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1

Reformulated diesel fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Reformulated diesel fuels for automotive diesel engines which meet the requirements of ASTM 975-02 and provide significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) and particulate matter (PM) relative to commercially available diesel fuels.

McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

2

Reformulation Instead of Renormalizations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article I show why the fundamental constants obtain perturbative corrections in higher orders, why the renormalizations work and how to reformulate the theory in order to avoid these technical and conceptual complications. I demonstrate that the perturbative mass and charge corrections are caused exclusively with the kinetic nature of the interaction Lagrangian. As soon as it is not purely quantum mechanical (or QFT) specific feature, the problem can be demonstrated on a classical two-body problem. The latter can be solved in different ways, one of them being correct and good for applying the perturbation theory (if necessary) and another one being tricky and awkward. The first one is physically and technically natural - it is a center-of-inertia-and-relative-variable formulation. The second one - mixed variable formulation - is unnecessarily complicated and leads to the mass and charge corrections even in the Newtonian mechanics of two bound bodies. The perturbation theory in QFT is factually formulated in the mixed variables - that is why it brings corrections to the fundamental constants. This understanding opens a way of correctly formulating the QFT equations and thus to simplify the QFT calculations technically and conceptually. For example, in scattering problems in QED it means accounting exactly the quantized electromagnetic field influence in the free in and out states of charged particles so no infrared and ultraviolet problems arise. In bound states it means obtaining the energy corrections (the Lamb shift, the anomalous magnetic moment) quite straightforwardly and without renormalizations.

Vladimir Kalitvianski

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

3

Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0,InformationU.S.Feet)1,576 1,608Reformulated Gasoline

4

Interaction blending equations enhance reformulated gasoline profitability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction approach to gasoline blending gives refiners an accurate, simple means of re-evaluating blending equations and increasing profitability. With reformulated gasoline specifications drawing near, a detailed description of this approach, in the context of reformulated gasoline is in order. Simple mathematics compute blending values from interaction equations and interaction coefficients between mixtures. A timely example of such interactions is: blending a mixture of catalytically cracked gasoline plus light straight run (LSR) from one tank with alkylate plus reformate from another. This paper discusses blending equations, using interactions, mixture interactions, other blending problems, and obtaining equations.

Snee, R.D. (Joiner Associates, Madison, WI (United States)); Morris, W.E.; Smith, W.E.

1994-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

5

Agricultural productivity and industrialization: A reformulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agricultural productivity and industrialization: A reformulation Debasis Mondal Sept 20, 2014 Abstract In this paper we examine the role of agricultural productivity on the process of industrialization industrialization by releasing labor from agriculture to industry. In fact, when agriculture is highly productive

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

6

Towards CSP Model Reformulation at Multiple Levels of Abstraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Towards CSP Model Reformulation at Multiple Levels of Abstraction Alan M. Frisch 1 , Brahim Hnich 2Æcult at another. Therefore we argue that it is essential for a system for the auto- matic reformulation of CSPs individual CSP instances, could be augmented to reformulate models at various levels of abstraction and to re

Miguel, Ian

7

Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region.

Hadder, G.R.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOil and Natural8U.S. Energy83289Reformulated

9

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

10

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

11

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

12

An independent refiner`s approach to reformulated gasolines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Included in this paper are brief reviews of Ashland Petroleum Company`s renewable oxygenate (ethanol) usage, the latest CAA oxygenate supply and demand forecasts, oxygenated fuel and reformulated blending economics, some very brief comments on the EPA proposed renewable oxygenate standard (ROS), and Ashland`s approach to reformulated gasolines (RFG).

Czeskleba, H.M. [Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted query reformulation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

query reformulation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Predicting Query Reformulation During Web Searching Summary: and Assistance account for approximately 45 percent of all query...

14

Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Emissions. 2. Volatile Organic Compound Speciation and Reactivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

California Reformulated Gasoline On Motor Vehicle EmissionsCalifornia Reformulated Gasoline on Motor Vehicle EmmissionsBerkeley Environ. ScLTechnoL gasoline Impact California of

Kirchstetter, Thomas; Singer, Brett; Harley, Robert

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline On Motor Vehicle Emissions. 1. Mass Emission Rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

California reformulated gasoline on motor vehicle emissions.Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline OIl Motor Vehicleprogress, increased vehicle Gasoline Motor on Vehicle travel

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Model Reformulation and Design of Lithium-ion Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

987 94 Model Reformulation and Design of Lithium-ion Batteries V.R. Subramanian1,*, V. Boovaragavan Prediction......................................997 Optimal Design of Lithium-ion Batteries Lithium-ion batteries, product design, Bayesian estimation, Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation

Subramanian, Venkat

17

0101,"SPRAGUE ENERGY CORP",1,150,"MOGAS, REFORMULATED",0131,...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

101,"SPRAGUE ENERGY CORP",1,150,"MOGAS, REFORMULATED",0131,"PORTSMOUTH, NH","NH",100,260,"CANADA",240,0,0 0101,"SPRAGUE ENERGY CORP",2,462,"DIST, > 0.05% SUL (DOM.)",0401,"BOSTON,...

18

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

19

Thermodynamic aspects of reformulation of automotive fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of procedures for measuring and predicting the RVP and the initial vapor emissions of reformulated gasoline blends which contain one or more oxygenated compounds, viz., Ethanol, MTBE, ETBE, and TAME is discussed. Two computer simulation methods were programmed and tested. In one method, Method A, the D-86 distillation data on the blend are used for predicting the blend`s RVP from a simulation of the Mini RVPE (RVP Equivalent) experiment. The other method, Method B, relies on analytical information (PIANO analyzes) on the nature of the base gasoline and utilizes classical thermodynamics for simulating the same RVPE, Mini experiment. Method B, also, predicts the composition and other properties of the initial vapor emission from the fuel. The results indicate that predictions made with both methods agree very well with experimental values. The predictions with Method B illustrate that the admixture of an oxygenate to a gasoline blend changes the volatility of the blend and, also, the composition of the vapor emission. From the example simulations, a blend with 10 vol % ethanol increases the RVP by about 0.8 psi. The accompanying vapor emission will contain about 15% ethanol. Similarly, the vapor emission of a fuel blend with 11 vol % MTBE was calculated to contain about 11 vol % MTBE. Predictions of the behavior of blends with ETBE and ETBE+Ethanol are also presented and discussed. Recognizing that quite some efforts have been invested in developing empirical correlations for predicting RVP, the writers consider the purpose of this paper to be pointing out that the methods of classical thermodynamics are adequate and that there is a need for additional work in developing certain fundamental data that are still lacking.

Zudkevitch, D. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Murthy, A.K.S. [BOC Gases, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Gmehling, J. [Univ. Oldenburg (Germany)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S., LLNL

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

61.5 70.8 92.7 90.7 81.5 72.8 - 78.0 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

23

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

62.6 71.7 92.3 89.9 82.6 72.7 - 78.2 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

24

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

2001-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

25

Clearing the Air: The Clean Air Act, GATT and the WTO's Reformulated Gasoline Decision  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, 5 MwIN. J. GLOBALReformulated and Conventional Gasoline, 35 I.L.M. 274, 277 (regulations governing gasoline formulation to ensure that

McCrory, Martin A.; Richards, Eric L.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

AN EFFICIENT REFORMULATION BASED VLSI ARCHITECTURE FOR ADAPTIVE VITERBI DECODING IN WIRELESS APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN EFFICIENT REFORMULATION BASED VLSI ARCHITECTURE FOR ADAPTIVE VITERBI DECODING IN WIRELESS dictated the need for dynamical adaptation of communication sys- tems in order to suit enviromental requirements. The au- thors present a reformulation based VLSI architecture for threhold selection for Adaptive

Arslan, Tughrul

27

Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.3 3.4 7.9 3.3 W 11.3 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

28

Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

92.4 92.1 83.7 74.1 W 80.9 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

29

Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

92.8 92.5 84.0 72.5 W 80.7 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

30

Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.6 3.7 7.9 3.1 W 11.0 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

31

A Simply Constrained Optimization Reformulation of KKT Systems Arising from Variational Inequalities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions can be regarded as optimality conditions for both variational inequalities and constrained optimization problems. In order to overcome some drawbacks of recently proposed reformulations of KKT systems, we propose casting KKT systems as a minimization problem with nonnegativity constraints on some of the variables. We prove that, under fairly mild assumptions, every stationary point of this constrained minimization problem is a solution of the KKT conditions. Based on this reformulation, a new algorithm for the solution of the KKT conditions is suggested and shown to have some strong global and local convergence properties.

Facchinei, F. [Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Via Buonarroti 12, I-00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: soler@dis.uniroma1.it; Fischer, A. [Department of Mathematics, University of Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)], E-mail: fischer@math.uni-dortmund.de; Kanzow, C. [Institute of Applied Mathematics, University of Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 55, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: kanzow@math.uni-hamburg.de; Peng, J.-M. [State Key Laboratory of Scientific and Engineering Computing, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing, 100080 (China)], E-mail: pjm@lsec.cc.ac.cn

1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Efficient Reformulation of Solid-Phase Diffusion in Physics-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient Reformulation of Solid-Phase Diffusion in Physics-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models or approximation for the solid phase. One of the major difficulties in simulating Li-ion battery models is the need typically solve electrolyte con- centration, electrolyte potential, solid-state potential, and solid-state

Subramanian, Venkat

33

Automatic Reformulation of Children's Search Queries Maarten van Kalsbeek, Joost de Wit, Dolf Trieschnigg,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Terms Algorithms, Human Factors, Design Keywords Automatic Query Expansion, Search Behavior, 1 children may make. Most of the search engines offer only the possibility to enter a Boolean queryAutomatic Reformulation of Children's Search Queries Maarten van Kalsbeek, Joost de Wit, Dolf

Hiemstra, Djoerd

34

Parameter Estimation and Capacity Fade Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Reformulated Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parameter Estimation and Capacity Fade Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Reformulated Models and characterize capacity fade in lithium-ion batteries. As a comple- ment to approaches to mathematically model been made in developing lithium-ion battery models that incor- porate transport phenomena

Subramanian, Venkat

35

PRESY: A Context Based Query Reformulation Tool for Information Retrieval on the Web  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Problem Statement: The huge number of information on the web as well as the growth of new inexperienced users creates new challenges for information retrieval. It has become increasingly difficult for these users to find relevant documents that satisfy their individual needs. Certainly the current search engines (such as Google, Bing and Yahoo) offer an efficient way to browse the web content. However, the result quality is highly based on uses queries which need to be more precise to find relevant documents. This task still complicated for the majority of inept users who cannot express their needs with significant words in the query. For that reason, we believe that a reformulation of the initial user's query can be a good alternative to improve the information selectivity. This study proposes a novel approach and presents a prototype system called PRESY (Profile-based REformulation SYstem) for information retrieval on the web. Approach: It uses an incremental approach to categorize users by constructing a c...

Bouramoul, Abdelkrim; Doan, Bich-Lien; 10.3844/jcssp.2010.470.477

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Refinery fuel oxygenates in view of the complex model for reformulated gasline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The final version of the Complex Model for reformulated gasoline (RFG) has now been issued with some surprising features that will significantly affect refinery fuel oxygenates planning. These include the following: (1) The only oxygenates included in the model are MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and Ethanol. (2) The Complex Model calculates that MTBE and TAME are significantly more effective for reduction of air toxics emissions than Ethanol and ETBE. (3) The Complex Model calculates that MTBE and TAME typically produce about equal reduction in air toxics emissions at the same RFG oxygen content. Although gasoline certification by the Complex Model is optional prior to 1998, after 1998 it will be mandatory for both reformulated and conventional gasolines. This paper considers refinery oxygenates production in view of these features of the Complex Model for RFG, basing the discussion on 2.0 weight percent oxygen content for RFG.

Crawford, C.D.; Haelsig, C.P. [Fluor Daniel, Irvine, CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

37

The Energy Information Administration`s assessment of reformulated gasoline. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains EIA`s findings and analyses on reformulated gasoline as it affects the petroleum industry. The data contained herein should assist members of the Congress, Federal, State and local governments, analysts, researchers, the media and academia to understand the RFG program and the current status of implementation. This second volume contains 10 appendices that include letter from Congressman Dingell, survey results, survey forms, and historical summary data. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are printed in Volumes 1 and 2.

NONE

1994-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

38

The Energy Information Administration`s assessment of reformulated gasoline. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains EIA`s findings and analyses on reformulated gasoline as it affects the petroleum industry. The data contained herein should assist members of the Congress, Federal, State and local governments, analysts, researchers, the media and academia to understand the RFG program and the current status of implementation. The second volume contains 10 appendices that include letter from Congressman Dingell, survey results, survey forms, and historical summary data. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are printed in Volumes 1 and 2.

NONE

1994-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

39

,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click

40

The Energy Information Administration`s assessment of reformulated gasoline: An update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report (Part II) concludes a two part study of The Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) assessment of Reformulated Gasoline (RFG). The data contained herein updates EIA`s previous findings and analyses on reformulated gasoline as it affects the petroleum industry. The major findings of Part II have not changed considerably from Part I: Supplies of RFG are adequate to meet demand, but a tight supply-demand balance exists, leaving the RFG system with little ability to absorb unexpected supply or delivery system disruption. In December 1994, the estimated demand for RFG was 2.6 million barrels per day, with the production capability just meeting this demand. The study concludes that current prices for RFG are consistent with the costs underlying the product, and the difference in RFG and conventional gasoline indicates confidence in supply. The study also follows the impact of recent events such as: postponement of the Renewable Oxygenate Standard, the decision to require importers to use the U.S. average baseline for limiting emissions, the disruption of the Colonial Pipeline in Texas, and Pennsylvania`s request to opt-out of the RFG program.

Not Available

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Hyperbolic reformulation of a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model and ADER finite volume schemes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The applicability of ADER finite volume methods to solve hyperbolic balance laws with stiff source terms in the context of well-balanced and non-conservative schemes is extended to solve a one-dimensional blood flow model for viscoelastic vessels, reformulated as a hyperbolic system, via a relaxation time. A criterion for selecting relaxation times is found and an empirical convergence rate assessment is carried out to support this result. The proposed methodology is validated by applying it to a network of viscoelastic vessels for which experimental and numerical results are available. The agreement between the results obtained in the present paper and those available in the literature is satisfactory. Key features of the present formulation and numerical methodologies, such as accuracy, efficiency and robustness, are fully discussed in the paper.

Montecinos, Gino I.; Müller, Lucas O.; Toro, Eleuterio F.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Reformulation of DFT+U as a pseudo-hybrid Hubbard density functional Luis A. Agapito,1, 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the true energy of the many-body system of the electrons and the approxi- mate energy that we can computeReformulation of DFT+U as a pseudo-hybrid Hubbard density functional Luis A. Agapito,1, 2 Stefano have seen two competing approaches unfold to address these problems: DFT+U and hybrid exact exchange

Curtarolo, Stefano

43

Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines (RFG) are estimated. Both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components are included. The effects on energy and crude oil use of using various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis illustrates that production of RFG requires more total energy than that of conventional gasoline but uses less crude oil. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than RFG with MTBE or ETBE. A specific proposal by the EPA designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over that for the base RFG with MTBE.

Singh, M. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States); McNutt, B. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Disposition, metabolism, and toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether, an oxygenate for reformulated gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of the toxicology of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were reviewed as a possible information base for evaluating the health effects of evaporative emissions from reformulated gasoline (RFG). Perirenal fat/blood MTBE concentration ratios ranged from 9.7 to 11.6 after 15 wk of intermittent exposure. During an oxyfuels program in Fairbanks, AK, blood levels of occupationally exposed workers were 0.2-31.5 {mu}g/L MTBE and 1.6 to 72.2 {mu}g/L TBA with a mean TBA:MTBE blood concentration ratio of 4.2. In patients who received MTBE by percutaneous, transhepatic puncture for the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones, concentrations of MTBE in fat tissue reached 60 and 300 {mu}g/g at a treatment time when mean blood MTBE was less than 20 {mu}g/ml. The results of laboratory and clinical studies indicate that metabolites of MTBE may contribute to the nephropathy, neoplasms, and other pathological changes associated with repeated exposure to MTBE in experimental animals. It is concluded that such studies can provide a well-defined database for quantitatitive safety comparisons and health risk-benefit analyses of MTBE and other oxygenates in RFG. 39 refs., 1 tab.

Hutcheon, D.E.; Hove, W. ten; Boyle, J. III [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States)] [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States); Arnold, J.D. [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)] [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1996-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

45

A reformulated, reconstituted water for testing the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Toxicity testing with the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, has routinely been conducted using nonstandard waters. Four waters were tested for acceptability for aqueous reference toxicant testing with H. azteca. These included three formulated (standardized) waters: moderately hard reconstituted water (MHRW), reformulated moderately hard reconstituted water (RMHRW), and 25% dilute mineral water (DMW). The water used for comparison was a nonstandard, in-house culture water mixture of well water and dechlorinated tap water, diluted with Super-Q{reg_sign} deionized water to a hardness of 100 mg/L, as CaCO{sub 3} (LL/SQ). Control survival was less than the 90% minimum control survival criteria in all tests with MHRW. Two of five tests with DMW also failed to pass the minimum control survival criteria. All five tests with the RMHRW passed the control survival criteria. The mean 50% lethal concentration (LC50) for the tests in RMHRW was 320 mg/L KCl, with a coefficient of variation of 8.5%. Concurrent tests with the in-house water yielded control survival greater than 90% and a mean LC50 of 216 mg/L KCl with a coefficient of variation of 13.4%. Tests in an interlaboratory study yielded similar results. Whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted using RMHRW as the overlying water routinely exceed the 80% minimum survival criteria in the control and reference sediments. The failure of MHRW and DMW to produce acceptable results, as well as the inability of other laboratories to produce LL/SQ, makes RMHRW the best candidate for a standard water for H. azteca testing.

Smith, M.E.; Herrin, L.E.; Thoeny, W.T. [SBI Environmental, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lazorchak, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Brewer-Swartz, S. [EMPE, Nashville, TN (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

Tyson, K.S.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Electromagnetism 70006 Answers to Problem Set 9 Spring 2006 1. Jackson Prob. 5.1: Reformulate the Biot-Savart law in terms of the solid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electromagnetism 70006 Answers to Problem Set 9 Spring 2006 1. Jackson Prob. 5.1: Reformulate series by the replacement d |z|. (e) For a Helmholtz coil one sets b = a. With this choice the terms-2 the limit is 0.305. Below is a figure showing the variation of Bz on the axis between two coils located

Johnson, Walter R.

48

Impact of the renewable oxygenate standard for reformulated gasoline on ethanol demand, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To assure a place for renewable oxygenates in the national reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) for RFG. It is assumed that ethanol derived from corn will be the only broadly available renewable oxygenate during Phase I of the RFG program. This report analyzes the impact that the ROS could have on the supply of ethanol, its transported volume, and its displacement from existing markets. It also considers the energy and crude oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could result from the production and use of various RFGs that could meet the ROS requirements. The report concludes that on the basis of current and projected near-term ethanol capacity, if ethanol is the only available renewable oxygenate used to meet the requirements of the ROS, diversion of ethanol from existing use as a fuel is likely to be necessary. Year-round use of ethanol and ETBE would eliminate the need for diversion by reducing winter demand for ethanol. On an RFG-program-wide basis, using ethanol and ETBE to satisfy the ROS can be expected to slightly reduce fossil energy use, increase crude oil use, and have essentially no effect on GHG emissions or total energy use relative to using RFG oxygenated only with MTBE.

Stork, K.C.; Singh, M.K.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Reformulated Gasoline Complex Model  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0,InformationU.S.Feet)1,576 1,608

50

Stocks of Reformulated Gasoline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael Schaal Director, Oil and10:InformationSteam Weekly55,00341

51

23 Reformulated Fuels and Related Issues REFORMULATED FUELS AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reduced benzene, lower Reid vapor pressure (RVP) specifications, added oxygenates, and heavy metal with the greatest ozone pollution and additional areas around the country which have voluntarily opted pollutants by 15 to 19 percent from 1990 levels. This fuel is required in the nine areas, nationwide

52

Reformulations in Mathematical Programming: Symmetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dec 3, 2008 ... ... group where no AMPL presolved alternative is explicitly given might ..... fuel. 15

2008-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

53

Reformulations in Mathematical Programming: Symmetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dec 3, 2008 ... ... is supported by the Mathematical Programming Society and by the Optimization Technology Center. Mathematical Programming Society.

Leo Liberti

2008-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

54

Reformulated diesel fuel and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for mathematically identifying at least one diesel fuel suitable for combustion in an automotive diesel engine with significantly reduced emissions and producible from known petroleum blendstocks using known refining processes, including the use of cetane additives (ignition improvers) and oxygenated compounds.

McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

55

PERSPECTIVE REFORMULATION AND APPLICATIONS 1 ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ria and Soares characterize the closure of the convex hull of the union of ...... solve. We performed a small experiment designed to test the impact of the.

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

56

Semidefinite Programming Reformulation of Completely Positive ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mar 6, 2014 ... (b) In Section 3, we provide a technique to extend a rank one ...... records of annual values of different natural phenomena such as .... where the agents are asked to identify their most preferred alternative. .... MNL and MNP, MNL and SDP, SDP and MNP across the 100 instances are provided in Table 1.

2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

57

mathematical programs with cardinality constraints: reformulation by ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

matical programs which are typically solved by global techniques from ... introduced here yield a nonlinear program whose structure is very similar to a math-.

2015-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

58

Perspective Reformulations of Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programs ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract. We study mixed integer nonlinear programs (MINLP)s that are ... earlier work of Ceria and Soares (1999) as well as recent work by Frangioni and ...

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

59

Completely Positive Reformulations for Polynomial Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page 1 ... J. C. Vera. Tilburg School of Economics and Management, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands. E-mail: j.c.veralizcano@tilburguniversity.

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

60

Reformulated Gasoline Sales to End Users Prices  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising ScienceRecent SRELRecyclingProjects &Lack ofNumber

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Reformulated Gasoline Sales to End Users Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998throughThousand CubicWashington Natural Gas Exports2.References979

62

Retail Prices for Regular Gasoline - Reformulated Areas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 Resource Program September 2010 B O N N E V I LInitiatives347685

63

Re-formulation of combined system wave-function formalism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a formulation of combined systems in orthodox non-relativistic quantum mechanics, mathematically equivalent to the usual one. For context and larger issues, see http://euclid.unh.edu/~jjohnson/axiomatics.html and http://arxiv.org/quant-ph/0502124

Joseph F. Johnson

2006-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

64

Improving the Efficiency of Reasoning Through StructureBased Reformulation #  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that have overlap in content, and that may even have different reasoning engines. Fur­ thermore, we in this abstract appeared in [2]. 1 In this paper, every set of axioms is a theory (and vice versa). #12; engine pump (4) man f ill # on pump (5) ¬water#¬ok boiler#¬on boiler#steam (6) water # ¬steam (7) ok boiler

Amir, Eyal

65

Improving the Efficiency of Reasoning Through Structure-Based Reformulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that have overlap in content, and that may even have different reasoning engines. Fur- thermore, we in this abstract appeared in [2]. 1 In this paper, every set of axioms is a theory (and vice versa). #12;engine) man fill on pump (5) ¬water¬ok boiler¬on boilersteam (6) water ¬steam (7) ok boiler ¬steam (8

McIlraith, Sheila

66

The Markov Reformulation Theorem Michael Kassoff and Michael Genesereth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

constraints as sets of valid database histories. A Markov constraint is a dynamic constraint across two on each individual state, independent of the rest of the database history, it is a static constraint that must hold true across two or more states of a database. "Salaries never de- crease" and "once a student

Pratt, Vaughan

67

Reformulation of a model for hierarchical divisive graph modularity ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agarwal, G., & Kempe, D. (2008). Modularity-maximizing graph communities via mathematical program- ming. The European Physical Journal B - Condensed ...

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

Reformulation and Sampling to Solve a Stochastic Network ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jan 31, 2006 ... “A large-scale deterministic equivalent binary integer program may be ...... Examining our (preliminary) attempts and the statistical bounds. 21 ...

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

69

Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sup) # Sup Squared Crude Oil Price Constant Years of Datafactors using the price of crude oil (Cushings, O K ) . AsN and N-squared. The price of crude oil is a significant and

Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Effective reformulations of the truss topology design problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

find a truss that is as light as possible and satisfies the equilibrium conditions. ..... (D(?, ˆ?))L?I0 ensures (together with vI+ = 0) the satisfaction of the constraint quali- ..... of these solutions (i.e., function G(t, u)) depends on user's preferences.

0000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Automatic Dantzig-Wolfe Reformulation of Mixed Integer Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sep 20, 2012 ... identifying a score to estimate the quality of a decomposition: after .... literature lately; we show experimentally that this phenomenon is very ...... decompositions, corresponding to the four quartiles in such a ranking; in Table 1.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regulation and Arbitrage in Wholesale Gasoline Markets,Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices JenniferCONTENT REGULATION AND WHOLESALE GASOLINE PRICES by Jennifer

Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Reformulation versus cutting-planes for robust optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

simple and comparable to other constraint generation methods. The method ...... matical Programming Society COAL Newsletter 13, 10–12 (1985). 13. Goh, J.

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

74

A Decade of Progress in Constraint Modelling and Reformulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Automation Alan M Frisch Artificial Intelligence Group Dept of Computer Science University ofYork 1 #12 Languages: Direct Systems · Inherited from GAMS and MGG mathematical programming languages. Later AMPL to be specified separately. This is used to specify instances. t = 12 1. Base Case: 2. Parameterise: 3. Lift: 10

St Andrews, University of

75

Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Heterogeneity in U.S. Gasoline Prices, working paper,and J. M . Perloff, 2002. Gasoline Price Differences: Taxes,Gardner, K.W. , 2004. U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil

Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

U.S. Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption by sector Transportation EnergyGlossary7,148.4 9,536.6 9,271.5

77

U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption by sector Transportation EnergyGlossary7,148.4 9,536.6

78

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.257 Estimation Results66.14.6 73.9

79

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.257 Estimation Results66.14.6

80

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.257 Estimation Results66.14.684.5

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.257 Estimation

82

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.257 Estimation59.5 58.9 54.4 42.1

83

Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9, 2015Year109 AppendixCosts ofMarch2Q)4(82)6)k(STEO) ï‚·

84

DOE Awarded Patent for Reformulated Diesel Fuel | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power Systems EngineeringDepartmentSmartDepartment of Energy 2010 FederalupAwarded Patent for

85

Towards Multidocument Summarization by Reformulation: Progress and Prospects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was devastated by a car bomb in Oklahoma City on April 19th 1995. Around 250 people are still unaccounted for

Barzilay, Regina

86

Refiner and Blender Net Production of Reformulated Gasoline  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0,InformationU.S.Feet)1,576 1,608 1,551 1,588

87

Solving Bilevel Mixed Integer Program by Reformulations and ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bilevel formulation [34] where the lower-level DM is assumed to against her by choosing the least favorable one. In this paper, we follow the majority of existing ...

2014-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

88

Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1996 ... 83.4 83.0 78.8 69.8 67.7 73.8 92.4 92.1 83.7 74.1 W 80.9 1997 January ... 82.4 82.1 77.1 74.3 73.6 75.6 92.1 91.8 82.7...

89

Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1996 January ... 71.4 71.0 67.6 59.2 56.0 63.1 80.9 80.6 72.3 63.8 - 69.9 February ... 72.2 71.7 67.8 59.8 56.8 63.2 81.3 81.0 73.1 64.2 -...

90

Exact Computation of Emergy Based on a Reformulation of the Rules of Emergy Algebra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

`emes Energ´etiques et Environnement c Dpt. Automatique-Productique Abstract The emergy algebra is based is associated with the co-product problem. The addition is linked with the split prob- lem or more generaly

Boyer, Edmond

91

Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules (Released in the STEO January 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On August 27, 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated revised the rules that allow foreign refiners to establish and use individual baselines, but it would not be mandatory (the optional use of an individual refinery baseline is not available to domestic refiners.) If a foreign refiner did not establish and use an individual baseline, the gasoline they export to the United States would be regulated through the importer, and subject to the importer's baseline (most likely the statutory baseline). Specific regulatory provisions are implemented to ensure that the option to use an individual baseline would not lead to adverse environmental impacts. This involves monitoring the average quality of imported gasoline, and if a specified benchmark is exceeded, remedial action would be taken by adjusting the requirements applicable to imported gasoline.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Mathematical Model Reformulation for Lithium-Ion Battery Simulations: Galvanostatic Boundary Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ion battery which has been converted to a one-dimensional 1D model using approxi- mations for solid-state listed elsewhere Electrochem. Solid-State Lett., 10, A225 2007 can be carried out to expedite of charge, state of health, and other parameters of lithium-ion batteries in millisec- onds. Rigorous

Subramanian, Venkat

93

Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program (Released in the STEO June 1999)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Section 107(d) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990 (the Act), required states to identify all areas that do not meet the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone, and directed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to designate these areas as ozone nonattainment areas. Section 181 of the Act required EPA to classify each area as a marginal, moderate, serious, severe or extreme ozone nonattainment area. EPA classified all areas that were designated as in nonattainment for ozone at the time of the enactment of the 1990 Amendments, except for certain "nonclassifiable" areas (56 FR 56694, November 6, 1991).

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Efficient Simulation and Reformulation of Lithium-Ion Battery Models for Enabling Electric Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improving the efficiency and utilization of battery systems can increase the viability and cost-effectiveness of existing technologies for electric vehicles (EVs). Developing smarter battery management systems and advanced ...

Northrop, Paul W. C.

95

Parameter Estimation and Capacity Fade Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Reformulated Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many researchers have worked to develop methods to analyze and characterize capacity fade in lithium-ion batteries. As a complement to approaches to mathematically model capacity fade that require detailed understanding ...

Braatz, Richard D.

96

P2P query reformulation over BothasView data transformation rules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Alexandra Poulovassilis 2 1 Dept. of Computing, Imperial College, Univ. of London, pjm@doc.ic.ac.uk 2 School

McBrien, Peter

97

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline On Motor Vehicle Emissions. 1. Mass Emission Rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

propane standard. Methane,MTBE, speciated and NMHC concentrations were determined following the pro-

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Efficient Reformulation of Solid-Phase Diffusion in Physics-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the solid phase. Introduction Physics based Li-ion battery models use porous electrode theory. One and their drawbacks Porous electrode models of Li-ion batteries often use approximations to eliminate the time and disadvantages when used in Li-ion battery models. For instance, the Duhamel's superposition method is the robust

Subramanian, Venkat

100

Reconstituting Lives: Somali Women's Efforts to Reformulate Household and Community Values in Kansas City, Missouri  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distributed in space and time. The concept of phenomenology as a platform for social life (Schutz and Luckmann 1973) is demonstrated in the volume Mistrusting Refugees (Daniel and Knudsen 1995). The authors examine the relationship of the abuse of power... values in the diaspora. Building on the three inquiries, the research extends explorations concerning health within the context of forced migration where issues of continuity and gender are central. The forces of power, privilege, and prestige shape...

Filippi-Franz, Melissa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.257 272Production3 January3

102

Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.257 272Production3 January3

103

Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.257 272Production3 January3 1995

104

Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.257 272Production3 January3 1995

105

Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.257 272Production3 January3

106

Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.257 272Production33 January3

107

Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.257 272Production33 January3

108

Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.257 272Production33 January3

109

Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.257 272Production33 January3

110

Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.257 272Production33 January31996

111

Generation of query-biased concepts using content and structure for query reformulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chang,Y-J. Wang,J. Lalmas,M. 13th International Conference on Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems (NLDB2008), London pp 136-141 LNCS, Springer

Chang, Y-J.; Wang, J.; Lalmas, M.

112

,"U.S. Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.

113

A Context-based Model for Web Query Reformulation Ounas Asfari, Bich-Lin Doan, Yolaine Bourda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.asfari@supelc.fr, bich-lien.doan@supelec.fr, yolaine.bourda@supelec.fr Jean-Paul Sansonnet LIMSI-CNRS, University of the user is a real challenge in the Web Search, owing to the increase of heterogeneous resources on the web

Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

114

Personalized Access to Information by Query Reformulation Based on the State of the Current Task and User Profile  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/Department of Computer Science University of Paris-Sud 11 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex, France Ounas.Asfari@supelec.fr, Bich-Lien information from secondary information or even noise. Present search engines generally handle search queries, is another solution to overcome the previous problem. Studies on personalized search have focused

Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

115

Parameter Estimation and Capacity Fade Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using First-Principles-Based Efficient Reformulated Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parameter Estimation and Capacity Fade Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using First parameters of lithium-ion batteries are estimated using a first-principles electrochemical engineering model and understanding of lithium-ion batteries using physics-based first-principles models. These models are based

Subramanian, Venkat

116

untitled  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Formulation, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Conventional Reformulated Total Conventional Reformulated...

117

ORNL/TM-2002/225 Estimating Impacts of Diesel Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORNL/TM-2002/225 Estimating Impacts of Diesel Fuel Reformulation with Vector-based Blending IMPACTS OF DIESEL FUEL REFORMULATION WITH VECTOR-BASED BLENDING G. R. Hadder Transportation Technology

118

Optimization Online - Mathematical Programs with Cardinality ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jul 19, 2014 ... Mathematical Programs with Cardinality Constraints: Reformulation by Complementarity-type Constraints and a Regularization Method.

Oleg Burdakov

2014-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

119

Clearing the Air? The Effects of Gasoline Content Regulation on Air Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulationand Wholesale Gasoline Prices,” Journal of Environmentaland Heterogeneity in U.S. Gasoline Prices,” Journal of

Auffhammer, Maximilian; Kellogg, Ryan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

--No Title--  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

30. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Optimization Online - Information Relaxation Bounds for Infinite ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sep 6, 2014 ... ... that allows for reformulations of the underlying state transition function. ... Category 3: Applications -- OR and Management Sciences ...

David Brown

2014-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

122

The Development of a Hydrothermal Method for Slurry Feedstock Preparation for Gasification Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reactor for the Study of Biomass Pyrolysis Chemistry at Highmineral matter on biomass pyrolysis characteristics. Fuel,Puigjaner, Kinetics of Biomass Pyrolysis: ? a Reformulated

He, Wei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

E-Print Network 3.0 - actions human reliability Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

human reliability Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: actions human reliability Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Reformulating Human...

124

Linear equalities in blackbox optimization ?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 28, 2014 ... extensions to treat problems with linear equalities whose expression is known. The main idea consists in reformulating the optimization ...

Mathilde Peyrega

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

125

Optimization and homotopy methods for the Gibbs free energy of ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 31, 2011 ... Abstract: In this paper we consider a mathematical model for magmatic mixtures based on the Gibbs free energy. Different reformulations of the ...

Andrea Cassioli

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Formulation, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Conventional Oxygenated Reformulated Total Conventional...

127

Perspective Envelopes for Bilinear Functions - Optimization Online  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Springer Science & Business. Media (2006) .... 197–209 (1990). 41. Smith, E., Pantelides, C.: A symbolic reformulation/spatial branch-and-bound algo- rithm for

H. Hijazi

2015-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

128

1616.ps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this section we revisit the MIP reformulation of (PSC) introduced by Saxena et al. [8] ..... For each one of the ten block sizes we generated four prob-.

129

EXPLOITING STRUCTURAL DYNAMISM IN FUNCTIONAL HYBRID MODELLING FOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is that of a breaking pendulum as dis- cussed in the Modelica tutorial [5, pp. 31­33], where a causal reformulation enough in languages like Modelica. Howe

Nilsson, Henrik

130

Mississippi State University Wins DOE and GM Challenge X 2008...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

into GM vehicles and powered by a variety of alternative fuels including B20 biodiesel, E85 ethanol, reformulated gasoline, and hydrogen. GM, DOE, and the Canadian...

131

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) Geographic Area Month Conventional Reformulated Sales to End Users...

132

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Month Regular Midgrade Sales to End...

133

ARE Update Volume 13, Number 5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Quality by Reformulating Gasoline: How California Got Itthe composition of gasoline have resulted in significantIn one particular set of gasoline regulations targeted at

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Robustness in Combinatorial Optimization and Scheduling Theory ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ten years in the area of combinatorial optimization and scheduling theory .... with robust reformulation of optimization model by adapting robust control ...

2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

135

A Modified Prony Algorithm for Fitting Functions Defined by Difference Equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National University, Canberra 2601, Australia. Department of Mathematics, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4067, Australia. 1 #12;1 Introduction This paper reformulates, generalizes and investigates

Smyth, Gordon K.

136

432.ps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and can be solved faster. We apply these ideas to reformulate two well-known workforce ... as workforce scheduling or production planning. Typically, the model

137

Comput Optim Appl (2012) 51:199221 DOI 10.1007/s10589-010-9341-7  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the lifted reformulation of mathematical programs with complementarity constraints A.F. Izmailov · A constraints, where by introducing an artificial variable the constraints are con- verted into equalities which are once but not twice differentiable. We show that the Lagrange optimality system of such a reformulation

Solodov, Mikhail V.

138

Column Generation for Extended Formulations - Optimization Online  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jul 8, 2011 ... reformulation in order to define a good quality outer approximation of the .... extends to the case where one only has a good reformulation in an ..... by inspection. ..... the formulation is kept under control by way of managing its variables .... ming solution as a hyper-path (associated to a unit flow incoming to

2011-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

139

WHO'S AFRAID OF MICHELLE: FORCING THE FEMININE STYLE TO RECAST OBAMA'S IDENTITY DURING THE 2008 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 2008 Michelle Obama faced a crisis of identity in the midst of her husband's campaign to become the president of the United States. We know from polling data that Michelle Obama effectively managed that crisis, successfully reformulated her...

Weaver, Ryan

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

The Integration of Problem Posing in Teaching and Learning of Mathematics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Problem posing is commonly perceived as a cognitive activity that emerges in the process solving a problem but appears less commonly in the process of classroom instruction. The creation and reformulation of mathematics problems engages students...

Rosli, Roslinda

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

237.ps.gz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We reformulate this problem as a control ... The optimal control version of the problem is. Z1. 0 ...... Figure 17.1: Minimal surface problem with a plate obstacle. 40 ...

142

UNIVERSITE PARIS VI Memoire en vue d'obtenir l'habilitation `a diriger des  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

d'approche purement topologique : celle de la m´ethode BKW complexe. On gagnerait certainement beaucoup a reformuler cette analyse BKW dans notre contexte. Mais c'est un point que je n'ai pas en- core

van Straten, Duco

143

Enhanced Customer/Utility Relations Through an EPRI Assisted Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for gasoline. These capabilities will enhance the competitiveness of Atlas and position the refinery for future production of reformulated gasoline. For the electric utility, SWEPCO, the changes to the plant will yield approximately 10MW of additional...

Bailey, H.

144

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Porous Electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We reformulate and extend porous electrode theory for non-ideal active materials, including those capable of phase transformations. Using principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we relate the cell voltage, ionic ...

Ferguson, Todd Richard

145

Optimization Online - Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reformulation of a model for hierarchical divisive graph modularity ... Approximation of Matrix Rank Function and Its Application to Matrix Rank ... MSS: MATLAB software for L-BFGS trust-region subproblems for large-scale optimization

146

Combining computational effects: commutativity and sum   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We begin to develop a unified account of modularity for computational effects. We use the notion of enriched Lawvere theory, together with its relationship with strong monads, to reformulate Moggi’s paradigm for modelling ...

Hyland, Martin; Plotkin, Gordon; Power, John

2003-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

147

Economic predictions for heat mining : a review and analysis of hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The main objectives of this study were first, to review and analyze several economic assessments of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy systems, and second, to reformulate an economic model for HDR with revised cost components.

Tester, Jefferson W.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Formaldehyde as a Basis for Residential Ventilation Rates1 M.H. Sherman (MHSherman@lbl.gov) and A.T. Hodgson (ATHodgson@lbl.gov)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protection Agency (1995) have declared indoor air quality (IAQ) to be a serious health hazard. Indoor in response to resource limitations, product development and reformulation, and shifting consumer needs

149

Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions from the Regeneration Air System of a Butane Dehydrogenation Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Texas Petrochemicals operates a butane dehydrogenation unit producing MTBE for reformulated gasoline that was originally constructed when energy was cheap and prior to environmental regulation. The process exhausts 900,000 pounds per hour of air...

John, T. P.

150

The histories interpretation: stability instead of consistency?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a reformulation of conventional results in decoherence theory, a condition is proposed for singling out a distinguished class of histories which includes those which use the ``pointer basis'' of Zurek.

C. J. S. Clarke

2000-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

151

Lyapunov Exponents of a Simple Stochastic Model of the Thermally and Wind-Driven Ocean Circulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

August 8, 2002 Present Address: School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055 STN CSC,Victoria BC, Canada, V8P 5C2 0 #12;Abstract A reformulation of the simple model

Monahan, Adam Hugh

152

Gauge-potential approach to the kinematics of a moving car  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A kinematics of the motion of a car is reformulated in terms of the theory of gauge potentials (connection on principal bundle). E(2)-connection originates in the no-slipping contact of the car with a road.

Marian Fecko

1997-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

153

Evaluation of mixing characteristics of corn dry masa flours  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mixing characteristics of commercial and reformulated corn dry masa flours (DMF) were evaluated using a mixograph and a farinograph. The objectives were to evaluate the potential use of the mixograph and farinograph to study DMF mixing and hydration...

Lobeira Massu, Rodrigo

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

The ramifications of diffusive volume transport in classical fluid mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thesis that follows consists of a collection of work supporting and extending a novel reformulation of fluid mechanics, wherein the linear momentum per unit mass in a fluid continuum, m, is supposed equal to the volume ...

Bielenberg, James R. (James Ronald), 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Causal Incompleteness: A New Perspective on Quantum Non-locality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mathematical notion of incompleteness (eg of rational numbers, Turing-computable functions, and arithmetic proof) does not play a key role in conventional physics. Here, a reformulation of the kinematics of quantum theory is attempted, based on an inherently granular and discontinuous state space, in which the quantum wavefunction is associated with a finite set of finite bit strings, and the unitary transformations of complex Hilbert space are reformulated as finite permutation and related operators incorporating complex and hyper-complex structure. Such a reformulation, consistent with Wheeler's `It from Bit' programme, provides the basis for a novel interpretation of the Bell theorem: that the experimental violation of the Bell inequalities reveals the inevitable incompleteness of the causal structure of physical theory. The kinematic reformulation of quantum theory so developed, provides a new perspective on the age-old dichotomy of free will versus determinism.

T. N. Palmer

2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

156

Fuzzy Constraints, Choice, and Utility Philippe De Wilde  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

automatically using intelligent software agents. To achieve this, we need to re-formulate micro-economy so, such as the Orlovsky choice function is proposed and adopted, scientists usually start refining and generalizing it

De Wilde, Philippe

157

Effects of Ruminally Degradable Nitrogen in Diets Containing Wet Distiller’s Grains with Solubles and Steam-flaked Corn on Feedlot Cattle Performance and Carcass Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ethanol (i.e., 100% alcohol or 200 proof). Ethanol has been introduced in reformulated gasoline as an alternative, renewable fuel source. Reformulated gasoline, used in vehicles, is a blend of gasoline and oxygenates. Oxygenates produce maximum... 10% blend of ethanol to comply with the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Ethanol-based fuel needs to be less expensive than gasoline in order to be competitive with traditional gasoline, due to the lower energy value of 100% ethanol (30% less than...

Ponce, Christian

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

158

New computational approach for the linearized scalar potential formulation of the magnetostatic field problem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The linearized scalar potential formulation of the magnetostatic field problem is considered. The approach involves a reformulation of the continuous problem as a parametric boundary problem. By the introduction of a spherical interface and the use of spherical harmonics, the infinite boundary condition can also be satisfied in the parametric framework. The reformulated problem is discretized by finite element techniques and a discrete parametric problem is solved by conjugate gradient iteration. This approach decouples the problem in that only standard Neumann type elliptic finite element systems on separate bounded domains need be solved. The boundary conditions at infinity and the interface conditions are satisfied during the boundary parametric iteration.

Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Charge transport in molecular devices. Nanoscience and nanotechologies: new science?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charge transport in molecular devices. Nanoscience and nanotechologies: new science? Nanoscience and other developing countries are also joining in this scientific effort. What does nanoscience of an intrinsic nanoscale science that existed before "nanoscience". So we can now reformulate our question: what

Qian, Ning

160

CHARLES UNIVERSITY IN PRAGUE FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the computation of temporal responses of viscoelastic Earth models to a surface load. Mathematically it is a reformulation of evolutional partial di#11;erential equations governing the in#12;nitesimal response of the pre the #12;eld partial di#11;erential equations, continue with the spherical harmonic decomposition

Hanyk, Ladislav

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

CHARLES UNIVERSITY IN PRAGUE FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

models to a surface load. Mathematically it is a reformulation of evolutional partial differential the initial-value formulation in full detail. We begin from the field partial differential equations, continue via the Method of Lines 2 1.1 Field Partial Differential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cerveny, Vlastislav

162

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Vehicles Model, Refinery Impacts Modeling for reformulated fuels, costs of oil dependence, SPR optimization Fuels and Vehicles Model: Analysis of EPACT alternative fuels targets, expanded private fleet rulemaking Ferrada Nuclear Science and Technology Division DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies

163

ELEC4705 Fall 2009 Classical Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Laws of motion · Law of gravitation 2.2.1. Maxwell's Equations Maxwell's equations in electromagnetism and laws such as F = ma with more powerful expressions ­ very often differential operators. We will now reformulate the laws of physics in powerful concise expressions that allow us to solve difficult problems

Smy, Tom

164

Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 160 (10) A1675-A1683 (2013) A1675 0013-4651/2013/160(10)/A1675/9/$31.00 The Electrochemical Society  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in simulating Li-ion battery models is the need for simulating solid-phase diffusion in the second radial potential, solid-state po- tential and solid-state concentration in the porous electrodes1,2 as well1675/9/$31.00 © The Electrochemical Society Efficient Reformulation of Solid Phase Diffusion

Subramanian, Venkat

165

PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 11,522 53,162 0 0 25,617 63,952 Unfinished Oils 88 112 0 242 4,580 0 0 0 10,663 Motor Gasoline Blending Components 127 563 0 639 1,359 0 0 6,275 49,067 Reformulated 22 248 0 24...

166

PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

0 0 0 1,445 0 0 9,418 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 75 70 11,522 53,162 0 23,315 63,847 Motor Gasoline Blending Components 105 0 615 0 0 3,467 43,510 Reformulated 0 0 0 0 0 3,223...

167

untitled  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Plus 0 0 0 85 0 0 778 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 0 0 461 3,474 0 2,091 3,761 Motor Gasoline Blending Components 25 0 0 0 0 222 2,545 Reformulated 0 0 0 0 0 222 1,728 GTAB 0...

168

PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Petroleum Gases 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,302 0 Unfinished Oils 88 112 0 242 4,580 0 0 0 Motor Gasoline Blending Components 22 563 0 24 1,359 0 2,808 623 Reformulated 22 248 0 24 0 0...

169

untitled  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

125 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 0 0 0 0 0 0 93 0 Unfinished Oils 44 0 0 18 172 0 0 0 Motor Gasoline Blending Components 0 85 0 0 87 0 151 125 Reformulated 0 0 0 0 0 0 26 0 GTAB 0 0...

170

untitled  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gases 0 0 0 461 3,474 0 0 2,184 3,781 Unfinished Oils 44 0 0 18 172 0 0 0 695 Motor Gasoline Blending Components 25 85 0 0 87 0 0 373 2,954 Reformulated 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 248...

171

untitled  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 0 0 0 0 0 0 168 0 Unfinished Oils 0 0 0 37 692 0 0 0 Motor Gasoline Blending Components 0 76 0 0 199 0 145 0 Reformulated 0 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 GTAB 0 0 0...

172

untitled  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gases 0 0 0 1,528 3,034 0 0 3,421 7,641 Unfinished Oils 0 0 0 37 692 0 0 0 1,415 Motor Gasoline Blending Components 0 76 0 266 199 0 0 145 4,207 Reformulated 0 26 0 0 0 0 0 0...

173

untitled  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Plus 0 0 0 138 0 0 1,079 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 0 0 1,528 3,034 0 3,253 7,622 Motor Gasoline Blending Components 0 0 266 0 0 0 3,596 Reformulated 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,497 GTAB 0 0 0...

174

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

because of its low cost and blending characteristics. Depending on the season, reformulated gasoline of reactor per hour, a value comparable to other gasoline constituents. Such high performance could enhancer in gasoline. The use of MTBE increased rapidly after the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required

175

North West Hydro Resource Model Research to identify potential capacity and assist NW hydro power development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

North West Hydro Resource Model Research to identify potential capacity and assist NW hydro power University wide research, aims to develop a system to promote the exploitation of hydro power in North with regard to hydro schemes Reviewing and re-formulating ill defined requirements for environmental

Meju, Max

176

A String Diagram Calculus for Predicate Logic and C. S. Peirce's System Beta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A String Diagram Calculus for Predicate Logic and C. S. Peirce's System Beta Geraldine Brady, called Beta, is reformulated here in modern terms, using developments in cate- gorical logic with Peirce's system Beta, is shown to be sound and complete with respect to #12;rst-order logic. 1991 Math

Brady, Geraldine

177

SIAM J. APPL. MATH. c 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Vol. 73, No. 6, pp. 22242246  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cosponsorships in the United States Congress [64], functional modules in biology networks [28,39], and many other: we reformulate modularity optimization as a minimization problem of an energy functional that consists of a total variation term and an 2 balance term. By employing numerical techniques from image

Bertozzi, Andrea L.

178

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 85, 052510 (2012) Propagation of initially excited states in time-dependent density-functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dependent density-functional theory Peter Elliott and Neepa T. Maitra Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter March 2012; published 22 May 2012) Many recent applications of time-dependent density functional theory-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is an exact reformulation of the time-dependent quantum mechanics

179

Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 161 (8) E3149-E3157 (2014) E3149 JES FOCUS ISSUE ON MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS AT MULTIPLE SCALES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Massachusetts 02139, USA Improving the efficiency and utilization of battery systems can increase the viability on fossil fuels. Lithium-ion batteries are a popular choice as an energy storage medium for high demand ON MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS AT MULTIPLE SCALES Efficient Simulation and Reformulation

Subramanian, Venkat

180

Model-based simultaneous optimization of multiple design parameters for lithium-ion batteries for maximization of energy density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model-based simultaneous optimization of multiple design parameters for lithium-ion batteries Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries Model-based design Optimization Physics based reformulated model a b s t r for porous electrodes that are commonly used in advanced batteries such as lithium-ion systems. The approach

Subramanian, Venkat

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

5, 1206712102, 2005 Alternative fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 5, 12067­12102, 2005 Alternative fuel blends and regional air quality J.-F. Vinuesa et al and Physics Discussions Impacts of using reformulated and oxygenated fuel blends on the regional air quality License. 12067 #12;ACPD 5, 12067­12102, 2005 Alternative fuel blends and regional air quality J

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Fundamentals of pragmatics As is well known, pragmatics, whose arrival Morris --who defined it as the study of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transmission of information, consisted in placing it in the analysis and interpretation of action. This opened communication on a set of maxims of conversation underlying a principle of cooperation, considered as the pillar principles, but not all of them. Roughly speaking, Relevance theory adopts (though it reformulates

Institut des Sciences Cognitives, CNRS

183

EHLJY 27/Feb/98 A GUIDE TO ENTROPY AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­commercial purposes. 1 #12; EHLJY 27/Feb/98 usage of this law is that it allows energy to be used as one 5, A 1090 Vienna, Austria This article is intended for readers who, like us, were told us which processes can occur and which cannot. We shall abuse language (or reformulate it

184

Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 00(0):000000 (2001) 1064-3389/01/$.50  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water contamination by methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have made policymakers more cognizant of the need reformulated gasoline (RFG) (2% oxygen) year-round to reduce emissions that contribute to ozone formation. MTBE-making process that lead to the widespread use of MTBE over the last decade is now quite controversial (BRP, 1999

Alvarez, Pedro J.

185

MTBE still facing pressure from ethanol under latest fuel proposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US EPA's finalized reformulated gasoline rule, part of Phase II of the 1990 Clean Air Act, signals a possible turnaround for the sluggish methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. But if a 30% renewable fuels proposal favoring ethanol passes, pressure could continue for MTBE.

Lucas, A.

1994-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

186

Alan M. Frisch and Jimmy Lee (Ed.) Constraint Modelling and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alan M. Frisch and Jimmy Lee (Ed.) Constraint Modelling and Reformulation (ModRef'09) Eighth 2009 Alan M. Frisch and Jimmy Lee Programme Chairs #12;Programme Committee Sebastian Brand (University University, United Kingdom) (Co-Chair) Jimmy Lee (The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China) Toni Mancini

St Andrews, University of

187

A New Approach to the Elimination of Harmonics in a Multilevel Converter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the approach here produces all possible solutions. 1 Introduction A multilevel inverter is a power electronicA New Approach to the Elimination of Harmonics in a Multilevel Converter John N. Chiasson, Leon M that by reformulating the problem in terms of power sums, the degrees of the polynomial equations that must be solved

Tolbert, Leon M.

188

Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Act mandated oxygenated gasoline containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) in certain areas percent. The State of Maine elected to use reformulated gasoline (RFG) that contained at least 11 percent and by 1995, oxygenated gasoline use was common in the northeast. Soon after the widespread use of gasoline

189

Extraction costs in the theory of exhaustible resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extraction costs in the theory of exhaustible resources Robert M. Solow Professor of Economics. First, it reformulates the theory of optimal use of an exhaustible resource with more attention in the supply of exhausti- ble resources. Our most striking result is, in fact, the suggestion that relatively

Wan, Frederic Yui-Ming

190

Thoughts on entropic gravity in the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling model of Hawking radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this letter, we use the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling model of Hawking radiation to illustrate that a reformulation of Verlinde's entropic gravity is needed to derive the Newton's law for a temperature-varying screen, demanded by the conservation of energy. Furthermore, the entropy stored in the holographic screen is shown to be additive and its temperature dependence can be obtained.

Wen-Yu Wen

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

191

On a HeleShaw type domain evolution with convected surface energy density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generalizes surface­tension driven Hele­Shaw flow to the case of non­ constant surface tension coe#cient taken the surface tension coe#cient degenerates. The problem is reformulated as a vector­valued, degenerate variations of the surface energy density (corresponding to the surface tension coe#cient #) on surface

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

192

Diesel fuel component contribution to engine emissions and performance. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contemporary diesel fuel is a blend of several refinery streams chosen to meet specifications. The need to increase yield of transportation fuel from crude oil has resulted in converting increased proportions of residual oil to lighter products. This conversion is accomplished by thermal, catalytic, and hydrocracking of high molecular weight materials rich in aromatic compounds. The current efforts to reformulate California diesel fuel for reduced emissions from existing engines is an example of another driving force affecting refining practice: regulations designed to reduce exhaust emissions. Although derived from petroleum crude oil, reformulated diesel fuel is an alternative to current specification-grade diesel fuel, and this alternative presents opportunities and questions to be resolved by fuel and engine research. Various concerned parties have argued that regulations for fuel reformulation have not been based on an adequate data base. Despite numerous studies, much ambiguity remains about the relationship of exhaust parameters to fuel composition, particularly for diesel fuel. In an effort to gather pertinent data, the automobile industry and the oil refiners have joined forces in the Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AUTO/OIL) to address this question for gasoline. The objective of that work is to define the relationship between gasoline composition and the magnitude and composition of the exhaust emissions. The results of the AUTO/OEL program will also be used, along with other data bases, to define the EPA {open_quotes}complex model{close_quotes} for reformulated gasolines. Valuable insights have been gained for compression ignition engines in the Coordinating Research Council`s VE-1 program, but no program similar to AUTO/OIL has been started for diesel fuel reformulation. A more detailed understanding of the fuel/performance relationship is a readily apparent need.

Erwin, J.; Ryan, T.W. III; Moulton, D.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

EPA`s proposed renewable oxygenate requirement (ROR): Pros and cons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In December 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its final rule that sets for the details for requirements to sell reformulated gasoline (RFG) in certain ozone non-attainment areas. At the same time, EPA also issued a proposed rule to require that 30% of the oxygen required in RFG be based on a renewable oxygenate. Renewables include ethanol and its ether derivatives such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). The RFG rule is a final rule, while the Renewable Oxygenate Requirement (ROR) rule is a proposed rule yet to be finalized and subject to revision. Included in this paper are brief reviews of Ashland petroleum Company`s ethanol usage, oxygenated fuel and reformulated gasoline blending economics, and some comments on the EPA proposed renewable oxygenate requirement.

Czeskleba, H.M. [Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

194

Optimal-transport formulation of electronic density-functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The most challenging scenario for Kohn-Sham density functional theory, that is when the electrons move relatively slowly trying to avoid each other as much as possible because of their repulsion (strong-interaction limit), is reformulated here as an optimal transport (or mass transportation theory) problem, a well established field of mathematics and economics. In practice, we show that solving the problem of finding the minimum possible internal repulsion energy for $N$ electrons in a given density $\\rho(\\rv)$ is equivalent to find the optimal way of transporting $N-1$ times the density $\\rho$ into itself, with cost function given by the Coulomb repulsion. We use this link to put the strong-interaction limit of density functional theory on firm grounds and to discuss the potential practical aspects of this reformulation.

Giuseppe Buttazzo; Luigi De Pascale; Paola Gori-Giorgi

2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

195

Interaction between Titles 2 and 3 of the Clean Air Act as amended, 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines Some issues that would I affect the refining industry if the requirements for hazardous air pollutants set out in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments were to impede the market entrance of oxygenated fuels, as me; required by Title II. It describes the mandate for reformulated gasoline; considers gasoline characteristics in light of component shifts in refining; examines the supply of, demand for, and cost of various feedstocks and blendstocks; and identifies the emissions and atmospheric impacts that might result from the production and use of reformulated gasoline. Attention is focused on methanol and MTBE, two potential blendstocks that are also hazardous air pollutants, and on maximum achievable control technology standards, which might be applied to the stationary sources that produce them.

Szpunar, C.B.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the quantitative risks involved with an ethanol pipeline. Pipelines that run from the Midwest, where the vast majority of ethanol is produced, to the target areas where reformulated gasoline is required (California, Texas Gulf Coast, New England Atlantic Coast... Atlantic Coast because of the large volume. It is beneficial to look at these areas as opposed to the iv smaller areas because pipeline transportation requires very large volumes. In order to find a meaningful comparison between all three...

Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

197

Modeling and Analysis of Reservoir Response to Stimulation by Water Injection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

arising from the fluid. Biot?s theory of poroelasticity has been reformulated by a number of investigators (e.g. Geertsma, 1957; Rice and Cleary, 1976). Fig.1.6 shows the mechanics of poroelasticity. 10 Fig.1.6 Mechanics of Poroelasticity... is introduced. The theory of poroelasticity was introduced by Biot in 1941. The theory was subsequently extended by Biot to include dynamics, anisotropy and nonlinear materials. Rice and Cleary (1976) published a much more attractive presentation of theory...

Ge, Jun

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

198

If a tree casts a shadow is it telling the time?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physical processes are computations only when we use them to externalize thought. Computation is the performance of one or more fixed processes within a contingent environment. We reformulate the Church-Turing thesis so that it applies to programs rather than to computability. When suitably formulated agent-based computing in an open, multi-scalar environment represents the current consensus view of how we interact with the world. But we don't know how to formulate multi-scalar environments.

Russ Abbott

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

199

Race to license new MTBE and TAME routes heats up  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With refineries and petrochemical manufacturers continuing to gear up production of oxygenates for use in reformulated fuels, new routes to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) are clearly hot items in the licensing market. And probably nowhere has the competition become as intense as in offerings for skeletal isomerization technologies to boost ethers production from fluid catalytic cracking and steam cracking.

Rotman, D.

1993-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

200

Delaware - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, AverageCoos Bay Field Gulf Coast

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Delaware - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, AverageCoos Bay Field Gulf Coast

202

East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, AverageCoosNaturalMarketsGases?

203

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The

204

Figure 2  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The7"Liquids

205

Figure 3  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data

206

Figure 8. U.S. crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves, 1983-2013  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed

207

File  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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208

File  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826Coke

209

,"U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

210

,"U.S. Sales for Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"Sales Volumes

211

,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"Sales

212

,"U.S. Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"SalesSales

213

,"U.S. Weekly Supply Estimates"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline

214

,"Underground Natural Gas Storage - Salt Cavern Storage Fields"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner GasolineAll Operators"

215

,"Weekly Blender Net Production"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner GasolineAll

216

1000 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C., Carol G. Crawford, Chair,  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner GasolineAllRefiner Net

217

1990,"AK","Total Electric Power Industry","All Sources",4208809,18741,12562  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner GasolineAllRefiner

218

2014,"AK","Total Electric Power Industry","All Sources",10,6,59.1,52.9  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy Supply Crude Oil Production

219

4th Quarter 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy Supply Crude

220

63.72,54.48  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy Supply Crude2. Number

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Alabama - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy Supply

222

Alabama - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy Supply

223

Alabama - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy Supply

224

American Samoa - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy SupplyU.S.

225

Arizona - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923 detailed32

226

Arizona - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923 detailed32

227

Arizona - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923 detailed32

228

Connecticut - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average

229

Connecticut - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average

230

Variational Principle of Hydrodynamics and Quantization by Stochastic Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The well-known hydrodynamical representation of the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation is reformulated by extending the idea of Nelson-Yasue's stochastic variational method. The fluid flow is composed by the two stochastic processes from the past and the future, which are unified naturally by the principle of maximum entropy. We show that this formulation is easily applicable to the quantization of scalar fields.

T. Kodama; T. Koide

2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

231

New wholesale power market design using linked forward markets : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report proposes a reformulation of U.S. ISO/RTO-managed wholesale electric power mar- kets for improved reliability and e ciency of system operations. Current markets do not specify or compensate primary frequency response. They also unnecessarily limit the participation of new technologies in reserve markets and o er insu cient economic inducements for new capacity invest- ment. In the proposed market reformulation, energy products are represented as physically-covered rm contracts and reserve products as physically-covered call option contracts. Trading of these products is supported by a backbone of linked ISO/RTO-managed forward markets with planning horizons ranging from multiple years to minutes ahead. A principal advantage of this reformulation is that reserve needs can be speci ed in detail, and resources can o er the services for which they are best suited, without being forced to conform to rigid reserve product de nitions. This should improve the business case for electric energy storage and other emerging technologies to provide reserve. In addition, the facilitation of price discovery should help to ensure e cient energy/reserve procurement and adequate levels of new capacity investment.

Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William; Ellison, James F.; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Guttromson, Ross; Tesfatsion, Leigh S. [Iowa State University, Ames, IA

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by weight [6]. The potential improvements in energy efficiency within the transportation section, particularly in sport utility vehicles and light-duty trucks, that can be provided by deployment of diesel engines in passenger cars and trucks is a strong incentive to develop cleaner burning diesel engines and cleaner burning fuels for diesel engines. Thus, serious consideration of oxygenated diesel fuels is of significant practical interest and value to society. In the present work, a diesel fuel reformulating agent, CETANERTM, has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbodiesel engine over a range of blending ratios. This additive is a mixture of glycol ethers and can be produced from dimethyl ether, which itself can be manufactured from synthesis gas using Air Products' Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME TM) technology. CETANERTM is a liquid, has an oxygen content of 36 wt.%, has a cetane number over 100 and is highly miscible in diesel fuel. This combination of physical and chemical properties makes CETANERTM an attractive agent for oxygenating diesel fuel. The present study considered CETANERTM ratios from 0 to 40 wt.% in a California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions, gaseous emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were monitored over the AVL 8-Mode engine test protocol [7]. This paper presents the results from these measurements and discusses the implications of using high cetane number oxygenates in diesel fuel reformulation.

Boehman, Andre L.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

233

Electromagnetic three-dimensional reconstruction of targets from free space experimental data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper deals with the problem of reconstructing the relative permittivity of three-dimensional targets using experimental scattered fields. The fields concerned were measured in an anechoic chamber on the surface of a sphere surrounding the target. The inverse scattering problem is reformulated as an optimization problem that is iteratively solved thanks to a conjugate gradient method and by using the coupled dipoles method as a forward problem solver. The measurement technique and the inversion procedure are briefly described with the inversion results. This work demonstrates the reliability of the experiments and the efficiency of the proposed inverse scattering scheme.

Geffrin, J.-M.; Chaumet, P. C.; Eyraud, C.; Belkebir, K.; Sabouroux, P. [Aix-Marseille Universite, Ecole Centrale Marseille, and CNRS, Institut Fresnel, Domaine Universitaire de St Jerome, 13013 Marseille (France)

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

234

Self-organization without heat: the geometric ratchet effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We point out a surprising feature of diffusion in inhomogeneous media: under suitable conditions, the rectification of the Brownian paths by a diffusivity gradient can result in initially spread tracers spontaneously concentrating. This "geometric ratchet effect" demonstrates that, in violation of the classical statements of the second law of (non-equilibrium) thermodynamics, self-organization can take place in thermodynamic systems at local equilibrium without heat being produced or exchanged with the environment. We stress the role of Bayesian priors in a suitable reformulation of the second law accommodating this geometric ratchet effect.

Matteo Smerlak; Ahmed Youssef

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

An independent refiners approach to RFG  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was presented by Mike Czeskleba,Senior Business Analyst for Ashland Petroleum Company in Ashland, Kentucky. Ashland is one of the largest independent refiners and a leading marketer of gasoline and other petroleum products in the U.S. The issues addressed in this report concern the use of ethanol as a gasoline extender and renewable oxygenate, and its use in Reformulated Gasolines (RFG). The impact of Clean Air Act requirements for 1995 and beyond on petroleum refiners and producers is discussed. Some of the strategies which Ashland Petroleum Company is using to meet regulation requirements is also presented.

Czeskleba, M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Quantum Matter-Photonics Framework: Analyses of Chemical Conversion Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A quantum Matter-Photonics framework is adapted to help scrutinize chemical reaction mechanisms and used to explore a process mapped from chemical tree topological model. The chemical concept of bond knitting/breaking is reformulated via partitioned base sets leading to an abstract and general quantum presentation. Pivotal roles are assigned to entanglement, coherence,de-coherence and Feshbach resonance quantum states that permit apprehend gating states in conversion processes. A view from above in the state energy eigenvalue ladder, belonging to full system spectra complement the standard view from ground state. A full quantum physical view supporting chemical change obtains.

O. Tapia

2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

237

FY 1996 activity summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety provides nuclear safety policy, independent technical evaluation, and technical support. A summary of these activities is provided in this report. These include: (1) changing the mission of the former production facilities to storage and waste management; (2) stabilizing nuclear materials not recycled due to production cessation or interruptions; (3) reformulating the authorization basis for existing facilities to convert to a standards based approach for operations consistent with modern expectations; and (4) implementing a modern regulatory framework for nuclear facilities. Enforcement of the Price-Anderson Amendments Act is also reported.

NONE

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Degenerate Metric Phase Boundaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The structure of boundaries between degenerate and nondegenerate solutions of Ashtekar's canonical reformulation of Einstein's equations is studied. Several examples are given of such "phase boundaries" in which the metric is degenerate on one side of a null hypersurface and non-degenerate on the other side. These include portions of flat space, Schwarzschild, and plane wave solutions joined to degenerate regions. In the last case, the wave collides with a planar phase boundary and continues on with the same curvature but degenerate triad, while the phase boundary continues in the opposite direction. We conjecture that degenerate phase boundaries are always null.

Ingemar Bengtsson; Ted Jacobson

1999-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

239

Nonlinear elasto-plastic model for dense granular flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work proposes a model for granular deformation that predicts the stress and velocity profiles in well-developed dense granular flows. Recent models for granular elasticity (Jiang and Liu 2003) and rate-sensitive plastic flow (Jop et al. 2006) are reformulated and combined into one universal granular continuum law, capable of predicting flowing regions and stagnant zones simultaneously in any arbitrary 3D flow geometry. The unification is performed by justifying and implementing a Kroner-Lee elasto-plastic decomposition, with care taken to ensure certain continuum physical principles are necessarily upheld. The model is then numerically implemented in multiple geometries and results are compared to experiments and discrete simulations.

Ken Kamrin

2009-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

240

BeamDyn: A High-Fidelity Wind Turbine Blade Solver in the FAST Modular Framework: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BeamDyn, a Legendre-spectral-finite-element implementation of geometrically exact beam theory (GEBT), was developed to meet the design challenges associated with highly flexible composite wind turbine blades. In this paper, the governing equations of GEBT are reformulated into a nonlinear state-space form to support its coupling within the modular framework of the FAST wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool. Different time integration schemes (implicit and explicit) were implemented and examined for wind turbine analysis. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of this new beam solver. An example analysis of a realistic wind turbine blade, the CX-100, is also presented as validation.

Wang, Q.; Sprague, M.; Jonkman, J.; Johnson, N.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Analysis of community structure in networks of correlated data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a reformulation of modularity that allows the analysis of the community structure in networks of correlated data. The new modularity preserves the probabilistic semantics of the original definition even when the network is directed, weighted, signed, and has self-loops. This is the most general condition one can find in the study of any network, in particular those defined from correlated data. We apply our results to a real network of correlated data between stores in the city of Lyon (France).

Gomez, S.; Jensen, P.; Arenas, A.

2008-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

242

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Nonparametric Tests of Moment Condition Stability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are interested in whether or not ? is constant. To reformulate it into an inference problem of moment stability, let zt = (yt , x#4;t )#4; and m(zt ,?) = ( yt ? x#4;t ? ) xt . Then, under the null hypothesis that ? is constant, the moment condition (2.1) holds... for all t . Otherwise, for any vector ? of constants, E(m(zt ,?)) #5;= 0 for some nonnegligible fraction of the sample. Most studies in the literature consider the case where the distribution of xt is assumed to be stationary. Furthermore, we may allow...

Juhl, Ted P.; Xiao, Zhijie

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Petrochem industry expands North American MTBE capacity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that petrochemical manufacturers continue to increase methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) capacity in North America. The action reflects refiners' reformulation of gasoline to help reduce auto emissions. Demand for gasoline blending oxygenates such as MTBE is expected to increase as U.S. refiners reconfigure processing trains to produce fuels meeting requirements of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990. Recent progress includes plans to build an MTBE plant in Mexico and start-ups of plants on the U.S. Gulf Coast and in Canada.

Not Available

1992-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

246

Fractional Euler-Bernoulli beams: theory, numerical study and experimental validation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper the classical Euler-Bernoulli beam (CEBB) theory is reformulated utilising fractional calculus. Such generalisation is called fractional Euler-Bernoulli beams (FEBB) and results in non-local spatial description. The parameters of the model are identified based on AFM experiments concerning bending rigidities of micro-beams made of the polymer SU-8. In experiments both force as well as deflection data were recorded revealing significant size effect with respect to outer dimensions of the specimens. Special attention is also focused on the proper numerical solution of obtained fractional differential equation.

Wojciech Sumelka; Tomasz Blaszczyk; Christian Liebold

2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

247

Energy-momentum currents in Finsler/Kawaguchi Lagrangian formulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We reformulate the standard Lagrangian formalism to a reparameterisation invariant Lagrangian formalism by means of Finsler and Kawaguchi geometry. In our formalism, various types of symmetries that appears in theories of physics are expressed geometrically by symmetries of Finsler (Kawaguchi) metric, and the conservation law of energy-momentum is a part of Euler-Lagrange equations. The application to scalar field, Dirac field, electromagnetic field and general relativity are discussed. By this formalism, we try to propose an alternative definition of energy-momentum current of gravity.

Takayoshi Ootsuka; Ryoko Yahagi; Muneyuki Ishida; Erico Tanaka

2014-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

248

Non-linear parent action and dual gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give a reformulation of non-linear Einstein gravity, which contains the dual graviton together with the ordinary metric and a shift gauge field. The metric does not enter through a `kinetic' Einstein-Hilbert term, but via topological couplings, and so the theory does not lead to a doubling of degrees of freedom. The field equations take the form of first-order duality relations. We analyze the gauge symmetries and comment on their meaning with regard to the E11 proposal.

Nicolas Boulanger; Olaf Hohm

2012-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

249

Interference-induced enhancement of intensity and energy of a multimode quantum optical field by a subwavelength array of coherent light sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently, we have showed a mechanism that could provide a great transmission enhancement of the light waves passed through subwavelength aperture arrays in thin metal films not by the plasmon-polariton waves, but by the constructive interference of diffracted waves (beams generated by the apertures) at the detector placed in the far-field zone. We now present a quantum reformulation of the model. The Hamiltonian describing the interference-induced enhancement of the intensity and energy of a multimode quantum optical field is derived. Such a field can be produced, for instance, by a subwavelength array of coherent light sources.

S. V. Kukhlevsky

2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

250

Practical measurement of joint weak values and their connection to the annihilation operator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Weak measurements are a new tool for characterizing post-selected quantum systems during their evolution. Weak measurement was originally formulated in terms of von Neumann interactions which are practically available for only the simplest single-particle observables. In the present work, we extend and greatly simplify a recent, experimentally feasible, reformulation of weak measurement for multiparticle observables [Resch and Steinberg (2004, Phys. Rev. Lett., 92, 130402)]. We also show that the resulting ``joint weak values'' take on a particularly elegant form when expressed in terms of annihilation operators.

J. S. Lundeen; K. J. Resch

2005-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

251

Recent trends in refinery hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refiners are experiencing a rise in hydrogen requirements to improve product quality and process heavy sour crudes. Fuel reformulation has disrupted refinery hydrogen balance in two ways: more hydrogen is needed for hydroprocessing and less hydrogen is coproduced from catalytic naphtha reforming. The purpose of this paper is to review trends in maximizing refinery hydrogen production by modifications and alternatives to the conventional steam methane reforming, recovery from refinery off gases and {open_quote}across-the-fence{close_quote} hydrogen supply. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

Aitani, A.M.; Siddiqui, M.A.B. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

252

Exponential scaling limit of the single-particle Anderson model via adaptive feedback scaling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a reformulation of the bootstrap version of the Multi-Scale Analysis (BMSA), developed by Germinet and Klein, to make explicit the fact that BMSA implies asymptotically exponential decay of eigenfunctions (EFs) and of EF correlators (EFCs), in the lattice Anderson models with diagonal disorder, viz. with an IID random potential. We also show that the exponential scaling limit of EFs and EFCs holds true for a class of marginal distributions of the random potential with regularity lower than H\\"older continuity of any positive order.

Victor Chulaevsky

2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

253

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 1, summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, called CleanFleet, was conducted in the Los Angeles area from April 1992 through September 1994. The demonstration consisted of 111 package delivery vans operating on five alternative fuels and the control fuel, unleaded gasoline. The alternative fuels were propane gas, compressed natural gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol with 15 percent RFG (called M-85), and electricity. This volume of the eight volume CleanFleet final report is a summary of the project design and results of the analysis of data collected during the demonstration on vehicle maintenance and durability, fuel economy, employee attitudes, safety and occupational hygiene, emissions, and fleet economics.

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

CleanFleet. Volume 2, Project Design and Implementation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motorfuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eight-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Group action in topos quantum physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Topos theory has been suggested first by Isham and Butterfield, and then by Isham and Doering, as an alternative mathematical structure within which to formulate physical theories. In particular, it has been used to reformulate standard quantum mechanics in such a way that a novel type of logic is used to represent propositions. In this paper, we extend this formulation to include the notion of a group and group transformation in such a way that we overcome the problem of twisted presheaves. In order to implement this we need to change the type of topos involved, so as to render the notion of continuity of the group action meaningful.

Flori, C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)] [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

How to Resum Feynman Graphs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we reformulate in a simpler way the combinatoric core of constructive quantum field theory We define universal rational combinatoric weights for pairs made of a graph and one of its spanning trees. These weights are nothing but the percentage of Hepp's sectors in which the tree is leading the ultraviolet analysis. We explain how they allow to reshuffle the divergent series formulated in terms of Feynman graphs into convergent series indexed by the trees that these graphs contain. The Feynman graphs to be used are not the ordinary ones but those of the intermediate field representation, and the result of the reshuffling is called the Loop Vertex Expansion.

Vincent Rivasseau; Zhituo Wang

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

257

The second law of blackhole dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, the non-generalized or restricted second law blackhole dynamics as given by Bekenstein in the beginning is restated, with a rigid proof, in a different form akin to the statement of the second law of thermodynamics given by Clausius. The various physical possibilities and implications of this statement are discussed therein. This paper is a mere venture into the restricted second law of blackhole dynamics pertaining to blackholes emitting Hawking radiation. The paper thus considers a didactically interesting reformulation of the second law of blackhole thermodynamics after some revisions.

Koustubh Ajit Kabe

2010-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

258

Transverse Wave Propagation in Relativistic Two-fluid Plasmas around Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter Black Hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The 3+1 formalism of Thorne and Macdonald has been used to derive the linear two-fluid equations for transverse waves in the plasma closed to the Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter (SAdS) black hole. We reformulate the relativistic two-fluid equations to take account of gravitational effects due to the event horizon and negative cosmological constant and describe the set of simultaneous linear equations for the perturbations. Using a local approximation we investigate the one-dimensional radial propagation of Alfven and high frequency electromagnetic waves. We derive the dispersion relation for these waves and solve it for the wave number k numerically.

M. Atiqur Rahman

2012-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

259

Transverse Wave Propagation in Relativistic Two-fluid Plasmas around Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter Black Hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The transverse electromagnetic waves propagating in a relativistic two-fluid plasma influenced by the gravitational field of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-de Sitter black hole has been investigated exploiting 3+1 split of spacetime. Reformulating the two-fluid equations, the set of simultaneous linear equations for the perturbations have been derived. Using a local approximation, the one-dimensional radial propagation of Alfv\\'{e}n and high frequency electromagnetic waves are investigated. The dispersion relation for these waves is obtained and solved numerically for the wave number.

M. Atiqur Rahman; M. Hossain Ali

2009-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

260

Delaware - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, AverageCoos Bay Field Gulf Coast CoalData6)2Delaware

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

District of Columbia - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, AverageCoos Bay Field Gulf CoastRandall Luthi,(EIA)

262

District of Columbia - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, AverageCoos Bay Field Gulf CoastRandall

263

District of Columbia - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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264

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2003  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The FormVehicles3" "Note:

265

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2004  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The FormVehicles3"

266

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The FormVehicles3"5"

267

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2007  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The7" "Note: Descriptions of

268

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The7" "Note: Descriptions

269

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The7" "Note:

270

Existing Generating Unit in the United States by State and Energy Source, 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The7" "Note:10"

271

Figure 10. U.S. total natural gas proved reserves, 1983-2013  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The7"Liquids Reserve Class

272

Figure 11b. Components of U.S. natural gas proved reserves changes, 2003-13  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed data The7"Liquids Reserve

273

Figure 4  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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274

Figure 5  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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275

Figure 6  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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276

Figure 9b. Components of U.S. crude oil and lease condensate reserves changes, 2003-2013  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated,826 detailed.53,0.717,0.137,-2.068,0.183,-0.416,-0.917

277

File  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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278

Random Wave Functions with boundary and normalization constraints: Quantum statistical physics meets quantum chaos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an improved version of Berry's ansatz able to incorporate exactly the existence of boundaries and the correct normalization of the eigenfunction into an ensemble of random waves. We then reformulate the Random Wave conjecture showing that in its new version it is a statement about the universal nature of eigenfunction fluctuations in systems with chaotic classical dynamics. The emergence of the universal results requires the use of both semiclassical methods and a new expansion for a very old problem in quantum statistical physics

Juan Diego Urbina; Klaus Richter

2008-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

279

Balmer and Rydberg Equations for Hydrogen Spectra Revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Balmer equation for the atomic spectral lines was generalized by Rydberg. Here it is shown that 1) while Bohr's theory explains the Rydberg constant in terms of the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom, quantizing the angular momentum does not explain the Rydberg equation, 2) on reformulating Rydberg's equation, the principal quantum numbers are found to correspond to integral numbers of de Broglie waves and 3) the ground state energy of hydrogen is electromagnetic like that of photons and the frequency of the emitted or absorbed light is the difference in the frequencies of the electromagnetic energy levels.

Raji Heyrovska

2011-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

280

Plasma Wave Properties of the Schwarzschild Magnetosphere in a Veselago Medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We re-formulate the 3+1 GRMHD equations for the Schwarzschild black hole in a Veselago medium. Linear perturbation in rotating (non-magnetized and magnetized) plasma is introduced and their Fourier analysis is considered. We discuss wave properties with the help of wave vector, refractive index and change in refractive index in the form of graphs. It is concluded that some waves move away from the event horizon in this unusual medium. We conclude that for the rotating non-magnetized plasma, our results confirm the presence of Veselago medium while the rotating magnetized plasma does not provide any evidence for this medium.

M. Sharif; Noureen Mukhtar

2010-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Hot Plasma Waves Surrounding the Schwarzschild Event Horizon in a Veselago Medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper investigates wave properties of hot plasma in a Veselago medium. For the Schwarzschild black hole, the $3+1$ GRMHD equations are re-formulated which are linearly perturbed and then Fourier analyzed for rotating (non-magnetized and magnetized) plasmas. The graphs of wave vector, refractive index and change in refractive are used to discuss the wave properties. The results obtained confirm the presence of Veselago medium for both rotating (non-magnetized and magnetized) plasmas. This work generalized the isothermal plasma waves in the Veselago medium to hot plasma case.

M. Sharif; Noureen Mukhtar

2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

282

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2014 Early Release  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand Barrels per Day) ReformulatedDecember 2005Table 4.BbAEO2014

283

Argonne Acoustic Levitation Video Goes Viral  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2 (CRAC 2SSRL27Reformulated Gasoline

284

Argonne Distinguished Fellows | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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285

Argonne Hispanic Latino Club awards $6K in STEM scholarships | Argonne  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2 (CRAC 2SSRL27Reformulated

286

Argonne History - 1940's | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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287

Argonne History - 1950's | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2 (CRAC 2SSRL27Reformulated40's CP-1

288

Argonne History - 1960's | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2 (CRAC 2SSRL27Reformulated40's CP-160's

289

Argonne National Lab Cleanup schedule  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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290

Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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291

Argonne National Laboratory, Stephen B. Pope of Cornell Uni-  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2 (CRAC 2SSRL27Reformulated40'sTakes

292

Argonne Now Magazine - Summer 2012 | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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293

Argonne Now Magazine - Summer 2014 | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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294

Argonne OutLoud: Climate Change: Fact, Fiction and What You Can Do  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2 (CRAC 2SSRL27Reformulated40'sTakes2 The4

295

Argonne OutLoud: Science and Cinema | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2 (CRAC 2SSRL27Reformulated40'sTakes2

296

Argonne Physics Division - ATLAS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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297

,"U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"Sales Volumes of

298

,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"SalesSales Volumes

299

,"U.S. Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"SalesSalesTotal

300

,"Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner GasolineAll Operators" ,"Click

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

,"Underground Natural Gas Storage - Storage Fields Other than Salt Caverns"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner GasolineAll Operators"Storage

302

,"Underground Natural Gas Storage by Storage Type"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner GasolineAll Operators"Storageby

303

,"Weekly Refiner Net Production"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner GasolineAllRefiner Net Production"

304

1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","All Sources",,4,85.9,80.09  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner GasolineAllRefiner NetState

305

4th Quarter 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy Supply Crude2. Number of uranium

306

4th Quarter 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy Supply Crude2. Number of uranium3.

307

4th Quarter 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy Supply Crude2. Number of

308

4thQuarter 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy Supply Crude2. Number ofFigure

309

AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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310

AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION (ASA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy Supply Crude2.3AMERICAN

311

About EIA - Policies - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy Supply Crude2.3AMERICANAbout EIA

312

Alaska - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy SupplyU.S. Offshore U.S.:

313

Alaska - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy SupplyU.S. Offshore U.S.:Alaska

314

Alaska - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy SupplyU.S. Offshore

315

Appendix C Impact of Revisions on Major Series, 2014-2015  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923 detailed data.A7.A8.A9.C Impact

316

Arizona  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923 detailed32 CreatedweeklyArizona

317

Arkansas - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923 detailed32U.S. OffshoreArkansas

318

Arkansas - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923 detailed32U.S.

319

Arkansas - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923 detailed32U.S.Arkansas Arkansas

320

Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2013  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923Demand9.40 8.95 8.28 8.52

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

BUFFERED WELL FIELD OUTLINES  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923Demand9.40 8.95RU OIL & GAS

322

California - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923Demand9.40

323

California - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923Demand9.40

324

California - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923Demand9.40

325

Colorado - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923Demand9.40PENNELforX I AColorado

326

Colorado - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923Demand9.40PENNELforX I

327

Colorado - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923Demand9.40PENNELforX IColorado

328

Connecticut - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average RefinerEnergy923Demand9.40PENNELforXConnecticut

329

Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

Not Available

1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

330

The Asymptotic Behaviour of a Stochastic 3D LANS-{alpha} Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long-time behaviour of a stochastic 3D LANS-{alpha} model on a bounded domain is analysed. First, we reformulate the model as an abstract problem. Next, we establish sufficient conditions ensuring the existence of stationary (steady state) solutions of this abstract nonlinear stochastic evolution equation, and study the stability properties of the model. Finally, we analyse the effects produced by stochastic perturbations in the deterministic version of the system (persistence of exponential stability as well as possible stabilisation effects produced by the noise). The general results are applied to our stochastic LANS-{alpha} system throughout the paper.

Caraballo, Tomas, E-mail: caraball@us.es; Marquez-Duran, Antonio M., E-mail: ammarquez@us.es; Real, Jose [Dpto. Ecuaciones Diferenciales y Analisis Numerico, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. Correos 1160, 41080-Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: jreal@us.es

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Advanced Computational Methods for Security Constrained Financial Transmission Rights  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) are financial insurance tools to help power market participants reduce price risks associated with transmission congestion. FTRs are issued based on a process of solving a constrained optimization problem with the objective to maximize the FTR social welfare under power flow security constraints. Security constraints for different FTR categories (monthly, seasonal or annual) are usually coupled and the number of constraints increases exponentially with the number of categories. Commercial software for FTR calculation can only provide limited categories of FTRs due to the inherent computational challenges mentioned above. In this paper, first an innovative mathematical reformulation of the FTR problem is presented which dramatically improves the computational efficiency of optimization problem. After having re-formulated the problem, a novel non-linear dynamic system (NDS) approach is proposed to solve the optimization problem. The new formulation and performance of the NDS solver is benchmarked against widely used linear programming (LP) solvers like CPLEX™ and tested on both standard IEEE test systems and large-scale systems using data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). The performance of the NDS is demonstrated to be comparable and in some cases is shown to outperform the widely used CPLEX algorithms. The proposed formulation and NDS based solver is also easily parallelizable enabling further computational improvement.

Kalsi, Karanjit; Elbert, Stephen T.; Vlachopoulou, Maria; Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu

2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

332

Study downplays health concerns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A government-funded study has concluded that reformulated gasoline containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) does not increase short-term health risks when compared with gasoline that does not contain the additive. The study, performed by the Health Effects Institute (Cambridge, MA), compared data from dozens of animal, human, and epidemiological studies of health effects linked to oxygenates, including MTBE and ethanol, but did not find enough evidence to warrant an immediate reduction in oxygenate use. However, the study did recommend that additional research be conducted on possible health consequences associated with the gasoline additives, including neurotoxic effects, if oxygenates continue to be used long term. Oxygenates have been used in gasoline since 1992, when EPA mandated that several municipalities use MTBE or other oxygenates in reformulated gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide emissions and meet Clean Air Act requirements. Shortly after the program began, residents in areas where the oxygenates were used complained of nausea, headaches, and dizziness. The institute says the study--funded by EPA and the Centers for Disease Control--will be used for a broader review of gasoline oxygenates by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

Stringer, J.

1996-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

333

Use TAME and heavier ethers to improve gasoline properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Producing oxygenates from all potential FCC tertiary olefins is one of the most economic methods for reducing olefins and Reid vapor pressure (Rvp) in motor gasoline. MTBE production based on FCC isobutylene has reached a very high level. But the amount of MTBE from a refinery sidestream MTBE unit is insufficient for producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) and additional oxygenates must be purchased. The next phase will see conversion of isoamylenes in FCC light gasoline to TAME. Very little attention has been given to the heavier tertiary olefins present in the FCC light gasoline like tert-hexenes and heptenes. This route allows higher levels of oxygenates production, thereby lowering Rvp and the proportion of olefins in the gasoline pool and maximizing the use of FCC olefins. By using all the components produced by an FCC efficiently, many gasoline problems can be solved. Isobutene is converted to MTBE, C[sub 3]/C[sub 4] olefins are converted to alkylate and C[sub 5] tertiary olefins can be converted to TAME. All of these are preferred components for gasoline quality. By producing more oxygenates like MTBE, TAME and heavier ethers, a refinery can be self-sufficient in blending reformulated gasoline and no oxygenates need to be purchased. The technology for producing TAME and other ethers is described.

Ignatius, J.; Jaervelin, H.; Lindqvist, P. (Neste Engineering, Porvoo (Finland))

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Creating Adaptive Feedback designed for Improving Data Entry Accuracy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract- Data quality is a critical problem in modern databases. Data-entry forms present the first and arguably best opportunity for detecting and mitigating errors, but there has been little research into automatic methods for improving data quality at entry time. In this paper, we propose USHER, an end-to-end system for form design, entry, and data quality assurance. Using previous form submissions, USHER learns a probabilistic model over the questions of the form. USHER then applies this model at every step of the data-entry process to improve data quality. Before entry, it induces a form layout that captures the most important data values of a form instance as quickly as possible and reduces the complexity of error-prone questions. During entry, it dynamically adapts the form to the values being entered by providing real-time interface feedback, reasking questions with dubious responses, and simplifying questions by reformulating them. After entry, it revisits question responses that it deems likely to have been entered incorrectly by reasking the question or a reformulation thereof. We evaluate these components of USHER using two real-world data sets. Our results demonstrate that USHER can improve data quality considerably at a reduced cost when compared to current practice. Index Terms- Data quality, data entry, form design, adaptive form. O I.

P. Jaya Prakash; B. Venkateswarlu; S. Abdul Jeelan; Assistant Professors; Andhra Pradesh-india

335

Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel economy vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents estimates of the full cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into reductions in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns, particularly under the High Market Share Scenario.

Mintz, M.M.; Wang, M.Q.; Vyas, A.D.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

Can fusion coefficients be calculated from the depth rule ?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The depth rule is a level truncation of tensor product coefficients expected to be sufficient for the evaluation of fusion coefficients. We reformulate the depth rule in a precise way, and show how, in principle, it can be used to calculate fusion coefficients. However, we argue that the computation of the depth itself, in terms of which the constraints on tensor product coefficients is formulated, is problematic. Indeed, the elements of the basis of states convenient for calculating tensor product coefficients do not have a well-defined depth! We proceed by showing how one can calculate the depth in an `approximate' way and derive accurate lower bounds for the minimum level at which a coupling appears. It turns out that this method yields exact results for $\\widehat{su}(3)$ and constitutes an efficient and simple algorithm for computing $\\widehat{su}(3)$ fusion coefficients.

A. N. Kirillov; P. Mathieu; D. Senechal; M. Walton

1992-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

337

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

338

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Rejai, Bahman (Lakewood, CO); Bain, Richard L. (Golden, CO); Overend, Ralph P. (Lakewood, CO)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Radiation and Reason Why radiation at modest dose rates is quite harmless and current radiation safety regulations are flawed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Data on the impact of ionising radiation on life are examined in the light of evolutionary biology. This comparison confirms that fear of nuclear radiation is not justified by science itself; rather it originates in a failure of public trust in nuclear science, a relic of the international politics of the Cold War era. Current ionisation safety regulations appease this fear but without scientific support and they need fundamental reformulation. This should change the reaction to accidents like Fukushima, the cost of nuclear energy and the application of nuclear technology to the supply of food and fresh water. Such a boost to the world economy would require that more citizens study and appreciate the science involved – and then tell others -- not as much fun as the Higgs, perhaps, but no less important! www.radiationandreason.com

CERN. Geneva

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

The generalized Schrödinger–Langevin equation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, for a Brownian particle interacting with a heat bath, we derive a generalization of the so-called Schrödinger–Langevin or Kostin equation. This generalization is based on a nonlinear interaction model providing a state-dependent dissipation process exhibiting multiplicative noise. Two straightforward applications to the measurement process are then analyzed, continuous and weak measurements in terms of the quantum Bohmian trajectory formalism. Finally, it is also shown that the generalized uncertainty principle, which appears in some approaches to quantum gravity, can be expressed in terms of this generalized equation. -- Highlights: •We generalize the Kostin equation for arbitrary system–bath coupling. •This generalization is developed both in the Schrödinger and Bohmian formalisms. •We write the generalized Kostin equation for two measurement problems. •We reformulate the generalized uncertainty principle in terms of this equation.

Bargueño, Pedro, E-mail: p.bargueno@uniandes.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, Apartado Aéreo 4976, Bogotá, Distrito Capital (Colombia); Miret-Artés, Salvador, E-mail: s.miret@iff.csic.es [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006, Madrid (Spain)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Lorentz violation in the gravity sector: the t puzzle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lorentz violation is a candidate quantum-gravity signal, and the Standard-Model Extension (SME) is a widely used parametrization of such violation. In the gravitational SME sector, there is an elusive coefficient for which no effects have been found. This is is known as the $t$ puzzle and, to date, it has no compelling explanation. In this paper, several approaches to understand the $t$ puzzle are proposed. First, redefinitions of the dynamical fields are studied, which reveal that other SME coefficients can be moved to nongravitational sectors. It is also shown that the gravity SME sector can be treated \\textit{\\`a la} Palatini, and that, in the presence of spacetime boundaries, it is possible to correct its action to get the desired equations of motion. Also, through a reformulation as a Lanczos-type tensor, some problematic features of the $t$ term, that should arise at the phenomenological level, are revealed. Additional potential explanations to the $t$ puzzle are outlined.

Bonder, Yuri

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Lorentz violation in the gravity sector: the t puzzle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lorentz violation is a candidate quantum-gravity signal, and the Standard-Model Extension (SME) is a widely used parametrization of such violation. In the gravitational SME sector, there is an elusive coefficient for which no effects have been found. This is is known as the $t$ puzzle and, to date, it has no compelling explanation. In this paper, several approaches to understand the $t$ puzzle are proposed. First, redefinitions of the dynamical fields are studied, which reveal that other SME coefficients can be moved to nongravitational sectors. It is also shown that the gravity SME sector can be treated \\textit{\\`a la} Palatini, and that, in the presence of spacetime boundaries, it is possible to correct its action to get the desired equations of motion. Also, through a reformulation as a Lanczos-type tensor, some problematic features of the $t$ term, that should arise at the phenomenological level, are revealed. Additional potential explanations to the $t$ puzzle are outlined.

Yuri Bonder

2015-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

343

A space-efficient quantum computer simulator suitable for high-speed FPGA implementation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conventional vector-based simulators for quantum computers are quite limited in the size of the quantum circuits they can handle, due to the worst-case exponential growth of even sparse representations of the full quantum state vector as a function of the number of quantum operations applied. However, this exponential-space requirement can be avoided by using general space-time tradeoffs long known to complexity theorists, which can be appropriately optimized for this particular problem in a way that also illustrates some interesting reformulations of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we describe the design and empirical space-time complexity measurements of a working software prototype of a quantum computer simulator that avoids excessive space requirements. Due to its space-efficiency, this design is well-suited to embedding in single-chip environments, permitting especially fast execution that avoids access latencies to main memory. We plan to prototype our design on a standard FPGA development board.

Michael P. Frank; Liviu Oniciuc; Uwe Meyer-Baese; Irinel Chiorescu

2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

344

Shadow prices and well-posedness in the problem of optimal investment and consumption with transaction costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We revisit the optimal investment and consumption model of Davis and Norman (1990) and Shreve and Soner (1994), following a shadow-price approach similar to that of Kallsen and Muhle-Karbe (2010). Making use of the completeness of the model without transaction costs, we reformulate and reduce the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation for this singular stochastic control problem to a non-standard free-boundary problem for a first-order ODE with an integral constraint. Having shown that the free boundary problem has a smooth solution, we use it to construct the solution of the original optimal investment/consumption problem in a self-contained manner and without any recourse to the dynamic programming principle. Furthermore, we provide an explicit characterization of model parameters for which the value function is finite.

Choi, Jinhyuk; Zitkovic, Gordan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Multi-scale quantum point contact model for filamentary conduction in resistive random access memories devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We depart from first-principle simulations of electron transport along paths of oxygen vacancies in HfO{sub 2} to reformulate the Quantum Point Contact (QPC) model in terms of a bundle of such vacancy paths. By doing this, the number of model parameters is reduced and a much clearer link between the microscopic structure of the conductive filament (CF) and its electrical properties can be provided. The new multi-scale QPC model is applied to two different HfO{sub 2}-based devices operated in the unipolar and bipolar resistive switching (RS) modes. Extraction of the QPC model parameters from a statistically significant number of CFs allows revealing significant structural differences in the CF of these two types of devices and RS modes.

Lian, Xiaojuan, E-mail: xjlian2005@gmail.com; Cartoixà, Xavier; Miranda, Enrique; Suñé, Jordi [Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Perniola, Luca [CEA-LETI, MINATEC, Grenoble (France); Rurali, Riccardo [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Long, Shibing; Liu, Ming [Laboratory of Nanofabrication and Novel Device Integration, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

346

On a three-layer Hele-Shaw model of enhanced oil recovery with a linear viscous profile  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a non-standard eigenvalue problem that arises in the linear stability of a three-layer Hele-Shaw model of enhanced oil recovery. A nonlinear transformation is introduced which allows reformulation of the non-standard eigenvalue problem as a boundary value problem for Kummer's equation when the viscous profile of the middle layer is linear. Using the existing body of works on Kummer's equation, we construct an exact solution of the eigenvalue problem and provide the dispersion relation implicitly through the existence criterion for the non-trivial solution. We also discuss the convergence of the series solution. It is shown that this solution reduces to the physically relevant solutions in two asymptotic limits: (i) when the linear viscous profile approaches a constant viscous profile; or (ii) when the length of the middle layer approaches zero.

Daripa, Prabir; Meneses, Rodrigo

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

GR via Characteristic Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We reformulate the Einstein equations as equations for families of surfaces on a four-manifold. These surfaces eventually become characteristic surfaces for an Einstein metric (with or without sources). In particular they are formulated in terms of two functions on R4xS2, i.e. the sphere bundle over space-time, - one of the functions playing the role of a conformal factor for a family of associated conformal metrics, the other function describing an S2's worth of surfaces at each space-time point. It is from these families of surfaces themselves that the conformal metric - conformal to an Einstein metric - is constructed; the conformal factor turns them into Einstein metrics. The surfaces are null surfaces with respect to this metric.

Simonetta Frittelli; Carlos Kozameh; Ted Newman

1995-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

348

Radiation Reaction in High-Intense Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

After the development of the radiating electron model by P. A. M. Dirac in 1938, many authors have tried to reformulate this model so-called radiation reaction. Recently, this effects has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. In our recent research, we found a method for the stabilization of radiation reaction in quantum vacuum [PTEP 2014, 043A01 (2014), PTEP 2015, 023A01 (2015)]. In the other hand, the field modification by high-intense fields should be required under 10PW lasers, like ELI-NP facility. In this paper, I propose the combined method how to adopt the high-intense field correction with the stabilization by quantum vacuum as the extension from the model by Dirac.

Seto, Keita

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

A Parallel EM Algorithm for Model-Based Clustering Applied to the Exploration of Large Spatio-Temporal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We develop a parallel EM algorithm for multivariate Gaussian mixture models and use it to perform model-based clustering of a large climate data set. Three variants of the EM algorithm are reformulated in parallel and a new variant that is faster is presented. All are implemented using the single program, multiple data (SPMD) programming model, which is able to take advantage of the combined collective memory of large distributed computer architectures to process larger data sets. Displays of the estimated mixture model rather than the data allow us to explore multivariate relationships in a way that scales to arbitrary size data. We study the performance of our methodology on simulated data and apply our methodology to a high resolution climate dataset produced by the community atmosphere model (CAM5). This article has supplementary material online.

Chen, Wei-Chen [ORNL] [ORNL; Ostrouchov, George [ORNL] [ORNL; Pugmire, Dave [ORNL] [ORNL; Prabhat, [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Wehner, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Notes on a New Philosophy of Empirical Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This book presents a methodology and philosophy of empirical science based on large scale lossless data compression. In this view a theory is scientific if it can be used to build a data compression program, and it is valuable if it can compress a standard benchmark database to a small size, taking into account the length of the compressor itself. This methodology therefore includes an Occam principle as well as a solution to the problem of demarcation. Because of the fundamental difficulty of lossless compression, this type of research must be empirical in nature: compression can only be achieved by discovering and characterizing empirical regularities in the data. Because of this, the philosophy provides a way to reformulate fields such as computer vision and computational linguistics as empirical sciences: the former by attempting to compress databases of natural images, the latter by attempting to compress large text databases. The book argues that the rigor and objectivity of the compression principle sh...

Burfoot, Daniel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

A potential-splitting approach applied to the Temkin-Poet model for electron scattering off the hydrogen atom and the helium ion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The study of scattering processes in few body systems is a difficult problem especially if long range interactions are involved. In order to solve such problems, we develop here a potential-splitting approach for three body systems. This approach is based on splitting the reaction potential into a finite range core part and a long range tail part. The solution to the Schr\\"odinger equation for the long range tail Hamiltonian is found analytically, and used as an incoming wave in the three body scattering problem. This reformulation of the scattering problem makes it suitable for treatment by the exterior complex scaling technique in the sense that the problem after the complex dilation is reduced to a boundary value problem with zero boundary conditions. We illustrate the method with calculations on the electron scattering off the hydrogen atom and the positive helium ion in the frame of the Temkin-Poet model.

Yarevsky, E; Larson, Å; Elander, N

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Relativistic fluid mechanics, Kahler manifolds and supersymmetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose an alternative for the Clebsch decomposition of currents in fluid mechanics, in terms of complex potentials taking values in a Kahler manifold. We reformulate classical relativistic fluid mechanics in terms of these complex potentials and rederive the existence of an infinite set of conserved currents. We perform a canonical analysis to find the explicit form of the algebra of conserved charges. The Kahler-space formulation of the theory has a natural supersymmetric extension in 4-D space-time. It contains a conserved current, but also a number of additional fields complicating the interpretation. Nevertheless, we show that an infinite set of conserved currents emerges in the vacuum sector of the additional fields. This sector can therefore be identified with a regime of supersymmetric fluid mechanics. Explicit expressions for the current and the density are obtained.

T. S. Nyawelo; J. W. van Holten; S. Groot Nibbelink

2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

353

A note on QUBO instances defined on Chimera graphs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

McGeoch and Wang (2013) recently obtained optimal or near-optimal solutions to some quadratic unconstrained boolean optimization (QUBO) problem instances using a 439 qubit D-Wave Two quantum computing system in much less time than with the IBM ILOG CPLEX mixed-integer quadratic programming (MIQP) solver. The problems studied by McGeoch and Wang are defined on subgraphs -- with up to 439 nodes -- of Chimera graphs. We observe that after a standard reformulation of the QUBO problem as a mixed-integer linear program (MILP), the specific instances used by McGeoch and Wang can be solved to optimality with the CPLEX MILP solver in much less time than the time reported in McGeoch and Wang for the CPLEX MIQP solver. However, the solution time is still more than the time taken by the D-Wave computer in the McGeoch-Wang tests.

Sanjeeb Dash

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Scale-up and Technology Transfer of Protein-based Plastic Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the last number of years researchers at ISU have been developing protein based plastics from soybeans, funded by Soy Works Corporation. These materials have been characterized and the processing of these materials into prototype products has been demonstrated. A wide range of net-shape forming processes, including but not limited to extrusion, injection molding and compression molding have been studied. Issues, including technology transfer, re-formulation and product consistency, have been addressed partially during this contract. Also, commercial-scale processing parameters for protein based plastic products were designed, but not yet applicable in the industry. Support in the trouble shooting processing and the manufacturing of protein based plastic products was provided by Iowa State University during the one year contract.

Grewell, David

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

355

Formal similarity between mathematical structures of electrodynamics and quantum mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electromagnetic phenomena can be described by Maxwell equations written for the vectors of electric and magnetic field. Equivalently, electrodynamics can be reformulated in terms of an electromagnetic vector potential. We demonstrate that the Schr\\"odinger equation admits an analogous treatment. We present a Lagrangian theory of a real scalar field $\\phi$ whose equation of motion turns out to be equivalent to the Schr\\"odinger equation with time independent potential. After introduction the field into the formalism, its mathematical structure becomes analogous to those of electrodynamics. The field $\\phi$ is in the same relation to the real and imaginary part of a wave function as the vector potential is in respect to electric and magnetic fields. Preservation of quantum-mechanics probability is just an energy conservation law of the field $\\phi$.

A. A. Deriglazov

2011-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

356

A generalisation of classical electrodynamics for the prediction of scalar field effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Within the framework of Classical Electrodynamics (CED) it is common practice to choose freely an arbitrary gauge condition with respect to a gauge transformation of the electromagnetic potentials. The Lorenz gauge condition allows for the derivation of the inhomogeneous potential wave equations (IPWE), but this also means that scalar derivatives of the electromagnetic potentials are considered to be \\emph{unphysical}. However, these scalar expressions might have the meaning of a new physical field, $\\mathsf S$. If this is the case, then a generalised CED is required such that scalar field effects are predicted and such that experiments can be performed in order to verify or falsify this generalised CED. The IPWE are viewed as a generalised Gauss law and a generalised Ampe\\`re law, that also contain derivatives of $\\mathsf S$, after reformulating the IPWE in terms of fields. Some recent experiment show positive results that are in qualitative agreement with the presented predictions of scalar field effects, b...

van Vlaenderen, K J

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Condensation phenomena in two-flavor scalar QED at finite chemical potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study condensation in two-flavored, scalar QED with non-degenerate masses at finite chemical potential. The conventional formulation of the theory has a sign problem at finite density which can be solved using an exact reformulation of the theory in terms of dual variables. We perform a Monte Carlo simulation in the dual representation and observe a condensation at a critical chemical potential $\\mu_c$. After determining the low-energy spectrum of the theory we try to establish a connection between $\\mu_c$ and the mass of the lightest excitation of the system, which are naively expected to be equal. It turns out, however, that the relation of the critical chemical potential to the mass spectrum in this case is non-trivial: Taking into account the form of the condensate and making some simplifying assumptions we suggest an adequate explanation which is supported by numerical results.

Schmidt, Alexander; Gattringer, Christof

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Specific heat and bimodality in canonical and grand canonical versions of the thermodynamic model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We address two issues in the thermodynamic model for nuclear disassembly. Surprisingly large differences in results for specific heat were seen in predictions from the canonical and grand canonical ensembles when the nuclear system passes from liquid-gas co-existence to the pure gas phase. We are able to pinpoint and understand the reasons for such and other discrepancies when they appear. There is a subtle but important difference in the physics addressed in the two models. In particular if we reformulate the parameters in the canonical model to better approximate the physics addressed in the grand canonical model, calculations for observables converge. Next we turn to the issue of bimodality in the probability distribution of the largest fragment in both canonical and grand canonical ensembles. We demonstrate that this distribution is very closely related to average multiplicities. The relationship of the bimodal distribution to phase transition is discussed.

G. Chaudhuri; S. Das Gupta

2007-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

359

UNICOS Evolution: CPC Version 6  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) framework was created back in 1998. Since then a noticeable number of applications in different domains have used this framework. Furthermore UNICOS has been formalized and its supervision layer has been reused in other kinds of applications (e.g. monitoring or supervisory tasks) where a control layer is not necessarily UNICOS oriented. The process control package has been reformulated as the UNICOS CPC package (Continuous Process Control) and a reengineering process has been followed. The drive behind these noticeable changes was (1) being able to upgrade to the new more performing IT technologies in the automatic code generation, (2) being flexible enough to create new additional device types to cope with other needs (e.g. Vacuum or Cooling and Ventilation applications) without major impact on the framework or the PLC code baselines and (3) enhance the framework with new functionalities (e.g. recipes). This publication addresses the motivation, changes, new fun...

Blanco Vinuela, E; Bradu, B; Durand, Ph; Fernandez Adiego, B; Izquierdo Rosas, S; Merezhin, A; Ortola Vidal, J; Rochez, J; Willeman, D

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Superconductivity and the BCS-Bogoliubov Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

First, we reformulate the BCS-Bogoliubov theory of superconductivity from the viewpoint of linear algebra. We define the BCS Hamiltonian on $\\mathbb{C}^{2^{2M}}$, where $M$ is a positive integer. We discuss selfadjointness and symmetry of the BCS Hamiltonian as well as spontaneous symmetry breaking. Beginning with the gap equation, we give the well-known expression for the BCS state and find the existence of an energy gap. We also show that the BCS state has a lower energy than the normal state. Second, we introduce a new superconducting state explicitly and show from the viewpoint of linear algebra that this new state has a lower energy than the BCS state. Third, beginning with our new gap equation, we show from the viewpoint of linear algebra that we arrive at the results similar to those in the BCS-Bogoliubov theory.

Shuji Watanabe

2010-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Analytical and Numerical Study of Photocurrent Transients in Organic Polymer Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article is an attempt to provide a self consistent picture, including existence analysis and numerical solution algorithms, of the mathematical problems arising from modeling photocurrent transients in Organic-polymer Solar Cells (OSCs). The mathematical model for OSCs consists of a system of nonlinear diffusion-reaction partial differential equations (PDEs) with electrostatic convection, coupled to a kinetic ordinary differential equation (ODE). We propose a suitable reformulation of the model that allows us to prove the existence of a solution in both stationary and transient conditions and to better highlight the role of exciton dynamics in determining the device turn-on time. For the numerical treatment of the problem, we carry out a temporal semi-discretization using an implicit adaptive method, and the resulting sequence of differential subproblems is linearized using the Newton-Raphson method with inexact evaluation of the Jacobian. Then, we use exponentially fitted finite elements for the spatial...

de Falco, Carlo; Verri, Maurizio; 10.1016/j.cma.2010.01.018

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Condensation phenomena in two-flavor scalar QED at finite chemical potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study condensation in two-flavored, scalar QED with non-degenerate masses at finite chemical potential. The conventional formulation of the theory has a sign problem at finite density which can be solved using an exact reformulation of the theory in terms of dual variables. We perform a Monte Carlo simulation in the dual representation and observe a condensation at a critical chemical potential $\\mu_c$. After determining the low-energy spectrum of the theory we try to establish a connection between $\\mu_c$ and the mass of the lightest excitation of the system, which are naively expected to be equal. It turns out, however, that the relation of the critical chemical potential to the mass spectrum in this case is non-trivial: Taking into account the form of the condensate and making some simplifying assumptions we suggest an adequate explanation which is supported by numerical results.

Alexander Schmidt; Philippe de Forcrand; Christof Gattringer

2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

363

Lassoing Line Outages in the Smart Power Grid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fast and accurate unveiling of power line outages is of paramount importance not only for preventing faults that may lead to blackouts, but also for routine monitoring and control tasks of the smart grid, including state estimation and optimal power flow. Existing approaches are either challenged by the \\emph{combinatorial complexity} issues involved, and are thus limited to identifying single- and double-line outages; or, they invoke less pragmatic assumptions such as \\emph{conditionally independent} phasor angle measurements available across the grid. Using only a subset of voltage phasor angle data, the present paper develops a near real-time algorithm for identifying multiple line outages at the affordable complexity of solving a quadratic program via block coordinate descent iterations. The novel approach relies on reformulating the DC linear power flow model as a \\emph{sparse} overcomplete expansion, and leveraging contemporary advances in compressive sampling and variable selection using the least-abso...

Zhu, Hao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Refiners Switch to RFG Complex Model  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On January 1, 1998, domestic and foreign refineries and importers must stop using the "simple" model and begin using the "complex" model to calculate emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), toxic air pollutants (TAP), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from motor gasoline. The primary differences between application of the two models is that some refineries may have to meet stricter standards for the sulfur and olefin content of the reformulated gasoline (RFG) they produce and all refineries will now be held accountable for NOx emissions. Requirements for calculating emissions from conventional gasoline under the anti-dumping rule similarly change for exhaust TAP and NOx. However, the change to the complex model is not expected to result in an increase in the price premium for RFG or constrain supplies.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Economics for iso-olefin production using the fluid catalytic cracking unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires use of oxygenates in some gasolines to improve both CO and hydrocarbon auto tailpipe emissions. Various oxygenates are currently being used by the refining industry. For the fully integrated refinery having a fluid catalytic cracking unit, the most commonly used oxygenates are methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl ether (TAME). The FCC unit produces the isobutylene and iso-amylases need for manufacture of both MTBE and TAME. The economics for an assumed refinery processing scheme for several FCC cases are examined giving estimates of income and investments for each case. Up to one-third of the total gasoline pool can be made in reformulated gasoline using TAME and MTBE with the FCC unit as the sole source of feedstock. This processing route is much more economical than the alternative scheme using butane isomerization/iosbutane dehydrogenation.

McClung, R.G.; Witoshkin, A.; Bogert, D.C.; Winkler, W.S. [Englehard Corp., Iselin, NJ (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

366

MTBE will be a boon to U. S. gas processors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that the advent of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as the primary oxygenate blending component for oxygenated and reformulated motor fuels promises significant benefits for the U.S. gas-processing industry. Increased demand for isobutane as MTBE-plant feedstock will buoy both normal butane and isobutane pricing in U.S. gulf Coast during the 1990s. Elimination of the need to crack normal butane in U.S. olefin plants will also strengthen competitive feedstocks somewhat, including ethane and propane. And increased use of normal butane as isomerization feedstock will result in wider recognition of the premium quality of gas plant normal butane production compared to most refinery C[sub 4] production.

Otto, K.W. (Purvin and Gertz, Inc. Dallas, TX (United States))

1993-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

367

MTBE, ethanol rules come under fire  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

EPA is facing stiff challenges to the mandates for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol in its reformulated gasoline (RFG) program. Wisconsin officials are receiving hundreds of complaints about the alleged health effects and other problems with MTBE added to gasoline, and Gov. Tommy Thompson is demanding that EPA suspend the RFG program until April 1. Rep. James Sensenbrenner (R., WI) is threatening to introduce a bill to repeal the program in Wisconsin if EPA does not comply. However, EPA administrator Carol Browner says the agency will {open_quotes}defer any decision{close_quotes} on the request. EPA has sent technical experts to Milwaukee to respond to and monitor citizens` complaints.

Begley, R.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

EPA proposal sets MTBE back  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) producers were looking for a boost from the official New Year`s start of EPA`s reformulated gasoline (RFG) program. But that prospect has been dimmed by an EPA-proposal-in reaction to concerns about RFG prices-to allow states to withdraw from the program. The states that have opted to out make up 5%-6% of the total RFG pool says Arthur Zadronzy, director/government outreach for MTBE producer Arco Chemical. {open_quotes}This is not a major hit, but it is one we have felt,{close_quotes} he says. Despite the state and EPA actions, MTBE producers are not worried about long-term consequences.

Lucas, A.

1995-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

369

The hypercentral Constituent Quark Model and its application to baryon properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hypercentral Constituent Quark Model (hCQM) for the baryon structure is reviewed and its applications are systematically discussed. The model is based on a simple form of the quark potential, which contains a Coulomb-like interaction and a confinement, both expressed in terms of a collective space coordinate, the hyperradius. The model has only three free parameters, determined in order to describe the baryon spectrum. Once the parameters have been fixed, the model, in its non relativistic version, is used to predict various quantities of physical interest, namely the elastic nucleon form factors, the photocouplings and the helicity amplitudes for the electromagnetic excitation of the baryon resonances. In particular, the $Q^2$ dependence of the helicity amplitude is quite well reproduced, thanks to the Coulomb-like interaction. The model is reformulated in a relativistic version by means of the Point Form hamilton dynamics. While the inclusion of relativity does not alter the results for the helicity amp...

Giannini, M M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

An Accelerated Multiboson Algorithm for Coulomb Gases with Dynamical Dielectric Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A recent reformulation [1] of the problem of Coulomb gases in the presence of a dynamical dielectric medium showed that finite temperature simulations of such systems can be accomplished on the basis of completely local Hamiltonians on a spatial lattice by including additional bosonic fields. For large systems, the Monte Carlo algorithm proposed in Ref. [1] becomes inefficient due to a low acceptance rate for particle moves in a fixed background multiboson field. We show here how this problem can be circumvented by use of a coupled particle-multiboson update procedure that improves acceptance rates on large lattices by orders of magnitude. The method is tested on a one-component plasma with neutral dielectric particles for a variety of system sizes.

A. Duncan; R. D. Sedgewick

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Constraints on ADM tetrad gravity parameter space from S2 star in the center of the Galaxy and from the Solar System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ADM tetrad gravity is an Hamiltonian reformulation of General Relativity which gives new insight to the Dark Matter Problem. We impose constraints on the parameter space of ADM tetrad gravity with a Yukawa-like ansatz for the trace of the extrinsic curvature of the 3D hypersurfaces by fitting the orbit of the S2 star around the Black Hole in the Galactic center and using the perihelia of some of the planets of the Solar System. We find very thight constraints on the \\emph{strength} of the coupling, $4.2 \\,\\times \\, 10^{-4} \\, \\text{AU}\\,\\lesssim \\, \\delta \\, \\lesssim \\, 4.6 \\, \\times \\, 10^{-4} \\, \\text{AU}$, and an upper limit for the (inverse) scale length, $\\mu \\, \\lesssim \\, 3.5 \\, \\times \\, 10^{-6} \\, \\text{AU}^{-1}$.

Mattia Villani

2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

372

Topologically Stratified Energy Minimizers in a Product Abelian Field Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recently developed product Abelian gauge field theory by Tong and Wong hosting magnetic impurities is reformulated into an extended model that allows the coexistence of vortices and anti-vortices. The two Abelian gauge fields in the model induce two species of magnetic vortex-lines resulting from $N_s$ vortices and $P_s$ anti-vortices ($s=1,2$) realized as the zeros and poles of two complex-valued Higgs fields, respectively. An existence theorem is established for the governing equations over a compact Riemann surface $S$ which states that a solution with prescribed $N_1, N_2$ vortices and $P_1,P_2$ anti-vortices of two designated species exists if and only if the inequalities \\[ \\left|N_1+N_2-(P_1+P_2)\\right|area of $S$. The minimum energy of these solutions is shown to assume the explicit value \\...

Han, Xiaosen

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 7, vehicle emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from Clean Fleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combination of vehicle manufacturer and fuel were tested at the California Air Resources Board (ARB) as they accumulated mileage in the demonstration. Data are presented on regulated emissions, ozone precursors, air toxics, and greenhouse gases. The emissions tests provide information on in-use emissions. That is, the vans were taken directly from daily commercial service and tested at the ARB. The differences in alternative fuel technology provide the basis for a range of technology options. The emissions data reflect these differences, with classes of vehicle/fuels producing either more or less emissions for various compounds relative to the control gasoline.

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Energy Landscape of the Finite-Size Mean-field 2-Spin Spherical Model and Topology Trivialization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motivated by the recently observed phenomenon of topology trivialization of potential energy landscapes (PELs) for several statistical mechanics models, we perform a numerical study of the finite size $2$-spin spherical model using both numerical polynomial homotopy continuation and a reformulation via non-hermitian matrices. The continuation approach computes all of the complex stationary points of this model while the matrix approach computes the real stationary points. Using these methods, we compute the average number of stationary points while changing the topology of the PEL as well as the variance. Histograms of these stationary points are presented along with an analysis regarding the complex stationary points. This work connects topology trivialization to two different branches of mathematics: algebraic geometry and catastrophe theory, which is fertile ground for further interdisciplinary research.

Dhagash Mehta; Jonathan D. Hauenstein; Matthew Niemerg; Nicholas J. Simm; Daniel A. Stariolo

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

376

Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Analysis and Reduction of Complex Networks Under Uncertainty  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a collaborative proposal that aims at developing new methods for the analysis and reduction of complex multiscale networks under uncertainty. The approach is based on combining methods of computational singular perturbation (CSP) and probabilistic uncertainty quantification. In deterministic settings, CSP yields asymptotic approximations of reduced-dimensionality “slow manifolds” on which a multiscale dynamical system evolves. Introducing uncertainty raises fundamentally new issues, particularly concerning its impact on the topology of slow manifolds, and means to represent and quantify associated variability. To address these challenges, this project uses polynomial chaos (PC) methods to reformulate uncertain network models, and to analyze them using CSP in probabilistic terms. Specific objectives include (1) developing effective algorithms that can be used to illuminate fundamental and unexplored connections among model reduction, multiscale behavior, and uncertainty, and (2) demonstrating the performance of these algorithms through applications to model problems.

Knio, Omar M

2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

378

Thermodynamic stability and unusual strength of ultra-incompressible rhenium nitrides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on a comprehensive study of thermodynamic and mechanical properties as well as a bond-deformation mechanism on ultra-incompressible Re{sub 2} N and Re{sub 3} N. The introduction of nitrogen into the rhenium lattice leads to thermodynamic instability in Re{sub 2} N at ambient conditions and enhanced incompressibility and strength for both rhenium nitrides. Rhenium nitrides, however, show substantially lower ideal shear strength than hard ReB{sub 2} and superhard c -BN, suggesting that they cannot be intrinsically superhard. An intriguing soft “ionic bond mediated plastic deformation” mechanism is revealed to underline the physical origin of their unusual mechanical strength. These results suggest a need to reformulate the design concept of intrinsically superhard transition-metal nitrides, borides, and carbides.

Zhang, R. F.; Lin, Zhijun; Mao, Ho-kwang; Zhao, Yusheng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

On particle acceleration around shocks. I  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive a relativistically covariant (although not manifestly so) equation for the distribution function of particles accelerated at shocks, which applies also to extremely relativistic shocks, and arbitrarily anisotropic particle distributions. The theory is formulated for arbitrary pitch angle scattering, and reduces to the well--known case for small angle scatterings via a Fokker--Planck approximation. The boundary conditions for the problem are completely reformulated introducing a physically motivated Green's function; the new formulation allows derivation of the particle spectrum both close and far away from the injection energy in an exact way, while it can be shown to reduce to a power--law at large particle energies. The particle spectral index is also recovered in a novel way. Contact is made with the Newtonian treatment.

Mario Vietri

2003-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

380

Analysis of a spinning polygon wavelength swept laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has been known for quite some time that spinning polygon, and similar, swept lasers used in OCT favor the short to long wavelength sweep direction because of four wave mixing in the gain medium. Here we have reformulated the problem in the time domain and show experimentally and through numerical simulation that these lasers are pulsed. The emitted pulses modulate the gain medium refractive index to red shift the light. Instead of new wavelengths being built up slowly from spontaneous emission, each pulse hops to a longer wavelength by nonlinear means, tracking the tunable filter. This allows high speed, low noise tuning in the blue to red direction. Based on this model, we make the first coherence length calculations for a swept source.

Johnson, Bart; Kuznetsov, Mark; Goldberg, Brian D; Whitney, Peter; Flanders, Dale C

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Influence of the nature of FCC feed on the production of light olefins by catalytic cracking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1990 Clean Air Act has act rules for gasoline reformulation, which requires major compositional changes, Including a higher contribution of oxygenated compounds to the gasoline pool. This explains why FCC units are expected to play a major role in the coming years as a producer of light olefins (propylene, butenes and amylenes) to be used as feedstock for oxygenate (MTBE/TAME) production. The impact of the nature of FCC feedstock on light olefins production (C3 to C5 olefins) has been studied using a MAT unit running at various operating conditions (C/O ratio, reactor temperature). Paraffinic feeds are potentially efficient to produce light olefins by catalytic cracking. Heavier paraffinic feeds like mixtures VGO + reside and pure reside have also been evaluated, and compared to naphthenic and aromatic feeds.

Chapus, Th.; Cauffriez, H.; Marcilly, Ch. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Simplicity of condensed matter at its core: Generic definition of a Roskilde-simple system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The theory of isomorphs is reformulated by defining Roskilde-simple systems (those with isomorphs) by the property that the order of the potential energies of configurations at one density is maintained when these are scaled uniformly to a different density. Isomorphs remain curves in the thermodynamic phase diagram along which structure, dynamics, and excess entropy are invariant, implying that the phase diagram is effectively one-dimensional with respect to many reduced-unit properties. In contrast to the original formulation of the isomorph theory, however, the density-scaling exponent is not exclusively a function of density and the isochoric heat capacity is not an exact isomorph invariant. A prediction is given for the latter quantity's variation along the isomorphs. Molecular dynamics simulations of the Lennard-Jones and Lennard-Jones Gaussian systems validate the new approach.

Thomas B. Schrøder; Jeppe C. Dyre

2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

383

Affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras: The center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The degenerate affine and affine BMW algebras arise naturally in the context of Schur-Weyl duality for orthogonal and symplectic Lie algebras and quantum groups, respectively. Cyclotomic BMW algebras, affine Hecke algebras, cyclotomic Hecke algebras, and their degenerate versions are quotients. In this paper the theory is unified by treating the orthogonal and symplectic cases simultaneously; we make an exact parallel between the degenerate affine and affine cases via a new algebra which takes the role of the affine braid group for the degenerate setting. A main result of this paper is an identification of the centers of the affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras in terms of rings of symmetric functions which satisfy a "cancellation property" or "wheel condition" (in the degenerate case, a reformulation of a result of Nazarov). Miraculously, these same rings also arise in Schubert calculus, as the cohomology and K-theory of isotropic Grassmanians and symplectic loop Grassmanians. We also establish new inte...

Daugherty, Zajj; Virk, Rahbar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

A Strongly and Superlinearly Convergent SQP Algorithm for Optimization Problems with Linear Complementarity Constraints  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses a kind of optimization problem with linear complementarity constraints, and presents a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm for solving a stationary point of the problem. The algorithm is a modification of the SQP algorithm proposed by Fukushima et al. [Computational Optimization and Applications, 10 (1998),5-34], and is based on a reformulation of complementarity condition as a system of linear equations. At each iteration, one quadratic programming and one system of equations needs to be solved, and a curve search is used to yield the step size. Under some appropriate assumptions, including the lower-level strict complementarity, but without the upper-level strict complementarity for the inequality constraints, the algorithm is proved to possess strong convergence and superlinear convergence. Some preliminary numerical results are reported.

Jian Jinbao, E-mail: jianjb@gxu.edu.cn; Li Jianling; Mo Xingde [College of Mathematics and Information Science, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China)

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Rotation and anisotropy of galaxies revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The use of the tensor virial theorem (TVT) as a diagnostic of anisotropic velocity distributions in galaxies is revisited. The TVT provides a rigorous global link between velocity anisotropy, rotation and shape, but the quantities appearing in it are not easily estimated observationally. Traditionally use has been made of a centrally averaged velocity dispersion and the peak rotation velocity. Although this procedure cannot be rigorously justified, tests on model galaxies show that it works surprisingly well. With the advent of integral-field spectroscopy it is now possible to establish a rigorous connection between the TVT and observations. The TVT is reformulated in terms of sky-averages, and the new formulation is tested on model galaxies.

James Binney

2005-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

386

Generalization of the Atkinson-Wilcox Theorem and the Development of a Novel Scaled Boundary Finite Element Formulation for the Numerical Simulation of Electromagnetic Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Scaled Boundary Finite Element Method is a novel semi-analytical method jointly developed by Chongmin Song and John P Wolf to solve problems in elastodynamics and allied problems in civil engineering. This novel method has been recently reformulated for the following categories of problems in electromagnetics: (1) Determination of Eigen values of metallic cavity structures, 2) Full wave analysis of Shielded micro-strip transmission line structures, and Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSI) interconnects, and 3) Full wave analysis of periodic structures. In this paper, a novel Scaled Boundary Finite Element formulation is developed for the numerical simulation of the time harmonic electromagnetic radiation in free space from metallic structures of arbitrary shape. The development of the novel formulation necessitates the generalization of the familiar Atkinson-Wilcox radiation series expansion so as to be applicable for arbitrary boundary circumscribing the source of radiation.

Rajan, V S P

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Reduction of risk to the marine environment from oilfield chemicals - balancing environmental and technical needs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study argues that the regulation of offshore use of hazardous chemicals for oilfield stimulation and Completion applications is an important but not a total solution to reduce marine pollution from offshore sources. The aim of the study is to demonstrate that for a complete solution, chemical reformulation must be considered hand-in-band with improved operational practices to provide a maximum effect on overall risk reduction. The study is directed at one major service company`s approach to the whole issue of chemical management in the 1990s, based mainly on North Sea experience in cementing, drilling fluid and stimulation activities. Oilfield chemicals are incorporated into a fluid design to solve a specific technical problem in a well, such as well completion, stimulation and damage removal. While it is desirable to replace all the harmful chemicals, the practicalities of doing so are limited if the industry is to continue to produce efficiently. Other alternatives need consideration. By their very chemistry, some chemicals have primary active ingredients which may be harmful if discharged into the environment. Improving the characteristics of chemicals to marine life requires the change of previously acceptable products, such as the elimination of banned materials as well as incorporating components with reduced toxicity and greater biodegradability. The idealistic goal is the immediate replacement of all chemicals by nontoxic, biodegrade alternatives; the practical solution is replacement reformulation where possible and the improved isolation the oilwell and marine environments through improvements in continuous-mix technology along with reduction of the chemicals by better job design.

O`Neill, J.E.; Hill, D.G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

389

Development and use of the GREET model to estimate fuel-cycle energy use and emissions of various transportation technologies and fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel- cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulate matter measuring 10 microns or less) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates the total fuel-cycle energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption using various transportation fuels. The GREET model includes 17 fuel cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, clean diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydrogen, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; and landfill gases to methanol. This report presents fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for a 2000 model-year car powered by each of the fuels that are produced from the primary energy sources considered in the study.

Wang, M.Q.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

GREET 1.0 -- Transportation fuel cycles model: Methodology and use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel-cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, Co, NOx, SOx, and particulate matter measuring 10 microns or less) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates the total fuel-cycle energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption using various transportation fuels. The GREET model includes 17 fuel cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, clean diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydropower, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; and landfill gases to methanol. This report presents fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for a 2000 model-year car powered by each of the fuels that are produced from the primary energy sources considered in the study.

Wang, M.Q.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Invariant formulation for dispersed transverse isotropy in aortic heart valves: An efficient means for modeling fiber splay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most soft tissues possess an oriented architecture of collagen fiber bundles, conferring both anisotropy and nonlinearity to their elastic behavior. Transverse isotropy has often been assumed for a subset of these tissues that have a single macroscopically-identifiable preferred fiber direction. Micro-structural studies, however, suggest that, in some tissues, collagen fibers are approximately normally distributed about a mean preferred fiber direction. Structural constitutive equations that account for this dispersion of fibers have been shown to capture the mechanical complexity of these tissues quite well. Such descriptions, however, are computationally cumbersome for two-dimensional (2D) fiber distributions, let alone for fully three-dimensional (3D) fiber populations. In this paper, we develop a new constitutive law for such tissues, based on a novel invariant theory for dispersed transverse isotropy. The invariant theory is based on a novel closed-form ''splay invariant'' that can easily handle 3D fiber populations, and that only requires a single parameter in the 2D case. The model is polyconvex and fits biaxial data for aortic valve tissue as accurately as the standard structural model. Modification of the fiber stress-strain law requires no re-formulation of the constitutive tangent matrix, making the model flexible for different types of soft tissues. Most importantly, the model is computationally expedient in a finite-element analysis, demonstrated by modeling a bioprosthetic heart valve.

Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Vesely, Ivan

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

An Advanced Integrated Diffusion/Transport Method for the Design, Analysis and Optimization of the Very-High-Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated diffusion/transport (IDT) method to substantially improve the accuracy of nodal diffusion methods for the design and analysis of Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). Because of the presence of control rods in the reflector regions in the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR-VHTR), traditional nodal diffusion methods do not accurately model these regions, within which diffusion theory breaks down in the vicinity of high neutron absorption and steep flux gradients. The IDT method uses a local transport solver based on a new incident flux response expansion method in the controlled nodes. Diffusion theory is used in the rest of the core. This approach improves the accuracy of the core solution by generating transport solutions of controlled nodes while maintaining computational efficiency by using diffusion solutions in nodes where such a treatment is sufficient. The transport method is initially developed and coupled to the reformulated 3-D nodal diffusion model in the CYNOD code for PBR core design and fuel cycle analysis. This method is also extended to the prismatic VHTR. The new method accurately captures transport effects in highly heterogeneous regions with steep flux gradients. The calculations of these nodes with transport theory avoid errors associated with spatial homogenization commonly used in diffusion methods in reactor core simulators

Farzad Rahnema; Dingkang Zhang; Abderrafi Ougouag; Frederick Gleicher

2011-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

393

Nuclear evaporation process with simultaneous multiparticle emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The nuclear evaporation process is reformulated by taking into account simultaneous multiparticle emission from a hot compound nucleus appearing as an intermediate state in many nuclear reaction mechanisms. The simultaneous emission of many particles is particularly relevant for high excitation energy of the compound nucleus.These channels are effectively open in competition with the single particle emissions and fission in this energy regime. Indeed, the inclusion of these channels along the decay evaporating chain shows that the yield of charged particles and occurrence of fission are affected by these multiparticle emission processes of the compounded nucleus, when compared to the single sequential emission results. The effect also shows a qualitative change in the neutron multiplicity of different heavy compound nucleus considered. This should be an important aspect for the study of spallation reaction in Acceleration Driven System (ADS) reactors. The majority of neutrons generated in these reactions come from the evaporation stage of the reaction, the source of neutron for the system. A Monte Carlo simulation is employed to determine the effect of these channels on the particle yield and fission process. The relevance of the simultaneous particle emission with the increasing of excitation energy of the compound nucleus is explicitly shown.

Leonardo P. G. De Assis; Sergio B. Duarte; Bianca M. Santos

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

394

Metastring Theory and Modular Space-time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

String theory is canonically accompanied with a space-time interpretation which determines S-matrix-like observables, and connects to the standard physics at low energies in the guise of local effective field theory. Recently, we have introduced a reformulation of string theory which does not rely on an {\\it a priori} space-time interpretation or a pre-assumption of locality. This \\hlt{metastring theory} is formulated in such a way that stringy symmetries (such as T-duality) are realized linearly. In this paper, we study metastring theory on a flat background and develop a variety of technical and interpretational ideas. These include a formulation of the moduli space of Lorentzian worldsheets, a careful study of the symplectic structure and consequently consistent closed and open boundary conditions, and the string spectrum and operator algebra. What emerges from these studies is a new quantum notion of space-time that we refer to as a quantum Lagrangian or equivalently a \\hlt{modular space-time}. This conce...

Freidel, Laurent; Minic, Djordje

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Improved Approximations for Fermion Pair Production in Inhomogeneous Electric Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reformulating the instantons in a complex plane for tunneling or transmitting states, we calculate the pair-production rate of charged fermions in a spatially localized electric field, illustrated by the Sauter electric field E_0 sech^2 (z/L), and in a temporally localized electric field such as E_0 sech^2 (t/T). The integration of the quadratic part of WKB instanton actions over the frequency and transverse momentum leads to the pair-production rate obtained by the worldline instanton method, including the prefactor, of Phys. Rev. D72, 105004 (2005) and D73, 065028 (2006). It is further shown that the WKB instanton action plus the next-to-leading order contribution in spinor QED equals the WKB instanton action in scalar QED, thus justifying why the WKB instanton in scalar QED can work for the pair production of fermions. Finally we obtain the pair-production rate in a spatially localized electric field together with a constant magnetic field in the same direction.

Sang Pyo Kim; Don N. Page

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

396

U. S. refiners move into another challenging technical era  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the transition to unleaded gasoline scarcely behind us, another new era is dawning for the U.S. refiner. No one yet knows the exact configuration of the refinery of the future and no two refineries are likely to adapt in exactly the same way. What is certain, however, is that by the year 2000, refineries will be more technologically advanced, their products will be more environmentally acceptable, and their operators will be more highly trained. The typical U.S. refinery in the year 2000 will be located at an existing refinery site because economic and environmental considerations will make it impossible to build new grassroots capacity. As a result of the Clean Air act, the refinery of tomorrow will produce cleaner fuels The entire U.S. gasoline pool will likely be reformulated. Most of the diesel fuel pool will consist of ultralow-sulfur product. And jet fuel-which is experiencing rapid demand growth-will be an increasingly important product. Many existing refining process will remain in use, but they will be more efficient and more technologically advanced. Energy efficiency will be a primary concern, as refiners seek to combat ever-increasing crude oil costs and refinery operating expenses. The refinery of the future also will be much more environmentally acceptable. The article is a closer look at the refinery of the future.

Hall, J.R. (Ashland Oil Inc., Ashland, KY (US))

1991-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

397

The Structure of Superforms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis we examine a set of foundational questions concerning closed forms in superspace. By reformulating a number of definitions through the use of a new ring of (anti-)commuting variables and the concept of an exact Bianchi form, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined method for analyzing superforms. We also study the dimensional reduction of superforms and how the relative cohomology of the superspaces involved allows for the construction of additional closed forms not in the main complex. In particular, the entire de Rham complex of closed superforms in five-dimensional superspace with eight supercharges $(N = 1)$ is derived from the complex in the corresponding six-dimensional superspace. As a concluding effort, we work out the component formulation for the matter multiplets defined by five-dimensional $p$-form field-strengths for $p = 2, 3, 4$. The first and last of these come directly from the de Rham complex and coincide with multiplets that are already well-known, while the 3-form field-strength multiplet happens to require additional effort to find. This leads to the conclusion that, in general, the super-de Rham complex is not the result of supersymmetrizing the bosonic de Rham complex.

Stephen Randall

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

Methanol market slowly tightens as Brazil starts soaking up material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although the US methanol market's response to mandated oxygen requirements in reformulated gasoline has been disappointing, the European market has surprisingly been tightening in recent weeks and looks set for a price rise in first-quarter 1993. The tightness is being felt mainly in the Mediterranean market, where the Libyan methanol plant is running at only 70% because of problems with gas feedstock supplies. More significantly, the Brazilian government has now given the go-ahead for a yearlong extension on imports of methanol for use as an ethanol replacement in fuel blending. The new authorization sets a monthly import limit of 48,000 m.t. during that period. Libya is an important supplier of methanol to the Brazilian market and has already shipped about 20,000 m.t. since the authorization was given. Another major supplier to Brazil is Russia, from its two giant 750,000-m.t./year plants at Gubakha and Tomsk. The material is shipped from the terminal at Yuzhnyy on the Black Sea, in Ukrainian territory since the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Young, I.

1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

399

Meet changing fuel requirements with online blend optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compania Espanola de Petroleos (CEPSA) embarked on an overall refinery automation program, with state-of-the-art gasoline blending being one of the highest priorities. The result of this effort is a sophisticated computerized gasoline blending system using offline LPs for initial optimal recipe calculation, an online LP for real-time blend recipe reformulation using online analyzers for blending model adjustment, complete automation of blending sequence startup and shutdown, generation of end of blend quality performance reports, and real-time integration between lab, tank gauging, plant information, and blending systems. The entry of Spain in the EEC brought with it the need to quickly adapt to the requirements of an openly competitive marketplace emphasizing no lead, oxygenated, high performance gasolines and ISO 9000 quality standards. The blending system allowed CEPSA to produce lowest cost, minimum giveaway gasolines, while having the flexibility to produce a wide variety of modern gasolines serving the Western European market. The paper describes the blender architecture, optimizer linear programming, man machine interface, and results from the blending system.

Diaz, A. [Compania Espanola de Petroleos, S.A., Cadiz (Spain). Algeciras Refinery; Barsamian, J.A. [ABB Simcon Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Seventeenth quarterly progress report, May 12-August 12, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Development efforts have emphasized the reformulation of polybutyl acrylate, a liquid pottant used in the casting encapsulation process. This material has been modified to yield a composition with much faster cure at lower temperatures. Minimodules have been successfully prepared from this low cost compound and are currently being evaluated by thermal/humidity cycling. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was used for the examination of thermal stability in some of the pottant compounds of current interest. This method was useful in determining the temperatures at which oxidative or pyrolysis reactions resulted in degradation of the polymers. All the candidate pottants showed degradation onsets of over 200/sup 0/C. The effectiveness of a new primer was determined during this period. This formulation was similar to the silane coupling agent used in past experimentation but was modified with a peroxide to enhance the activity. Excellent bound strengths were obtained to glass, and mild steel that were resistant to immersion in boiling water. EVA to low iron glass gave an average bond strength of 35 lbs per inch of width. This new primer was also evaluated for the corrosion protection that could be provided to metal surfaces when primed and encapsulated in EVA. (WHK)

Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Analytical and Numerical Study of Photocurrent Transients in Organic Polymer Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article is an attempt to provide a self consistent picture, including existence analysis and numerical solution algorithms, of the mathematical problems arising from modeling photocurrent transients in Organic-polymer Solar Cells (OSCs). The mathematical model for OSCs consists of a system of nonlinear diffusion-reaction partial differential equations (PDEs) with electrostatic convection, coupled to a kinetic ordinary differential equation (ODE). We propose a suitable reformulation of the model that allows us to prove the existence of a solution in both stationary and transient conditions and to better highlight the role of exciton dynamics in determining the device turn-on time. For the numerical treatment of the problem, we carry out a temporal semi-discretization using an implicit adaptive method, and the resulting sequence of differential subproblems is linearized using the Newton-Raphson method with inexact evaluation of the Jacobian. Then, we use exponentially fitted finite elements for the spatial discretization, and we carry out a thorough validation of the computational model by extensively investigating the impact of the model parameters on photocurrent transient times.

Carlo de Falco; Riccardo Sacco; Maurizio Verri

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

402

New general approach in few-body scattering calculations: Solving discretized Faddeev equations on a graphics processing unit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background: The numerical solution of few-body scattering problems with realistic interactions is a difficult problem that normally must be solved on powerful supercomputers, taking a lot of computer time. This strongly limits the possibility of accurate treatments for many important few-particle problems in different branches of quantum physics. Purpose: To develop a new general highly effective approach for the practical solution of few-body scattering equations that can be implemented on a graphics processing unit. Methods: The general approach is realized in three steps: (i) the reformulation of the scattering equations using a convenient analytical form for the channel resolvent operator; (ii) a complete few-body continuum discretization and projection of all operators and wave functions onto a $L_2$ basis constructed from stationary wave packets and (iii) the ultra-fast solution of the resulting matrix equations using graphics processor. Results: The whole approach is illustrated by a calculation of the neutron-deuteron elastic scattering cross section below and above the three-body breakup threshold with a realistic $NN$ potential which is performed on a standard PC using a graphics processor with an extremely short runtime. Conclusions: The general technique proposed in this paper opens a new way for a fast practical solution of quantum few-body scattering problems both in non-relativistic and relativistic formulations in hadronic, nuclear and atomic physics.

V. N. Pomerantsev; V. I. Kukulin; O. A. Rubtsova

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Theory versus experiment for vacuum Rabi oscillations in lossy cavities. II. Direct test of uniqueness of vacuum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper continues the analysis of vacuum Rabi oscillations we started in part I [Phys. Rev. A 79, 033836 (2009)]. Here we concentrate on experimental consequences for cavity QED of two different classes of representations of harmonic-oscillator Lie algebras. The zero-temperature master equation, derived in part I for irreducible representations of the algebra, is reformulated in a reducible representation that models electromagnetic fields by a gas of harmonic-oscillator wave packets. The representation is known to introduce automatic regularizations that in irreducible representations would have to be justified by ad hoc arguments. Predictions based on this representation are characterized in thermodynamic limit by a single parameter {sigma}, responsible for collapses and revivals of Rabi oscillations in exact vacuum. Collapses and revivals disappear in the limit {sigma}{yields}{infinity}. Observation of a finite {sigma} would mean that cavity quantum fields are described by a non-Wightmanian theory, where vacuum states are zero-temperature Bose-Einstein condensates of a N-particle bosonic oscillator gas and, thus, are nonunique. The data collected in the experiment of Brune et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1800 (1996)] are consistent with any {sigma}>400.

Wilczewski, Marcin; Czachor, Marek [Katedra Fizyki Teoretycznej i Informatyki Kwantowej, Politechnika Gdanska, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Krajowe Centrum Informatyki Kwantowej, 81-824 Sopot (Poland) and Centrum Leo Apostel (CLEA), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

Twistors and 2T-physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two-Time physics applies broadly to the formulation of physics and correctly describes the physical world as we know it. Recently it was applied to a 2T re-formulation of the d=4 twistor superstring, which was suggested by Witten as an efficient approach for computations of physical processes in the maximally supersymmetric N=4 Yang-Mills field theory in four dimensions. The 2T formalism provides a six dimensional view of this theory and suggests the existence of other d=4 dual forms of the same theory. Furthermore the 2T approach led to the first formulation of a twistor superstring in d=10 appropriate for AdS{5}xS{5} backgrounds, and a twistor superstring in d=6 related to the little understood superconformal theory in d=6. The proper generalization of twistors to higher dimensions is an essential ingredient which is provided naturally by 2T-physics. These developments are summarized in this lecture.

Itzhak Bars

2005-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

405

Towards violation of Born's rule: description of a simple experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently a new model with hidden variables of the wave type was elaborated, so called prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). Roughly speaking PCSFT is a classical signal theory applied to a special class of signals - 'quantum systems'. PCSFT reproduces successfully all probabilistic predictions of QM, including correlations for entangled systems. This model peacefully coexists with all known no-go theorems, including Bell's theorem. In our approach QM is an approximate model. All probabilistic predictions of QM are only (quite good) approximations of 'real physical averages'. The latter are averages with respect to fluctuations of prequantum fields. In particular, Born's rule is only an approximate rule. More precise experiments should demonstrate its violation. We present a simple experiment which has to produce statistical data violating Born's rule. Since the PCSFT-presentation of this experiment may be difficult for experimenters, we reformulate consequences of PCSFT in terms of the conventional wave function. In general, deviation from Born's rule is rather small. We found an experiment amplifying this deviation. We start with a toy example. Then we present a more realistic example based on Gaussian states with very small dispersion.

Khrennikov, Andrei [International Center for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, Linnaeus University, Vaexjoe, S-35195 (Sweden)

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

406

On quantum potential dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-relativistic de Broglie-Bohm theory describes particles moving under the guidance of the wave function. In de Broglie's original formulation, the particle dynamics is given by a first-order differential equation. In Bohm's reformulation, it is given by Newton's law of motion with an extra potential that depends on the wave function--the quantum potential--together with a constraint on the possible velocities. It was recently argued, mainly by numerical simulations, that relaxing this velocity constraint leads to a physically untenable theory. We provide further evidence for this by showing that for various wave functions the particles tend to escape the wave packet. In particular, we show that for a central classical potential and bound energy eigenstates the particle motion is often unbounded. This work seems particularly relevant for ways of simulating wave function evolution based on Bohm's formulation of the de Broglie-Bohm theory. Namely, the simulations may become unstable due to deviations from the velocity constraint.

Sheldon Goldstein; Ward Struyve

2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

407

Vacuum energy sequestering and cosmic dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explicitly compute the dynamics of closed homogeneous and isotropic universes permeated by a single perfect fluid with a constant equation of state parameter $w$ in the context of a recent reformulation of general relativity, proposed in [1], which prevents the vacuum energy from acting as a gravitational source. This is done using an iterative algorithm, taking as an initial guess the background cosmological evolution obtained using standard general relativity in the absence of a cosmological constant. We show that, in general, the impact of the vacuum energy sequestering mechanism on the dynamics of the universe is significant, except for the $w=1/3$ case where the results are identical to those obtained in the context of general relativity with a null cosmological constant. We also show that there are well behaved models in general relativity that do not have a well behaved counterpart in the vacuum energy sequestering paradigm studied in this paper, highlighting the specific case of a quintessence scalar field with a linear potential.

P. P. Avelino

2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

408

Monte Carlo Study of Strongly-Interacting Degenerate Fermions: a Model for Voltage-Biased Bilayer Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We formulate a model of N_f=4 flavors of relativistic fermion in 2+1d in the presence of a chemical potential mu coupled to two flavor doublets with opposite sign, akin to isopsin chemical potential in QCD. This is argued to be an effective theory for low energy electronic excitations in bilayer graphene, in which an applied voltage between the layers ensures equal populations of particles on one layer and holes on the other. The model is then reformulated on a spacetime lattice using staggered fermions, and in the absence of a sign problem, simulated using an orthodox hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. With the coupling strength chosen to be close to a quantum critical point believed to exist for N_f

Wes Armour; Simon Hands; Costas Strouthos

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

409

Evaluation of and Suggested Improvements to the WSM6 Microphysics in WRF- ARW Using Synthetic and Observed GOES-13 Imagery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthetic satellite imagery can be employed to evaluate simulated cloud fields. Past studies have revealed that the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) WRF Single-Moment 6-class (WSM6) microphysics in WRF-ARW produces less upper level ice clouds within synthetic images compared to observations. Synthetic Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 imagery at 10.7 ?m of simulated cloud fields from the 4 km National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) WRF-ARW is compared to observed GOES-13 imagery. Histograms suggest that too few points contain upper level simulated ice clouds. In particular, side-by-side examples are shown of synthetic and observed convective anvils. Such images illustrate the lack of anvil cloud associated with convection produced by the NSSL WRF-ARW. A vertical profile of simulated hydrometeors suggests that too much cloud water mass may be converted into graupel mass, effectively reducing the main source of ice mass in a simulated anvil. Further, excessive accretion of ice by snow removes ice from an anvil by precipitation settling. Idealized sensitivity tests reveal that a 50% reduction of the conversion of cloud water mass to graupel and a 50% reduction of the accretion rate of ice by snow results in a significant increase in anvil ice of a simulated storm. Such results provide guidance as to which conversions could be reformulated, in a more physical manner, to increase simulated ice mass in the upper troposphere.

Grasso, Lewis; Lindsey, Daniel T.; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Clark, Adam; Bikos, Dan; Dembek, Scott R.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 8, fleet economics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The costs that face a fleet operator in implementing alternative motor fuels into fleet operations are examined. Five alternatives studied in the CleanFleet project are considered for choice of fuel: compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The cost assessment is built upon a list of thirteen cost factors grouped into the three categories: infrastructure costs, vehicle owning costs, and operating costs. Applicable taxes are included. A commonly used spreadsheet was adapted as a cost assessment tool. This tool was used in a case study to estimate potential costs to a typical fleet operator in package delivery service in the 1996 time frame. In addition, because electric cargo vans are unlikely to be available for the 1996 model year from original equipment manufacturers, the case study was extended to the 1998 time frame for the electric vans. Results of the case study are presented in cents per mile of vehicle travel for the fleet. Several options available to the fleet for implementing the fuels are examined.

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Foundations of a quantum gravity at large scales of length and its consequences for the dynamics of cosmological expansion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We attempt to find new symmetries in the space-time structure,leading to a modified gravitation at large length scales,which provides the foundations of a quantum gravity at very low energies. This search begins by considering a unified model for electrodynamics and gravitation,so that the influence of the gravitational field on the electrodynamics at very large distances leads to a reformulation of our understanding about space-time through the elimination of the classical idea of rest at quantum level. This leads us to a modification of the relativistic theory by introducing the idea of a universal minimum speed related to Planck minimum length. Such a speed,unattainable by the particles,represents a privileged inertial reference frame associated with a cosmic background field (a kind vacuum energy). The structure of space-time becomes extended due to such a vacuum energy density,which leads to a negative pressure at the cosmological length scales as being an anti-gravity,playing the role of the cosmologica...

Nassif, Claudio

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Quantum steering of multimode Gaussian states by Gaussian measurements: monogamy relations and the Peres conjecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is a topic of fundamental and practical importance how a quantum correlated state can be reliably distributed through a noisy channel for quantum information processing. The concept of quantum steering recently defined in a rigorous manner is relevant to study it under certain circumstances and we here address quantum steerability of Gaussian states to this aim. In particular, we attempt to reformulate the criterion for Gaussian steering in terms of local and global purities and show that it is sufficient and necessary for the case of steering a 1-mode system by a $N$-mode system. It subsequently enables us to reinforce a strong monogamy relation under which only one party can steer a local system of 1-mode. Moreover, we show that only a negative partial-transpose state can manifest quantum steerability by Gaussian measurements in relation to the Peres conjecture. We also discuss our formulation for the case of distributing a two-mode squeezed state via one-way quantum channels making dissipation and amplification effects, respectively. Finally, we extend our approach to include non-Gaussian measurements, more precisely, all orders of higher-order squeezing measurements, and find that this broad set of non-Gaussian measurements is not useful to demonstrate steering for Gaussian states beyond Gaussian measurements.

Se-Wan Ji; M. S. Kim; Hyunchul Nha

2015-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Metastring Theory and Modular Space-time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

String theory is canonically accompanied with a space-time interpretation which determines S-matrix-like observables, and connects to the standard physics at low energies in the guise of local effective field theory. Recently, we have introduced a reformulation of string theory which does not rely on an {\\it a priori} space-time interpretation or a pre-assumption of locality. This \\hlt{metastring theory} is formulated in such a way that stringy symmetries (such as T-duality) are realized linearly. In this paper, we study metastring theory on a flat background and develop a variety of technical and interpretational ideas. These include a formulation of the moduli space of Lorentzian worldsheets, a careful study of the symplectic structure and consequently consistent closed and open boundary conditions, and the string spectrum and operator algebra. What emerges from these studies is a new quantum notion of space-time that we refer to as a quantum Lagrangian or equivalently a \\hlt{modular space-time}. This concept embodies the standard tenets of quantum theory and implements in a precise way a notion of {relative locality}. The usual string backgrounds (non-compact space-time along with some toroidally compactified spatial directions) are obtained from modular space-time by a limiting procedure that can be thought of as a correspondence limit.

Laurent Freidel; Robert G. Leigh; Djordje Minic

2015-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

414

Uncertainty analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An evaluation is made of the suitability of analytical and statistical sampling methods for making uncertainty analyses. The adjoint method is found to be well-suited for obtaining sensitivity coefficients for computer programs involving large numbers of equations and input parameters. For this purpose the Latin Hypercube Sampling method is found to be inferior to conventional experimental designs. The Latin hypercube method can be used to estimate output probability density functions, but requires supplementary rank transformations followed by stepwise regression to obtain uncertainty information on individual input parameters. A simple Cork and Bottle problem is used to illustrate the efficiency of the adjoint method relative to certain statistical sampling methods. For linear models of the form Ax=b it is shown that a complete adjoint sensitivity analysis can be made without formulating and solving the adjoint problem. This can be done either by using a special type of statistical sampling or by reformulating the primal problem and using suitable linear programming software.

Thomas, R.E.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Reverberation mapping of active galactic nuclei : The SOLA method for time-series inversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper a new method is presented to find the transfer function of the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei. The subtractive optimally localized averages (SOLA) method is a modified version of the Backus-Gilbert method and is presented as an alternative to the more often used maximum-entropy method. The SOLA method has been developed for use in helioseismology. It has been applied to the solar oscillation frequency splitting data currently available to deduce the internal rotation rate of the sun. The original SOLA method is reformulated in the present paper to cope with the slightly different problem of inverting time series. We use simulations to test the viability of the method and apply the SOLA method to the real data of the Seyfert-1 galaxy NGC 5548. We investigate the effects of measurement errors and how the resolution of the TF critically depends upon both the sampling rate and the photometric accuracy of the data. A uuencoded compressed postscript file of the paper which includes the figures is available by anonymous ftp at ftp://solaris.astro.uu.se/pub/articles/atmos/frank/PijWan.uue

Frank P. Pijpers; Ignaz Wanders

1994-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

416

MTBE still in poor health, despite the Clean Air Act  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After the second winter oxygenated fuels program of the 1990 Clean Air Act, producers of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are still feeling the chill of poor profitability. Despite the strong demand growth for MTBE to meet oxygen requirements in reformulated gasoline (RFG), oversupply still dogs the market. That, combined with a run-up in feedstock prices, has seen margins for MTBE markers all but evaporate. And it seems matters are likely to get worse before they get better. This week, Belvieu Environmental Fuels (BEF; Houston) expects to startup its 15,000-bbl/day MTBE plant at Mont Belvieu, TX. In late July, Texaco will start up its 15,000-bbl/day MTBE/propylene oxide (PO) plant at Port Neches, TX. In addition, a rash of refinery-based MTBE and tert-amyl methyl ether projects are nearing completion. {open_quotes}Profitability in MTBE has been extremely poor,{close_quotes} says Marvin O. Schlanger, president of Arco Chemical Americas, the largest MTBE producer. There has, however, been some recent recovery on the spot market, with MTBE moving from less than 60 cts/gal to near cash-cost levels of 70 cts/gal. But contract prices remain depressed, and strength in butane and methanol pricing have all buy wiped out any gains in MTBE.

Wood, A.

1994-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

417

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes - phase V. Topical report, February 1993--October 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have made excellent progress toward a practical route from field butanes to MTBE, the oxygenate of choice for high-octane, clean-burning, environmentally acceptable reformulated gasoline. We have evaluated two proprietary process possibilities with a potential commercial partner and have conducted a joint catalyst evaluation program. The first of the two potential processes considered during the past quarter utilizes a two-step route from isobutane to tert-butyl alcohol, TBA. Not only is TBA an intermediate for MTBE production but is equally applicable for ETBE-an oxygenate which utilizes renewable ethanol in its` manufacture. In the two-step process, isobutane is oxidized in a non-catalytic reaction to a roughly equal mixture of TBA and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. TBHP, eq. 1. We have developed an inexpensive new catalyst system based on an electron-deficient macrocyclic metal complex that selectively converts TBHP to TBA, eq. 2, and meets or exceeds all of the process criteria that we have set.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

418

Meeting the challenge of MTBE biodegradation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygenated and reformulated gasolines have been developed in response to air pollution control regulations targeted at reducing carbon monoxide emissions and photochemical air pollution. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required the addition of fuel oxygenates to gasoline in areas where the level of carbon monoxide exceeded national ambient air quality standards. In the South Coast Air Basin gasoline containing oxygenated compounds has been in use since the late 1980`s. One oxygenated fuel additive most often selected by producers to meet the requirements is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). However, large production numbers associated with MTBE production, combined with the compound`s high water solubility, chemical stability, and toxicity, make it a potentially important groundwater pollutant. The County Sanitation District of Los Angeles, Joint Water Pollution Control Plant in Carson, California is one of the few wastewater treatment plants in the nation that receives refinery wastewater discharge. It has operated several pilot-scale compost-based biofilters for control of various volatile organic contaminants throughout the plant since a 1991 joint study with the University of California, Davis. After one year of operation, one of the biofilters spontaneously developed the ability to degrade MTBE. The paper describes the collaborative efforts to determine the feasibility of transferring the degrading microbial population from the solid to liquid phase, without loss of activity, and to determine some of the environmental requirements necessary for survival of the microbial culture.

Eweis, J.B.; Chang, D.P.Y.; Schroeder, E.D.; Scow, K.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Morton, R.L.; Caballero, R.C. [Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts, Carson, CA (United States). Joint Water Pollution Control Plant

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

Health concerns fuel EPA study of ETBE and TAME  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citing possible health risks associated with the use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in winter-blend gasoline and requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA), EPA has called for testing the health effects of ethyl tert-butyl ether (EBTE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The program calls for toxicity testing to develop data on the health effects of ETBE and TAME. EPA may require chemical manufacturers and processors to provide the data. A public meeting will be held this week to begin working on an agreement. EPA says most of the data should be collected in 1995 and expects the program to cost approximately $3 million. In December, EPA floated a proposal to require 30% of the oxygenates used in the reformulated gasoline program to come from renewable sources such as ETBE and ethanol. Although EPA found no serious health risks associated with MTBE, questions remain, which is why EPA says it will test the use of ETBE and TAME. William Piel, business manager for oxygenated fuels at Arco Chemical (Newtown Square, PA), says testing is {open_quotes}just a formality.{close_quotes} There should be no difference in results among MTBE, ETBE, or TAME, he says. But ETBE and TAME have much lower volatility than MTBE, which would mean significantly less exposure to these oxygenates, Piel says. Arco is the biggest producer of MTBE but also has capability to make ETBE.

Lucas, A.

1994-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

420

Technical and operational overview of the C[sub 4] Oleflex process at Valero refinery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Changes in gasoline composition stemming from the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments prompted Valero Energy Corporation to evaluate options for producing reformulated gasoline. The evaluation culminated in a project to upgrade butanes into methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Technology selection focused on the dehydrogenation of isobutane, and the UOP Oleflex process was selected. The MTBE project was implemented in 34 months and was $3 million under budget. The guaranteed MTBE production of 12,500 BPSD was achieved within one month of mechanical completion and has since reached 15,000 BPSD. Even at the low MTBE prices prevailing in late 1993, the butane upgrading project contributed significantly to Valero Refinery's overall profitability. Worldwide demand is expected to increase MTBE prices in 1996, thereby further increasing profits. The paper describes the project evaluation activities which led to the selection of the Oleflex process, engineering and construction, the MTBE complex start-up and operation, the Valero MTBE complex performance, and future plans. The paper also discusses feedstock utilization efficiency and MTBE market analysis.

Hohnholt, J.F.; Payne, D. (Valero Refining Co., Corpus Christi, TX (United States)); Gregor, J.; Smith, E. (UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reformulated rbob mgbc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

High-resolution NMR process analyzer for oxygenates in gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a high-resolution 42-MHz[sup 1]HFT-NMR instrument that is suitable for use as a process analyzer and demonstrate its use in the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a flowing stream of gasoline. This spectrometer is based on a 55-kg permanent magnet with essentially no fringe field. A spectral resolution of 3 Hz was typically obtained for spinning samples, and this performance was only slightly degraded with flowing samples. We report a procedure for magnet drift compensation using a software procedure rather than a field-frequency lock channel. This procedure allowed signal averaging without loss of resolution. Regulatory changes to be implemented in the near future have created a need for the development of methods for the determination of MTBE and other oxygenates in reformulated gasolines. Existing methods employing gas chromatography are not fast enough for process control of a gasoline blender and suffer from other limitations. This study demonstrates that process analysis NMR is well-suited to the determination of MTBE in a simulated gasoline blender. The detection limit of 0.5 vol % MTBE was obtained with a measurement time of 1 min. The absolute standard deviation of independent determinations was 0.17% when the MTBE concentration was 10%, a nominal value. Preliminary results also suggest that the method may be applicable to gasolines containing mixtures of oxygenate additives as well as the measurement of aromatic and olefinic hydrogens. 33 refs., 9 figs.

Skloss, T.W.; Kim, A.J.; Haw, J.F. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

423

Assessment of capital requirements for alternative fuels infrastructure under the PNGV program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an assessment of the capital requirements of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a new Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels include two petroleum-based fuels (reformulated gasoline and low-sulfur diesel) and four alternative fuels (methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen). This study develops estimates of cumulative capital needs for establishing fuels production and distribution infrastructure to accommodate 3X vehicle fuel needs. Two levels of fuel volume-70,000 barrels per day and 1.6 million barrels per day-were established for meeting 3X-vehicle fuel demand. As expected, infrastructure capital needs for the high fuel demand level are much higher than for the low fuel demand level. Between fuel production infrastructure and distribution infrastructure, capital needs for the former far exceed those for the latter. Among the four alternative fuels, hydrogen bears the largest capital needs for production and distribution infrastructure.

Stork, K.; Singh, M.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

424

The hypercentral Constituent Quark Model and its application to baryon properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hypercentral Constituent Quark Model (hCQM) for the baryon structure is reviewed and its applications are systematically discussed. The model is based on a simple form of the quark potential, which contains a Coulomb-like interaction and a confinement, both expressed in terms of a collective space coordinate, the hyperradius. The model has only three free parameters, determined in order to describe the baryon spectrum. Once the parameters have been fixed, the model, in its non relativistic version, is used to predict various quantities of physical interest, namely the elastic nucleon form factors, the photocouplings and the helicity amplitudes for the electromagnetic excitation of the baryon resonances. In particular, the $Q^2$ dependence of the helicity amplitude is quite well reproduced, thanks to the Coulomb-like interaction. The model is reformulated in a relativistic version by means of the Point Form hamilton dynamics. While the inclusion of relativity does not alter the results for the helicity amplitudes, a good description of the nucleon elastic form factors is obtained.

M. M. Giannini; E. Santopinto

2015-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Universal Whitham hierarchy, dispersionless Hirota equations and multi-component KP hierarchy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of this paper is to identify the universal Whitham hierarchy of genus zero with a dispersionless limit of the multi-component KP hierarchy. To this end, the multi-component KP hierarchy is (re)formulated to depend on several discrete variables called ``charges''. These discrete variables play the role of lattice coordinates in underlying Toda field equations. A multi-component version of the so called differential Fay identity are derived from the Hirota equations of the $\\tau$-function of this ``charged'' multi-component KP hierarchy. These multi-component differential Fay identities have a well-defined dispersionless limit (the dispersionless Hirota equations). The dispersionless Hirota equations turn out to be equivalent to the Hamilton-Jacobi equations for the $S$-functions of the universal Whitham hierarchy. The differential Fay identities themselves are shown to be a generating functional expression of auxiliary linear equations for scalar-valued wave functions of the multi-component KP hierarchy.

Kanehisa Takasaki; Takashi Takebe

2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

427

The Measurement Process in Local Quantum Theory and the EPR Paradox  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe in a qualitative way a possible picture of the Measurement Process in Quantum Mechanics, which takes into account: 1. the finite and non zero time duration T of the interaction between the observed system and the microscopic part of the measurement apparatus; 2. the finite space size R of that apparatus; 3. the fact that the macroscopic part of the measurement apparatus, having the role of amplifying the effect of that interaction to a macroscopic scale, is composed by a very large but finite number N of particles. The conventional picture of the measurement, as an instantaneous action turning a pure state into a mixture, arises only in the limit in which N and R tend to infinity, and T tends to 0. We sketch here a proposed scheme, which still ought to be made mathematically precise in order to analyse its implications and to test it in specific models, where we argue that in Quantum Field Theory this picture should apply to the unique time evolution expressing the dynamics of a given theory, and should comply with the Principle of Locality. We comment on the Einstein Podolski Rosen thought experiment (partly modifying the discussion on this point in an earlier version of this note), reformulated here only in terms of local observables (rather than global ones, as one particle or polarisation observables). The local picture of the measurement process helps to make it clear that there is no conflict with the Principle of Locality.

Sergio Doplicher

2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

428

The processing of alcohols, hydrocarbons and ethers to produce hydrogen for a PEMFC for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wellman CJB Limited is involved in a number of projects to develop fuel processors to provide a hydrogen-rich fuel in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) systems for transportation applications. This work started in 1990 which resulted in the demonstration of 10kW PEMFC system incorporating a methanol reformer and catalytic gas clean-up system. Current projects include: The development of a compact fast response methanol reformer and gas clean-up system for a motor vehicle; Reforming of infrastructure fuels including gasoline, diesel, reformulated fuel gas and LPG to produce a hydrogen rich gas for PEMFC; Investigating the potential of dimethylether (DME) as source of hydrogen rich gas for PEMFCs; The use of thin film palladium diffusers to produce a pure hydrogen stream from the hydrogen rich gas from a reformer; and Processing of naval logistic fuels to produce a hydrogen rich gas stream for PEMFC power system to replace diesel generators in surface ships. This paper outlines the background to these projects and reports their current status.

Dams, R.A.J.; Hayter, P.R.; Moore, S.C. [Wellman CJB Limited, Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

429

ABJM theory as a Fermi gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The partition function on the three-sphere of many supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theories reduces, by localization, to a matrix model. We develop a new method to study these models in the M-theory limit, but at all orders in the 1/N expansion. The method is based on reformulating the matrix model as the partition function of an ideal Fermi gas with a non-trivial, one-particle quantum Hamiltonian. This new approach leads to a completely elementary derivation of the N^{3/2} behavior for ABJM theory and N=3 quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories. In addition, the full series of 1/N corrections to the original matrix integral can be simply determined by a next-to-leading calculation in the WKB or semiclassical expansion of the quantum gas, and we show that, for several quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories, it is given by an Airy function. This generalizes a recent result of Fuji, Hirano and Moriyama for ABJM theory. It turns out that the semiclassical expansion of the Fermi gas corresponds to a strong coupling expansion in type IIA theory, and it is dual to the genus expansion. This allows us to calculate explicitly non-perturbative effects due to D2-brane instantons in the AdS background.

Marcos Marino; Pavel Putrov

2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

430

A Robust Artificial Noise Aided Transmit Design for Miso Secrecy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper considers an artificial noise (AN) aided secrecy rate maximization (SRM) problem for a multi-input single-output (MISO) channel overheard by multiple single-antenna eavesdroppers. We assume that the transmitter has perfect knowledge about the channel to the desired user but imperfect knowledge about the channels to the eavesdroppers. Therefore, the resultant SRM problem is formulated in the way that we maximize the worst-case secrecy rate by jointly designing the signal covariance ${\\bf W}$ and the AN covariance ${\\bf \\Sigma}$. However, such a worst-case SRM problem turns out to be hard to optimize, since it is nonconvex in ${\\bf W}$ and ${\\bf \\Sigma}$ jointly. Moreover, it falls into the class of semi-infinite optimization problems. Through a careful reformulation, we show that the worst-case SRM problem can be handled by performing a one-dimensional line search in which a sequence of semidefinite programs (SDPs) are involved. Moreover, we also show that the optimal ${\\bf W}$ admits a rank-one str...

Li, Qiang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 3, vehicle maintenance and durability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CleanFleet is a demonstration of panel vans operating on five alternative motorfuels in commercial package delivery operations in the South Coast Air Basin of California. The five alternative fuels are propane gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85 with 15 percent RFG), and electricity. Data were gathered on in-use emissions, operations, and fleet economics. This volume of the final report summarizes the maintenance required on these vans from the time they were introduced into the demonstration (April through early November 1992) until the end of the demonstration in September 1994. The vans were used successfully in FedEx operations; but, to varying degrees, the alternative fuel vehicles required more maintenance than the unleaded gasoline control vehicles. The maintenance required was generally associated with the development state of the fuel-related systems. During the demonstration, no non-preventive maintenance was required on the highly developed fuel-related systems in any of the unleaded gasoline production vehicles used either as controls or as RFG test vehicles. The maintenance problems encountered with the less developed systems used in this demonstration may persist in the short term with vehicles featuring the same or similar systems. This means that fleet operators planning near-term acquisitions of vehicles incorporating such systems should consider the potential for similar problems when (1) selecting vendors and warranty provisions and (2) planning maintenance programs.

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

National Energy Modeling System (NEMS)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of U.S. through 2030. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. NEMS was designed and implemented by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). NEMS can be used to analyze the effects of existing and proposed government laws and regulations related to energy production and use; the potential impact of new and advanced energy production, conversion, and consumption technologies; the impact and cost of greenhouse gas control; the impact of increased use of renewable energy sources; and the potential savings from increased efficiency of energy use; and the impact of regulations on the use of alternative or reformulated fuels. NEMS has also been used for a number of special analyses at the request of the Administration, U.S. Congress, other offices of DOE and other government agencies, who specify the scenarios and assumptions for the analysis. Modules allow analyses to be conducted in energy topic areas such as residential demand, industrial demand, electricity market, oil and gas supply, renewable fuels, etc.

433

Variable Light-Cone Theory of Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show how to reformulate Variable Speed of Light Theories (VSLT) in a covariant fashion as Variable Light-Cone Theories (VLCT) by introducing two vierbein bundles each associated with a distinct metric. The basic gravitational action relates to one bundle while matter propagates relative to the other in a conventional way. The variability of the speed of light is represented by the variability of the matter light-cone relative to the gravitational light-cone. The two bundles are related locally by an element M, of SL(4,R). The dynamics of the field M is that of a SL(4,R)-sigma model gauged with respect to local (orthochronous) Lorentz transformations on each of the bundles. Only the ``massless'' version of the model with a single new coupling, F, that has the same dimensions as Newton's constant $G_N$, is considered in this paper. When F vanishes the theory reduces to standard General Relativity. We verify that the modified Bianchi identities of the model are consistent with the standard conservation law for the matter energy-momentum tensor in its own background metric. The implications of the model for some simple applications are examined, the Newtonian limit, the flat FRW universe and the spherically symmetric static solution.

I. T. Drummond

1999-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

434

Petroleum Marketing Monthly, April 1995, with data for January 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

International crude oil prices rose moderately in January 1995, under the combined influences of lower production and higher demand. Crude oil output both from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and from non-OPEC nations declined from December levels due to a variety of causes, including severe weather in the North Sea and a platform explosion offshore Nigeria. At the same time, strong demand, especially from Asia, revised buying patterns and tightened markets worldwide. In the United States, reformulated gasoline (RFG) remained the dominant market influence, with the official start of the program at the retail level on January 1. Repercussions from the {open_quotes}opting out{close_quotes} of counties in Pennsylvania, New York, and Maine in December continued to disrupt supply patterns and confuse markets. Gasoline prices spiked at mid-month, but ended near where they began, while distillate prices declined due to warm weather and high inventories. A sharp seasonal decline in motor gasoline volumes led total refiner sales of the major petroleum products down 5.9 percent from December levels. January market and sales activity for crude oil and the principal petroleum products is summarized in the following sections.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

SU(4) harmonic superspace and supersymmetric gauge theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the harmonic-superspace formalism in the $N=4$ supersymmetry using the $SU(4)/SU(2)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ harmonics which was earlier applied to the abelian gauge theory. The N=4 non-abelian constraints in a standard superspace are reformulated as the harmonic-superspace equations for two basic analytic superfields: the independent superfield strength W of a dimension 1 and the dimensionless harmonic gauge 4-prepotential V having the $U(1)$ charge 2. These constraint equations I manifestly depend on the Grassmann coordinates $\\theta$, although they are covariant under the unusual N=4 supersymmetry transformations. We analyze an alternative harmonic formalism of the supergauge theory for two unconstrained nonabelian analytic superfields W and V. The gauge-invariant action A(W,V) in this formalism contains $\\theta$ factors in each term, it is invariant under the $SU(4)$ automorphism group. In this model, the interaction of two infinite-dimensional N=4 supermultiplets with the physical and auxiliary fields arises at the level of component fields. The action A(W,V) generate analytic equations of motion II alternative to the harmonic-superspace superfield constraints I. Both sets of equations give us the equivalent equations for the physical component fields of the $N=4$ gauge supermultiplet, they connect auxiliary and physical fields of two superfields. The nonlinear effective interaction of the abelian harmonic superfield W is constructed.

B. M. Zupnik

2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

436

Theory versus experiment for vacuum Rabi oscillations in lossy cavities (II): Direct test of uniqueness of vacuum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper continues the analysis of vacuum Rabi oscillations we started in Part I [Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 79}, 033836 (2009)]. Here we concentrate on experimental consequences for cavity QED of two different classes of representations of harmonic oscillator Lie algebras. The zero-temperature master equation, derived in Part I for irreducible representations of the algebra, is reformulated in a reducible representation that models electromagnetic fields by a gas of harmonic oscillator wave packets. The representation is known to introduce automatic regularizations that in irreducible representations would have to be justified by ad hoc arguments. Predictions based on this representation are characterized in thermodynamic limit by a single parameter $\\varsigma$, responsible for collapses and revivals of Rabi oscillations in exact vacuum. Collapses and revivals disappear in the limit $\\varsigma\\to\\infty$. Observation of a finite $\\varsigma$ would mean that cavity quantum fields are described by a non-Wightmanian theory, where vacuum states are zero-temperature Bose-Einstein condensates of a finite-particle bosonic oscillator gas and, thus, are non-unique. The data collected in the experiment of Brune {\\it et al.} [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf{76}}, 1800 (1996)] are consistent with any $\\varsigma>400$.

Marcin Wilczewski; Marek Czachor

2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

437

'Dark Matter' as a Quantum Foam In-Flow Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The galactic `dark matter' effect is regarded as one of the major problems in fundamental physics. Here it is explained as a self-interaction dynamical effect of space itself, and so is not caused by an unknown form of matter. Because it was based on Kepler's Laws for the motion of the planets in the solar system the Newtonian theory of gravity was too restricted. A reformulation and generalisation of the Newtonian theory of gravity in terms of a velocity in-flow field, representing at a classical level the relative motion of a quantum-foam substructure to space, reveals a key dynamical feature of the phenomenon of gravity, namely the so called `dark matter' effect, which manifests not only in spiral galaxy rotation curves, but also in the borehole g anomaly, globular and galactic black holes, and in ongoing problems in improving the accuracy with which Newton's gravitational constant G is measured. The new theory of gravity involves an additional new dimensionless gravitational constant, and experimental data reveals this to be the fine structure constant. The new theory correctly predicts the globular cluster black hole masses, and that the `frame-dragging' effect is caused by vorticity in the in-flow. The relationship of the new theory of gravity to General Relativity which, like Newtonian gravity, does not have the `dark matter' dynamics, is explained.

Reginald T. Cahill

2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

438

Generalized Formalisms of the Radio Interferometer Measurement Equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Radio Interferometer Measurement Equation (RIME) is a matrix-based mathematical model that describes the response of a radio interferometer. The Jones calculus it employs is not suitable for describing the analogue components of a telescope. This is because it does not consider the effect of impedance mismatches between components. This paper aims to highlight the limitations of Jones calculus, and suggests some alternative methods that are more applicable. We reformulate the RIME with a different basis that includes magnetic and mixed coherency statistics. We present a microwave network inspired 2N-port version of the RIME, and a tensor formalism based upon the electromagnetic tensor from special relativity. We elucidate the limitations of the Jones-matrix-based RIME for describing analogue components. We show how measured scattering parameters of analogue components can be used in a 2N-port version of the RIME. In addition, we show how motion at relativistic speed affects the observed flux. We present r...

Price, Danny C

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Dynamical Energy Analysis - determining wave energy distributions in complex vibro-acoustical structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a new approach towards determining the distribution of mechanical and acoustic wave energy in complex built-up structures. The technique interpolates between standard Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and full ray tracing containing both these methods as limiting case. By writing the flow of ray trajectories in terms of linear phase space operators, it is suggested here to reformulate ray-tracing algorithms in terms of boundary operators containing only short ray segments. SEA can now be identified as a low resolution ray tracing algorithm and typical SEA assumptions can be quantified in terms of the properties of the ray dynamics. The new technique presented here enhances the range of applicability of standard SEA considerably by systematically incorporating dynamical correlations wherever necessary. Some of the inefficiencies inherent in typical ray tracing methods can be avoided using only a limited amount of the geometrical ray information. The new dynamical theory - Dynamical Energy Analysis (DEA) - thus provides a universal approach towards determining wave energy distributions in complex structures.

Gregor Tanner

2008-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

440

Bell Transform, Teleportation Operator and Teleportation-Based Quantum Computation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce the concept of the Bell transform to represent known quantum gates in the literature, which are a unitary basis transformation from the product basis to the Bell states or the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. The algebraic structure of the four dimensional Bell transform has been studied systematically in this paper and we point out that it may be not a Clifford gate. The representative examples of the four dimensional Bell transform are verified as maximally entangling Clifford gates and some of them are recognized as parity-preserving gates or matchgates or Yang--Baxter gates. We define the teleportation operator in terms of the four dimensional Bell transform and apply it to the reformulation of the fault-tolerant construction of single-qubit gates and two-qubit gates in teleportation-based quantum computation. The algebraic structure of the higher dimensional Bell transform is also included and representative examples for it are verified as multi-qubit Clifford gates. Our research suggests that the Bell transform may play important roles in quantum information and computation as a new type of quantum transform.

Yong Zhang; Kun Zhang

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

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441

ADVANCES IN HYDROGEOCHEMICAL INDICATORS FOR THE DISCOVERY OF NEW GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN THE GREAT BASIN, USA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of Phase I work for a go/no go decision on Phase II funding. In the first objective, we assessed the extent to which fluid-mineral equilibria controlled deep water compositions in geothermal systems across the Great Basin. Six systems were evaluated: Beowawe; Desert Peak; Dixie Valley; Mammoth; Raft River; Roosevelt. These represent a geographic spread of geothermal resources, in different geological settings and with a wide range of fluid compositions. The results were used for calibration/reformulation of chemical geothermometers that reflect the reservoir temperatures in producing reservoirs. In the second objective, we developed a reactive -transport model of the Desert Peak hydrothermal system to evaluate the processes that affect reservoir fluid geochemistry and its effect on solute geothermometry. This included testing geothermometry on “reacted” thermal water originating from different lithologies and from near-surface locations where the temperature is known from the simulation. The integrated multi-component geothermometer (GeoT, relying on computed mineral saturation indices) was tested against the model results and also on the systems studied in the first objective.

Simmons, Stuart F [Colorado School of Mines; Spycher, Nicolas [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Sonnenthal, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

442

U.S. Energy Flow -- 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy consumption in 1995 increased slightly for the fifth year in a row (from 89 to 91 quadrillion [1015Btu). U.S. economic activity slowed from the fast-paced recovery of 1994, even with the continued low unemployment rates and low inflation rates. The annual increase in U.S. real GDP dropped to 4.6% from 1994?s increase of 5.8%. Energy consumption in all major end-use sectors surpassed the record-breaking highs achieved in 1994, with the largest gains (2.5%) occurring in the residential/commercial sector. Crude oil imports decreased for the first time this decade. There was also a decline in domestic oil production. Venezuela replaced Saudi Arabia as the principal supplier of imported oil. Imports of natural gas, mainly from Canada, continued to increase. The demand for natural gas reached a level not seen since the peak levels of the early 1970s and the demand was met by a slight increase in both natural gas production and imports. Electric utilities had the largest percentage increase of n.atural gas consumption, a climb of 7% above 1994 levels. Although coal production decreased, coal exports continued to make a comeback after 3 years of decline. Coal once again become the primary U.S. energy export. Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) consists of two phases. Phase I (in effect as of January 1, 1995) set emission restrictions on 110 mostly coal-burning plants in the eastern and midwestem United States. Phase II, planned to begin in the year 2000, places additional emission restrictions on about 1,000 electric plants. As of January 1, 1995, the reformulated gasoline program, also part of the CAAA90, was finally initiated. As a result, this cleaner-burning fuel was made available in areas of the United States that failed to meet the Environmental Protection Agency? s (EPA?s) ozone standards. In 1995, reformulated gasoline represented around 28% of total gasoline sales in the United States. The last commercial nuclear power plant under construction in the United States came on line in 1995. The Tennessee Valley Authority? s (TVA) Watts Bar-l received a low-power operating license from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The construction permit was granted in 1972. Also, TVA canceled plans to complete construction of three other nuclear plants. In 1995, federal and state governments took steps to deregulate and restructure the electric power industry. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) unanimously approved a proposal to require utilities to open their electric transmission system to competition from wholesale electricity suppliers. California has been at the forefront in the restructuring of the electric utility industry. Plans authorized by the California Public Utility Commission prepare for a free market in electricity to be established by 1998. In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began reporting statistics on renewable energy consumption. The types and amounts of renewable energy consumed vary by end-use sector, electric utilities and the industrial sector being the primary consumers since 1990. Renewable energy provided 6.83 quads (7.6I) of the total energy consumed in the United States in 1995, compared to 7.1% in 1994. Increasing concern over the emission of greenhouse gases has resulted in exhaustive analysis of U.S. carbon emissions from energy use. Emissions in the early 1990s have already exceeded those projected by the Clinton Administration? s Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) released in 1994 that was developed to stabilize U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000.

Miller, H.; Mui, N.; Pasternak, A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Feasibility of a fast inverse dose optimization algorithm for IMRT via matrix inversion without negative beamlet intensities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fast optimization algorithm is very important for inverse planning of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and for adaptive radiotherapy of the future. Conventional numerical search algorithms such as the conjugate gradient search, with positive beam weight constraints, generally require numerous iterations and may produce suboptimal dose results due to trapping in local minima. A direct solution of the inverse problem using conventional quadratic objective functions without positive beam constraints is more efficient but will result in unrealistic negative beam weights. We present here a direct solution of the inverse problem that does not yield unphysical negative beam weights. The objective function for the optimization of a large number of beamlets is reformulated such that the optimization problem is reduced to a linear set of equations. The optimal set of intensities is found through a matrix inversion, and negative beamlet intensities are avoided without the need for externally imposed ad-hoc constraints. The method has been demonstrated with a test phantom and a few clinical radiotherapy cases, using primary dose calculations. We achieve highly conformal primary dose distributions with very rapid optimization times. Typical optimization times for a single anatomical slice (two dimensional) (head and neck) using a LAPACK matrix inversion routine in a single processor desktop computer, are: 0.03 s for 500 beamlets; 0.28 s for 1000 beamlets; 3.1 s for 2000 beamlets; and 12 s for 3000 beamlets. Clinical implementation will require the additional time of a one-time precomputation of scattered radiation for all beamlets, but will not impact the optimization speed. In conclusion, the new method provides a fast and robust technique to find a global minimum that yields excellent results for the inverse planning of IMRT.

Goldman, S.P.; Chen, J.Z.; Battista, J.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics and Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario and London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 (Canada)

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

[sup 27]Al NMR, GT-IR and ethanol-[sup 18]O TPD characterization of fluorided alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New environmental legislation in the United States requiring reformulation of gasoline and diesel fuels is making its necessary to develop better, alternative acid catalysts for alkylation and isomerization reactions, and for hydrotreating catalysts for sulfur and nitrogen removal from refinery streams. A series of F/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] samples (wt % F = 0 to 20) has been studied using a combination of solid-state [sup 27]Al NMR, FT-IR, and ethanol-[sup 18]O TPD techniques. Solid-state [sup 27]Al NMR is particularly sensitive to amorphous phases or small crystallites present on the catalyst surface, many of which cannot be detected by XRD. [sup 27]Al NMR shows the presence of three types of AlF[sub 3](H[sub 2]O)[sub n] species (with n varying between 0 and 3) on fluorided alumina. FT-IR studies of ethanol adsorption show that fluoride blocks the sites required for dissociative chemisorption of ethanol. A similar analysis of adsorbed pyridine shows an increase in the number of Broensted acid sites with the addition of up to 10 wt % fluoride. However, increasing the fluoride loading to 20 wt % decreases the number of Broensted acid sites. The TPD of ethanol-[sup 18]O from F/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] samples shows that at low levels fluoride serves to block Lewis acid sites, but at higher levels its predominant role is to increase the Broensted acidity of the alumina surface. The pyridine adsorption and TPD experiments show that fluoride strengthens the remaining Lewis acid sites. 14 figs., 3 tabs.

DeCanio, E.C. (Texaco R D Dept., Beacon, NY (United States) Wesleyan Univ., Middletown, CT (United States)); Bruno, J.W. (Wesleyan Univ., Middletown, CT (United States)); Nero, V.P.; Edwards, J.C. (Texaco R D Dept., Beacon, NY (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Surface tension of multi-phase flow with multiple junctions governed by the variational principle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore a computational model of an incompressible fluid with a multi-phase field in three-dimensional Euclidean space. By investigating an incompressible fluid with a two-phase field geometrically, we reformulate the expression of the surface tension for the two-phase field found by Lafaurie, Nardone, Scardovelli, Zaleski and Zanetti (J. Comp. Phys. \\vol{113} \\yr{1994} \\pages{134-147}) as a variational problem related to an infinite dimensional Lie group, the volume-preserving diffeomorphism. The variational principle to the action integral with the surface energy reproduces their Euler equation of the two-phase field with the surface tension. Since the surface energy of multiple interfaces even with singularities is not difficult to be evaluated in general and the variational formulation works for every action integral, the new formulation enables us to extend their expression to that of a multi-phase ($N$-phase, $N\\ge2$) flow and to obtain a novel Euler equation with the surface tension of the multi-phase field. The obtained Euler equation governs the equation of motion of the multi-phase field with different surface tension coefficients without any difficulties for the singularities at multiple junctions. In other words, we unify the theory of multi-phase fields which express low dimensional interface geometry and the theory of the incompressible fluid dynamics on the infinite dimensional geometry as a variational problem. We apply the equation to the contact angle problems at triple junctions. We computed the fluid dynamics for a two-phase field with a wall numerically and show the numerical computational results that for given surface tension coefficients, the contact angles are generated by the surface tension as results of balances of the kinematic energy and the surface energy.

Shigeki Matsutani; Kota Nakano; Katsuhiko Shinjo

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

446

Consolidated Storage Facilities: Camel's Nose or Shared Burden? - 13112  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) made a strong argument why the reformulated nuclear waste program should make prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities (CSFs), and recommended the amendment of NWPA Section 145(b) 2 (linking 'monitored retrievable storage' to repository development) as an essential means to that end. However, other than recommending that the siting of CSFs should be 'consent-based' and that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at stranded sites should be first-in-line for removal, the Commission made few recommendations regarding how CSF development should proceed. Working with three other key Senators, Jeff Bingaman attempted in the 112. Congress to craft legislation (S. 3469) to put the BRC recommendations into legislative language. The key reason why the Nuclear Waste Administration Act of 2012 did not proceed was the inability of the four senators to agree on whether and how to amend NWPA Section 145(b). A brief review of efforts to site consolidated storage since the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 suggests a strong and consistent motivation to shift the burden to someone (anyone) else. This paper argues that modification of NWPA Section 145(b) should be accompanied by guidelines for regional development and operation of CSFs. After review of the BRC recommendations regarding CSFs, and the 'camel's nose' prospects if implementation is not accompanied by further guidelines, the paper outlines a proposal for implementation of CSFs on a regional basis, including priorities for removal from reactor sites and subsequently from CSFs to repositories. Rather than allowing repository siting to be prejudiced by the location of a single remote CSF, the regional approach limits transport for off-site acceptance and storage, increases the efficiency of removal operations, provides a useful basis for compensation to states and communities that accept CSFs, and gives states with shared circumstances a shared stake in storage and disposal in an integrated national program. (authors)

Williams, James M. [Western Interstate Energy Board, 1600 Broadway, Suite 1700, Denver CO 80202 (United States)] [Western Interstate Energy Board, 1600 Broadway, Suite 1700, Denver CO 80202 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

The complex planetary synchronization structure of the solar system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The complex planetary synchronization structure of the solar system, which since Pythagoras of Samos (ca. 570-495 BC) is known as the music of the spheres, is briefly reviewed from the Renaissance up to contemporary research. Copernicus' heliocentric model from 1543 suggested that the planets of our solar system form a kind of mutually ordered and quasi-synchronized system. From 1596 to 1619 Kepler formulated preliminary mathematical relations of approximate commensurabilities among the planets, which were later reformulated in the Titius-Bode rule (1766-1772) that successfully predicted the orbital position of Ceres and Uranus. Following the discovery of the ~11 yr sunspot cycle, in 1859 Wolf suggested that the observed solar variability could be approximately synchronized with the orbital movements of Venus, Earth, Jupiter and Saturn. Modern research have further confirmed that: (1) the planetary orbital periods can be approximately deduced from a simple system of resonant frequencies; (2) the solar system oscillates with a specific set of gravitational frequencies, and many of them (e.g. within the range between 3 yr and 100 yr) can be approximately constructed as harmonics of a base period of ~178.38 yr; (3) solar and climate records are also characterized by planetary harmonics from the monthly to the millennia time scales. This short review concludes with an emphasis on the contribution of the author's research on the empirical evidences and physical modeling of both solar and climate variability based on astronomical harmonics. The general conclusion is that the solar system works as a resonator characterized by a specific harmonic planetary structure that synchronizes also the Sun's activity and the Earth's climate.

Nicola Scafetta

2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

448

Carbon-Type Analysis and Comparison of Original and Reblended FACE Diesel Fuels (FACE 2, FACE 4, and FACE 7)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel blends, FD-2B, FD 4B, and FD-7B, and makes comparison of the new blends with the original FACE diesel blends, FD 2A, FD 4A, and FD-7A, respectively. Generally, FD-2A and FD-2B are more similar than the A and B blends of FD-4 and FD-7. The aromatic carbon content is roughly equivalent, although the new FACE blends have decreased monoaromatic content and increased di- and tri-cycloaromatic content, as well as a higher overall aromatic content, than the original FACE blends. The aromatic components of the new FACE blends generally have a higher alkyl substitution with longer alkyl substituents. The naphthenic and paraffinic contents remained relatively consistent. Based on aliphatic methyl and methylene carbon ratios, cetane numbers for FD-2A and -2B, and FD-7A and -7B are predicted to be consistent, while the cetane number for FD-4B is predicted to be higher than FD-4A. Overall, the new FACE fuel blends are fairly consistent with the original FACE fuel blends, but there are observable differences. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information on reformulated FACE diesel blends, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of the team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the use of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.; O'Hagan, Molly J.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Low frequency, electrodynamic simulation of kinetic plasmas with the DArwin Direct Implicit Particle-In-Cell (DADIPIC) method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation describes a new algorithm for simulating low frequency, kinetic phenomena in plasmas. DArwin Direct Implicit Particle-in-Cell (DADIPIC), as its name implies, is a combination of the Darwin and direct implicit methods. One of the difficulties in simulating plasmas lies in the enormous disparity between the fundamental scale lengths of a plasma and the scale lengths of the phenomena of interest. The objective is to create models which can ignore the fundamental constraints without eliminating relevant plasma properties. Over the past twenty years several PIC methods have been investigated for overcoming the constraints on explicit electrodynamic PIC. These models eliminate selected high frequency plasma phenomena while retaining kinetic phenomena at low frequency. This dissertation shows that the combination of Darwin and Direct Implicit allows them to operate better than they have been shown to operate in the past. Through the Darwin method the hyperbolic Maxwell`s equations are reformulated into a set of elliptic equations. Propagating light waves do not exist in the formulation so the Courant constraint on the time step is eliminated. The Direct Implicit method is applied only to the electrostatic field with the result that electrostatic plasma oscillations do not have to be resolved for stability. With the elimination of these constraints spatial and temporal discretization can be much larger than that possible with explicit, electrodynamic PIC. The code functions in a two dimensional Cartesian region and has been implemented with all components of the particle velocities, the E-field, and the B-field. Internal structures, conductors or dielectrics, may be placed in the simulation region, can be set at desired potentials, and driven with specified currents.

Gibbons, M.R.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

LIDEM unit for the production of methyl tert-butyl ether from butanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the basic problems in the production of motor fuels is how to obtain high-octane unleaded gasolines that will meet today`s ecological requirements. The term {open_quotes}reformulated gasolines{close_quotes} has come into general use throughout the world to denote fuels with a certain chemical composition. These gasolines consist of preselected components; as shown by worldwide experience, they must include oxygen-containing compounds that are distinguished by high octane numbers and low reactivities. Standards in effect in the United States, Japan, and certain Western European countries require that automotive gasolines must contain at least 2-4% by weight of oxygen-containing compounds (calculated as oxygen). In the last 15 years, in order to meet these requirements, production has been set up in various countries for the manufacture of high-octane oxygen-containing components known as oxygenates. The most common of these is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), obtained by etherification of isobutene by methanol. Process technology developed by this last organization was used as the basis for constructing a unit in the Nizhnekamskneftekhim Production Association and at the Mazheikyai Petroleum Refinery in Lithuania. MTBE production has been held back mainly by a shortage of isobutene, which is obtained mainly from butane-butene cuts produced in cat crackers. In order to alleviate this shortage, it has been proposed that MTBE should be obtained from saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons that are recovered in processing oilfield associated gas, and also in the refinery from primary distillation units, catalytic reformers, and hydrocrackers. A working design was developed in 1991-1992 by Lengiproneftekhim for a basically new combination unit designed for the processing of saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, which has been termed the LIDEM unit (Leningrad - isomerization - dehydrogenation - MTBE).

Rudin, M.G.; Zadvornov, M.A.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Detections of MTBE in surficial and bedrock aquifers in New England  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was detected in 24% of water samples collected from surficial and bedrock aquifers in areas of New England. MTBE was the most frequently detected volatile organic compound among the 60 volatile chemicals analyzed and was present in 33 of 133 wells sampled from July 1993 through September 1995. The median MTBE concentration measured in ground-water samples was 0.45 microgram per liter and concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 5.8 microgram per liter. The network of wells sampled for MTBE consisted of 103 monitoring wells screened in surficial sand-and-gravel aquifers and 30 domestic-supply wells in fractured crystalline bedrock aquifers. Seventy-seven percent of all MTBE detections were from 26 shallow monitoring wells screened in surficial aquifers. MTBE was detected in42% of monitoring wells in urban areas. In agricultural areas, MTBE was detected i 8% (2 of 24) of wells and was not detected in undeveloped areas. Sixty-two percent of the MTBE detections in surficial aquifers were from wells within 0.25 mile of gasoline stations or underground gasoline storage tanks; all but one of these wells were in Connecticut and Massachusetts, where reformulated gasoline is used. MTBE was detected in 23% of deep domestic-supply wells that tapped fractured bedrock aquifers. MTBE was detected in bedrock wells only in Connecticut and Massachusetts; land use near the wells was suburban to rural, and none of the sampled bedrock wells were within 0.25 mile of a gasoline station.

Grady, S.J. [Geological Survey, Hartford, CT (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

452

Analysis of dissolved benzene plumes and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) plumes in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandate the addition of oxygenates to gasoline products to abate air pollution. Currently, many areas of the country utilize oxygenated or reformulated fuel containing 15- percent and I I-percent MTBE by volume, respectively. This increased use of MTBE in gasoline products has resulted in accidental point source releases of MTBE containing gasoline products to ground water. Recent studies have shown MTBE to be frequently detected in samples of shallow ground water from urban areas throughout the United States (Squillace et al., 1995). Knowledge of the subsurface fate and transport of MTBE in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites and the spatial extent of MTBE plumes is needed to address these releases. The goal of this research is to utilize data from a large number of LUFT sites to gain insights into the fate, transport, and spatial extent of MTBE plumes. Specific goals include defining the spatial configuration of dissolved MTBE plumes, evaluating plume stability or degradation over time, evaluating the impact of point source releases of MTBE to ground water, and attempting to identify the controlling factors influencing the magnitude and extent of the MTBE plumes. We are examining the relationships between dissolved TPH, BTEX, and MTBE plumes at LUFT sites using parallel approaches of best professional judgment and a computer-aided plume model fitting procedure to determine plume parameters. Here we present our initial results comparing dissolved benzene and MTBE plumes lengths, the statistical significance of these results, and configuration of benzene and MTBE plumes at individual LUFT sites.

Happel, A.M.; Rice, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Beckenbach, E. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Savalin, L.; Temko, H.; Rempel, R. [California State Water Resources Control Board, Sacramento, CA (United States); Dooher, B. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

MTBE -- A global perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a major and familiar component of Reformulated and Oxygenated gasoline in the US. As such, it is essential to the success of the Clean Air Act programs now reaching a crescendo in major urban areas. In less than ten years, US MTBE capacity has grown from about 4,000 B/D to more than 200,000 B/D. Outside of the USA, its role is less widely understood. Although MTBE markets elsewhere are much less driven by legislation, they have seen the same spectacular growth prospects. Overall, about as much MTBE is used today overseas as in the US. To date, this has to be one of the petrochemical industry`s major success stories. Yet today, the MTBE industry stands at a crossroads, with the direction of future development uncertain at best. DeWitt`s gasoline and oxygenates team has closely observed the ups and downs of this market during most of its turbulent history. In this paper, the authors shall try to set down the major developments and prospects, with the personal familiarity of having been there when things changed. The story begins with a brief historical sketch, leading up to the identification of four critical periods in which major changes took place. The causes of today`s uncertainty lie in all of these stages, and are in a very real sense an example of the ``Law of Unintended consequences.`` Having set the stage, a cautious set of predictions will be put forth. These are neither as promising as proponents would like, nor as unpromising as some would tend to believe.

Ludlow, W.I.; Miller, K.D. Jr.; Liew, R.E. van [DeWitt and Co., Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

TIDAL DISSIPATION COMPARED TO SEISMIC DISSIPATION: IN SMALL BODIES, EARTHS, AND SUPER-EARTHS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While the seismic quality factor and phase lag are defined solely by the bulk properties of the mantle, their tidal counterparts are determined by both the bulk properties and the size effect (self-gravitation of a body as a whole). For a qualitative estimate, we model the body with a homogeneous sphere, and express the tidal phase lag through the lag in a sample of material. Although simplistic, our model is sufficient to understand that the lags are not identical. The difference emerges because self-gravitation pulls the tidal bulge down. At low frequencies, this reduces strain and the damping rate, making tidal damping less efficient in larger objects. At higher frequencies, competition between self-gravitation and rheology becomes more complex, though for sufficiently large super-Earths the same rule applies: the larger the planet, the weaker the tidal dissipation in it. Being negligible for small terrestrial planets and moons, the difference between the seismic and tidal lagging (and likewise between the seismic and tidal damping) becomes very considerable for large exoplanets (super-Earths). In those, it is much lower than what one might expect from using a seismic quality factor. The tidal damping rate deviates from the seismic damping rate, especially in the zero-frequency limit, and this difference takes place for bodies of any size. So the equal in magnitude but opposite in sign tidal torques, exerted on one another by the primary and the secondary, have their orbital averages going smoothly through zero as the secondary crosses the synchronous orbit. We describe the mantle rheology with the Andrade model, allowing it to lean toward the Maxwell model at the lowest frequencies. To implement this additional flexibility, we reformulate the Andrade model by endowing it with a free parameter {zeta} which is the ratio of the anelastic timescale to the viscoelastic Maxwell time of the mantle. Some uncertainty in this parameter's frequency dependence does not influence our principal conclusions.

Efroimsky, Michael, E-mail: michael.efroimsky@usno.navy.mil [U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392 (United States)

2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

455

Palladium/Copper Alloy Composite Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes progress made during the second year of research funding from DOE Grant DE-FG26-03NT41792 at the Colorado School of Mines. The period of performance was September 1, 2004 through August of 2005. We have reformulated our Pd plating process to minimize the presence of carbon contamination in our membranes. This has improved durability and increased permeability. We have developed techniques for plating the outside diameter of ceramic and metal substrate tubes. This configuration has numerous advantages including a 40% increase in specific surface area, the ability to assay the alloy composition non-destructively, the ability to potentially repair defects in the plated surface, and the ability to visually examine the plated surfaces. These improvements have allowed us to already meet the 2007 DOE Fossil Energy pure H{sub 2} flux target of 100 SCFH/ft{sup 2} for a hydrogen partial pressure difference of 100 psi with several Pd-Cu alloy membranes on ceramic microfilter supports. Our highest pure H{sub 2} flux on inexpensive, porous alumina support tubes at the DOE target conditions is 215 SCFH/ft{sup 2}. Progress toward meeting the other DOE Fossil Energy performance targets is also summarized. Additionally, we have adapted our membrane fabrication procedure to apply Pd and Pd alloy films to commercially available porous stainless steel substrates. Stable performance of Pd-Cu films on stainless steel substrates was demonstrated over a three week period at 400 C. Finally, we have fabricated and tested Pd-Au alloy membranes. These membranes also exceed both the 2007 and 2010 DOE pure H{sub 2} flux targets and exhibit ideal H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivities of over 1000 at partial pressure difference of 100 psi.

J. Douglas Way; Paul M. Thoen

2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

456

A Note on Quantum Security for Post-Quantum Cryptography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shor's quantum factoring algorithm and a few other efficient quantum algorithms break many classical crypto-systems. In response, people proposed post-quantum cryptography based on computational problems that are believed hard even for quantum computers. However, security of these schemes against \\emph{quantum} attacks is elusive. This is because existing security analysis (almost) only deals with classical attackers and arguing security in the presence of quantum adversaries is challenging due to unique quantum features such as no-cloning. This work proposes a general framework to study which classical security proofs can be restored in the quantum setting. Basically, we split a security proof into (a sequence of) classical security reductions, and investigate what security reductions are "quantum-friendly". We characterize sufficient conditions such that a classical reduction can be "lifted" to the quantum setting. We then apply our lifting theorems to post-quantum signature schemes. We are able to show that the classical generic construction of hash-tree based signatures from one-way functions and and a more efficient variant proposed in~\\cite{BDH11} carry over to the quantum setting. Namely, assuming existence of (classical) one-way functions that are resistant to efficient quantum inversion algorithms, there exists a quantum-secure signature scheme. We note that the scheme in~\\cite{BDH11} is a promising (post-quantum) candidate to be implemented in practice and our result further justifies it. Finally we demonstrate the generality of our framework by showing that several existing works (Full-Domain hash in the quantum random-oracle model~\\cite{Zha12ibe} and the simple hybrid arguments framework in~\\cite{HSS11}) can be reformulated under our unified framework.

Fang Song

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

457

Electromagnetism on Anisotropic Fractals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive basic equations of electromagnetic fields in fractal media which are specified by three indepedent fractal dimensions {\\alpha}_{i} in the respective directions x_{i} (i=1,2,3) of the Cartesian space in which the fractal is embedded. To grasp the generally anisotropic structure of a fractal, we employ the product measure, so that the global forms of governing equations may be cast in forms involving conventional (integer-order) integrals, while the local forms are expressed through partial differential equations with derivatives of integer order but containing coefficients involving the {\\alpha}_{i}'s. First, a formulation based on product measures is shown to satisfy the four basic identities of vector calculus. This allows a generalization of the Green-Gauss and Stokes theorems as well as the charge conservation equation on anisotropic fractals. Then, pursuing the conceptual approach, we derive the Faraday and Amp\\`ere laws for such fractal media, which, along with two auxiliary null-divergence conditions, effectively give the modified Maxwell equations. Proceeding on a separate track, we employ a variational principle for electromagnetic fields, appropriately adapted to fractal media, to independently derive the same forms of these two laws. It is next found that the parabolic (for a conducting medium) and the hyperbolic (for a dielectric medium) equations involve modified gradient operators, while the Poynting vector has the same form as in the non-fractal case. Finally, Maxwell's electromagnetic stress tensor is reformulated for fractal systems. In all the cases, the derived equations for fractal media depend explicitly on fractal dimensions and reduce to conventional forms for continuous media with Euclidean geometries upon setting the dimensions to integers.

Martin Ostoja-Starzewski

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

458

State of heavy oil production and refining in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

California is unique in the United States because it has the largest heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees}API gravity) resource, estimated to be in excess of 40 billion barrels. Of the current 941,543 barrels/day of oil produced in California (14% of the U.S. total), 70% or 625,312 barrels/day is heavy oil. Heavy oil constituted only 20% of California`s oil production in the early 1940s, but development of thermal oil production technology in the 1960s allowed the heavy industry to grow and prosper to the point where by the mid-1980s, heavy oil constituted 70% of the state`s oil production. Similar to the rest of the United States, light oil production in the Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Region, and San Joaquin Valley peaked and then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Unlike other states, California developed a heavy oil industry that replaced declining light oil production and increased the states total oil production, despite low heavy oil prices, stringent environmental regulations and long and costly delays in developing known oil resources. California`s deep conversion refineries process the nation`s highest sulfur, lowest API gravity crude to make the cleanest transportation fuels available. More efficient vehicles burning cleaner reformulated fuels have significantly reduced the level of ozone precursors (the main contributor to California`s air pollution) and have improved air quality over the last 20 years. In a state where major oil companies dominate, the infrastructure is highly dependent on the 60% of ANS production being refined in California, and California`s own oil production. When this oil is combined with the small volume of imported crude, a local surplus of marketed oil exists that inhibits exploitation of California`s heavy oil resources. As ANS production declines, or if the export restrictions on ANS sales are lifted, a window of opportunity develops for increased heavy oil production.

Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B. [BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

459

NON-EQUILIBRIUM DYNAMICS OF MANY-BODY QUANTUM SYSTEMS: FUNDAMENTALS AND NEW FRONTIER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rapid progress in nanotechnology and naofabrication techniques has ushered in a new era of quantum transport experiments. This has in turn heightened the interest in theoretical understanding of nonequilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated quantum systems. This project has advanced the frontiers of understanding in this area along several fronts. For example, we showed that under certain conditions, quantum impurities out of equilibrium can be reformulated in terms of an effective equilibrium theory; this makes it possible to use the gamut of tools available for quantum systems in equilibrium. On a different front, we demonstrated that the elastic power of a transmitted microwave photon in circuit QED systems can exhibit a many-body Kondo resonance. We also showed that under many circumstances, bipartite fluctuations of particle number provide an effective tool for studying many-body physics—particularly the entanglement properties of a many-body system. This implies that it should be possible to measure many-body entanglement in relatively simple and tractable quantum systems. In addition, we studied charge relaxation in quantum RC circuits with a large number of conducting channels, and elucidated its relation to Kondo models in various regimes. We also extended our earlier work on the dynamics of driven and dissipative quantum spin-boson impurity systems, deriving a new formalism that makes it possible to compute the full spin density matrix and spin-spin correlation functions beyond the weak coupling limit. Finally, we provided a comprehensive analysis of the nonequilibrium transport near a quantum phase transition in the case of a spinless dissipative resonant-level model. This project supported the research of two Ph.D. students and two postdoctoral researchers, whose training will allow them to further advance the field in coming years.

DeMille, David; LeHur, Karyn

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

460

FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the reporting period, work continued on development of formulations using the materials down-selected from the initially identified contenders for the fibrous monolith wear resistant components. In the previous reporting period, a two-stage binder removal process was developed that resulted in prototype parts free of voids and other internal defects. During the current reporting period, work was performed to characterize the two-stage binder removal process for WC-Co based FM material systems. Use of this process has resulted in the fabrication of defect free sintered WC-Co FM bodies, with minimal free carbon porosity and densities approaching 100% theoretical. With the elimination of free carbon porosity and other binder removal process related defects, development work focused on optimizing the densification and eliminating defects observed in WC-Co based FM consolidated by pressureless sintering. Shrinkage of the monolithic core and shell materials used in the WC-Co based FM system was measured, and differences in material shrinkage were identified as a potential cause of cell boundary cracking observed in sintered parts. Re-formulation of material blends for this system was begun, with the goal of eliminating mechanical stresses during sintering by matching the volumetric shrinkage of the core and shell materials. Thirty-three 7/8 inch drill bit inserts (WC-Co(6%)/WC-Co(16%) FM) were hot pressed during the reporting period. Six of these inserts were delivered for field-testing by Superior Rock Bit during the upcoming reporting period. In addition, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiCN FM cutting tool inserts were fabricated, and cutting tests performed.

Mark J. Rigali; Mike L. Fulcher

2003-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Fluctuation theory of connectivities for subcritical random cluster models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a fluctuation theory of connectivities for subcritical random cluster models. The theory is based on a comprehensive nonperturbative probabilistic description of long connected clusters in terms of essentially one-dimensional chains of irreducible objects. Statistics of local observables, for example, displacement, over such chains obey classical limit laws, and our construction leads to an effective random walk representation of percolation clusters. The results include a derivation of a sharp Ornstein--Zernike type asymptotic formula for two point functions, a proof of analyticity and strict convexity of inverse correlation length and a proof of an invariance principle for connected clusters under diffusive scaling. In two dimensions duality considerations enable a reformulation of these results for supercritical nearest-neighbor random cluster measures, in particular, for nearest-neighbor Potts models in the phase transition regime. Accordingly, we prove that in two dimensions Potts equilibrium crystal shapes are always analytic and strictly convex and that the interfaces between different phases are always diffusive. Thus, no roughening transition is possible in the whole regime where our results apply. Our results hold under an assumption of exponential decay of finite volume wired connectivities [assumption (1.2) below] in rectangular domains that is conjectured to hold in the whole subcritical regime; the latter is known to be true, in any dimensions, when $q=1$, $q=2$, and when $q$ is sufficiently large. In two dimensions assumption (1.2) holds whenever there is an exponential decay of connectivities in the infinite volume measure. By duality, this includes all supercritical nearest-neighbor Potts models with positive surface tension between ordered phases.

Massimo Campanino; Dmitry Ioffe; Yvan Velenik

2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

462

State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1994--1995 Season summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1994--95 heating season approached with more attention to petroleum products than experienced in some time. This year, however, the focus was on transportation fuels with the introduction of reformulated gasolines scheduled for the first of 1995. Last year transportation fuels had been in the spotlight in the Northeast as well, for the ills experienced with a new winter mix for diesel fuel. Would RFG have the same dubious entrance as diesel`s winter mix? Would RFG implementation work and what effect would the change in stocks have on the refineries? With worries related to transportation fuels being recognized, would there be reason for concern with heating fuels? As the new year approached, the refineries seemed to have no problem with supplies and RFG stocks were eased in about the second week of December. In Maine, the southern half of the state was effected by the gasoline substitution but seven of Maine`s sixteen counties were directed to follow the recommended criteria. Since the major population concentration lies in the southern three counties, concern was real. Attention paid to emission testing had come to a head in the fall, and RFG complaints were likely. There have been years when snow and cold arrived by Thanksgiving Day. In northern Maine, snow easily covers the ground before the SHOPP survey begins. The fall slipped by with no great shocks in the weather. December was more of the same, as the weather continued to favor the public. Normally the third week in January is considered the coldest time in the year, but not this year. By the end of January, two days were recorded as being more typical of winter. By March and the end of the survey season, one could only recognize that there were perhaps a few cold days this winter. Fuel prices fluctuated little through the entire heating season. There were no major problems to report and demand never placed pressure on dealers.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations.

Paixao, J.F. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Nascimento, I.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil) and Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)]. E-mail: iracema@ftc.br; Pereira, S.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Leite, M.B.L. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Carvalho, G.C. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Silveira, J.S.C. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Reboucas, M. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Matias, G.R.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Rodrigues, I.L.P. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil)

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

464

Lithium Ion Cell Development for Photovoltaic Energy Storage Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall project goal is to reduce the cost of home and neighborhood photovoltaic storage systems by reducing the single largest cost component â?? the energy storage cells. Solar power is accepted as an environmentally advantaged renewable power source. Its deployment in small communities and integrated into the grid, requires a safe, reliable and low cost energy storage system. The incumbent technology of lead acid cells is large, toxic to produce and dispose of, and offer limited life even with significant maintenance. The ideal PV storage battery would have the safety and low cost of lead acid but the performance of lithium ion chemistry. Present lithium ion batteries have the desired performance but cost and safety remain the two key implementation barriers. The purpose of this project is to develop new lithium ion cells that can meet PVES cost and safety requirements using A123Systems phosphate-based cathode chemistries in commercial PHEV cell formats. The cost target is a cell design for a home or neighborhood scale at <$25/kWh. This DOE program is the continuation and expansion of an initial MPSC (Michigan Public Service Commission) program towards this goal. This program further pushes the initial limits of some aspects of the original program â?? even lower cost anode and cathode actives implemented at even higher electrode loadings, and as well explores new avenues of cost reduction via new materials â?? specifically our higher voltage cathode. The challenge in our materials development is to achieve parity in the performance metrics of cycle life and high temperature storage, and to produce quality materials at the production scale. Our new cathode material, M1X, has a higher voltage and so requires electrolyte reformulation to meet the high temperature storage requirements. The challenge of thick electrode systems is to maintain adequate adhesion and cycle life. The composite separator has been proven in systems having standard loading electrodes; the challenge with this material will be to maintain proven performance when this composite is coated onto a thicker electrode; as well the high temperature storage must meet application requirements. One continuing program challenge was the lack of specific performance variables for this PV application and so the low power requirements of PHEV/EV transportation markets were again used.

Susan Babinec

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

465

Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel, farming consumes most of the fossil fuel in the life cycle of corn stover-based ethanol.

Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

466

Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang et al. 1997; Wang et al. 1999; Levelton Engineering et al. 1999; Shapouri et al. 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in the types of diesel engines that will likely be targeted first in the marketplace. This report documents the results of our study. The draft report was delivered to DCCA in January 2003. This final report incorporates revisions by the sponsor and by Argonne.

Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Lee, H.

2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

467

Optimized Volumetric Scanning for X-Ray Array Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) is the science and technology of determining non-invasively the internal structure of manufactured parts, objects, and materials. NDE application areas include medicine, industrial manufacturing, military, homeland security, and airport luggage screening. X-ray measurement systems are most widely used because of their ability to image through a wide range of material densities (from human tissue in medical applications to the dense materials of weapon components). Traditional x-ray systems involve a single source and detector system that rotate and/or translate about the object under evaluation. At each angular location, the source projects x-rays through the object. The rays undergo attenuation proportional to the density of the object's constitutive material. The detector records a measure of the attenuation. Mathematical algorithms are used to invert the forward attenuated ray projection process to form images of the object. This is known as computed tomography (CT). In recent years, the single-source x-ray NDE systems have been generalized to arrays of x-ray sources. Array sources permit multiple views of the object with fewer rotations and translations of the source/detector system. The spatially diverse nature of x-ray array sources has the potential of reducing data collection time, reducing imaging artifacts, and increasing the resolution of the resultant images. Most of the existing CT algorithms were not derived from array source models with a spatially diverse set of viewing perspectives. Single-source x-ray CT data collection, processing, and imaging methods and algorithms are not applicable when the source location is expanded from one dimension (a rotating and/or translating point source) to two (a rotating and/or translating array). They must be reformulated. The goal of this project is to determine the applicability of x-ray array sources to problems of interest to LLNL and its customers. It is believed array source data collection will be faster while yielding higher resolution reconstructions with fewer artifacts. There are three tasks in the research: (1) Develop forward array source analytic and computational models; (2) Research and develop array source reconstruction algorithms; and (3) Perform experiments.

Lehman, S K; Foudray, A M; Wang, A; Kallman, J S; Martz, H

2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

468

POLYETHYLENE ENCAPSULATION.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyethylene microencapsulation physically homogenizes and incorporates mixed waste particles within a molten polymer matrix, forming a solidified final waste form upon cooling. Each individual particle of waste is embedded within the polymer block and is surrounded by a durable, leach-resistant coating. The process has been successfully applied for the treatment of a broad range of mixed wastes, including evaporator concentrate salts, soil, sludges, incinerator ash, off-gas blowdown solutions, decontamination solutions, molten salt oxidation process residuals, ion exchange resins, granular activated carbon, shredded dry active waste, spill clean-up residuals, depleted uranium powders, and failed grout waste forms. For waste streams containing high concentrations of soluble toxic metal contaminants, additives can be used to further reduce leachability, thus improving waste loadings while meeting or exceeding regulatory disposal criteria. In this configuration, contaminants are both chemically stabilized and physically solidified, making the process a true stabilization/solidification (S/S) technology. Unlike conventional hydraulic cement grouts or thermosetting polymers, thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene require no chemical. reaction for solidification. Thus, a stable, solid, final waste form product is assured on cooling. Variations in waste chemistry over time do not affect processing parameters and do not require reformulation of the recipe. Incorporation of waste particles within the polymer matrix serves as an aggregate and improves the mechanical strength and integrity of the waste form. The compressive strength of polyethylene microencapsulated waste forms varies based on the type and quantity of waste encapsulated, but is typically between 7 and 17.2 MPa (1000 and 2500 psi), well above the minimum strength of 0.4 MPa (160 psi) recommended by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for low-level radioactive waste forms in support of 10 CFR 61 (NRC, 1991; 1983) Because polyethylene is a relatively new material, it is difficult to predict its long-term durability. However, prior to scale-up of the microencapsulation process, a study was conducted to evaluate potential degradation mechanisms. The study examined potential effects on mechanical integrity from exposure to chemicals and solvents, thermal cycling, saturated environments, microbial attack, and high gamma-radiation fields (Kalb et al., 1991). At ambient temperatures, polyethylene is relatively inert to most chemicals, including organic solvents, acids, and alkaline solutions. Exposure to changes in temperature or saturated soil conditions have been shown to degrade the mechanical integrity of some waste forms, but had little or no measurable impact on polyethylene waste forms. Low-density polyethylene is not susceptible to growth of microbial organisms, a fact that is evidenced by the lack of plastics decomposition in municipal waste landfills. When exposed to gamma-radiation at total doses of up to lo8 rad, additional cross-linking of the polymer occurs, resulting in increased strength and lower leachability.

KALB, P.

2001-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

469

WASTE LOADING ENHANCEMENTS FOR HANFORD LAW GLASSES VLS-10R1790-1 FINAL REPORT REV 0 12/1/2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

About 50 million gallons of high-level mixed waste is currently stored in underground tanks at The United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site in the State of Washington. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will provide DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) with a means of treating this waste by vitrification for subsequent disposal. The tank waste will be separated into low- and high-activity waste fractions, which will then be vitrified respectively into Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) and Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) products. The ILAW product will be disposed in an engineered facility on the Hanford site while the IHLW product will likely be directed to a national deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste. The ILAW and IHLW products must meet a variety of requirements with respect to protection of the environment before they can be accepted for disposal. The Office of River Protection is currently examining options to optimize the Low Activity Waste (LAW) Facility and LAW glass waste form. One option under evaluation is to enhance the waste processing rate of the vitrification plant currently under construction. It is likely that the capacity of the LAW vitrification plant can be increased incrementally by implementation of a variety of low-risk, high-probability changes, either separately or in combination. These changes include: (1) Operating at the higher processing rates demonstrated at the LAW pilot melter; (2) Increasing the glass pool surface area within the existing external melter envelope; (3) Increasing the glass waste loading; and (4) Operating the melter at a slightly higher temperature. The Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of The Catholic University of America (CUA) and Energy Solutions, Inc. have evaluated several of these potential incremental improvements for ORP in support of its evaluation of WTP LAW facility optimization. Some of these incremental improvements have been tested at VSL including increasing the waste loading, increasing the processing temperature, and increasing the fraction of the sulfur in the feed that is partitioned to the off-gas (in the event that a decision is made to break the present WTP recycle loop). These approaches successfully demonstrated increases in glass production rates and significant increases in sulfate incorporation at the nominal melter operating temperature of 1150 C and at slightly higher than nominal glass processing temperatures. Subsequent tests demonstrated further enhancement of glass formulations for all of the LAW waste envelopes, thereby reducing the amount of glass to be produced by the WTP for the same amount of waste processed. The next phase of testing determined the applicability of these improvements over the expected range of sodium and sulfur concentrations for Hanford LAW. This approach was subsequently applied to an even wider range of LAW wastes types, including those with high potassium concentration. The feasibility of formulating higher waste loading glasses using SnO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in place of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} as glass former additives was also evaluated. The present report provides data from investigation of the effects of magnesium content (up to {approx}10 wt%) on LAW glass properties and from work to identify improved high waste loading glass formulations that meets all processing and product quality requirements for two waste compositions. The scope of testing is detailed in the Test Plan for this work. A glass composition previously developed and tested at VSL for LAW from tank AN-105 (LAWA187) was varied by substituting Mg for other glass former additives such as Ca, B and Si in an attempt to formulate a glass with improved properties, such as higher waste loading and greater sulfur tolerance. The results were used to reformulate another glass (ORPLG9) developed for LAW from tank AP-101 that contains high concentrations of alkalis (Na and K). Glass formulation goals for this waste were to increase the sulfur tolerance of the

KRUGER AA; MULLER IS; JOSEPH I; MATLACK KS; GAN H; PEGG IL

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z