National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for refrigeration electrochemical processes

  1. Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications | Department of Energy Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications Individual electrochemical compressor cells are arranged in stacks. (Image: Cary Zachary, 2015) Individual electrochemical compressor cells are arranged in stacks. (Image: Cary Zachary, 2015) Electrochemical compressor research unit designed to test component properties. (Image: William

  2. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  3. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  4. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  5. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  6. Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Problem Statement: * Electrochemical compression (ECC) is a transformative solid state ... Communications: Currently have 40+ patents in process, presented numerous papers ...

  7. Electro-Chemical Processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electro-Chemical Processes - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  8. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  9. Process Options for Nominal 2-K Helium Refrigeration System Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni

    2012-07-01

    Nominal 2-K helium refrigeration systems are frequently used for superconducting radio frequency and magnet string technologies used in accelerators. This paper examines the trade-offs and approximate performance of four basic types of processes used for the refrigeration of these technologies; direct vacuum pumping on a helium bath, direct vacuum pumping using full or partial refrigeration recovery, cold compression, and hybrid compression (i.e., a blend of cold and warm sub-atmospheric compression).

  10. Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    1998-04-28

    Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing.

  11. Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    1998-04-28

    Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x} Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing. 27 figs.

  12. Electrochemical device and process of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-07-27

    A process of making an electrochemical device comprising providing a trilayer structure comprising an electrode/electrolyte/electrode and simultaneously sintering the trilayer structure.

  13. PROCESS STUDY OF NOMINAL 2 K REFRIGERATION RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudsen, Peter; Ganni, Venkatarao

    2008-03-01

    There is an increased interest in the nominal 2-K helium refrigeration systems (below lambda) for various test stands and applications at the present time. This paper presents the process parameter choices and their influence on the system performance of various noncold compressor configurations. This study is intended to facilitate the adoption of this process in conjunction with commercially-available small 4.5-K helium liquefaction systems. By way of an introduction, the efficiency of some commonly employed (but inefficient) 2-K process configurations are analyzed. Then the analyses of three nominal 2-K refrigeration-recovery process configurations are presented. The effect of the process parameters, such as flow imbalance, heat-exchanger size, supply pressure and 4.5-K plant interaction location(s) are investigated so that the optimum conditions yielding the required performance can be determined.

  14. Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1982-01-01

    Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

  15. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  16. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, D.M.

    1983-03-22

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

  17. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, Douglas M.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

  18. Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.

  19. Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. M. Goff; J. C. Wass; G. M. Teske

    2011-08-01

    As part of the Department of Energys Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program an electrochemical technology employing molten salts is being developed for recycle of metallic fast reactor fuel and treatment of light water reactor oxide fuel to produce a feed for fast reactors. This technology has been deployed for treatment of used fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) in the Fuel Conditioning Facility, located at the Materials and Fuel Complex of Idaho National Laboratory. This process is based on dry (non-aqueous) technologies that have been developed and demonstrated since the 1960s. These technologies offer potential advantages compared to traditional aqueous separations including: compactness, resistance to radiation effects, criticality control benefits, compatibility with advanced fuel types, and ability to produce low purity products. This paper will summarize the status of electrochemical development and demonstration activities with used nuclear fuel, including preparation of associated high-level waste forms.

  20. Electrochemical processes in recovering metals from ores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felker, D.L. ); Bautista, R.G. . Dept. of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    Chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}) is one of the most abundant copper-bearing minerals in the U.S. Oxidative leaching and smelting and refining are the most common methods used for recovering copper from chalcopyrite. One of the problems associated with oxidative leaching is the formation of an elemental sulfur product layer around the unreacted chalcopyrite core. The sulfur coating slows the reaction by inhibiting both the diffusion of the oxidant to the unreacted core, and the diffusion of the copper and iron species to the bulk solution. Another problem with leaching is that the iron and copper are oxidized simultaneously. Both appear in the bulk solution in their most oxidized states. The direct electrodissolution of copper sulfide ore slurries could reduce the number of steps involved in the copper recovery process, possibly leading to significant reductions in energy consumption and operating costs. The potential application of electrodissolution processes in hydrometallurgy has been reviewed. This paper reviews investigations of the electrochemical dissolution of chalcopyrite, digenite (Cu{sub 1.8}S), chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) and covellite (CuS).

  1. Microfluidic electrochemical device and process for chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis at the electrode-liquid interface in-situ

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li; Zhu, Zihua; Marshall, Matthew J.

    2016-03-01

    A microfluidic electrochemical device and process are detailed that provide chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis under vacuum at the surface of the electrode-sample or electrode-liquid interface in-situ. The electrochemical device allows investigation of various surface layers including diffuse layers at selected depths populated with, e.g., adsorbed molecules in which chemical transformation in electrolyte solutions occurs.

  2. Solid oxide electrochemical cell fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dollard, Walter J.; Folser, George R.; Pal, Uday B.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    1992-01-01

    A method to form an electrochemical cell (12) is characterized by the steps of thermal spraying stabilized zirconia over a doped lanthanum manganite air electrode tube (14) to provide an electrolyte layer (15), coating conductive particles over the electrolyte, pressurizing the outside of the electrolyte layer, feeding halide vapors of yttrium and zirconium to the outside of the electrolyte layer and feeding a source of oxygen to the inside of the electrolyte layer, heating to cause oxygen reaction with the halide vapors to close electrolyte pores if there are any and to form a metal oxide coating on and between the particles and provide a fuel electrode (16).

  3. Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2013-06-25

    A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

  4. Apparatus and process for the refrigeration, liquefaction and separation of gases with varying levels of purity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    A process for the separation and liquefaction of component gasses from a pressurized mix gas stream is disclosed. The process involves cooling the pressurized mixed gas stream in a heat exchanger so as to condense one or more of the gas components having the highest condensation point; separating the condensed components from the remaining mixed gas stream in a gas-liquid separator; cooling the separated condensed component stream by passing it through an expander; and passing the cooled component stream back through the heat exchanger such that the cooled component stream functions as the refrigerant for the heat exchanger. The cycle is then repeated for the remaining mixed gas stream so as to draw off the next component gas and further cool the remaining mixed gas stream. The process continues until all of the component gases are separated from the desired gas stream. The final gas stream is then passed through a final heat exchanger and expander. The expander decreases the pressure on the gas stream, thereby cooling the stream and causing a portion of the gas stream to liquify within a tank. The portion of the gas which is not liquefied is passed back through each of the heat exchanges where it functions as a refrigerant.

  5. Apparatus and process for the refrigeration, liquefaction and separation of gases with varying levels of purity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2002-01-01

    A process for the separation and liquefaction of component gasses from a pressurized mix gas stream is disclosed. The process involves cooling the pressurized mixed gas stream in a heat exchanger so as to condensing one or more of the gas components having the highest condensation point; separating the condensed components from the remaining mixed gas stream in a gas-liquid separator; cooling the separated condensed component stream by passing it through an expander; and passing the cooled component stream back through the heat exchanger such that the cooled component stream functions as the refrigerant for the heat exchanger. The cycle is then repeated for the remaining mixed gas stream so as to draw off the next component gas and further cool the remaining mixed gas stream. The process continues until all of the component gases are separated from the desired gas stream. The final gas stream is then passed through a final heat exchanger and expander. The expander decreases the pressure on the gas stream, thereby cooling the stream and causing a portion of the gas stream to liquify within a tank. The portion of the gas which is hot liquefied is passed back through each of the heat exchanges where it functions as a refrigerant.

  6. Design of electrochemical processes for treatment of unusual waste streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    UCRL- JC- 129438 PREPRINT This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor the University of California nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or the University of California. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or the University of California, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. Introduction. An overview of work done on the development of three electrochemical processes that meet the specific needs of low- level waste treatment is presented. These technologies include: mediated electrochemical oxidation [I- 4]; bipolar membrane electrodialysis [5]; and electrosorption of carbon aerogel electrodes [6- 9]. Design strategies are presented to assess the suitability of these electrochemical processes for Mediated electrochemical oxidation. Mixed wastes include both hazardous and radioactive components. It is desirable to reduce the overall volume of the waste before immobilization and disposal in repositories. While incineration is an attractive technique for the destruction of organic fractions of mixed wastes, such high-temperature thermal processes pose the threat of volatilizing various radionuclides. By destroying organics in the aqueous phase at low temperature and ambient pressure, the risk of volatilization can be reduced. One approach that is

  7. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It's potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  8. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  9. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  10. Process for cooling the passenger compartments of vehicles with hydrogen-consuming engines by mechanical refrigerating procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernauer, O.; Holzt, H.P.; Lenz, H.

    1984-04-10

    A process for cooling a passenger compartment of a vehicle equipped with a hydrogen-consuming engine by mechanical refrigeration involves compressing a gaseous coolant, condensing the resulting compressed and heated gaseous coolant with heat removal to liquefy the coolant, and evaporating the liquefied coolant under the action of a pressure relief valve so that the cold generated during the pressure relief is used to cool the passenger compartment. This process is improved by removing additional heat from the compressed coolant by passing the coolant through a metal hydride cooler.

  11. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G W

    1992-01-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical point, without evaporation, as working fluid in a refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling cycle. We discuss relevant properties of appropriate liquids, and describe two Malone refrigerators. The first completed several years ago, established the basic principles of use of liquids in such cycles. The second, now under construction, is a linear, free-piston machine.

  12. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-06-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It`s potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  13. Nanoparticle shape evolution and proximity effects during tip-induced electrochemical processes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Sangmo; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Strelcov, Evgheni

    2016-01-08

    The voltage spectroscopies in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques are widely used to investigate the electrochemical processes in nanoscale volumes, which are important for current key applications, such as batteries, fuel cells, catalysts, and memristors. The spectroscopic measurements are commonly performed on a grid of multiple points to yield spatially resolved maps of reversible and irreversible electrochemical functionalities. Hence, the spacing between measurement points is an important parameter to be considered, especially for irreversible electrochemical processes. Here, we report nonlocal electrochemical dynamics in chains of Ag particles fabricated by the SPM tip on a silver ion solid electrolyte. When themore » grid spacing is small compared with the size of the formed Ag particles, anomalous chains of unequally sized particles with double periodicity evolve. This behavior is ascribed to a proximity effect during the tip-induced electrochemical process, specifically, size-dependent silver particle growth following the contact between the particles. In addition, fractal shape evolution of the formed Ag structures indicates that the growth-limiting process changes from Ag+/Ag redox reaction to Ag+-ion diffusion with the increase in the applied voltage and pulse duration. Our study shows that characteristic shapes of the electrochemical products are good indicators for determining the underlying growth-limiting process, and emergence of complex phenomena during spectroscopic mapping of electrochemical functionalities.« less

  14. Glass composition and process for sealing void spaces in electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Kirby, Brent W.

    2012-05-01

    A glass foaming material and method are disclosed for filling void spaces in electrochemical devices. The glass material includes a reagent that foams at a temperature above the softening point of the glass. Expansion of the glass fills void spaces including by-pass and tolerance channels of electrochemical devices. In addition, cassette to cassette seals can also be formed while channels and other void spaces are filled, reducing the number of processing steps needed.

  15. Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

  16. Thermoacoustic refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, S.L.; Hofler, T.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Shortly after their introduction, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used as working fluids in a vapor compression (Rankine) refrigeration cycle became dominant in almost all small and medium-scale food refrigerator/freezer and building/residential air-conditioning applications. That situation is about to change dramatically and, at this moment, unpredictably. Two recent events are responsible for the new era in refrigeration that will dawn before the beginning of the 21st Century. The most significant of these is the international ban on the production of CFCs which were found to be destroying the Earth's protective ozone layer. The second event was the discovery of high temperature superconductors and the development of high speed and high density electronic circuits that require active cooling. It is the purpose of this article to introduce an entirely new approach to refrigeration that was first discovered in the early 1980s. This new approach-thermoacoustic refrigeration-uses high intensity sound waves to pump heat, with inert gases as the working fluid.

  17. Observation and Quantification of Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries by Operando Electrochemical (S)TEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi, Beata L.; Qian, Jiangfeng; Nasybulin, Eduard; Park, Chiwoo; Welch, David A.; Faller, Roland; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Wang, Chong M.; Evans, James E.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-03-11

    An operando electrochemical stage for the transmission electron microscope has been configured to form a “Li battery” that is used to quantify the electrochemical processes that occur at the anode during charge/discharge cycling. Of particular importance for these observations is the identification of an image contrast reversal that originates from solid Li being less dense than the surrounding liquid electrolyte and electrode surface. This contrast allows Li to be identified from Li containing compounds that make up the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. By correlating images showing the sequence of Li electrodeposition and the evolution of the SEI layer with simultaneously acquired and calibrated cyclic voltammograms (CV), electrodeposition and electrolyte breakdown processes can be quantified directly on the nanoscale. This approach opens up intriguing new possibilities to rapidly visualize and test the electrochemical performance of a wide range of electrode/electrolyte combinations for next generation battery systems.

  18. Flotation process for removal of precipitates from electrochemical chromate reduction unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeMonbrun, James R.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Williams, Everett H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved form of a conventional electrochemical process for removing hexavalent chromium or other metal-ion contaminants from cooling-tower blowdown water. In the conventional process, the contaminant is reduced and precipitated at an iron anode, thus forming a mixed precipitate of iron and chromium hydroxides, while hydrogen being evolved copiously at a cathode is vented from the electrochemical cell. In the conventional process, subsequent separation of the fine precipitate has proved to be difficult and inefficient. In accordance with this invention, the electrochemical operation is conducted in a novel manner permitting a much more efficient and less expensive precipitate-recovery operation. That is, the electrochemical operation is conducted under an evolved-hydrogen partial pressure exceeding atmospheric pressure. As a result, most of the evolved hydrogen is entrained as bubbles in the blowdown in the cell. The resulting hydrogen-rich blowdown is introduced to a vented chamber, where the entrained hydrogen combines with the precipitate to form a froth which can be separated by conventional techniques. In addition to the hydrogen, two materials present in most blowdown act as flotation promoters for the precipitate. These are (1) air, with which the blowdown water becomes saturated in the course of normal cooling-tower operation, and (2) surfactants which commonly are added to cooling-tower recirculating-water systems to inhibit the growth of certain organisms or prevent the deposition of insoluble particulates.

  19. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Buchwald, Melvin I.; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement.

  20. High-Efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery, STTR Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Timothy

    2011-01-07

    This is the final report of DoE STTR Phase II project, “High-efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery”. The objective of this STTR project is to develop a cost-effective processing approach to produce bulk high-performance thermoelectric (TE) nanocomposites, which will enable the development of high-power, high-power-density TE modulus for waste heat recovery and industrial refrigeration. The use of this nanocomposite into TE modules are expected to bring about significant technical benefits in TE systems (e.g. enhanced energy efficiency, smaller sizes and light weight). The successful development and applications of such nanocomposite and the resultant TE modules can lead to reducing energy consumption and environmental impacts, and creating new economic development opportunities.

  1. Electrochemical fluorination for processing of used nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Olson, Luke C.

    2016-07-05

    A galvanic cell and methods of using the galvanic cell is described for the recovery of uranium from used nuclear fuel according to an electrofluorination process. The galvanic cell requires no input energy and can utilize relatively benign gaseous fluorinating agents. Uranium can be recovered from used nuclear fuel in the form of gaseous uranium compound such as uranium hexafluoride, which can then be converted to metallic uranium or UO.sub.2 and processed according to known methodology to form a useful product, e.g., fuel pellets for use in a commercial energy production system.

  2. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Seiber, Larry E.; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2007-09-11

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  3. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, R.I.; Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1995-09-05

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement. 6 figs.

  4. Process for manufacturing a lithium alloy electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, William R.

    1992-10-13

    A process for manufacturing a lithium alloy, metal sulfide cell tape casts slurried alloy powders in an organic solvent containing a dissolved thermoplastic organic binder onto casting surfaces. The organic solvent is then evaporated to produce a flexible tape removable adhering to the casting surface. The tape is densified to increase its green strength and then peeled from the casting surface. The tape is laminated with a separator containing a lithium salt electrolyte and a metal sulfide electrode to form a green cell. The binder is evaporated from the green cell at a temperature lower than the melting temperature of the lithium salt electrolyte. Lithium alloy, metal sulfide and separator powders may be tape cast.

  5. Carbon activation process for increased surface accessibility in electrochemical capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    2001-01-01

    A process for making carbon film or powder suitable for double capacitor electrodes having a capacitance of up to about 300 F/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. This is accomplished by treating in aqueous nitric acid for a period of about 5 to 15 minutes thin carbon films obtained by carbonizing carbon-containing polymeric material having a high degree of molecular directionality, such as polyimide film, then heating the treated carbon film in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a non-graphitizing temperature of at least 350.degree. C. for about 20 minutes, and repeating alternately the nitric acid step and the heating step from 7 to 10 times. Capacitors made with this carbon may find uses ranging from electronic devices to electric vehicle applications.

  6. Refrigeration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pagani, R.F.; Clarke, K.J.; Avon, E.J.

    1986-11-11

    This patent describes a chamber including an expandable refrigerant system associated therewith. The system comprises reservoir containing an expandable refrigerant coolant and lead piping connecting the reservoir to conduits carrying the coolant therein. The chamber comprises top, bottom and side walls, accordingly defining an interior and an exterior to the chamber, one of the walls comprises a door affording access into the chamber, each of the walls being insulated with insulating material. At least one of the walls comprises a first layer of the insulating material extending thereover adjacent the exterior and a second layer of the insulating material extending thereover adjacent the interior. The reservoir, lead piping and conduits are disposed intermediate the first and second layers of insulating material thereby isolating them from both the interior and exterior. Heat transferring through the at least one wall is substantially absorbed by the coolant and the insulating material cooled by the coolant, before it is able to penetrate through the at least one wall, permitting a product placed in the chamber to effectively maintain or substantially maintain a selected even temperature.

  7. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  8. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  9. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  10. Refrigerant recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, A.W.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes improvement in a refrigerant recovery apparatus of the type having inlet means for connecting to a refrigerant air system to withdraw refrigerant from the system, expansion means for converting refrigerant received from the system in liquid phase to a gaseous refrigerant, a compressor having a suction chamber with a suction inlet for receiving and pressurizing the gaseous refrigerant, the compressor having a housing containing oil for lubricating the compressor, a condenser for receiving the pressurized gaseous refrigerant and condensing it to liquid refrigerant, and a storage chamber for storing the liquid refrigerant. The improvement comprises in combination: oil separator means mounted exterior of the housing to one end of an inlet line, which has another end connected to the suction inlet of the compressor for receiving the flow of refrigerant from the refrigerated air system for separating out oil mixed with the refrigerant being received from the refrigerated air system prior to the refrigerant entering the suction inlet of the compressor; and the oil separator means being mounted at a lower elevation than the suction inlet of the compressor, the inlet line being unrestricted for allowing refrigerant flow to the compressor and oil from the compressor for draining oil in the housing of the compressor above the suction inlet back through the inlet line into the oil separator means when the compressor is not operating.

  11. Magnetocaloric Refrigeration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnetocaloric Refrigeration Magnetocaloric Refrigeration Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system.
    Photo courtesy of General Electric Researchers ...

  12. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  13. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B.

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  14. Management of Salt Waste from Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael F. Simpson; Michael N. Patterson; Joon Lee; Yifeng Wang; Joshua Versey; Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; James Allensworth; Man-Sung Yim

    2013-10-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electrorefiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form.

  15. Management of salt waste from electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.F.; Patterson, M.N.; Lee, J.; Wang, Y.; Versey, J.; Phongikaroon, S.

    2013-07-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electro-refiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form. (authors)

  16. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  17. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Patrick R.; Gray, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  18. Maximizing NGL recovery by refrigeration optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldonedo H., A.H.

    1999-07-01

    PDVSA--Petroleo y Gas, S.A. has within its facilities in Lake Maracaibo two plants that extract liquids from natural gas (NGL), They use a combined mechanic refrigeration absorption with natural gasoline. Each of these plants processes 420 MMsccfd with a pressure of 535 psig and 95 F that comes from the compression plants PCTJ-2 and PCTJ-3 respectively. About 40 MMscfd of additional rich gas comes from the high pressure system. Under the present conditions these plants produce in the order of 16,800 and 23,800 b/d of NGL respectively, with a propane recovery percentage of approximately 75%, limited by the capacity of the refrigeration system. To optimize the operation and the design of the refrigeration system and to maximize the NGL recovery, a conceptual study was developed in which the following aspects about the process were evaluated: capacity of the refrigeration system, refrigeration requirements, identification of limitations and evaluation of the system improvements. Based on the results obtained it was concluded that by relocating some condensers, refurbishing the main refrigeration system turbines and using HIGH FLUX piping in the auxiliary refrigeration system of the evaporators, there will be an increase of 85% on the propane recovery, with an additional production of 25,000 b/d of NGL and 15 MMscfd of ethane rich gas.

  19. Magnetocaloric Refrigerator Freezer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnetocaloric Refrigerator Freezer 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review CRADA PARTNER General Electric P.I: Ayyoub M. Momen, momena@ornl.gov R&D Staff, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline: Start date: Aug 1 st , 2013 (FY14) Planned end date: Sept 30 th , 2016 Key Milestones 1. Determine requirements for refrigeration circuit seals and hydraulics; 31-March-2014 2. Develop breadboard refrigerator-freezer design; Achieve target goals with breadboard design;

  20. Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration.<br /> Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration. Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Brian Fricke

  1. Integrated Electrochemical Processes for CO2 Capture and Conversion to Commodity Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatton, T. Alan; Jamison, Timothy

    2013-09-30

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Siemens Corporations (SCR) are developing new chemical synthesis processes for commodity chemicals from CO2. The process is assessed as a novel chemical sequestration technology that utilizes CO2 from dilute gas streams generated at industrial carbon emitters as a raw material to produce useful commodity chemicals. Work at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) commenced on October 1st, 2010, and finished on September 30th, 2013. During this period, we have investigated and accomplished five objectives that mainly focused on converting CO2 into high-value chemicals: 1) Electrochemical assessment of catalytic transformation of CO2 and epoxides to cyclic carbonates; 2) Investigation of organocatalytic routes to convert CO2 and epoxide to cyclic carbonates; 3) Investigation of CO2 Capture and conversion using simple olefins under continuous flow; 4) Microwave assisted synthesis of cyclic carbonates from olefins using sodium bicarbonates in a green pathway; 5) Life cycle analyses of integrated chemical sequestration process. In this final report, we will describe the detailed study performed during the three year period and findings and conclusions drawn from our research.

  2. Commercial Refrigeration Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Vermont offers financial incentives to cover the incremental costs of energy efficient refrigeration for commercial, industrial, agricultural, and institutional buildings. 

  3. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1998-08-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  4. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  5. Correlation of Process Data and Electrochemical Noise to Assess Kraft Digester Corrosion: Spring Grove Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, SJ

    2003-06-18

    Electrochemical noise (ECN) probes were deployed in a carbon steel continuous kraft digester at four locations and at one location in the bottom cone of the associated flash tank. The probes consisted of carbon steel electrodes, representing the vessel construction material, and 309LSi stainless steel overlay electrodes, representing the weld overlay repair in a portion of the vessel. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of about 32 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were monitored continuously for a period of almost one year. Historical vessel inspection data and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare ECN corrosion activity with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. In addition, attempts were made to correlate ECN activity from each electrode type with process parameters. The results indicate the high general corrosion rates of steel observed just below the extraction screens--on the order of 35 mils/y for the past few years--accelerated further during the period of probe deployment. The maximum wastage of steel (normalized to one full year exposure) was about 85 mils/y at the ring 6N probe just below the extraction screens. Consistent with recent historical observations, the steel corrosion rate at the ring 6S probe--at the same elevation but directly across the digester from ring 6N--was significantly lower at about 50 mils/y. Just prior to probe deployment, the digester shell below the extraction screens was overlaid with 309LSi stainless steel, which was observed to be essentially immune to corrosion at this location. While the ECN probes detected differences in electrochemical behavior between steel probes and between 309LSi probes at rings 6N and 6S, there was only poor quantitative correlation of current sums with actual corrosion rates at these locations. A significant contribution of redox reactions on both steel

  6. Magnetocaloric Refrigeration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    compression cycle and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions by eliminating the use of high-global-warming-potential refrigerants. Refrigeration technologies based on MCE are...

  7. Magnetic Refrigeration | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Johnson, a materials scientist and project leader on GE's magnetic refrigeration project. ... materials would further improve the competitiveness of magnetic refrigeration technology. ...

  8. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  9. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald P.

    1985-01-01

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  10. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.P.

    1984-06-05

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  11. Selective Separation of Cs and Sr from LiCl-Based Salt for Electrochemical Processing of Oxide Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P Sachdev

    2008-07-01

    Electrochemical processing technology is currently being used for the treatment of metallic spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II at Idaho National Laboratory. The treatment of oxide-based spent nuclear fuel via electrochemical processing is possible provided there is a front-end oxide reduction step. During this reduction process, certain fission products, including Cs and Sr, partition into the salt phase and form chlorides. Both solid state and molten LiCl-zeolite-A ion exchange tests were conducted for selectively removing Cs and Sr from LiCl-based salt. The solid-state tests produced in excess of 99% removal of Cs and Sr. The molten state tests failed due to phase transformation of the zeolite structure when in contact with the molten LiCl salt.

  12. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

  13. Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries By OperandoEC-(S)TEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi, Beata L.; Qian, Jiangfeng; Nasybulin, Eduard; Welch, David A.; Park, Chiwoo; Faller, Roland; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Evans, James E.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-07-27

    Lithium (Li)-ion batteries are currently used for a wide variety of portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and renewable energy applications. In addition, extensive worldwide research efforts are now being devoted to more advanced “beyond Li-ion” battery chemistries - such as lithium-sulfur (Li-S) and lithium-air (Li-O2) - in which the carbon anode is replaced with Li metal. However, the practical application of Li metal anode systems has been highly problematic. The main challenges involve controlling the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer and the suppression of Li dendrite growth during the charge/discharge process (achieving “dendrite-free” cycling). The SEI layer formation continuously consumes the electrolyte components creating highly resistive layer, which leads to the rapid decrease of cycling performance and degradation of the Li anode. The growth of Li metal dendrites at the anode contributes to rapid capacity fading (the presence of “dead Li” created during the discharge leads to an increased overpotential) and, in the case of continuous growth, leads to internal short circuits and extreme safety issues. Here we demonstrate the application of an operando electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (ec-(S)TEM) cell to study the SEI layer formation and the initial stages of Li dendrite growth - the goal is to develop a mechanism for mitigating the degradation processes and increasing safety. Bright field (BF) STEM images in Figure 1 A-C show Li metal deposition and dissolution processes at the interface between the Pt working electrode and the lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in propylene carbonate (PC) electrolyte during three charge/discharge cycles. A contrast reversal caused by Li metal being lighter/less dense than surrounding electrolyte (Li appears brighter than the background in BF STEM images) allows Li to be uniquely identified from the other components in the system - the only solid

  14. Electrochemical capacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Liu, Kuo -Chuan; Mohr, Charles M.

    1999-10-05

    An inexpensive porous metal oxide material having high surface area, good conductivity and high specific capacitance is advantageously used in an electrochemical capacitor. The materials are formed in a sol-gel process which affords control over the properties of the resultant metal oxide materials.

  15. Refrigerated cryogenic envelope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loudon, John D.

    1976-11-16

    An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

  16. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.

    1996-12-31

    This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

  17. International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) July 20, 2012 DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an 8,000 ...

  18. High temperature refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  19. Helium refrigeration considerations for cryomodule design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

    2014-01-29

    Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, packaged in cryo-modules (CM), which depend on helium refrigeration at sub-atmospheric pressures, nominally 2 K. These specialized helium refrigeration systems are quite cost intensive to produce and operate. Particularly as there is typically no work extraction below the 4.5-K supply, it is important that the exergy loss between this temperature level and the CM load temperature(s) be minimized by the process configuration choices. This paper will present, compare and discuss several possible helium distribution process arrangements to support the CM loads.

  20. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units Title: Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling ...

  1. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  2. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cain, J.M.

    1993-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  3. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  4. Adsorption Refrigeration System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption refrigeration is an environmentally friendly cooling technology which could be driven by recovered waste heat or low-grade heat such as solar energy. In comparison with absorption system, an adsorption system has no problems such as corrosion at high temperature and salt crystallization. In comparison with vapor compression refrigeration system, it has the advantages of simple control, no moving parts and less noise. This paper introduces the basic theory of adsorption cycle as well as the advanced adsorption cycles such as heat and mass recovery cycle, thermal wave cycle and convection thermal wave cycle. The types, characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of different adsorbents used in adsorption refrigeration systems are also summarized. This article will increase the awareness of this emerging cooling technology among the HVAC engineers and help them select appropriate adsorption systems in energy-efficient building design.

  5. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2013-03-01

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  6. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2011-01-01

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  7. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-05-26

    The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

  8. Refrigeration Playbook: Natural Refrigerants; Selecting and Designing Energy-Efficient Commercial Refrigeration Systems That Use Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Caleb; Reis, Chuck; Nelson, Eric; Armer, James; Arthur, Rob; Heath, Richard; Rono, James; Hirsch, Adam; Doebber, Ian

    2015-03-01

    This report provides guidance for selecting and designing energy efficient commercial refrigeration systems using low global warming potential refrigerants. Refrigeration systems are generally the largest energy end use in a supermarket type building, often accounting for more than half of a building's energy consumption.

  9. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1995-07-01

    We ordinarily think of a sound wave in a gas as consisting of coupled pressure and displacement oscillations. However, temperature oscillations always accompany the pressure changes. The combination of all these oscillations, and their interaction with solid boundaries, produces a rich variety of `thermoacoustic` effects. Although these effects as they occur in every-day life are too small to be noticed, one can harness extremely loud sound waves in acoustically sealed chambers to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators. Whereas typical engines and refrigerators have crankshaft-coupled pistons or rotating turbines, thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators have at most a single flexing moving part (as in a loudspeaker) with no sliding seals. Thermoacoustic devices may be of practical use where simplicity, reliability or low cost is more important than the highest efficiency (although one cannot say much more about their cost-competitiveness at this early stage). This paper discusses the fundamentals of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, research in this field, and their commercial development. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Electrochemical machining process for forming surface roughness elements on a gas turbine shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Johnson, Robert Alan; Wei, Bin; Wang, Hsin-Pang

    2002-01-01

    The back side recessed cooling surface of a shroud defining in part the hot gas path of a turbine is electrochemically machined to provide surface roughness elements and spaces therebetween to increase the heat transfer coefficient. To accomplish this, an electrode with insulating dielectric portions and non-insulating portions is disposed in opposition to the cooling surface. By passing an electrolyte between the cooling surface and electrode and applying an electrical current between the electrode and a shroud, roughness elements and spaces therebetween are formed in the cooling surface in opposition to the insulating and non-insulating portions of the electrode, hence increasing the surface area and heat transfer coefficient of the shroud.

  11. Potential of the tractor-trailer and container segments as entry markets for a proposed refrigeration technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S.A.; Davis, L.J.; Garrett, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    The refrigerated trailer and container segments of the transportation industry are evaluated as potential entry markets for a proposed absorption refrigeration technology. To perform this analysis the existing transportation refrigeration industry is characterized; this includes a description of the current refrigeration technology, rating systems, equipment manufacturers, maintenance requirements, and sales trends. This information indicates that the current transportation refrigeration industry is composed of two major competitors, Thermo King and Carrier. In addition, it has low profit potential, some barriers to entry and low growth potential. Data are also presented that characterize the transportation refrigeration consumers, specifically, major groups, market segmentation, consumer decision process, and buying criteria. This consumer information indicates that the majority of refrigerated trailer consumers are private carriers, and that the majority of refrigerated container consumers are shipping companies. Also, these consumers are primarily interested in buying reliable equipment at a low price, and are quite satisfied with existing refrigeration equipment.

  12. Novel materials for laser refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hehlen, Markus P

    2009-01-01

    The status of optical refrigeration of rare-earth-doped solids is reviewed, and the various factors that limit the performance of current laser-cooling materials are discussed. Efficient optical refrigeration is possible in materials for which {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} < E{sub p}/8, where {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} is the maximum phonon energy of the host material and E{sub p} is the pump energy of the rare-earth dopant. Transition-metal and OH{sup -}impurities at levels >100 ppb are believed to be the main factors for the limited laser-cooling performance in current materials. The many components of doped ZBLAN glass pose particular processing challenges. Binary fluoride glasses such as YF{sub 3}-LiF are considered as alternatives to ZBLAN. The crystalline system KPb{sub 2}CI{sub 5} :Dy{sup 3+} is identified as a prime candidate for high-efficiency laser cooling.

  13. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  14. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a compact acoustic refrigeration system that actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment.

  15. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.

    1992-11-24

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

  16. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  17. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

    1992-12-22

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

  18. Magnetocaloric Refrigerator Freezer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnetocaloric Refrigerator Freezer 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review PI: Ayyoub M. Momen, momena@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory CRADA PARTNER General Electric Appliances 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: August 1, 2013 (FY 2014) Planned end date: January, 31, 2017 Key Milestones 1. Evaluation of MCM microchannels through collaboration with GEA (6/30/2016) 2. Improve the regenerator structure (9/30/2016) 3. Final optimization and testing and drafting the final report

  19. Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ORNL. ORNL will evaluate systems and components to identify the potential benefit from these refrigerants. Current low-GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce ...

  20. Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential refrigerators, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category.

  1. Extending the Range of Organic Compounds that Can Be Destroyed Using the Process of Adsorption Coupled with Electrochemical Regeneration - 13054

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Nigel; Lodge, Mike; Hilton, Linda; Adams, Alex [Arvia Technology Ltd, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Cheshire, WA4, 4FS (United Kingdom)] [Arvia Technology Ltd, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Cheshire, WA4, 4FS (United Kingdom); Vaudey, Claire-Emilie [AREVA CL BU, AREVA BUA STMI ZAC de Courcelle 1 route de la Noue 91196 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [AREVA CL BU, AREVA BUA STMI ZAC de Courcelle 1 route de la Noue 91196 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Toulemonde, Valerie [AREVA DRD, Tour AREVA, 1, place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense Cedex (France)] [AREVA DRD, Tour AREVA, 1, place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense Cedex (France)

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry is not a provider of oils and solvents but uses them in motors, equipment and even in chemical processes to extract valuable products. Currently, for old and contaminated oils and solvents, techniques still exist, such as incineration, but not all the oils and solvents are compatible with this technique because the activities of some components inside the oils are too high to be accepted at the incineration facility. For these oils, an alternative technique needs to be found for treatment. A process developed for water treatment using a technique of adsorption coupled with electrochemical regeneration has been investigated to assess its capability to treat these organic wastes. One of the strengths of the process is its flexibility and adaptation to different compositions of oils. This point is important because, in the AREVA case, there are a lot of small volumes of old oils which need to be re-characterized. It takes time and money to do it especially when oils are contaminated; this is one reason why the technique is interesting to investigate. Tests have been performed with different oils coming from different sites to test the feasibility. Results demonstrate the destruction of a range of organics with regeneration energy requirements of 13.4 - 68.7 kWh/l and offer confidence for the future potential of the process. (authors)

  2. New Advanced Refrigeration Technology Provides Clean Energy,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... ORNL and Hillphoenix, found solutions to both challenges-the refrigerant leakage and high-global warming potential refrigerants-by using CO2 as the refrigerant and confining it to ...

  3. Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Miller, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    As a result of the Montreal Protocol that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must be resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability. In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results are presented for an 18 cubic foot (0.51 cubic meter), top-mount refrigerator-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R12, R500, R12/Dimethyl-ether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12 /DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Next Generation Household Refrigerator | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Household Refrigerator Next Generation Household Refrigerator Embraco's high efficiency, oil-free linear compressor.
    Credit: Whirlpool Embraco's high ...

  5. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut Businesses' Energy Bills and Carbon Pollution New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut...

  6. Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have developed a multi-stage...

  7. Working Fluids: Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Integration and Collaboration Project Integration: * ASHRAE MTG on low GWP refrigerant research * AHRI AREP testing * International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) working ...

  8. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one year of ...

  9. Semiconductor-based optical refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Optical refrigerators using semiconductor material as a cooling medium, with layers of material in close proximity to the cooling medium that carries away heat from the cooling material and preventing radiation trapping. In addition to the use of semiconducting material, the invention can be used with ytterbium-doped glass optical refrigerators.

  10. SCREW COMPRESSOR CHARACTERISTICS FOR HELIUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter; Creel, Jonathan; Arenius, Dana; Casagrande, Fabio; Howell, Matt

    2008-03-01

    The oil injected screw compressors have practically replaced all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, minimal vibration, reliability and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression.At the present state of compressor system designs for helium systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. Therefore it is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design these compression systems to match the refrigeration process. This presentation summarizes separate tests that have been conducted on Sullair compressors at the Superconducting Super-Collider Laboratory (SSCL) in 1993, Howden compressors at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in 2006 and Howden compressors at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2006. This work is part of an ongoing study at JLab to understand the theoretical basis for these efficiencies and their loss

  11. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, J.A.

    1992-03-31

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling. 6 figs.

  12. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, James A.

    1992-01-01

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

  13. Magnetic Refrigeration | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetocaloric Materials Chill Next-Generation Refrigerators Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Magnetocaloric Materials Chill Next-Generation Refrigerators You've seen them. You may even decorate with them. The ubiquitous "sticker-uppers" that cover your refrigerator, helping to keep your

  14. Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R. ); Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    As a result of the Montreal Protocol (UNEP 1987) that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability, In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers (AHAM 1985). The results are presented for an 18 ft{sup 3} (0.51 m{sup 3}), top mount refrigerators-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R 12, R500, R12/dimethylether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12/DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants, indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising (6.8% and 8.5% higher energy consumption, respectively), changes to the refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. It is noted that the test results are only an initial step in determining a replacement for R12.

  15. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.; Overton, Jr., William C.; Stewart, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

  16. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Overton, W.C. Jr.; Stewart, W.F.

    The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

  17. Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

    2005-03-22

    A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

  18. Electro-Chemical Processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & ... Each element in the system produces electrons within a unique range of energies, thus ...

  19. Development of Versatile Compressor Modeling using Approximation Techniques for Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    Refrigerants are the life-blood of vapor compression systems that are widely used in Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) applications. The HVAC&R community is currently transitioning from main-stream refrigerants that have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) to alternative lower-GWP refrigerants. During this transition, it is important to account for the life cycle climate performance of alternative refrigerants since their performance will be different than that of higher-GWP refrigerants. This requires the evaluation of the system performance with the new refrigerants. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to predict the realistic performance of new alternative refrigerants without experimental validation. One of the main challenges in this regard is modeling the compressor performance with high fidelity due to the complex interaction of operating parameters, geometry, boundary conditions, and fluid properties. High fidelity compressor models are computationally expensive and require significant pre-processing to evaluate the performance of alternative refrigerants. This paper presents a new approach to modeling compressor performance when alternative refrigerants are used. The new modeling concept relies on using existing compressor performance to create an approximate model that captures the dependence of compressor performance on key operating parameters and fluid properties. The model can be built using a myriad of approximation techniques. This paper focuses on Kriging-based techniques to develop higher fidelity approximate compressor models. Baseline and at least one alternative refrigerant performance data are used to build the model. The model accuracy was evaluated by comparing the model results with compressor performance data using other refrigerants. Preliminary results show that the approximate model can predict the compressor mass flow rate and power consumption within 5%.

  20. Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    as a hydronium ion across a solid polymer electrolyte membrane using a supplied voltage. ... as a hydronium ion across a solid polymer electrolyte membrane using a supplied voltage. ...

  1. Electrochemical Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  2. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A.

    1984-01-01

    Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  3. Ammonia usage in vapor compression for refrigeration and air...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... AMMONIA; PERFORMANCE; REFRIGERATING MACHINERY; REFRIGERANTS; CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS; AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT; AIR CONDITIONERS; DISTRICT COOLING; COOLING SYSTEMS; WORKING FLUIDS; ...

  4. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  5. Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falco, Charles M.

    1982-01-01

    A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

  6. Refrigeration system having dual suction port compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Guolian

    2016-01-05

    A cooling system for appliances, air conditioners, and other spaces includes a compressor, and a condenser that receives refrigerant from the compressor. The system also includes an evaporator that receives refrigerant from the condenser. Refrigerant received from the condenser flows through an upstream portion of the evaporator. A first portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor without passing through a downstream portion of the evaporator, and a second portion of the refrigerant from the upstream portion of the condenser flows through the downstream portion of the evaporator after passing through the upstream portion of the evaporator. The second portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor after passing through the downstream portion of the evaporator. The refrigeration system may be configured to cool an appliance such as a refrigerator and/or freezer, or it may be utilized in air conditioners for buildings, motor vehicles, or other such spaces.

  7. Refrigerator Manufacturers: Order (2013-CE-5341)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Refrigerator Manufacturers had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  8. Cospolich Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5314)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Cospolich Refrigerator had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  9. Everest Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2015-SE-42001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Bu Sung America Corporation (dba Everest Refrigeration) manufactured and distributed noncompliant commercial refrigeration equipment model ESGR3 in the U.S.

  10. Everest Refrigeration: Noncompliance Determination (2015-SE-42001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Bu Sung America Corporation (dba Everest Refrigeration) finding that commercial refrigeration equipment model number ESGR3 does not comport with the energy conservation standards.

  11. International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an $8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had failed to certify that certain room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

  12. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Prof. Reinhard Radermacher, raderm@umd.edu University of Maryland College Park Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 03/01/2013 Planned end date: 02/29/2016 Key Milestones 1. Heat exchanger designs/process: 6/30/14 2. Fabrication/testing of 1 kW: 9/30/14 3. Fabrication/testing of 10 kW: 9/30/2015 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $561K Total future DOE $: $489K Target Market/Audience: Residential and

  13. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  14. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  15. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  16. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  17. Method and apparatus for desuperheating refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zess, James A.; Drost, M. Kevin; Call, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim.

  18. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

  19. Simplified Helium Refrigerator Cycle Analysis Using the `Carnot Step'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Knudsen; V. Ganni

    2006-05-01

    An analysis of the Claude form of an idealized helium liquefier for the minimum input work reveals the ''Carnot Step'' for helium refrigerator cycles. As the ''Carnot Step'' for a multi-stage polytropic compression process consists of equal pressure ratio stages; similarly for an idealized helium liquefier the ''Carnot Step'' consists of equal temperature ratio stages for a given number of expansion stages. This paper presents the analytical basis and some useful equations for the preliminary examination of existing and new Claude helium refrigeration cycles.

  20. Solid-state optical refrigeration to sub-100 Kelvin regime

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Hehlen, Markus P.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2016-02-05

    We report that since the first demonstration of net cooling twenty years ago, optical refrigeration of solids has progressed to outperform all other solid-state cooling processes. It has become the first and only solid-state refrigerator capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures, and now the first solid-state cooling below 100 K. Such substantial progress required a multi-disciplinary approach of pump laser absorption enhancement, material characterization and purification, and thermal management. Here we present the culmination of two decades of progress, the record cooling to ≈91K from room temperature.

  1. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-16

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm{sup 3}; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6{times}10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}/g of Ni. 6 figs.

  2. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  3. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-02-01

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm[sup 3]; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6[times]10[sup 4] cm[sup 2]/g of Ni. 8 figures.

  4. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  5. Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goli, Sasank; McKane, Aimee; Olsen, Daniel

    2011-06-14

    Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

  6. A recuperative superfluid stirling refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brisson, J.G.; Swift, G.W.

    1993-07-01

    A superfluid Stirling refrigerator has been built with a counterflow heat exchanger serving as a recuperative regenerator. It has achieved temperatures of 296 mK with a 4% {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He mixture. Cooling power versus temperature and speed is presented for a 6.6% mixture.

  7. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a low temperature 4 to 20 K. refrigeration apparatus and method utilizing a ring of magnetic material moving through a magnetic field. Heat exchange is accomplished in and out of the magnetic field to appropriately utilize the device to execute Carnot and Stirling cycles.

  8. Electrochemical device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  9. Electrochemical construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  10. Predicting the voltage dependence of interfacial electrochemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interfacial electrochemical processes at lithium-intercalated graphite edge planes ... Subject: bio-inspired, energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), defects, ...

  11. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, R.T.; Middleton, M.G.

    1983-01-25

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell. 5 figs.

  12. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Richard T.; Middleton, Marc G.

    1983-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell.

  13. Electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, F.M.

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes an electrochemical cell having a metal anode wherein the metal is selected from zinc and cadmium; a bromine cathode; and an aqueous electrolyte containing a metal bromide, the metal bromide having the same metal as the metal of the anode. The improvement described here comprises: a bromine complexing agent in the aqueous metal bromide electrolyte, the complexing agent consisting solely of a quaternary ammonium salt of an N-organo substituted alpha amino acid, ester, or betaine.

  14. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a .beta." alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl.sub.4 or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose.

  15. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Zoltan; Yonco, Robert M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90.degree. in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

  16. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, H.; Melendres, C.A.

    1992-08-25

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90[degree] in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte. 5 figs.

  17. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Myles, K.M.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-02

    An electrochemical cell is described with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof. 8 figs.

  18. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Myles, Kevin M.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated .beta." alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated .beta." alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof.

  19. Energy Efficient Commercial Refrigeration with Carbon Dioxide Refrigerant and Scroll Expanders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieckmann, John

    2013-04-04

    Current supermarket refrigeration systems are built around conventional fluorocarbon refrigerants – HFC-134a and the HFC blends R-507 and R404A, which replaced the CFC refrigerants, R-12 and R-502, respectively, used prior to the Montreal Protocol phase out of ozone depleting substances. While the HFC refrigerants are non-ozone depleting, they are strong greenhouse gases, so there has been continued interest in replacing them, particularly in applications with above average refrigerant leakage. Large supermarket refrigeration systems have proven to be particularly difficult to maintain in a leak-tight condition. Refrigerant charge losses of 15% of total charge per year are the norm, making the global warming impact of refrigerant emissions comparable to that associated with the energy consumption of these systems.

  20. Electrochemical components employing polysiloxane-derived binders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2013-06-11

    A processed polysiloxane resin binder for use in electrochemical components and the method for fabricating components with the binder. The binder comprises processed polysiloxane resin that is partially oxidized and retains some of its methyl groups following partial oxidation. The binder is suitable for use in electrodes of various types, separators in electrochemical devices, primary lithium batteries, electrolytic capacitors, electrochemical capacitors, fuel cells and sensors.

  1. Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers (Appendix A1 after May 2, 2011) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers (Appendix A1 after May 2, 2011) Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers (Appendix A1 after May 2, 2011) The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement

  2. Commercial Refrigeration Equipment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Commercial Refrigeration Equipment The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Commercial Refrigeration Equipment -- v2.0 (87.25 KB)

  3. Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a new magnetic material that can be used at low temperatures (sub liquid hydrogen) for magnetic refrigerators. Description Magnetic refrigeration is being investigated as an alternative to conventional gas compressor technology for cooling and heating because of its potential to save energy and reduce operating costs. The potential

  4. Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryIowa State University and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a new magnetic material that can be used at low temperatures (sub liquid hydrogen) for magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigeration is

  5. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes. Quarterly MCLR Program technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szymurski, S.R.; Hourahan, G.C.; Godwin, D.S.; Amrane, K.

    1995-10-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC and HCFC refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. This report summarizes the research conducted during the third quarter of calendar year 1995 on the following projects: Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives; Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with HFC refrigerants and ester lubricants; Compatibility of motor materials used in air-conditioning for retrofits with alternative refrigerants and lubricants; Compatibility of lubricant additives with HFC refrigerants and synthetic lubricants; Products of motor burnouts; Accelerated test methods for predicting the life of motor materials exposed to refrigerant-lubricant mixtures; Investigation of flushing and clean-out methods; Investigation into the fractionation of refrigerant blends; Lean flammability limits as a fundamental refrigerant property; Effect of selected contaminants in AC and R equipment; Study of foaming characteristics; Study of lubricant circulation in systems; Evaluation of HFC-245ca for commercial use in low pressure chillers; Infrared analysis of refrigerant mixtures; Refrigerant database; Refrigerant toxicity survey; Thermophysical properties of HFC-32, HFC-123, HCFC-124 and HFC-125; Thermophysical properties of HFC-143a and HFC-152a; Theoretical evaluations of R-22 alternative fluids; Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals; Miscibility of lubricants with refrigerants; Viscosity, solubility and density measurements of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures; Electrohydrodynamic enhancement of pool and in-tube boiling of alternative refrigerants; Accelerated screening methods; and more.

  6. Miniaturized Air to Refrigerant Heat Exchangers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Improving Data Center Efficiency with Rack or Row...

  7. Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial refrigerators and freezers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  8. Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    efficiencies * compressor cycling * VFD or compressor staging required - Use of HFC ... Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Expander Compressor Oil free Motor (fixed speed) 1 2 3 4 5 8 ...

  9. High Effeiciency Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Project Integration and Collaboration Communications: Journal Articles * International Journal of Refrigeration, 46:86-99 (2014) (1 article) Conference Papers * ASHRAE Conference, ...

  10. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  11. Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions March 5, 2013 - 10:35am Addthis Refrigerator Standards Refrigerator Standards Refrigerator technology has come a long way since Dr. John Gorrie (1803 - 1855), a forward-looking inventor, was granted U. S. Patent #8080 for mechanical refrigeration in 1851. In those days, ice was expensive, if it was even available: Blocks of natural ice were carved from frozen lakes and rivers and stored in special

  12. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-29

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

  13. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-08-23

    An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

  14. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1984-01-01

    An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5-1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1-10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

  15. Alternative technologies for cooling and refrigeration equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matchett, J.

    1995-12-01

    Significant national and international attention has focused on the role that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) play in stratospheric ozone depletion. The Clean Air Act of 1990 calls for the production of the most harmful CFCs to completely cease by December 31, 1995. This production phaseout affects many CFC-refrigerants which are commonly used in commercial, residential, and industrial cooling processes. The production phaseout of CFCs will require owners of CFC-based refrigeration equipment to make plans to replace their equipment. Many equipment owners find themselves in a {open_quotes}rut{close_quotes}replacing CFCs with another chemical coolant, rather than a new cooling process. Since many of the chemical alternatives are structurally similar to CFCs (i.e., HCFCs, HFCs, and blends) they require minimal changes to current equipment. However, these substances are also believed to affect the global climate. Hence, they may not be the most environmentally sound alternative and probable are subject to other Federal regulations. There are other HVAC/R alternatives which are less environmentally damaging than these chemicals and may actually be more cost-effective and energy efficient and than the {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} CFC chemical substitutes. Alternative cooling technologies include absorption systems, desiccant cooling, evaporative cooling, and ammonia vapor compression. These alternative technologies are proven alternatives and are commercially available. Further, significant technological developments in recent years have made these technologies feasible alternatives for applications previously believed to be unacceptable. This paper describes these alternative technologies and the conditions in which they are viable alternatives to CFC-based equipment. Additionally, energy efficiency and life-cycle cost analysis considerations are addressed to provide a more completes analysis of cooling equipment alternatives.

  16. Electrochemical cell (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electrochemical cell An electrochemical cell having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated ...

  17. Electrochemical cell (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electrochemical cell An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali ...

  18. Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Impact Evaluation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators...

  19. Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser This report describes the first design of ...

  20. High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a residential refrigerator. Refrigerator-freezers are an essential part of residential and commercial buildings, with a total annual consumption of approximately 3,128 TBtuyear. ...

  1. American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers (ASHRAE) 2016 Annual Conference American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers ...

  2. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) OE Framework Document ...

  3. Pecharsky talks magnetic refrigeration with Forbes | The Ames...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pecharsky talks magnetic refrigeration with Forbes In a May 6 article, Forbes contributor Hillary Brueck writes about the race to develop magnetic refrigeration and interviewed...

  4. 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    6 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; ...

  5. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Warming Potential Refrigerants Mechanical Solutions, Inc.'s ultra-small centrifugal compressor concept will facilitate low-GWP refrigerant adoption.
    Photo Credit: Mechanical ...

  6. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems Image of the compressor rack and system ...

  7. CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: James Braun, Purdue ...

  8. Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial Applications Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial Applications Credit: S-RAM Credit: S-RAM Lead ...

  9. Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Refrigerators (Japan) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) Focus Area: Appliances & Equipment Topics: Policy...

  10. 2014-08-01 Issuance: Test Procedure for Refrigerated Bottled...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Test Procedure for Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and public meeting 2014-08-01 Issuance: Test Procedure for Refrigerated ...

  11. 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    0 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule This document ...

  12. WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Provides states with the approval to include refrigerator and electric water heater replacements as an allowable measure. PDF icon WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators ...

  13. Ames Lab-based consortium to research improving refrigeration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Lab-based consortium to research improving refrigeration technology Ames Tribune ... alternative environmentally-friendly and energy- efficient technologies in refrigeration. ...

  14. Ames Laboratory to lead new consortium to advance refrigeration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory to lead new consortium to advance refrigeration technology Ames Laboratory will ... friendly and energy-efficient refrigeration technologies, sponsored by DOE's ...

  15. 2016 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2016 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Winter Conference 2016 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning...

  16. DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements March 16, 2010 - 4:28pm Addthis...

  17. New Refrigeration Technology Could Substantially Cut Energy Use...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Refrigeration Technology Could Substantially Cut Energy Use New Refrigeration Technology Could Substantially Cut Energy Use April 1, 2016 - 11:40pm Addthis New Energy ...

  18. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  19. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  20. Final Scientific/Technical Report for DOE/EERE project Advanced Magnetic Refrigerant Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Francis

    2014-06-30

    A team led by GE Global Research developed new magnetic refrigerant materials needed to enhance the commercialization potential of residential appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners based on the magnetocaloric effect (a nonvapor compression cooling cycle). The new magnetic refrigerant materials have potentially better performance at lower cost than existing materials, increasing technology readiness level. The performance target of the new magnetocaloric material was to reduce the magnetic field needed to achieve 4 °C adiabatic temperature change from 1.5 Tesla to 0.75 Tesla. Such a reduction in field minimizes the cost of the magnet assembly needed for a magnetic refrigerator. Such a reduction in magnet assembly cost is crucial to achieving commercialization of magnetic refrigerator technology. This project was organized as an iterative alloy development effort with a parallel material modeling task being performed at George Washington University. Four families of novel magnetocaloric alloys were identified, screened, and assessed for their performance potential in a magnetic refrigeration cycle. Compositions from three of the alloy families were manufactured into regenerator components. At the beginning of the project a previously studied magnetocaloric alloy was selected for manufacturing into the first regenerator component. Each of the regenerators was tested in magnetic refrigerator prototypes at a subcontractor at at GE Appliances. The property targets for operating temperature range, operating temperature control, magnetic field sensitivity, and corrosion resistance were met. The targets for adiabatic temperature change and thermal hysteresis were not met. The high thermal hysteresis also prevented the regenerator components from displaying measurable cooling power when tested in prototype magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigerant alloy compositions that were predicted to have low hysteresis were not attainable with conventional alloy

  1. Commercial Refrigerator Door: Order (2013-CE-5351)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Commercial Refrigerator Door had failed to certify that a variety of models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  2. Magnetocaloric Refrigerator/Freezer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnetocaloric Refrigerator/Freezer Magnetocaloric Refrigerator/Freezer Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. <br /> Photo courtesy of General Electric Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. Photo courtesy of General Electric Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. <br /> Photo courtesy of General Electric Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: General Electric -

  3. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  4. North Star Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5355)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding North Star Refrigerator had failed to certify that any basic models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  5. Everest Refrigeration: Order (2015-SE-42001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Bu Sung America Corporation (dba Everest Refrigeration) to pay a $12,080 civil penalty after finding Bu Sung had manufactured and distributed in commerce in the U.S. at least 64 units of noncompliant commercial refrigerator basic model ESGR3.

  6. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  7. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A.; Young, Robert R.

    1985-01-01

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  8. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  9. Electrochemical supercapacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rudge, Andrew J.; Ferraris, John P.; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    1996-01-01

    A new class of electrochemical capacitors provides in its charged state a positive electrode including an active material of a p-doped material and a negative electrode including an active material of an n-doped conducting polymer, where the p-doped and n-doped materials are separated by an electrolyte. In a preferred embodiment, the positive and negative electrode active materials are selected from conducting polymers consisting of polythiophene, polymers having an aryl group attached in the 3-position, polymers having aryl and alkyl groups independently attached in the 3- and 4-positions, and polymers synthesized from bridged dimers having polythiophene as the backbone. A preferred electrolyte is a tetraalykyl ammonium salt, such as tetramethylammonium trifluoromethane sulphonate (TMATFMS), that provides small ions that are mobile through the active material, is soluble in acetonitrile, and can be used in a variety of capacitor configurations.

  10. LPG recovery from refinery flare by waste heat powered absorption refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, D.C.; Kelly, F.

    1998-07-01

    A waste heat powered ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit (ARU) has commenced operation at the Colorado Refining Company in Commerce City, Colorado. The ARU provides 85 tons of refrigeration at 30 F to refrigerate the net gas/treat gas stream, thereby recovering 65,000 barrels per year of LPG which formerly was flared or burned as fuel. The ARU is powered by the 290 F waste heat content of the reform reactor effluent. An additional 180 tons of refrigeration is available at the ARU to debottleneck the FCC plant wet gas compressors by cooling their inlet vapor. The ARU is directly integrated into the refinery processes, and uses enhanced, highly compact heat and mass exchange components. The refinery's investment will pay back in less than two years from increased recovery of salable product, and CO{sub 2} emissions are decreased by 10,000 tons per year in the Denver area.

  11. DOE Publishes Supplemental Proposed Determination for Miscellaneous Residential Refrigeration Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a supplemental proposed determination regarding miscellaneous residential refrigeration products.

  12. Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.

  13. Circulating heat exchangers for oscillating wave engines and refrigerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2003-10-28

    An oscillating-wave engine or refrigerator having a regenerator or a stack in which oscillating flow of a working gas occurs in a direction defined by an axis of a trunk of the engine or refrigerator, incorporates an improved heat exchanger. First and second connections branch from the trunk at locations along the axis in selected proximity to one end of the regenerator or stack, where the trunk extends in two directions from the locations of the connections. A circulating heat exchanger loop is connected to the first and second connections. At least one fluidic diode within the circulating heat exchanger loop produces a superimposed steady flow component and oscillating flow component of the working gas within the circulating heat exchanger loop. A local process fluid is in thermal contact with an outside portion of the circulating heat exchanger loop.

  14. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Middleton, Marc G.; Nelson, Richard T.

    1988-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  15. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  16. Method and apparatus for passive refrigerant retrieval and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Squire, D.C.

    1991-12-17

    This patent describes a method of retrieving and storing refrigerant from a cooling system being serviced of the type having a compressor for circulating a compressible refrigerant in a closed, pressurized system between a condenser and an evaporator to provide a cooling effect. It comprises: connecting one end of a refrigerant collector tube contained within a housing to the cooling system at the condenser outlet; connecting the interior of the housing to the compressor inlet; operating the cooling system compressor to pressurize refrigerant in the cooling system and pump the refrigerant into the collector tube; and discharging refrigerant from the collector tube into the housing interior through a metering valve where the refrigerant pressure is reduced and evaporates and cools the refrigerant remaining in the tube and the evaporated refrigerant is drawn into the compressor inlet whereby the refrigerant becomes trapped within the housing.

  17. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  18. EERE Success Story-Revolutionary Refrigeration Motor Slashes Supermarket

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Usage | Department of Energy Revolutionary Refrigeration Motor Slashes Supermarket Energy Usage EERE Success Story-Revolutionary Refrigeration Motor Slashes Supermarket Energy Usage June 7, 2016 - 11:40am Addthis QM Power discusses the company's new refrigeration motor with a supermarket. (Source: QM Power) QM Power discusses the company's new refrigeration motor with a supermarket. (Source: QM Power) Source: QM Power Source: QM Power QM Power discusses the company's new refrigeration

  19. DOE Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturers | Department of Energy Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturers DOE Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturers March 1, 2016 - 6:20pm Addthis DOE settled enforcement actions against Utility Refrigerator, True Manufacturing, and Victory Refrigeration for distributing commercial refrigeration equipment in the United States that do not meet applicable energy conservation standards. As a part of the

  20. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2012-07-19

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  1. DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Whirlpool's Maytag refrigerator-freezer model "MSD2578VE." The Department opened this investigation and requested...

  2. DOE Closes Investigation of Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Arcelik's Blomberg refrigerator-freezer model # BRFB1450. The Department opened this investigation based on a...

  3. International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that International Refrigeration Products failed to certify a various room air conditioners as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  4. Cospolich Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5314)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  5. REFRIGERATION ESPECIALLY FOR VERY LOW TEMPERATURES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, P.B.; Smith, H.R. Jr.

    1960-09-13

    A refrigeration system for producing very low temperatures is described. The system of the invention employs a binary mixture refrigerant in a closed constant volume, e.g., Freon and ethylene. Such mixture is compressed in the gaseous state and is then separated in a fractionating column element of the system. Thenceforth, the first liquid to separate is employed stagewise to cool and liq uefy successive portions of the refrigerant at successively lower temperatures by means of heat exchangers coupled between the successive stages. When shut down, all of the volumes of the system are interconnected and a portion of the refrigerant remains liquid at ambient temperatures so that no dangerous overpressures develop. The system is therefore rugged, simple and dependable in operation.

  6. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo

    2015-05-13

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO2 may perhaps have been themore » most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).« less

  7. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo

    2015-05-13

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO2 may perhaps have been the most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).

  8. Loveland Water & Power- Refrigerator Recycling Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Loveland Water & Power is providing an incentive for customers to recycle older, working refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old...

  9. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A; Sharma, Vishaldeep

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  10. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO2 may perhaps have been the most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).

  11. Refrigerator Manufacturers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5341)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  12. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  13. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Mitrovski, Svetlana M.

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  14. Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum; Wenning, Thomas J; Sever, Franc; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

  15. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  16. Electrochemical planarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.

    1993-10-26

    In a process for fabricating planarized thin film metal interconnects for integrated circuit structures, a planarized metal layer is etched back to the underlying dielectric layer by electropolishing, ion milling or other procedure. Electropolishing reduces processing time from hours to minutes and allows batch processing of multiple wafers. The etched back planarized thin film interconnect is flush with the dielectric layer. 12 figures.

  17. Electrochemical planarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Contolini, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    In a process for fabricating planarized thin film metal interconnects for integrated circuit structures, a planarized metal layer is etched back to the underlying dielectric layer by electropolishing, ion milling or other procedure. Electropolishing reduces processing time from hours to minutes and allows batch processing of multiple wafers. The etched back planarized thin film interconnect is flush with the dielectric layer.

  18. Recognized Leader in Electrochemical Purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric

    2013-11-20

    PNNL scientists developed an electrochemical method for purifying copper, a key material that makes possible radiation detection systems of unprecedented sensitivity. The method begins with the purest copper materials available, and results in the lowest-background copper in the world. Chemist Eric Hoppe explains the process.

  19. Recognized Leader in Electrochemical Purification

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric

    2014-07-24

    PNNL scientists developed an electrochemical method for purifying copper, a key material that makes possible radiation detection systems of unprecedented sensitivity. The method begins with the purest copper materials available, and results in the lowest-background copper in the world. Chemist Eric Hoppe explains the process.

  20. Estimates of Refrigerator Loads in Public Housing Based on Metered Consumption Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, JD; Pratt, RG

    1998-09-11

    metered in 1996 with a detailed protocol. Fifteen-minute time-series data of ambient and compartment temperatures and refrigerator power were analyzed and demonstrated the potential for reducing power records into three components. This motivated the development of an analysis process to divide the metered consumption into baseline load, occupant-associated load, and defrosting load. The baseline load is the consumption that would occur if the refrigerator were on but had no occupant usage load (no door-opening events) and the defrosting mechanism was disabled. The motivation behind this component reduction process was the hope that components could be more effectively modeled than the total. We reasoned that the components would lead to abetter (more general and more significant) understanding of the relationships between consumption, the characteristics of the refrigerator, and its operating environment.

  1. A comparative study on the environmental impact of supermarket refrigerations systems using low GWP refrigerants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Sharma, Vishaldeep; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems have high environmental impact due to their larage refrigerant charge and high leak rates. Consequently, the interest in using low GWP refrigerants such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and new refrigerant blends is increasing. In this paper, an open-source Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) framework is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of four supermarket refrigeration systems: a transcritical CO2 booster system, a cascase CO2/N-40 system, a combined secondary circuit with central DX N-40/L-40 system, and a baseline multiplex direct expansion system utilizing R-404A and N-40. The study is performed for different climates within the USAmore » using EnergyPlus to simulate the systems' hourl performance. Further analyses are presented such as parameters on the LCCP.« less

  2. A comparative study on the environmental impact of supermarket refrigeration systems using low GWP refrigerants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beshr, M.; Aute, V.; Sharma, V.; Abdelaziz, O.; Fricke, B.; Radermacher, R.

    2015-04-09

    Supermarket refrigeration systems have high environmental impact due to their large refrigerant charge and high leak rates. Consequently, the interest in using low GWP refrigerants such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and new refrigerant blends is increasing. In this study, an open-source Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) framework is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of four supermarket refrigeration systems: a transcritical CO2 booster system, a cascade CO2/N-40 system, a combined secondary circuit with central DX N-40/L-40 system, and a baseline multiplex direct expansion system utilizing R-404A and N-40. The study is performed for different climates within the USAmore » using EnergyPlus to simulate the systems' hourly performance. Finally, further analyses are presented such as parametric, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses to study the impact of different system parameters on the LCCP.« less

  3. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Doug; Castillo, Rafael; Larson, Kyle; Dobbs, Brian; Olsen, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  4. System and method for networking electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Mark C.; Wimer, John G.; Archer, David H.

    1995-01-01

    An improved electrochemically active system and method including a plurality of electrochemical devices, such as fuel cells and fluid separation devices, in which the anode and cathode process-fluid flow chambers are connected in fluid-flow arrangements so that the operating parameters of each of said plurality of electrochemical devices which are dependent upon process-fluid parameters may be individually controlled to provide improved operating efficiency. The improvements in operation include improved power efficiency and improved fuel utilization in fuel cell power generating systems and reduced power consumption in fluid separation devices and the like through interstage process fluid parameter control for series networked electrochemical devices. The improved networking method includes recycling of various process flows to enhance the overall control scheme.

  5. Refrigerant pressurization system with a two-phase condensing ejector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergander, Mark

    2009-07-14

    A refrigerant pressurization system including an ejector having a first conduit for flowing a liquid refrigerant therethrough and a nozzle for accelerating a vapor refrigerant therethrough. The first conduit is positioned such that the liquid refrigerant is discharged from the first conduit into the nozzle. The ejector includes a mixing chamber for condensing the vapor refrigerant. The mixing chamber comprises at least a portion of the nozzle and transitions into a second conduit having a substantially constant cross sectional area. The condensation of the vapor refrigerant in the mixing chamber causes the refrigerant mixture in at least a portion of the mixing chamber to be at a pressure greater than that of the refrigerant entering the nozzle and greater than that entering the first conduit.

  6. Proposed Methodology for LEED Baseline Refrigeration Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deru, M.

    2011-02-01

    This PowerPoint presentation summarizes a proposed methodology for LEED baseline refrigeration modeling. The presentation discusses why refrigeration modeling is important, the inputs of energy models, resources, reference building model cases, baseline model highlights, example savings calculations and results.

  7. Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? July 20, 2012 - 4:35pm Addthis Earlier this week, Amanda wrote about how you can save energy...

  8. DOE Resolves Avanti Refrigerator and Freezer Civil Penalty Case

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, the Department of Energy announced that it has resolved the civil penalty action against Mackle Company for its failure to certify that refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers sold under the...

  9. DOE Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    As a part of the settlement, Victory Refrigeration paid a civil penalty of 1,600 after manufacturing and distributing 8 units of commercial refrigerator-freezer model RFS-1D-S1-EW...

  10. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environments | Department of Energy Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments Performance of alternative refrigerants compared with R-22 (mineral oil) at extreme test conditions (outdoor temperature 55°C and indoor temperature 29°C). Image: ORNL. Performance of alternative refrigerants compared with R-22 (mineral oil) at extreme test conditions (outdoor temperature 55°C and