope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loudon, John D.

    1976-11-16

    An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

  6. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.

    1996-12-31

    This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

  7. International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) July 20, 2012 DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an 8,000 ...

  8. High temperature refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  9. Solar concentrator with restricted exit angles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabl, Arnulf; Winston, Roland

    1978-12-19

    A device is provided for the collection and concentration of radiant energy and includes at least one reflective side wall. The wall directs incident radiant energy to the exit aperture thereof or onto the surface of energy absorber positioned at the exit aperture so that the angle of incidence of radiant energy at the exit aperture or on the surface of the energy absorber is restricted to desired values.

  10. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units Title: Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling ...

  11. Records Management Exit Procedures | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on a permanent basis or for an extended period of time for military, medical, or disability leave. PDF icon Records Management Exit Procedures More Documents & Publications ...

  12. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  13. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cain, J.M.

    1993-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  14. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  15. Adsorption Refrigeration System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption refrigeration is an environmentally friendly cooling technology which could be driven by recovered waste heat or low-grade heat such as solar energy. In comparison with absorption system, an adsorption system has no problems such as corrosion at high temperature and salt crystallization. In comparison with vapor compression refrigeration system, it has the advantages of simple control, no moving parts and less noise. This paper introduces the basic theory of adsorption cycle as well as the advanced adsorption cycles such as heat and mass recovery cycle, thermal wave cycle and convection thermal wave cycle. The types, characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of different adsorbents used in adsorption refrigeration systems are also summarized. This article will increase the awareness of this emerging cooling technology among the HVAC engineers and help them select appropriate adsorption systems in energy-efficient building design.

  16. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2013-03-01

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  17. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2011-01-01

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  18. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-05-26

    The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

  19. Refrigeration Playbook: Natural Refrigerants; Selecting and Designing Energy-Efficient Commercial Refrigeration Systems That Use Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Caleb; Reis, Chuck; Nelson, Eric; Armer, James; Arthur, Rob; Heath, Richard; Rono, James; Hirsch, Adam; Doebber, Ian

    2015-03-01

    This report provides guidance for selecting and designing energy efficient commercial refrigeration systems using low global warming potential refrigerants. Refrigeration systems are generally the largest energy end use in a supermarket type building, often accounting for more than half of a building's energy consumption.

  20. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1995-07-01

    We ordinarily think of a sound wave in a gas as consisting of coupled pressure and displacement oscillations. However, temperature oscillations always accompany the pressure changes. The combination of all these oscillations, and their interaction with solid boundaries, produces a rich variety of `thermoacoustic` effects. Although these effects as they occur in every-day life are too small to be noticed, one can harness extremely loud sound waves in acoustically sealed chambers to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators. Whereas typical engines and refrigerators have crankshaft-coupled pistons or rotating turbines, thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators have at most a single flexing moving part (as in a loudspeaker) with no sliding seals. Thermoacoustic devices may be of practical use where simplicity, reliability or low cost is more important than the highest efficiency (although one cannot say much more about their cost-competitiveness at this early stage). This paper discusses the fundamentals of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, research in this field, and their commercial development. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Parameter spaces and design optimization of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, M.; Herman, C.

    1996-12-31

    In the last two decades thermoacoustic refrigerators were developed in research laboratories with the goal to understand the basic physics and thermodynamics of thermoacoustic heat pumping. These research efforts led to a good understanding of this new environmentally safe refrigeration technology that employs acoustic power to pump heat. Consequently the next step is to improve and optimize the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators and seek commercial applications. For this purpose, the need for fast and simple engineering estimates arises. By implementing the simplified linear model of thermoacoustic refrigerators--the short stack boundary layer approximation--such design estimates were derived and presented in this paper in the form of a design algorithm. Calculations obtained with this algorithm predict values for the Coefficient Of Performance (COP) of the order of 5 to 6. These values cannot be achieved at this time because of loss mechanisms in key parts of the thermoacoustic refrigerator, which are not quite understood yet. Nevertheless, these values are encouraging and gaining a better understanding of these loss mechanisms will be a big step towards the commercial market for this new environmentally safe refrigeration technology.

  2. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  3. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a compact acoustic refrigeration system that actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment.

  4. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.

    1992-11-24

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

  5. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  6. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

    1992-12-22

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

  7. Magnetocaloric Refrigerator Freezer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnetocaloric Refrigerator Freezer 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review PI: Ayyoub M. Momen, momena@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory CRADA PARTNER General Electric Appliances 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: August 1, 2013 (FY 2014) Planned end date: January, 31, 2017 Key Milestones 1. Evaluation of MCM microchannels through collaboration with GEA (6/30/2016) 2. Improve the regenerator structure (9/30/2016) 3. Final optimization and testing and drafting the final report

  8. Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ORNL. ORNL will evaluate systems and components to identify the potential benefit from these refrigerants. Current low-GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce ...

  9. Entry/Exit Port testing, test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkelman, R.H.

    1993-05-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module I (WRAP-1) facility must have the ability to allow 55-gallon drums to enter and exit glovebox enclosures. An Entry/Exit Port (Appendix 1, Figure 1), designed by United Engineers and Constructors (UE&C), is one method chosen for drum transfer. The Entry/Exit Port is to be used for entry of 55-gallon drums into both process entry gloveboxes, exit of 55-gallon drum waste pucks from the low-level waste (LLW) glovebox, and loadout of waste from the restricted waste management glovebox. The Entry/Exit Port relies on capture velocity air flow and a neoprene seal to provide alpha confinement when the Port is in the open and closed positions, respectively. Since the glovebox is in a slight vacuum, air flow is directed into the glovebox through the space between the overpack drum and glovebox floor. The air flow is to direct any airborne contamination into the glovebox. A neoprene seal is used to seal the Port door to the glovebox floor, thus maintaining confinement in the closed position. Entry/Exit Port testing took place February 17, 1993, through April 14, 1993, in the 305 building of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Testing was performed in accordance with the Entry/Exit Port Testing Test Plan, document number WHC-SD-WO26-TP-005. A prototype Entry/Exit Port built at the Hanford Site was tested using fluorescent paint pigment and smoke candles as simulant contaminants. This test report is an interim test report. Further developmental testing is required to test modifications made to the Port as the original design of the Port did not provide complete confinement during all stages of operation.

  10. Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential refrigerators, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category.

  11. New Advanced Refrigeration Technology Provides Clean Energy,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... ORNL and Hillphoenix, found solutions to both challenges-the refrigerant leakage and high-global warming potential refrigerants-by using CO2 as the refrigerant and confining it to ...

  12. Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Miller, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    As a result of the Montreal Protocol that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must be resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability. In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results are presented for an 18 cubic foot (0.51 cubic meter), top-mount refrigerator-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R12, R500, R12/Dimethyl-ether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12 /DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Next Generation Household Refrigerator | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Household Refrigerator Next Generation Household Refrigerator Embraco's high efficiency, oil-free linear compressor.
    Credit: Whirlpool Embraco's high ...

  14. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut Businesses' Energy Bills and Carbon Pollution New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut...

  15. Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have developed a multi-stage...

  16. Working Fluids: Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Integration and Collaboration Project Integration: * ASHRAE MTG on low GWP refrigerant research * AHRI AREP testing * International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) working ...

  17. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one year of ...

  18. Semiconductor-based optical refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Optical refrigerators using semiconductor material as a cooling medium, with layers of material in close proximity to the cooling medium that carries away heat from the cooling material and preventing radiation trapping. In addition to the use of semiconducting material, the invention can be used with ytterbium-doped glass optical refrigerators.

  19. LED Color Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating LED-based products for general illumination. This fact sheet reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.

  20. LED Color Characteristics

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    LED Color Characteristics Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating lighting products. This fact sheet reviews the fundamentals regarding light and color, summarizing the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems, including color consistency, stability, tuning, and rendering, as well as chromaticity. LED Emission Attributes Individual LED dies, often referred to as chips, emit light in a narrow range of wavelengths, giving the appearance of a monochromatic

  1. Energy Efficiency of LEDs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet discusses the current state of the LED market and discusses package efficacy, luminaire efficacy, and application efficacy.

  2. Cree LED Lighting Solutions Formerly LED Lighting Fixtures LLF...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LED Lighting Solutions Formerly LED Lighting Fixtures LLF Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cree LED Lighting Solutions (Formerly LED Lighting Fixtures (LLF)) Place: Morrisville,...

  3. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  4. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Patrick R.; Gray, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  5. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, J.A.

    1992-03-31

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling. 6 figs.

  6. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, James A.

    1992-01-01

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

  7. Magnetic Refrigeration | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetocaloric Materials Chill Next-Generation Refrigerators Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Magnetocaloric Materials Chill Next-Generation Refrigerators You've seen them. You may even decorate with them. The ubiquitous "sticker-uppers" that cover your refrigerator, helping to keep your

  8. Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R. ); Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    As a result of the Montreal Protocol (UNEP 1987) that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability, In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers (AHAM 1985). The results are presented for an 18 ft{sup 3} (0.51 m{sup 3}), top mount refrigerators-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R 12, R500, R12/dimethylether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12/DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants, indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising (6.8% and 8.5% higher energy consumption, respectively), changes to the refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. It is noted that the test results are only an initial step in determining a replacement for R12.

  9. LED MR16 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-07-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that describes the performance of LED MR16 lamps and discusses electronic compatibility concerns.

  10. Establishing LED Equivalency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-10-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that provides guidance for comparing products based on LED or other light source technologies.

  11. LED Color Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-03-01

    DOE Solid-State Lighting program technology fact sheet that addresses key questions about color stability and color shift in LED lighting applications.

  12. General Service LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that compares general service incandescent lamps—i.e., light bulbs—to LED and CFL alternatives.

  13. LED Street Lighting

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1, 2016 LED Street Lighting The American Medical Association's (AMA) recently adopted community guidance on street lighting adds another influential voice to issues that have been ...

  14. Recessed LED Downlights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-05-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that briefly discusses different LED product types and their performance relative to downlights utilizing traditional lamps.

  15. LED Color Characteristics

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a combina- tion of colored LEDs typically red, green, and blue (RGB) are also available. ... triphosphor uorescent, utilize a combination of red-, blue-, and green-emitting phosphors. ...

  16. high-power LEDs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cost The high-brightness, rapidly pulsed, multicolor light-emitting diode (LED) driver delivers lighting performance that exceeds that of conventional (laserarc-light) sources ...

  17. LED Frequently Asked Questions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Courtesy of Osram Opto Semiconductor. LED light sources used in a residential application. Terms SSL - solid-state lighting; umbrella term for semiconductors used to convert ...

  18. General Service LED Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A U.S. DOE SSL technology fact sheet that compares general service LED light bulbs with incandescent and CFL bulbs.

  19. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.; Overton, Jr., William C.; Stewart, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

  20. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Overton, W.C. Jr.; Stewart, W.F.

    The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

  1. Do_You_Need_an_Exit_Strategy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    What's Your Exit Strategy and Do You Need One? Norris C. Middleton, President/CEO Management Support Technology, Inc. (MSTI) Michael C. Sawyers, Former President/CEO 7Delta, Inc. 2 Objectives of Session I. Session addresses the key aspects of a comprehensive plan for the future that focuses on: I. Customers/contracts II. Process and Infrastructure Improvement III. Learning and Growing IV. Finance and Profitability II. As a result of attending this session, you will be able to: I. Assess where

  2. Microsoft Word - Exit Brochure.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Records Management Exit Procedures For Departing Department of Energy Federal and Contractor Employees Office of IT Planning, Architecture and E-Government March 2009 Office of the Chief Information Officer 2 Preservation of Federal Records The Federal Records Act requires the Department of Energy (DOE) Records Officer to remind departing Federal and contractor employees that Federal records may not be removed from Government custody nor may they be destroyed without a records disposition

  3. Microsoft Word - Records Management Exit Procedures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Records Management Exit Procedures For Departing Department of Energy Federal and Contractor Employees Records Management Division Office of IT Planning, Architecture, and E-Government Office of the Chief Information Officer July 2010 2 PRESERVATION OF FEDERAL RECORDS The Federal Records Act requires the Department of Energy (DOE) Records Officer to remind departing Federal and contractor employees that Federal records may not be removed from Government custody nor may they be destroyed except

  4. Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

    2005-03-22

    A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

  5. Energy Efficiency of LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-03-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet on energy efficiency of LEDs, characterizing the current state of the market and discussing package efficacy, luminaire efficacy, and application efficacy.

  6. LED Directional Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-11-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that provides an overview of the current performance of LED PAR-, BR-, R-, and AR-shaped lamps, which were all investigated by CALiPER in 2012.

  7. Optical Safety of LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-06-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that clarifies the issue of LED lighting safety for the human eye and takes a look at current standards for photobiological safety.

  8. LED Frequently Asked Questions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that provides an overview of what retailers, energy efficiency advocates, and consumers need to know to make informed LED buying decisions.

  9. Prospects for LED lighting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Gee, James Martin; Simmons, Jerry Alvon

    2003-08-01

    Solid-state lighting using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has the potential to reduce energy consumption for lighting by 50% while revolutionizing the way we illuminate our homes, work places, and public spaces. Nevertheless, substantial technical challenges remain in order for solid-state lighting to significantly displace the well-developed conventional lighting technologies. We review the potential of LED solid-state lighting to meet the long-term cost goals.

  10. Ammonia usage in vapor compression for refrigeration and air...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... AMMONIA; PERFORMANCE; REFRIGERATING MACHINERY; REFRIGERANTS; CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS; AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT; AIR CONDITIONERS; DISTRICT COOLING; COOLING SYSTEMS; WORKING FLUIDS; ...

  11. Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falco, Charles M.

    1982-01-01

    A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

  12. Refrigeration system having dual suction port compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Guolian

    2016-01-05

    A cooling system for appliances, air conditioners, and other spaces includes a compressor, and a condenser that receives refrigerant from the compressor. The system also includes an evaporator that receives refrigerant from the condenser. Refrigerant received from the condenser flows through an upstream portion of the evaporator. A first portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor without passing through a downstream portion of the evaporator, and a second portion of the refrigerant from the upstream portion of the condenser flows through the downstream portion of the evaporator after passing through the upstream portion of the evaporator. The second portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor after passing through the downstream portion of the evaporator. The refrigeration system may be configured to cool an appliance such as a refrigerator and/or freezer, or it may be utilized in air conditioners for buildings, motor vehicles, or other such spaces.

  13. Refrigerator Manufacturers: Order (2013-CE-5341)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Refrigerator Manufacturers had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  14. Cospolich Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5314)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Cospolich Refrigerator had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  15. Everest Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2015-SE-42001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Bu Sung America Corporation (dba Everest Refrigeration) manufactured and distributed noncompliant commercial refrigeration equipment model ESGR3 in the U.S.

  16. Everest Refrigeration: Noncompliance Determination (2015-SE-42001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Bu Sung America Corporation (dba Everest Refrigeration) finding that commercial refrigeration equipment model number ESGR3 does not comport with the energy conservation standards.

  17. International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an $8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had failed to certify that certain room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

  18. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  19. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  20. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  1. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  2. Method and apparatus for desuperheating refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zess, James A.; Drost, M. Kevin; Call, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim.

  3. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

  4. LED MR16 Lamps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The following CALiPER report provides detailed analysis of LED MR16 lamp performance, covering basic performance characteristics as well as subjective evaluation of beam, shadow, and color quality. Pending reports will offer analysis on performance attributes that are not captured by LM-79 testing. These reports are intended to educate the industry on market trends, potential issues, and important areas for improvement.

  5. Final Scientific/Technical Report for DOE/EERE project Advanced Magnetic Refrigerant Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Francis

    2014-06-30

    A team led by GE Global Research developed new magnetic refrigerant materials needed to enhance the commercialization potential of residential appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners based on the magnetocaloric effect (a nonvapor compression cooling cycle). The new magnetic refrigerant materials have potentially better performance at lower cost than existing materials, increasing technology readiness level. The performance target of the new magnetocaloric material was to reduce the magnetic field needed to achieve 4 °C adiabatic temperature change from 1.5 Tesla to 0.75 Tesla. Such a reduction in field minimizes the cost of the magnet assembly needed for a magnetic refrigerator. Such a reduction in magnet assembly cost is crucial to achieving commercialization of magnetic refrigerator technology. This project was organized as an iterative alloy development effort with a parallel material modeling task being performed at George Washington University. Four families of novel magnetocaloric alloys were identified, screened, and assessed for their performance potential in a magnetic refrigeration cycle. Compositions from three of the alloy families were manufactured into regenerator components. At the beginning of the project a previously studied magnetocaloric alloy was selected for manufacturing into the first regenerator component. Each of the regenerators was tested in magnetic refrigerator prototypes at a subcontractor at at GE Appliances. The property targets for operating temperature range, operating temperature control, magnetic field sensitivity, and corrosion resistance were met. The targets for adiabatic temperature change and thermal hysteresis were not met. The high thermal hysteresis also prevented the regenerator components from displaying measurable cooling power when tested in prototype magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigerant alloy compositions that were predicted to have low hysteresis were not attainable with conventional alloy

  6. A recuperative superfluid stirling refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brisson, J.G.; Swift, G.W.

    1993-07-01

    A superfluid Stirling refrigerator has been built with a counterflow heat exchanger serving as a recuperative regenerator. It has achieved temperatures of 296 mK with a 4% {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He mixture. Cooling power versus temperature and speed is presented for a 6.6% mixture.

  7. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a low temperature 4 to 20 K. refrigeration apparatus and method utilizing a ring of magnetic material moving through a magnetic field. Heat exchange is accomplished in and out of the magnetic field to appropriately utilize the device to execute Carnot and Stirling cycles.

  8. LEDS | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LEDS Home Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2017) Super contributor 16 November, 2012 - 11:23 LEDS the focus of Monday's 10 a.m. Town Hall Meeting LEDS Town Hall meeting...

  9. Advanced Leds | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Coventry, England, United Kingdom Zip: CV5 6SP Product: Advanced Leds develops LED technology for outdoor lighting, including street lighting applications. Coordinates:...

  10. LED Performance Under Tough Conditions

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Three DOE Gateway applications show how LED luminaires respond to rigorous outdoor environments By JAmes BroDrick A lthough LED lighting has already made impressive inroads in ...

  11. Overview of Air Liquide refrigeration systems between 1.8 K and 200 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gondrand, C.; Durand, F.; Delcayre, F.; Crispel, S.; Baguer, G. M. Gistau

    2014-01-29

    Cryogenic refrigeration systems are necessary for numerous applications. Gas purification and distillation require temperatures between 15 K and 200 K depending on the application, space simulation chambers down to 15 K, superconductivity between 1.8 K and up to 75 K (magnets, cavities or HTS devices like cables, FCL, SMES, etc), Cold Neutron Sources between 15 and 20 K, etc. Air Liquide Advanced Technologies is designing and manufacturing refrigerators since 60 years to satisfy those needs. The step by step developments achieved have led to machines with higher efficiency and reliability. In 1965, reciprocating compressors and Joule Thomson expansion valves were used. In 1969, centripetal expanders began to be used. In 1980, oil lubricated screw compressors took the place of reciprocating compressors and a standard range of Claude cycle refrigerators was developed: the HELIAL series. 1980 was also the time for cryogenic centrifugal compressor development. In 2011, driven by the need for lower operational cost (high efficiency and low maintenance), cycle oil free centrifugal compressors on magnetic bearings were introduced instead of screw compressors. The power extracted by centripetal expanders was recovered. Based on this technology, a range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators has been designed for temperatures between 40 K and 150 K. On-going development will enable widening the range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators to cryogenic temperatures down to 15 K.. Cryogenic centrifugal circulators have been developed in order to answer to an increasing demand of 4 K refrigerators able to distribute cold power.

  12. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, R.T.; Middleton, M.G.

    1983-01-25

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell. 5 figs.

  13. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Richard T.; Middleton, Marc G.

    1983-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell.

  14. Energy Efficient Commercial Refrigeration with Carbon Dioxide Refrigerant and Scroll Expanders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieckmann, John

    2013-04-04

    Current supermarket refrigeration systems are built around conventional fluorocarbon refrigerants – HFC-134a and the HFC blends R-507 and R404A, which replaced the CFC refrigerants, R-12 and R-502, respectively, used prior to the Montreal Protocol phase out of ozone depleting substances. While the HFC refrigerants are non-ozone depleting, they are strong greenhouse gases, so there has been continued interest in replacing them, particularly in applications with above average refrigerant leakage. Large supermarket refrigeration systems have proven to be particularly difficult to maintain in a leak-tight condition. Refrigerant charge losses of 15% of total charge per year are the norm, making the global warming impact of refrigerant emissions comparable to that associated with the energy consumption of these systems.

  15. LEd:JCD

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    LEd:JCD TO- 54 k-sour R3scsrck Fouadatlon 0f$..&+0is$tlstituta of TecGJlow Tecmolocy Csilter 10 Zest 35th Stmet ', c!xk3go lo, I3.Umie Atteqtion: MC. R. c. Barrall Gentlemen: Reference is wada to (a) your appUcetio0 of 3awe~ q,' 1959, rrqlacst~alirpn~tonori~200gsr;ls~hi~4~ched oranlm, (b) our a-q.4 of Z'ebmazy 6, lYS9, ke<wthg eddi- tiona1 'L+lmrQdiEp ia 'Support of your applJcatloD, (c) ycxu.r telqr3a of Eqtember 29, 1959, reque5tlng reneval of ~cense sm-49 -vc+biTt cksnga. Since'va kaem

  16. Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers (Appendix A1 after May 2, 2011) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers (Appendix A1 after May 2, 2011) Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers (Appendix A1 after May 2, 2011) The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement

  17. Commercial Refrigeration Equipment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Commercial Refrigeration Equipment The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Commercial Refrigeration Equipment -- v2.0 (87.25 KB)

  18. Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a new magnetic material that can be used at low temperatures (sub liquid hydrogen) for magnetic refrigerators. Description Magnetic refrigeration is being investigated as an alternative to conventional gas compressor technology for cooling and heating because of its potential to save energy and reduce operating costs. The potential

  19. Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryIowa State University and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a new magnetic material that can be used at low temperatures (sub liquid hydrogen) for magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigeration is

  20. Miniaturized Air to Refrigerant Heat Exchangers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Improving Data Center Efficiency with Rack or Row...

  1. Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial refrigerators and freezers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  2. Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    efficiencies * compressor cycling * VFD or compressor staging required - Use of HFC ... Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Expander Compressor Oil free Motor (fixed speed) 1 2 3 4 5 8 ...

  3. High Effeiciency Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Project Integration and Collaboration Communications: Journal Articles * International Journal of Refrigeration, 46:86-99 (2014) (1 article) Conference Papers * ASHRAE Conference, ...

  4. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  5. Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions March 5, 2013 - 10:35am Addthis Refrigerator Standards Refrigerator Standards Refrigerator technology has come a long way since Dr. John Gorrie (1803 - 1855), a forward-looking inventor, was granted U. S. Patent #8080 for mechanical refrigeration in 1851. In those days, ice was expensive, if it was even available: Blocks of natural ice were carved from frozen lakes and rivers and stored in special

  6. DOE Announces Webinars on Maintenance Practices for LED Streetlights, LED

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Color Stability, and More | Department of Energy Maintenance Practices for LED Streetlights, LED Color Stability, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Maintenance Practices for LED Streetlights, LED Color Stability, and More April 10, 2014 - 9:13am Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is

  7. Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Impact Evaluation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators...

  8. Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser This report describes the first design of ...

  9. High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a residential refrigerator. Refrigerator-freezers are an essential part of residential and commercial buildings, with a total annual consumption of approximately 3,128 TBtuyear. ...

  10. American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers (ASHRAE) 2016 Annual Conference American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers ...

  11. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) OE Framework Document ...

  12. Pecharsky talks magnetic refrigeration with Forbes | The Ames...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pecharsky talks magnetic refrigeration with Forbes In a May 6 article, Forbes contributor Hillary Brueck writes about the race to develop magnetic refrigeration and interviewed...

  13. 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    6 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; ...

  14. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Warming Potential Refrigerants Mechanical Solutions, Inc.'s ultra-small centrifugal compressor concept will facilitate low-GWP refrigerant adoption.
    Photo Credit: Mechanical ...

  15. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems Image of the compressor rack and system ...

  16. CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: James Braun, Purdue ...

  17. Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial Applications Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial Applications Credit: S-RAM Credit: S-RAM Lead ...

  18. Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Refrigerators (Japan) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) Focus Area: Appliances & Equipment Topics: Policy...

  19. 2014-08-01 Issuance: Test Procedure for Refrigerated Bottled...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Test Procedure for Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and public meeting 2014-08-01 Issuance: Test Procedure for Refrigerated ...

  20. 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    0 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule This document ...

  1. WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Provides states with the approval to include refrigerator and electric water heater replacements as an allowable measure. PDF icon WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators ...

  2. Ames Lab-based consortium to research improving refrigeration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Lab-based consortium to research improving refrigeration technology Ames Tribune ... alternative environmentally-friendly and energy- efficient technologies in refrigeration. ...

  3. Ames Laboratory to lead new consortium to advance refrigeration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory to lead new consortium to advance refrigeration technology Ames Laboratory will ... friendly and energy-efficient refrigeration technologies, sponsored by DOE's ...

  4. 2016 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2016 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Winter Conference 2016 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning...

  5. DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements March 16, 2010 - 4:28pm Addthis...

  6. New Refrigeration Technology Could Substantially Cut Energy Use...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Refrigeration Technology Could Substantially Cut Energy Use New Refrigeration Technology Could Substantially Cut Energy Use April 1, 2016 - 11:40pm Addthis New Energy ...

  7. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  8. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  9. Simple Modular LED Cost Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The LED Cost Model, developed by the DOE Cost Modeling Working Group, provides a simplified method for analyzing the manufacturing costs of an LED package. The model focuses on the major cost...

  10. LED Performance Under Tough Conditions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    December 2015 LD+A magazine article entitled "LED Performance Under Tough Conditions" discussing three Dept of Energy GATEWAY applications that show how LED luminaires respond to rigorous outdoor environments.

  11. LED Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    comparable or better light quality than other types of lighting. Check out the top 8 things you didn't know about LEDs to learn more. Energy Savings LED is a highly energy...

  12. Employee-Led Safety Committees

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Employee-Led Safety Committees Presented to: 25 th National VPPPA Conference August 26, 2009 San Antonio, Texas Presented by: Jack Griffith HNF-421781 CHPRC0907-38 2 Employee-Led ...

  13. Commercial Refrigerator Door: Order (2013-CE-5351)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Commercial Refrigerator Door had failed to certify that a variety of models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  14. Magnetocaloric Refrigerator/Freezer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnetocaloric Refrigerator/Freezer Magnetocaloric Refrigerator/Freezer Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. <br /> Photo courtesy of General Electric Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. Photo courtesy of General Electric Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. <br /> Photo courtesy of General Electric Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: General Electric -

  15. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  16. North Star Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5355)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding North Star Refrigerator had failed to certify that any basic models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  17. Everest Refrigeration: Order (2015-SE-42001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Bu Sung America Corporation (dba Everest Refrigeration) to pay a $12,080 civil penalty after finding Bu Sung had manufactured and distributed in commerce in the U.S. at least 64 units of noncompliant commercial refrigerator basic model ESGR3.

  18. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  19. Novel materials for laser refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hehlen, Markus P

    2009-01-01

    The status of optical refrigeration of rare-earth-doped solids is reviewed, and the various factors that limit the performance of current laser-cooling materials are discussed. Efficient optical refrigeration is possible in materials for which {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} < E{sub p}/8, where {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} is the maximum phonon energy of the host material and E{sub p} is the pump energy of the rare-earth dopant. Transition-metal and OH{sup -}impurities at levels >100 ppb are believed to be the main factors for the limited laser-cooling performance in current materials. The many components of doped ZBLAN glass pose particular processing challenges. Binary fluoride glasses such as YF{sub 3}-LiF are considered as alternatives to ZBLAN. The crystalline system KPb{sub 2}CI{sub 5} :Dy{sup 3+} is identified as a prime candidate for high-efficiency laser cooling.

  20. Exited-state Dynamics of Water-Soluble Polythiophene Derivatives...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dynamics of Water-Soluble Polythiophene Derivatives: Temperature and Side-chain Length Effects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exited-state Dynamics of Water-Soluble ...

  1. LED Roundtable Reports | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LED Roundtable Reports LED Roundtable Reports PDF icon 2015 LED Core Technology Roundtable Report.pdf PDF icon 2015 LED Product Development and Manufacturing Roundtable Report.pdf...

  2. LED Green Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LED Green Power Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: LED Green Power Inc Place: Santa Cruz, California Zip: 95060 Product: LED fixture and cartridge manufacturer. References: LED...

  3. LED Roundtable Reports | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LED Roundtable Reports LED Roundtable Reports PDF icon 2015 LED Core Technology Roundtable Report.pdf PDF icon 2015 LED Product Development and Manufacturing Roundtable Report.pdf ...

  4. DOE Publishes Supplemental Proposed Determination for Miscellaneous Residential Refrigeration Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a supplemental proposed determination regarding miscellaneous residential refrigeration products.

  5. Maximizing NGL recovery by refrigeration optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldonedo H., A.H.

    1999-07-01

    PDVSA--Petroleo y Gas, S.A. has within its facilities in Lake Maracaibo two plants that extract liquids from natural gas (NGL), They use a combined mechanic refrigeration absorption with natural gasoline. Each of these plants processes 420 MMsccfd with a pressure of 535 psig and 95 F that comes from the compression plants PCTJ-2 and PCTJ-3 respectively. About 40 MMscfd of additional rich gas comes from the high pressure system. Under the present conditions these plants produce in the order of 16,800 and 23,800 b/d of NGL respectively, with a propane recovery percentage of approximately 75%, limited by the capacity of the refrigeration system. To optimize the operation and the design of the refrigeration system and to maximize the NGL recovery, a conceptual study was developed in which the following aspects about the process were evaluated: capacity of the refrigeration system, refrigeration requirements, identification of limitations and evaluation of the system improvements. Based on the results obtained it was concluded that by relocating some condensers, refurbishing the main refrigeration system turbines and using HIGH FLUX piping in the auxiliary refrigeration system of the evaporators, there will be an increase of 85% on the propane recovery, with an additional production of 25,000 b/d of NGL and 15 MMscfd of ethane rich gas.

  6. Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.

  7. LED Record Efficacy and Brightness

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Designed for general lighting applications such as street, industrial, and parking garage lighting, the Cree XLamp® power LED sets new records for LED brightness and efficacy, up to 85 lm/W at 350 mA. The XLamp utilizes Cree's performance breakthrough EZBright™ LED chip; both products include technology that was developed in part with R&D funding support from DOE.

  8. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Middleton, Marc G.; Nelson, Richard T.

    1988-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  9. Method and apparatus for passive refrigerant retrieval and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Squire, D.C.

    1991-12-17

    This patent describes a method of retrieving and storing refrigerant from a cooling system being serviced of the type having a compressor for circulating a compressible refrigerant in a closed, pressurized system between a condenser and an evaporator to provide a cooling effect. It comprises: connecting one end of a refrigerant collector tube contained within a housing to the cooling system at the condenser outlet; connecting the interior of the housing to the compressor inlet; operating the cooling system compressor to pressurize refrigerant in the cooling system and pump the refrigerant into the collector tube; and discharging refrigerant from the collector tube into the housing interior through a metering valve where the refrigerant pressure is reduced and evaporates and cools the refrigerant remaining in the tube and the evaporated refrigerant is drawn into the compressor inlet whereby the refrigerant becomes trapped within the housing.

  10. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  11. Demonstration of LED Street Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, B. R.; Royer, M. P.; Hadjian, M.; Kauffman, R.

    2013-06-01

    GATEWAY program and Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium report on a demonstration of LED street lighting in Kansas City, MO.

  12. Upgrading Troffer Luminaires to LED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-01-31

    Solid-state lighting technology fact sheet providing guidance on the various factors to consider when deciding on an LED upgrade for a fluorescent troffer system.

  13. Using LEDs | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    compact profile, superior optical control, energy efficiency, breakage resistance, reduced maintenance, and long life-LEDs are well suited to a variety of lighting applications. ...

  14. Reporting LED Luminaire Product Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-12-01

    This brochure on LED product performance is an outcome of a joint DOE-NGLIA effort to assure and improve the quality of SSL products.

  15. GATEWAY Demonstrations: LED Street Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, Tyson; Shackelford, Jordan; Pang, Terrance Pang

    2008-12-01

    This report summarizes an assessment project conducted to study the performance of light emitting diode (LED) luminaires in a street lighting application in San Francisco, CA.

  16. LED Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of lighting in the United States. Residential LEDs -- especially ENERGY STAR rated products -- use at least 75% less energy, and last 25 times longer, than incandescent lighting. ...

  17. EERE Success Story-Revolutionary Refrigeration Motor Slashes Supermarket

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Usage | Department of Energy Revolutionary Refrigeration Motor Slashes Supermarket Energy Usage EERE Success Story-Revolutionary Refrigeration Motor Slashes Supermarket Energy Usage June 7, 2016 - 11:40am Addthis QM Power discusses the company's new refrigeration motor with a supermarket. (Source: QM Power) QM Power discusses the company's new refrigeration motor with a supermarket. (Source: QM Power) Source: QM Power Source: QM Power QM Power discusses the company's new refrigeration

  18. DOE Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturers | Department of Energy Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturers DOE Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturers March 1, 2016 - 6:20pm Addthis DOE settled enforcement actions against Utility Refrigerator, True Manufacturing, and Victory Refrigeration for distributing commercial refrigeration equipment in the United States that do not meet applicable energy conservation standards. As a part of the

  19. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2012-07-19

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  20. DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Whirlpool's Maytag refrigerator-freezer model "MSD2578VE." The Department opened this investigation and requested...

  1. DOE Closes Investigation of Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Arcelik's Blomberg refrigerator-freezer model # BRFB1450. The Department opened this investigation based on a...

  2. International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that International Refrigeration Products failed to certify a various room air conditioners as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  3. Cospolich Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5314)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  4. REFRIGERATION ESPECIALLY FOR VERY LOW TEMPERATURES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, P.B.; Smith, H.R. Jr.

    1960-09-13

    A refrigeration system for producing very low temperatures is described. The system of the invention employs a binary mixture refrigerant in a closed constant volume, e.g., Freon and ethylene. Such mixture is compressed in the gaseous state and is then separated in a fractionating column element of the system. Thenceforth, the first liquid to separate is employed stagewise to cool and liq uefy successive portions of the refrigerant at successively lower temperatures by means of heat exchangers coupled between the successive stages. When shut down, all of the volumes of the system are interconnected and a portion of the refrigerant remains liquid at ambient temperatures so that no dangerous overpressures develop. The system is therefore rugged, simple and dependable in operation.

  5. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo

    2015-05-13

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO2 may perhaps have been themore » most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).« less

  6. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo

    2015-05-13

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO2 may perhaps have been the most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).

  7. Loveland Water & Power- Refrigerator Recycling Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Loveland Water & Power is providing an incentive for customers to recycle older, working refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old...

  8. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A; Sharma, Vishaldeep

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  9. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO2 may perhaps have been the most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).

  10. Refrigerator Manufacturers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5341)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  11. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  12. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald P.

    1985-01-01

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  13. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.P.

    1984-06-05

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  14. Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum; Wenning, Thomas J; Sever, Franc; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

  15. LED Watch: How Safe Is the Light from LEDs?

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    It's important to note that there's about LED safety focus on what's known no difference between the type of vis- as "blue light," which is light in the violet ible radiant energy ...

  16. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  17. Metacapacitors for LED Lighting: Metacapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-02

    ADEPT Project: The CUNY Energy Institute is developing less expensive, more efficient, smaller, and longer-lasting power converters for energy-efficient LED lights. LEDs produce light more efficiently than incandescent lights and last significantly longer than compact fluorescent bulbs, but they require more sophisticated power converter technology, which increases their cost. LEDs need more sophisticated converters because they require a different type of power (low voltage direct current, or DC) than what's generally supplied by power outlets. The CUNY Energy Institute is developing sophisticated power converters for LEDs that contain capacitors made from new, nanoscale materials. Capacitors are electrical components that are used to store energy. CUNY's unique capacitors are configured with advanced power circuits to more efficiently control and convert power to the LED lighting source. They also eliminate the need for large magnetic components, instead relying on networks of capacitors that can be easily printed on plastic substrate. CUNY's prototype LED power converter already meets DOE's 2020 projections for the energy efficiency of LED power converters.

  18. Maintenance Practices for LED Streetlights

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This April 14, 2014 webinar answered important questions about the maintenance and reliability of LED streetlights, and how to take these issues into account when planning and preparing for a...

  19. LED Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    focusing light in ways that are useful in homes and commercial settings. The light-emitting diode (LED) is one of today's most energy-efficient and rapidly-developing lighting...

  20. LED Frequently Asked Questions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Frequently Asked Questions LED Frequently Asked Questions EERE Solid-State Lighting LED Factsheet PDF icon ledbasics.pdf More Documents & Publications LED Frequently Asked ...

  1. Demonstration Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting: Philadelphia...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LED Roadway Lighting: Philadelphia, PA Royer, Michael P.; Tuenge, Jason R.; Poplawski, Michael E. Roadway Lighting; Solid-state lighting; LED lighting; SSL; LED; GATEWAY Roadway...

  2. Recessed LED Downlights | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Recessed LED Downlights Recessed LED Downlights A Dept of Energy Solid-State Lighting Program technology fact sheet on recessed LED downlights. PDF icon recesseddownlight.pdf More ...

  3. A comparative study on the environmental impact of supermarket refrigerations systems using low GWP refrigerants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Sharma, Vishaldeep; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems have high environmental impact due to their larage refrigerant charge and high leak rates. Consequently, the interest in using low GWP refrigerants such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and new refrigerant blends is increasing. In this paper, an open-source Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) framework is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of four supermarket refrigeration systems: a transcritical CO2 booster system, a cascase CO2/N-40 system, a combined secondary circuit with central DX N-40/L-40 system, and a baseline multiplex direct expansion system utilizing R-404A and N-40. The study is performed for different climates within the USAmore » using EnergyPlus to simulate the systems' hourl performance. Further analyses are presented such as parameters on the LCCP.« less

  4. A comparative study on the environmental impact of supermarket refrigeration systems using low GWP refrigerants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beshr, M.; Aute, V.; Sharma, V.; Abdelaziz, O.; Fricke, B.; Radermacher, R.

    2015-04-09

    Supermarket refrigeration systems have high environmental impact due to their large refrigerant charge and high leak rates. Consequently, the interest in using low GWP refrigerants such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and new refrigerant blends is increasing. In this study, an open-source Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) framework is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of four supermarket refrigeration systems: a transcritical CO2 booster system, a cascade CO2/N-40 system, a combined secondary circuit with central DX N-40/L-40 system, and a baseline multiplex direct expansion system utilizing R-404A and N-40. The study is performed for different climates within the USAmore » using EnergyPlus to simulate the systems' hourly performance. Finally, further analyses are presented such as parametric, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses to study the impact of different system parameters on the LCCP.« less

  5. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Doug; Castillo, Rafael; Larson, Kyle; Dobbs, Brian; Olsen, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  6. Chip-Scale Power Conversion for LED Lighting: Integrated Power Chip Converter for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    ADEPT Project: Teledyne is developing cost-effective power drivers for energy-efficient LED lights that fit on a compact chip. These power drivers are important because they transmit power throughout the LED device. Traditional LED driver components waste energy and don't last as long as the LED itself. They are also large and bulky, so they must be assembled onto a circuit board separately which increases the overall manufacturing cost of the LED light. Teledyne is shrinking the size and improving the efficiency of its LED driver components by using thin layers of an iron magnetic alloy and new gallium nitride on silicon devices. Smaller, more efficient components will enable the drivers to be integrated on a single chip, reducing costs. The new semiconductors in Teledyne's drivers can also handle higher levels of power and last longer without sacrificing efficiency. Initial applications for Teledyne's LED power drivers include refrigerated grocery display cases and retail lighting.

  7. Refrigerant pressurization system with a two-phase condensing ejector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergander, Mark

    2009-07-14

    A refrigerant pressurization system including an ejector having a first conduit for flowing a liquid refrigerant therethrough and a nozzle for accelerating a vapor refrigerant therethrough. The first conduit is positioned such that the liquid refrigerant is discharged from the first conduit into the nozzle. The ejector includes a mixing chamber for condensing the vapor refrigerant. The mixing chamber comprises at least a portion of the nozzle and transitions into a second conduit having a substantially constant cross sectional area. The condensation of the vapor refrigerant in the mixing chamber causes the refrigerant mixture in at least a portion of the mixing chamber to be at a pressure greater than that of the refrigerant entering the nozzle and greater than that entering the first conduit.

  8. Proposed Methodology for LEED Baseline Refrigeration Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deru, M.

    2011-02-01

    This PowerPoint presentation summarizes a proposed methodology for LEED baseline refrigeration modeling. The presentation discusses why refrigeration modeling is important, the inputs of energy models, resources, reference building model cases, baseline model highlights, example savings calculations and results.

  9. Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? July 20, 2012 - 4:35pm Addthis Earlier this week, Amanda wrote about how you can save energy...

  10. DOE Resolves Avanti Refrigerator and Freezer Civil Penalty Case

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, the Department of Energy announced that it has resolved the civil penalty action against Mackle Company for its failure to certify that refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers sold under the...

  11. DOE Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    As a part of the settlement, Victory Refrigeration paid a civil penalty of 1,600 after manufacturing and distributing 8 units of commercial refrigerator-freezer model RFS-1D-S1-EW...

  12. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environments | Department of Energy Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments Performance of alternative refrigerants compared with R-22 (mineral oil) at extreme test conditions (outdoor temperature 55°C and indoor temperature 29°C). Image: ORNL. Performance of alternative refrigerants compared with R-22 (mineral oil) at extreme test conditions (outdoor temperature 55°C and

  13. High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact space. Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact space. Sandia-developed rotating heat exchanger

  14. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review emrgtech12_vineyard_040313.pdf (868.64 KB) More Documents & Publications Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems Image

  15. DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators September 28, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the release of a new proposed energy efficiency standard for residential refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers. The standard, as proposed, could save consumers as much as $18.6 billion over thirty years. The Obama Administration has made efficiency standards a major

  16. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  17. Helium refrigeration considerations for cryomodule design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

    2014-01-29

    Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, packaged in cryo-modules (CM), which depend on helium refrigeration at sub-atmospheric pressures, nominally 2 K. These specialized helium refrigeration systems are quite cost intensive to produce and operate. Particularly as there is typically no work extraction below the 4.5-K supply, it is important that the exergy loss between this temperature level and the CM load temperature(s) be minimized by the process configuration choices. This paper will present, compare and discuss several possible helium distribution process arrangements to support the CM loads.

  18. Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A; Abdelaziz, Omar; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

  19. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B.

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  20. Method and apparatus for de-superheating refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zess, J.A.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.

    1997-11-25

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim. 7 figs.

  1. Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases Commercial Buildings Integration Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review commlbldgs18_goetzler_040413.pdf (1.18 MB) More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Alliance - 2013 BTO Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Better Buildings Alliance Equipment Performance Specifications - 2013 BTO P

  2. Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kountz, Kenneth J.; Bishop, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

  3. Multicolor, High Efficiency, Nanotextured LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung Han; Arto Nurmikko

    2011-09-30

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and green for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the duration of the contract period include (i) heteroepitaxy of nitrogen-polar LEDs on sapphire, (ii) heteroepitaxy of semipolar (11{bar 2}2) green LEDs on sapphire, (iii) synthesis of quantum-dot loaded nanoporous GaN that emits white light without phosphor conversion, (iv) demonstration of the highest quality semipolar (11{bar 2}2) GaN on sapphire using orientation-controlled epitaxy, (v) synthesis of nanoscale GaN and InGaN medium, and (vi) development of a novel liftoff process for manufacturing GaN thin-film vertical LEDs. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  4. LED lamp color control system and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  5. LED lamp power management system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  6. DOE Tour of Zero: The EXIT-0 House by John Hubert Associates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EXIT-0 House by John Hubert Associates DOE Tour of Zero: The EXIT-0 House by John Hubert Associates Addthis 1 of 22 John Hubert Associates' modern take on the traditional beach...

  7. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  8. 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for residential refrigerators and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on April 10, 2014.

  9. Carbon Dioxide and Ionic Liquid Refrigerants: Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid-Based Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEETIT Project: Notre Dame is developing an air-conditioning system with a new ionic liquid and CO2 as the working fluid. Synthetic refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems are potent GHGs and can trap 1,000 times more heat in the atmosphere than CO2 alone—making CO2 an attractive alternative for synthetic refrigerants in cooling systems. However, operating cooling systems with pure CO2 requires prohibitively high pressures and expensive hardware. Notre Dame is creating a new fluid made of CO2 and ionic liquid that enables the use of CO2 at low pressures and requires minimal changes to existing hardware and production lines. This new fluid also produces no harmful emissions and can improve the efficiency of air conditioning systems— enabling new use of CO2 as a refrigerant in cooling systems.

  10. Solubility modeling of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michels, H.H.; Sienel, T.H.

    1996-12-31

    A general model for predicting the solubility properties of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures has been developed based on applicable theory for the excess Gibbs energy of non-ideal solutions. In our approach, flexible thermodynamic forms are chosen to describe the properties of both the gas and liquid phases of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. After an extensive study of models for describing non-ideal liquid effects, the Wohl-suffix equations, which have been extensively utilized in the analysis of hydrocarbon mixtures, have been developed into a general form applicable to mixtures where one component is a POE lubricant. In the present study we have analyzed several POEs where structural and thermophysical property data were available. Data were also collected from several sources on the solubility of refrigerant/lubricant binary pairs. We have developed a computer code (NISC), based on the Wohl model, that predicts dew point or bubble point conditions over a wide range of composition and temperature. Our present analysis covers mixtures containing up to three refrigerant molecules and one lubricant. The present code can be used to analyze the properties of R-410a and R-407c in mixtures with a POE lubricant. Comparisons with other models, such as the Wilson or modified Wilson equations, indicate that the Wohl-suffix equations yield more reliable predictions for HFC/POE mixtures.