Sample records for reforming treatability study

  1. SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROBBINS RA

    2011-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  2. Treatability studies of groundwater contaminated with bis(2-chloroethyl) ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, F.Y.C. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Mineral and Environmental Engineering] [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Mineral and Environmental Engineering; Li, K.Y.; Liu, C.C. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The groundwater aquifer underneath a chemical manufacturing plant in Southeast Texas has been contaminated with the leachate from its landfill. There are 17 major chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants found in the groundwater with concentrations ranging from 1 ppm to 1,200 ppm. An air-stripping unit followed by a thermal catalytic oxidation unit is currently operating on-site to remove all of the chlorinated compounds from the contaminated groundwater. One of the contaminants, bis(2-chloroethyl)ether (DCEE), has a fairly low Henry`s Law constant; therefore, a high air flow rate is employed in the stripping unit to improve the overall stripping efficiency. Nevertheless, the treated groundwater still contains a fair amount of DCEE. An UV-peroxidation reactor is set up to study its feasibility for oxidizing DCEE. The treatability data indicate that DCEE at a concentration of 200 ppm can be oxidized effectively in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the effective UV wavelengths lie between 200 and 280 nm. No noticeable reduction of the oxidation rate is observed at low temperature ({approximately} 11 C). Apparent oxidation rate equations of DCEE are determined and several process design parameters are discussed.

  3. Materials testing for in situ stabilization treatability study of INEEL mixed wastes soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiser, J.; Fuhrmann, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the contaminant-specific materials testing phase of the In Situ Stabilization Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study (TS). The purpose of materials testing is to measure the effectiveness of grouting agents to stabilize Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Acid Pit soils and select a grout material for use in the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Treatability Study within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Test results will assist the selecting a grout material for the follow-on demonstrations described in Test Plan for the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Phases of the In Situ Stabilization Treatability Study at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  4. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial, University Park, PA 16802, USA h i g h l i g h t s Refinery wastewaters were tested as fuels in MECs effective for treatment or pre-treatment of some refinery wastewaters. The best way to start up MECs

  5. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan (Revision 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85{degrees} to 95{degrees}C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern. This document is a Treatability Study Work Plan for the demonstration program. The document contains a description of the proposed treatability study, background of the EM heating process, description of the field equipment, and demonstration test design.

  6. Survey of commercial firms with mixed-waste treatability study capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFee, J.; McNeel, K.; Eaton, D. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kimmel, R. [Dept. of Energy, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho Operations Office

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the data developed for the Proposed Site Treatment Plans, the US Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 230,000 m{sup 3} and embodied in approximately 2,000 waste streams. Many of these streams are unique and may require new technologies to facilitate compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act disposal requirements. Because most waste streams are unique, a demonstration of the selected technologies is justified. Evaluation of commercially available or innovative technologies in a treatability study is a cost-effective method of providing a demonstration of the technology and supporting decisions on technology selection. This paper summarizes a document being prepared by the Mixed Waste Focus Area of the DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50). The document will provide DOE waste managers with a list of commercial firms (and universities) that have mixed-waste treatability study capabilities and with the specifics regarding the technologies available at those facilities. In addition, the document will provide a short summary of key points of the relevant regulations affecting treatability studies and will compile recommendations for successfully conducting an off-site treatability study. Interim results of the supplier survey are tabulated in this paper. The tabulation demonstrates that treatment technologies in 17 of the US Environmental Protection Agency`s technology categories are available at commercial facilities. These technologies include straightforward application of standard technologies, such as pyrolysis, as well as proprietary technologies developed specifically for mixed waste. The paper also discusses the key points of the management of commercial mixed-waste treatability studies.

  7. Treatability studies for uranium and plutonium contaminated soils using physical separation methods. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nevada Field Office of the Department of Energy (DOE/NV) has stated in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) Site Specific Plan for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that DOE/NV is committed to achieving compliance with all applicable environmental laws, regulations, guidelines, and agreements covering operations at the NTS. The primary DOE/NV objective identified by the Site-Specific Plan is to comply with all laws and regulations aimed at protecting human health and the environment. These include Nevada statutes and regulations which may be applicable, including federally delegated authorities. This environmental assessment discusses limited bench-scale soil treatability testing of physical processes for decontamination of plutonium- and uranium-contaminated soil. The proposed location of these studies would be the Treatability Testing Facility (TTF), Building 3124 at Test Cell ``All in Area 25 of the NTS.

  8. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is present both in the aquifer near the river and in the vadose and riparian zones of the river’s shore at 100-NR-2. Phytoextraction of 90Sr is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua). Past studies have shown that willow roots share uptake mechanisms for Sr with Ca, a plant macronutrient as well as no discrimination between Sr and 90Sr. Willow 90Sr concentration ratios [CR’s; (pCi 90Sr/g dry wt. of new growth tissue)/(pCi 90Sr/g soil porewater)] were consistently greater than 65 with three-quarters of the assimilated label partitioned into the above ground shoot. Insect herbivore experiments also demonstrated no significant potential for bioaccumulation or food chain transfer from their natural activities. The objectives of this field study were three-fold: (1) to demonstrate that a viable, “managed” plot of coyote willows can be established on the shoreline of the Columbia River that would survive the same microenvironment to be encountered at the 100-NR-2 shoreline; (2) to show through engineered barriers that large and small animal herbivores can be prevented from feeding on these plants; and (3) to show that once established, the plants will provide sufficient biomass annually to support the phytoextraction technology. A field treatability demonstration plot was established on the Columbia River shoreline alongside the 100-K West water intake at the end of January 2007. The plot was delimited by a 3.05 m high chain-link fence and was approximately 10 x 25 m in size. A layer of fine mesh metal small animal screening was placed around the plot at the base of the fencing to a depth of 45 cm. A total of sixty plants were placed in six slightly staggered rows with 1-m spacing between plants. The actual plot size was 0.00461 hectare (ha). At the time of planting (March 12, 2007), the plot was located about 10 m from the river’s edge. Less than two weeks later (March 21), the river began the spring rise. Periodic (daily) or continuous flooding occurred at the site over the next 3 to 4 months. River levels at times were over the top of the enclosure’s fence. This same pattern was repeated for the next 2 years. It was however evident that even submerged for part, or all of the day, that the plants continued to flourish. There were no indications of herbivory or animal tracks observed within the plot although animals were present in the area. Biomass production over the three years followed a typical growth curve with a yield of about 1 kg for the first year when the trees were establishing themselves, 4 kg for the second, and over 20 kg for the third when the trees were entering the exponential phase of growth. On a metric Ton per hectare (mT/ha) basis this would be 0.2 mT/ha in 2007, 0.87 mT/ha in 2008, and 4.3 mT/ha in 2009. Growth curve extrapolation predicts 13.2 mT/ha during a fourth year and potentially 29.5 mT/ha following a fifth year. Using the observed Ca and Sr concentrations found in the plant tissues, and Sr CR’s calculated from groundwater analysis, projected biomass yields suggest the trees could prove effective in removing the contaminant from the 100-NR-2 riparian zone.

  9. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilliam, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hutchins, D.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chodak, P. III [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.).

  10. TREATABILITY STUDIES USED TO TEST FOR EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF PLUTONIUM DECONTAMINATION CHEMICALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EWALT, J.R.

    2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluor Hanford is decommissioning the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford site in Eastern Washington. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal as low level waste. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium(IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids, degreasers, and sequestering agents. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of chemical solutions as a spray on the contaminated surfaces, followed by a wipe-down with rags. This process effectively transfers the transuranic materials to the decontamination liquids, which are then absorbed by rags and packaged for disposal as TRU waste. Concerns regarding the safety of this procedure developed following a fire at Rocky Flats in 2003. The fire occurred in a glovebox that had been treated with cerium nitrate, which is one of the decontamination chemicals that Fluor Hanford has proposed to use. The investigation of the event was hampered by the copious use of chemicals and water to extinguish the fire, and was not conclusive regarding the cause. However, the reviewers noted that rags were found in the glovebox, suggesting that the combination of rags and chemicals may have contributed to the fire. With that uncertainty, Fluor began an investigation into the potential for fire when using the chemicals and materials in the decontamination process. The focus of this work has been to develop a disposal strategy that will provide a chemically stable waste form at expected Hanford waste storage temperatures. Treatability tests under CERCLA were used to assess the use of certain chemicals and wipes during the decontamination process. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes at PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions as RadPro{trademark} that include acids, degreasers, and sequestering agents. As part of the treatability study, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) personnel have evaluated the potential for self-heating and exothermic reactions in the residual decontamination materials. Exothermic reactions that release significant heat and off-gas have been discovered for both the cerium nitrate, as seen in a fire at Rocky Flats, and proprietary solutions developed for decontamination purposes. From the treatability studies, certain limiting conditions have been defined that will aid in assuring safe operations and waste packaging during the decommissioning process.

  11. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Tixier, J.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997.

  12. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T. [and others

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

  13. Comparative case studies of health reform in England

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    Comparative case studies of health reform in England Report submitted to the Department of Health........................................................................................14 1.1 Presenting the Health System Reform policy agenda...................................14 1 ..........................................................................................64 Demand Side Reform.........................................

  14. THE USE OF A TREATABILITY STUDY TO INVESTIGATE THE POTENTIAL FOR SELF HEATING & EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS IN DECONTAMINATION MATERIALS AT PFP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2005-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Cerium Nitrate has been proposed for use in the decontamination of plutonium contaminated equipment at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington. A Treatability Study was conducted to determine the validity of this decontamination technology in terms of meeting its performance goals and to understand the risks associated with the use of Cerium Nitrate under the conditions found at the PFP. Fluor Hanford is beginning the decommissioning of the PFP at the Hanford site. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal as low level waste. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids, degreasers, and sequestering agents. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of the chemicals, followed by a wipe-down of the contaminated surfaces with rags. This process effectively transfers the decontamination liquids containing the transuranic materials to the rags, which can then be readily packaged for disposal as TRU waste. As part of a treatability study, Fluor Hanford and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have evaluated the potential for self-heating and exothermic reactions in the residual decontamination materials and the waste packages. Laboratory analyses and thermal-hydraulic modeling reveal a significant self-heating risk for cerium nitrate solutions when used with cotton rags. Exothermic reactions that release significant heat and off-gas have been discovered for cerium nitrate at higher temperatures. From these studies, limiting conditions have been defined to assure safe operations and waste packaging.

  15. Treatability Study Operational Testing Program and Implementation Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To support future decision making of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit (OU) remedy selection, the Department of Energy (DOE) is performing a Treatability Study (TS), consistent with the EPA guidance for Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability studies. The study will inform stakeholders about various waste removal technologies and the cost of potential remediation approaches, particularly the cost associated with sluicing and the reduction in risk to human health and the environment from tank content removal. As part of the GAAT OU remedy, a series of studies and technology tests will be preformed. These may address one or more of the following areas, characterization, removal, treatment, and transfer of wastes stored in the GAAT OU.

  16. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G.

  17. Monitored Natural Attenuation of ino9rganic Contaminants Treatability Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crapse, K

    2004-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The identification and quantification of key natural attenuation processes for inorganic contaminants at D-Area is detailed herein. Two overarching goals of this evaluation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy were (1) to better define the availability of inorganic contaminants as potential sources for transport to groundwater and uptake by environmental receptors and (2) to understand the site-specific mechanisms controlling attenuation of these inorganic contaminants through tandem geochemical and biological characterization. Data collected in this study provides input for more appropriate site groundwater transport models. Significant natural attenuation is occurring at D-Area as evidenced by relatively low aqueous concentrations of constituents of concern (COCs) (Be, Ni, U, and As) at all locations characterized and the decrease in groundwater concentrations with increasing distance from the source. The observed magnitude of decrease in groundwater concentrations of COCs with distance from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) could not be accounted for by the modeled physical attenuation processes of dilution/dispersion. This additional attenuation, i.e., the observed difference between the groundwater concentrations of COCs and the modeled physical attenuation, is due to biogeochemical processes occurring at the D-Area. In tandem geochemical and microbiological characterization studies designed to evaluate the mechanisms contributing to natural attenuation, pH was the single parameter found to be most predictive of contaminant attenuation. The increasing pH with distance from the source is likely responsible for increased sorption of COCs to soil surfaces within the aquifer at D-Area. Importantly, because the sediments appear to have a high buffering capacity, the acid emanating from the DCPRB has been neutralized by the soil, and these conditions have led to large Kd values at the site. Two major types of soils are present at D-Area and were evaluated in this study: upland subsurface soils associated with a low pH/high sulfate/metals plume down-gradient of the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) and surface ash material discharged to the wetland from the D-Area Ash Basin (488-D). Sequential extraction studies were carried out to better define the availability of inorganic contaminant sources at D-Area.

  18. Report on the treatability study for inerting small quantities of radioactive explosives and explosive components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loyola, V.M.; Reber, S.D.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of Sandia`s radiation hardening testing on a variety of its explosive components, radioactive waste streams were generated and have to be disposed of as radioactive waste. Due to the combined hazards of explosives and radioactivity, Sandia`s Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management organization did not have a mechanism for disposal of these waste streams. This report documents the study done to provide a method for the removal of the explosive hazard from those waste streams. The report includes the design of the equipment used, procedures followed, results from waste stream analog tests and the results from the actual explosive inerting tests on radioactive samples. As a result of the inerting treatment, the waste streams were rendered non-explosive and, thus, manageable through normal radioactive waste disposal channels.

  19. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification Treatability Study of Mercury Contaminated Soil from the Y-12 Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb P.; Milian, L.; Yim, S. P.

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of past operations, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Plant) has extensive mercury-contamination in building structures, soils, storm sewer sediments, and stream sediments, which are a source of pollution to the local ecosystem. Because of mercury’s toxicity and potential impacts on human health and the environment, DOE continues to investigate and implement projects to support the remediation of the Y-12 site.URS and #9122;CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) under its prime contract with DOE has cleanup responsibilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and is investigating potential mercury-contaminated soil treatment technologies through an agreement with Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Y-12, the Y-12 operating contractor to DOE. As part of its investigations, UCOR has subcontracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to conduct laboratory-scale studies evaluating the applicability of the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process using surrogate and actual mixed waste Y-12 soils containing mercury (Hg) at 135, 2,000, and 10,000 ppm.SPSS uses a thermoplastic sulfur binder to convert Hg to stable mercury sulfide (HgS) and solidifies the chemically stable product in a monolithic solid final waste form to reduce dispersion and permeability. Formulations containing 40 – 60 dry wt% Y-12 soil were fabricated and samples were prepared in triplicate for Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing by an independent laboratory. Those containing 50 and 60 wt% soil easily met the study criteria for maximum allowable Hg concentrations (47 and 1 ppb, respectively compared with the TCLP limit of 200 ppb Hg). The lowest waste loading of 40 wt% yielded TCLP Hg concentrations slightly higher (240 ppb) than the allowable limit. Since the Y-12 soil tended to form clumps, the improved leaching at higher waste loadings was probably due to reduction in particle size from friction of the soil mixing, which creates more surface area for chemical conversion. This was corroborated by the fact that the same waste loading pre-treated by ball milling to reduce particle size prior to SPSS processing yielded TCLP concentrations almost 30 times lower, and at 8.5 ppb Hg was well below EPA limits. Pre-treatment by ball milling also allowed a reduction in the time required for stabilization, thus potentially reducing total process times by 30%.Additional performance testing was conducted including measurement of compressive strength to confirm mechanical integrity and immersion testing to determine the potential impacts of storage or disposal under saturated conditions. For both surrogate and actual Y-12 treated soils, waste form compressive strengths ranged between 2,300 and 6,500 psi, indicating very strong mechanical integrity (a minimum of greater than 40 times greater than the NRC guidance for low-level radioactive waste). In general, compressive strength increases with waste loading as the soil acts as an aggregate in the sulfur concrete waste forms. No statistically significant loss in strength was recorded for the 30 and 40 wt% surrogate waste samples and only a minor reduction in strength was measured for the 43 wt% waste forms. The 30 wt% Y-12 soil did not show a significant loss in strength but the 50 wt% samples were severely degraded in immersion due to swelling of the clay soil. The impact on Hg leaching, if any, was not determined.

  20. TREATABILITY STUDY FOR EDIBLE OIL DEPLOYMENT FOR ENHANCED CVOC ATTENUATION FOR T-AREA, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riha, B.; Looney, B.; Noonkester, J.; Hyde, W.; Walker, R.

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater beneath T-Area, a former laboratory and semiworks operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), is contaminated by chlorinated solvents (cVOCs). Since the contamination was detected in the 1980s, the cVOCs at T-Area have been treated by a combination of soil vapor extraction and groundwater pump and treat. The site received approval to temporarily discontinue the active groundwater treatment and implement a treatability study of enhanced attenuation - an engineering and regulatory strategy that has recently been developed by DOE and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC 2007). Enhanced attenuation uses active engineering solutions to alter the target site in such a way that the contaminant plume will passively stabilize and shrink and to document that the action will be effective, timely, and sustainable. The paradigm recognizes that attenuation remedies are fundamentally based on a mass balance. Thus, long-term plume dynamics can be altered either by reducing the contaminant loading from the source or by increasing the rate of natural attenuation processes within all, or part of, the plume volume. The combination of technologies that emerged for T-Area included: (1) neat (pure) vegetable oil deployment in the deep vadose zone in the former source area, (2) emulsified vegetable oil deployment within the footprint of the groundwater plume, and (3) identification of attenuation mechanisms and rates for the distal portion of the plume. In the first part, neat oil spreads laterally forming a thin layer on the water table to intercept and reduce future cVOC loading (via partitioning) and reduce oxygen inputs (via biostimulation). In the second and third parts, emulsified oil forms active bioremediation reactor zones within the plume footprint to degrade existing groundwater contamination (via reductive dechlorination and/or cometabolism) and stimulates long-term attenuation capacity in the distal plume (via cometabolism). For TArea, the enhanced attenuation development process proved to be a powerful tool in developing a strategy that provides a high degree of performance while minimizing adverse collateral impacts of the remediation (e.g., energy use and wetland damage) and minimizing life-cycle costs. As depicted in Figure 1, Edible oil deployment results in the development of structured geochemical zones and serves to decrease chlorinated compound concentrations in two ways: (1) physical sequestration, which reduces effective aqueous concentration and mobility; and (2) stimulation of anaerobic, abiotic and cometabolic degradation processes. In the central deployment area, contaminant initially partitions into the added oil phase. Biodegradation of the added organic substrate depletes the aquifer of oxygen and other terminal electron acceptors and creates conditions conducive to anaerobic degradation processes. The organic substrate is fermented to produce hydrogen, which is used as an electron donor for anaerobic dechlorination by organisms such as Dehalococcoides. Daughter products leaving the central treatment zone are amenable to aerobic oxidation. Further, the organic compounds leaving the central deployment zone (e.g., methane and propane) stimulate and enhance down gradient aerobic cometabolism which degrades both daughter compounds and several parent cVOCs. Figure 1 depicts TCE concentration reduction processes (labeled in green) along with their corresponding breakdown products in a structured geochemical zone scenario. A consortium of bacteria with the same net effect of Dehalococcoides may be present in the structured geochemical zones leading to the degradation of TCE and daughter products. Figure 2 shows a schematic of the documented cVOC degradation processes in both the anaerobic and aerobic structured geochemical zones. Specific aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and their degradation pathways are also listed in the diagram and have either been confirmed in the field or the laboratory. See references in the bibliography in Section 11.

  1. Treatability Study of In Situ Technologies for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium in Groundwater at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Girvin, Donald C.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Devary, Brooks J.; Fischer, Ashley E.; Li, Shu-Mei W.

    2006-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This treatability study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), at the request of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 2, to evaluate the feasibility of using in situ treatment technologies for chromate reduction and immobilization at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site in Pennsauken Township, New Jersey. In addition to in situ reductive treatments, which included the evaluation of both abiotic and biotic reduction of Puchack aquifer sediments, natural attenuation mechanisms were evaluated (i.e., chromate adsorption and reduction). Chromate exhibited typical anionic adsorption behavior, with greater adsorption at lower pH, at lower chromate concentration, and at lower concentrations of other competing anions. In particular, sulfate (at 50 mg/L) suppressed chromate adsorption by up to 50%. Chromate adsorption was not influenced by inorganic colloids.

  2. 100 Area soil washing treatability test plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general methodology for conducting a soil washing treatability study as applied to source unit contamination in the 100 Area. The objective ofthis treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The purpose of separating these fractions is to minimize the volume of soil requiring permanent disposal. It is anticipated that this treatability study will be performed in two phases of testing, a remedy screening phase and a remedy selection phase. The remedy screening phase consists of laboratory- and bench-scale studies performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest laboratories (PNL) under a work order issued by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). This phase will be used to provide qualitative evaluation of the potential effectiveness of the soil washing technology. The remedy selection phase, consists of pilot-scale testing performed under a separate service contract to be competitively bid under Westinghouse Hanford direction. The remedy selection phase will provide data to support evaluation of the soil washing technology in future feasibility studies for Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) or final operable unit (OU) remedies. Performance data from these tests will indicate whether applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or cleanup goals can be met at the site(s) by application of soil washing. The remedy selection tests wig also allow estimation of costs associated with implementation to the accuracy required for the Feasibility Study.

  3. Title of Dissertation A Study Of Social Interaction And Teamwork In Reformed Physics Laboratories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation A Study Of Social Interaction And Teamwork In Reformed Physics INTERACTION AND TEAMWORK IN REFORMED PHYSICS LABORATORIES By Paul W. Gresser Thesis or Dissertation submitted

  4. A Comparative Study between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of Ethanol. A Comparative Study between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of Ethanol. Abstract: Rh and Co-based catalyst performance was compared...

  5. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the treatability study of in situ vitrification of Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) establishes the quality assurance procedures and requirements to be implemented for the control of quality-related activities for Phase 3 of the Treatability Study (TS) of In Situ Vitrification (ISV) of Seepage Pit 1, ORNL Waste Area Grouping 7. This QAPjP supplements the Quality Assurance Plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program by providing information specific to the ISV-TS. Phase 3 of the TS involves the actual ISV melt operations and posttest monitoring of Pit 1 and vicinity. Previously, Phase 1 activities were completed, which involved determining the boundaries of Pit 1, using driven rods and pipes and mapping the distribution of radioactivity using logging tools within the pipes. Phase 2 involved sampling the contents, both liquid and solids, in and around seepage Pit 1 to determine their chemical and radionuclide composition and the spatial distribution of these attributes. A separate QAPjP was developed for each phase of the project. A readiness review of the Phase 3 activities presented QAPjP will be conducted prior to initiating field activities, and an Operational Acceptance, Test (OAT) will also be conducted with no contamination involved. After, the OAT is complete, the ISV process will be restarted, and the melt will be allowed to increase with depth and incorporate the radionuclide contamination at the bottom of Pit 1. Upon completion of melt 1, the equipment will be shut down and mobilized to an adjacent location at which melt 2 will commence.

  6. Study of the treatability of wastewater from a coal-gasification plant. Final report, July 15, 1978-July 14, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iglar, A. F.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study focused on the coal gasification facility serving the Holston Army Ammunition Plant in Kingsport, Tennessee. Objectives were to characterize the wastewater produced by the gasification facility, and to evaluate technology for treating the waste in preparation for dischage to the environment. Most wastewater was recycled for scrubbing and cooling the product gas, with the excess requiring disposal found to be an average of only 1170 gallons per day (53 gallons per ton of coal, as received, and 366 gallons per million cubic feet of product gas). Analysis indicated that the waste was warm, high in alkaline material, especially ammonia, high in organic material, especially phenols, and also contaminated with other substances. Sulfides and thiocyanates were especially high in concentration. It was found that pretreatment could be accomplished by stripping (air injection) at high pH, removal of grease and oil (by pH suppression and light aeration) and neutralizatin. Equations were developed to describe the first two steps. Biological treatment through activated sludge was found to be successful, but effected only a moderate degree of treatment, and was troubled with frequent process upset. Attempts to improve treatment efficiency and stability are described. The data indicated the need to study aerated waste stabilization ponds as an alternative to activated sludge. Biological reaction kinetics were studied for activated sludge. Evaluation of the application of granular activated carbon suggested that this could be an effective practical tertiary treatment.

  7. Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Waste Technology Center; Yim, S.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of); Dyer, R.S.; Michaud, W.R. [Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess elemental sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the US and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loadings of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing.

  8. Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yim, Sung Paal; Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the U.S. and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loading of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Hydrocarbon reforming for hydrogen fuel cells: a study of carbon formation on autothermal reforming catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarty, J.G.; Sheridan, D.M.; Wise, H.; Wood, B.J.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of carbon formation on nickel autothermal steam reforming catalysts has been studied by temperature-programming, thermogravimetric and electron microscopic techniques. Temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) studies of carbon deposited on nickel reforming catalysts by the decomposition of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ exhibit seven forms of carbon that are distinguished by their characteristic reactivity with H/sub 2/ and 3.0-vol % H/sub 2/O/He. The relative population of the different carbon states depends primarily on the temperature during deposition. C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ exposure populates the same carbon states as C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ exposure but at approximately 100/sup 0/K lower deposition temperature. Similar carbon states were found on all nickel catalysts studies including Ni/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Ni/MgO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ leading to the conclusion that the support has little effect on carbon deposit formation and reactivity. The reactivity of the carbon states is not altered by exposure to steam in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O mixtures, but the amount of carbon deposited decreases to zero as H/sub 2/O/C increases past a critical ratio.

  10. Theoretical study of Diesel fuel reforming by a non-thermal arc discharge A. Lebouvier1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Theoretical study of Diesel fuel reforming by a non-thermal arc discharge A. Lebouvier1,2 , G anti-pollution norm namely for Diesel powered vehicles. NOx (NO, NO2,...) are very irritant pollutants- nologies purge is the use of non-thermal plasma. Plasma reforming of diesel fuel and exhaust gas mix- ture

  11. apatite treatability test: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    apatite treatability test First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Treatability of Stormwater...

  12. DUNCAN PRITCHARD Reforming Reformed Epistemology*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    DUNCAN PRITCHARD Reforming Reformed Epistemology* 0. Introduction There has been a renaissance-called "reformed" defence of the rationality of reli- gious belief. The starting-point for this reformed conception concern here. Instead, I will be outlining one way in which the reformed epistemological stance can

  13. Land reform and economic development : case study on Romania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vidican Sgouridis, Georgeta.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Few social arrangements have affected so many people for so long in human history, as the laws and customs governing the ownership and use of land. Taking Romania as a case study, this thesis focuses on the institutional ...

  14. Reforming process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.

    1987-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A reforming process is described comprising: (a) contacting a hydrocarbon feed with a first reforming catalyst at conditions which favor reforming to form a product stream. The first reforming catalyst is bifunctional and comprises a metallic oxide support which contains acidic sites having disposed therein a Group VIII metal; and (b) contacting the product stream with a second reforming catalyst at conditions which favor reforming. The second reforming catalyst is a monofunctional, non-acidic catalyst comprising a large-pore zeolite containing at least one Group VIII metal.

  15. Reforming pharmaceutical regulation: a case study of generic drugs in Brazil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fonseca, Elize Massard da

    2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Brazil is renowned worldwide for its remarkable reforms in pharmaceutical regulation, which have enhanced access to essential medicines while lowering drug costs. As part of these reforms, the Generic Drug Act was introduced in 1999. This policy...

  16. Reforming pharmaceutical regulation: a case study of generic drugs in Brazil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fonseca, Elize Massard

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Brazil is renowned worldwide for its remarkable reforms in pharmaceutical regulation, which have enhanced access to essential medicines while lowering drug costs. As part of these reforms, the Generic Drug Act was ...

  17. Treatability study for barge cleaning wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stryker, Charles Alva

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of these products which are normally non-water solutions may be toxic to biological systems. Estimates of clingage (the amount of oil adhering to the tank walls after the cargo i. s discharged), depend on the type of cargo, 3 and ranges from 0. 1% to 0. 9.../ of the total cargo. Tank compart- ments lined with epoxy or teflon may expect less clingage near 0. 1/, with an average for product tanks of about 0, 3X. Table I presents a wastewater analysis of a representative barge services company that cleans a large...

  18. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at Hanford.

  19. Neutron diffraction studies of nickel-containing perovskite oxide catalysts exposed to autothermal reforming environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mawdsley, J. R.; Vaughey, J. T.; Krause, T. R.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Six nickel-containing perovskite oxides (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x})M{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}O{sub 3{+-}{delta}}, where x = 0 or 0.2 and M = Cr, Fe, or Mn were used to catalyze the autothermal reforming of isooctane (C{sub 8}H{sub 18}) into a hydrogen-rich gas during short-term tests at 700 C. To determine the phase stability of the samples in the reducing environment of the reforming reactor, characterization studies of the as-prepared and tested perovskite samples were conducted using powder X-ray diffraction, powder neutron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. We determined that the reducing conditions of the microreactor caused metallic nickel to form in all six compositions. However, the extent of the nickel loss from the perovskite lattices varied: the chromium-containing compositions lost the least nickel, compared to the manganese- and iron-containing compositions, and the strontium-free compositions lost more nickel than their strontium-containing analogs. Five of the six perovskite compositions tested showed no breakdown of the perovskite lattice despite the loss of nickel from the B-sites, producing only the third example of a B-cation-deficient, 3d transition-metal-containing perovskite.

  20. Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

    2002-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill.

  1. Study of net soot formation in hydrocarbon reforming for hydrogen fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelman, R. B.; Farmer, R. C.; Wang, T. S.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrogen fuel cell is expected to be a valuable addition to the electric utility industry; however, the current fuel supply availability requires that conventional heavier hydrocarbon fuels also be considered as primary fuels. Typical heavier fuels would be No. 2 fuel oil with its accompanying sulfur impurities, compared with the currently used light hydrocarbon gases. The potential future use of alternate fuels which are rich in aromatics would exacerbate the problems associated with hydrogen production. Among the more severe of these problems, is the greater tendency of heavier hydrocarbons to form soot. The development of a quasi-global kinetics model to represent the homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions which control the autothermal hydrogen reforming process and the accompanying soot formation and gasification was the objective of this study.

  2. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the 100 Areas at the Hanford Site. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at the Hanford Site.

  3. School Reform for Students of Color and English Learners: Leaving Pedagogy Behind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trujillo, Tina

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    education. Public school reformers have responded to theseto study how California’s reformers can influence not justhow influence California’s reformers can influen ce not just

  4. 19th Century Ballot Reform in California: A Study of the Huntington Library's Political Ephemera Collection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodrich, Melanie

    2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ballot reform is an important part of the American political process. During the 1800’s, ballots changed drastically. At the beginning of the century, voters wrote the names of the candidates for whom they wished to vote ...

  5. area treatability test: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    treatability test First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Testing Surface Area Pravesh Kothari...

  6. Acquisition Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapolsky, Harvey

    This report reviews the six most recent major acquisition reform reports, starting in 1949 with the Hoover Commissions and including McNamara's Total Package Procurement, Fitzhugh Commission, the Commission on Government ...

  7. Navigating the tension between the master narrative of the academy and the counter-narrative of reform: personal case studies from within an engineering education coalition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merton, Prudence

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    attempted to reform undergraduate engineering curricula at six U.S. institutions of higher education. Through analysis of occupational life histories, and data from a larger study of curricular change processes, two dominant social narratives emerged...

  8. First-Principles Study on the Origin of the Different Selectivities for Methanol Steam Reforming on Cu(111) and Pd(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weixue

    First-Principles Study on the Origin of the Different Selectivities for Methanol Steam Reforming-up,14 but formation of hot spots in the reactor may give rise to sintering of the catalysts.3

  9. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101/102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-10-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FB SR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-S.2.1-20 1 0-00 1, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, 'Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.'

  10. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.

  11. Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.

  12. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA); DeZubay, Egon A. (Mt. Lebanon, PA); Murray, Alexander P. (Murrysville, PA); Vidt, Edward J. (Churchill, PA)

    1985-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  13. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA); DeZubay, Egon A. (Mt. Lebanon, PA); Murray, Alexander P. (Murrysville, PA); Vidt, Edward J. (Churchill, PA)

    1984-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  14. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  15. TREATABILITY TEST REPORT FOR THE REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM FROM GROUNDWATER AT 100-D AREA USING ELECTROCOAGULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PETERSEN SW

    2009-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to accelerate cleanup of contaminated groundwater along the Columbia River. The current treatment approach was driven by a series of Interim Action Records of Decision (IAROD) issued in the mid-1990s. Part of the approach for acceleration involves increasing the rate of groundwater extraction for the chromium plume north of the 100-D Reactor and injecting the treated water in strategic locations to hydraulically direct contaminated groundwater toward the extraction wells. The current treatment system uses ion exchange for Cr(VI) removal, with off-site regeneration of the ion exchange resins. Higher flow rates will increase the cost and frequency of ion exchange resin regeneration; therefore, alternative technologies are being considered for treatment at high flow rates. One of these technologies, electrocoagulation (EC), was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. The primary purpose of the treatability study was to determine the effectiveness of Cr(VI) removal and the robustness/implementability of an EC system. Secondary purposes of the study were to gather information about derivative wastes and to obtain data applicable to scaling the process from the treatability scale to full-scale. The treatability study work plan identified a performance objective and four operational objectives. The performance objective for the treatability study was to determine the efficiency (effectiveness) of hexavalent chromium removal from the groundwater, with a desired concentration of {le} 20 micrograms per liter ({micro}g/L) Cr(VI) in the effluent prior to re-injection. Influent and effluent total chromium and hexavalent chromium data were collected using a field test kit for multiple samples per week, and from off-site laboratory analysis of samples collected approximately monthly. These data met all data quality requirements. Two of three effluent chromium samples analyzed in the off-site (that is, fixed) laboratory met the performance objective during the continuous operational testing. Effluent hexavalent chromium analyzed by the field laboratory met the performance goal in over 90 percent of the samples. All effluent hexavalent chromium samples during the batch testing with high influent hexavalent chromium concentrations ({approx}2000 {micro}g/L) met the performance objective. Although the EC system was able to meet the performance goal, it must be noted that it was not uncommon for the system to be operated in recycle mode to achieve the performance goal. The EC unit was sometimes, but not always, capable of a single pass treatment efficiency high enough to meet the performance goal, and recycling water for multiple treatment passes was effective. An operational objective was to determine the volume and composition of the waste streams to enable proper waste designation. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) concentrations, pH, and free liquids were determined for solid material from the EC electrodes (mechanically removed scale), the filter press, and the tank bottoms for the effluent and waste collector tanks. These data met all data quality requirements. All solid-phase secondary waste streams were found to be below the TCLP limits for the toxicity characteristic, and a pH value within the limits for the corrosivity characteristic. Out of three samples, two (one of scale from the EC unit and one from filter press solids) failed the free liquid (paint filter) test, which is one of the acceptability criteria for Hanford's Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The solid-phase waste generation rate was about 0.65-gallon of solid waste per 100 gallons of water treated. It is concluded that the solid-phase secondary waste generated from this technology under the conditions at the test site will meet the toxicity and corrosivity criteria for disposal. It is also concluded that with engineering and/or operational improvements, a solid-phase secondary waste could be produced that would meet the free liquid disposal requirements. The second oper

  16. Reformation May 30-June 15, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peak, Derek

    Women of the Reformation Study Tour May 30-June 15, 2013 For more information, please contact Rev registrar.lts@usask.ca by January 29, 2013 We invite you to come and explore the Reformations with us! We hear a lot about the great reformers of the sixteenth century, people like Martin Luther, Phillip

  17. Corrosion of metals and alloys : anodic test for evaluation of intergranular corrosion susceptibility of heat-treatable aluminium alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of metals and alloys : anodic test for evaluation of intergranular corrosion susceptibility of heat-treatable aluminium alloys

  18. Annual report of tank waste treatability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, A.G. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (United States); Kirkbride, R.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report has been prepared as part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order* (Tri-Party Agreement) and constitutes completion of Tri-Party Agreement milestone M-04-00D for fiscal year 1993. This report provides a summary of treatment activities for newly generated waste, existing double-shell tank waste, and existing single-shell tank waste, as well as a summary of grout disposal feasibility, glass disposal feasibility, alternate methods for disposal, and safety issues which may impact the treatment and disposal of existing defense nuclear wastes. This report is an update of the 1992 report and is intended to provide traceability for the documentation by statusing the studies, activities, and issues which occurred in these areas listed above over the period of March 1, 1992, through February 28, 1993. Therefore, ongoing studies, activities, and issues which were documented in the previous (1992) report are addressed in this (1993) report.

  19. Annual report of tank waste treatability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giese, K.A.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report has been prepared as part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) and constitutes completion of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-04-00 for fiscal year 1991. This report provides a summary of treatment activities for newly generated waste, existing double-shell tank waste, and existing single-shell tank waste, as well as a summary of grout disposal feasibility, glass disposal feasibility, alternate methods of disposal, and safety issues which may impact the treatment and disposal of existing defense nuclear wastes. This report is an update of the 1990 report and is intended to provide traceability for the documentation of the areas listed above by statusing the studies, activities, and issues which occurred in these areas over the period of March 1, 1990, through February 28, 1991. Therefore, ongoing studies, activities, and issues which were documented in the previous (1990) report are addressed in this subsequent (1991) report. 40 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Hanford Site physical separations CERCLA treatability test plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct a physical separations soil treatability test in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site, Washington. The objective of this test is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems as a means of concentrating chemical and radioactive contaminants into fine soil fractions and thereby minimizing waste volumes. If successful the technology could be applied to clean up millions of cubic meters of contaminated soils in waste sites at Hanford and other sites. It is not the intent of this test to remove contaminated materials from the fine soils. Physical separation is a simple and comparatively low cost technology to potentially achieve a significant reduction in the volume of contaminated soils. Organic contaminants are expected to be insignificant for the 300-FF-I Operable Unit test, and further removal of metals and radioactive contaminants from the fine fraction of soils will require secondary treatment such as chemical extraction, electromagnetic separation, or other technologies. Additional investigations/testing are recommended to assess the economic and technical feasibility of applying secondary treatment technologies, but are not within the scope of this test. This plan provides guidance and specifications for the treatability test to be conducted as a service contract. More detailed instructions and procedures will be provided as part of the vendors (sellers) proposal. The procedures will be approved by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and finalized by the seller prior to initiating the test.

  1. Hanford 100-D Area Biostimulation Treatability Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Elmore, Rebecca P.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Sklarew, Deborah S.; Johnson, Christian D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Peterson, John E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Gasperikova, E.; Ajo-Franklin, J.

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a treatability test designed to demonstrate that in situ biostimulation can be applied to help meet cleanup goals in the Hanford Site 100-D Area. In situ biostimulation has been extensively researched and applied for aquifer remediation over the last 20 years for various contaminants. In situ biostimulation, in the context of this project, is the process of amending an aquifer with a substrate that induces growth and/or activity of indigenous bacteria for the purpose of inducing a desired reaction. For application at the 100-D Area, the purpose of biostimulation is to induce reduction of chromate, nitrate, and oxygen to remove these compounds from the groundwater. The in situ biostimulation technology is intended to provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) barrier previously installed in the Hanford 100-D Area and thereby increase the longevity of the ISRM barrier. Substrates for the treatability test were selected to provide information about two general approaches for establishing and maintaining an in situ permeable reactive barrier based on biological reactions, i.e., a biobarrier. These approaches included 1) use of a soluble (miscible) substrate that is relatively easy to distribute over a large areal extent, is inexpensive, and is expected to have moderate longevity; and 2) use of an immiscible substrate that can be distributed over a reasonable areal extent at a moderate cost and is expected to have increased longevity.

  2. Treatability Test Plan for 300 Area Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Bruce A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated a study into possible options for stabilizing uranium at the 300 Area using polyphosphate injection. As part of this effort, PNNL will perform bench- and field-scale treatability testing designed to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to reduced uranium concentrations in the groundwater to meet drinking water standards (30 ug/L) in situ. This technology works by forming phosphate minerals (autunite and apatite) in the aquifer that directly sequester the existing aqueous uranium in autunite minerals and precipitates apatite minerals for sorption and long term treatment of uranium migrating into the treatment zone, thus reducing current and future aqueous uranium concentrations. Polyphosphate injection was selected for testing based on technology screening as part of the 300-FF-5 Phase III Feasibility Study for treatment of uranium in the 300-Area.

  3. Direct Internal Reformation and Mass Transport in the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode: A Pore-Scale Lattice Boltzmann Study with Detailed Reaction Kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Joshi, Abhijit S.; Chiu, W. K. S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) allows the conversion of chemical energy that is stored in a given fuel, including light hydrocarbons, to electrical power. Hydrocarbon fuels, such as methane, are logistically favourable and provide high energy densities. However, the use of these fuels often results in a decreased efficiency and life. An improved understanding of the reactive flow in the SOFC anode can help address these issues. In this study, the transport and heterogeneous internal reformation of a methane based fuel is addressed. The effect of the SOFC anode's complex structure on transport and reactions is shown to exhibit a complicated interplay between the local molar concentrations and the anode structure. Strong coupling between the phenomenological microstructures and local reformation reaction rates are recognised in this study, suggesting the extension to actual microstructures may provide new insights into the reformation processes.

  4. Treatability test plan for the 200-BP-1 prototype surface barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November of 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The 200 Area is divided into operable units based on waste disposal information, location, facility, type, and other characteristics. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is one specific site located within the 200 East Area. Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RI) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination and assessing risks to human health and the environment at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. In March of 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan for the 200-BP-1 operable unit was issued (DOE-RL 1990a). The work plan outlined the first phase of site characterization activities, which were completed in March of 1993 with the issuance of Phase I Remedial Investigation Report for the 200-BP-1 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1993, Draft A). Remedial action objectives outlined in the RI report suggest that a likely remedial action at the 200-BP-1 operable unit could involve the use of a surface barrier. To further evaluate this technology, additional performance and constructability data are needed to implement this remedial action. This test plan describes the general methodology for conducting a prototype barrier treatability study. The objectives of this treatability study are to determine overall performance and constructability data on an actual waste site in conjunction with the Hanford Site Barrier Development Program.

  5. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Soil Desiccation Pilot Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Johnson, Christian D.; Greenwood, William J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Clayton, Ray E.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Peterson, John E.; Hubbard, Susan; Chronister, Glen B.; Benecke, Mark W.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes results of a pilot test of soil desiccation conducted as part of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test program. The report is written in CERCLA treatabilty test report format.

  6. Selecting activated carbon for water and wastewater treatability studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W.; Chang, Q.G.; Liu, W.D.; Li, B.J.; Jiang, W.X.; Fu, L.J.; Ying, W.C. [East China University of Chemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of follow-up investigations were performed to produce data for improving the four-indicator carbon selection method that we developed to identify high-potential activated carbons effective for removing specific organic water pollutants. The carbon's pore structure and surface chemistry are dependent on the raw material and the activation process. Coconut carbons have relatively more small pores than large pores; coal and apricot nutshell/walnut shell fruit carbons have the desirable pore structures for removing adsorbates of all sizes. Chemical activation, excessive activation, and/or thermal reactivation enlarge small pores, resulting in reduced phenol number and higher tannic acid number. Activated carbon's phenol, iodine, methylene blue, and tannic acid numbers are convenient indicators of its surface area and pore volume of pore diameters < 10, 10-15, 15-28, and > 28 angstrom, respectively. The phenol number of a carbon is also a good indicator of its surface acidity of oxygen-containing organic functional groups that affect the adsorptive capacity for aromatic and other small polar organics. The tannic acid number is an indicator of carbon's capacity for large, high-molecular-weight natural organic precursors of disinfection by-products in water treatment. The experimental results for removing nitrobenzene, methyl-tert-butyl ether, 4,4-bisphenol, humic acid, and the organic constituents of a biologically treated coking-plant effluent have demonstrated the effectiveness of this capacity-indicator-based method of carbon selection.

  7. annual treatability studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    degradable, providing proper environmental conditions are maintained. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT PAGE The author wishes to express his appreciation of learning from the following...

  8. Californians and Immigration Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    June 2013 Californians and Immigration Reform Alternatives Jack Citrin Morris Levy Gabriel Lenz, include: · Even when alternative reforms are included in the ques- tion, most respondents support some about immigration reform remains a com- plex subject," said IGS Director Jack Citrin, who led the re

  9. Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

    2004-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

  10. AAPT Philadelphia 1/02 Gender, Educational Reform,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    AAPT Philadelphia 1/02 Gender, Educational Reform, and Instructional Assessment: Part I Laura Mc/02 Why study this issue? One goal of PER is to improve physics education for all Current reform effort is strong; reforms serving subpopulations? Is this gender gap showing at the college level in physics? #12

  11. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  12. WHEN DOES FINANCIAL SECTOR (IN)STABILITY INDUCE FINANCIAL REFORMS?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    WHEN DOES FINANCIAL SECTOR (IN)STABILITY INDUCE FINANCIAL REFORMS? Susie LEE Ingmar SCHUMACHER (in)stability induce financial reforms? Susie Lee1 Ingmar Schumacher2 October 26, 2011 Abstract The article studies whether financial sector (in)stability had an effect on reforms in the fi- nancial sector

  13. Study of Methane Reforming in Warm Non-Equilibrium Plasma Discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parimi, Sreekar

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    , temperature and other variables determine efficiency of conversion. An efficient process is identified by a high yield and low specific energy of production for the desired product. A study of previous work reveals that higher energy density systems are more...

  14. Structural Reforms and Agricultural Export Performance: An Empirical Analysis Dwi Susanto, C. Parr Rosson, and Rafael Costa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Structural Reforms and Agricultural Export Performance: An Empirical Analysis By Dwi Susanto, C Reforms and Agricultural Export Performance: An Empirical Analysis Abstract This study empirically investigates the effects of structural reforms on bilateral trade flows of agricultural products. Specifically

  15. Steam reforming analyzed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, E.S. (KTI Corp., San Dimas, CA (US)); Froment, G.F. (Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that maximum steam reformer operation without excessive coking reactions requires careful control of thermodynamic and kinetic conditions. Regardless of the syngas-based feedstock composition, carbon formation problems can be avoided while increasing reformer CO or H{sub 2} production. Steam reforming technology is best understood via: Primary steam reformer developments, Kinetics of methane steam reforming, Simulation of an industrial steam/CO{sub 2} reformer, Example conditions (steam/CO{sub 2} reforming), Thermodynamic approach (minimum to steam ratio). Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. Hydrogen is mainly used in ammonia and methanol synthesis and petroleum refining. Carbon monoxide is used to produce pains, plastics, foams, pesticides and insecticides, to name a few. Production of H{sub 2} and CO is usually carried out by the following processes: Steam reforming (primary and secondary) of hydrocarbons, Partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, Coal gasification. Coal gasification and partial oxidation do not use catalysts and depend on partial combustion of the feedstock to internally supply reaction heat. Secondary (autothermal) reforming is a type of steam reforming that also uses the heat of partial combustion but afterwards uses a catalyst of promote the production of hydrogen and CO.

  16. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittreich, C.D.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-UP-1 Operable Unit interim remedial measure (IRM) proposed plan be developed for use in preparing an interim action record of decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of the testing described in this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-UP-1 Operable Unit activities (e.g., limited field investigation, development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the interim action ROD will specify the interim action for groundwater contamination at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are uranium and technetium-99; the secondary contaminant of concern is nitrate. The pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this test plan has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume.

  17. Immigration reform and California agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Philip

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reform and California agriculture Philip Martin Professor,proposals for California agriculture. Immigration reformCenter. 196 CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE • VOLUME 67 , NUMBER 4

  18. --No Title--

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A mixed waste treatability study will be performed to test the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) technology on SRS Low Activity Waste (LAW) modified to simulate Hanford waste....

  19. CX-004173: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004173: Categorical Exclusion Determination Steam Reforming Treatability Study with Savannah River Site Low Activity Waste (LAW) (Module...

  20. Reforming the Private Insurance Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Reforming the Private Insurance Market: Lessons from California for National Health Reform Janet M and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco ADVANCING NATIONAL HEALTH REFORM POLICY BRIEF Security |Reforming the Private Insurance Market: Lessons from California ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like

  1. Reforming Undergraduate Education at UNLV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Reforming Undergraduate Education at UNLV #12;Reforms Passed by Faculty Senate In 2011 the Faculty Senate Passed Two Reforms: 1. University Undergraduate Learning Outcomes (UULOs) ­ The skills Reform · Improving quality of our undergraduate education · Greater Coherence of Gen Ed and Undergraduate

  2. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  3. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  4. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  5. Natural Gas Reforming | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Production Natural Gas Reforming Natural Gas Reforming Photo of Petroleum Refinery Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon...

  6. 300 Area Treatability Test: Laboratory Development of Polyphosphate Remediation Technology for In Situ Treatment of Uranium Contamination in the Vadose Zone and Capillary Fringe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Oostrom, Martinus; Gunderson, Katie M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Clayton, Eric T.; Parker, Kent E.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Baum, Steven R.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results from bench-scale treatability studies conducted under site-specific conditions to optimize the polyphosphate amendment for implementation of a field-scale technology demonstration to stabilize uranium within the 300 Area vadose and smear zones of the Hanford Site. The general treatability testing approach consisted of conducting studies with site sediment and under site conditions, to develop an effective chemical formulation and infiltration approach for the polyphosphate amendment under site conditions. Laboratory-scale dynamic column tests were used to 1) quantify the retardation of polyphosphate and its degradation products as a function of water content, 2) determine the rate of polyphosphate degradation under unsaturated conditions, 3) develop an understanding of the mechanism of autunite formation via the reaction of solid phase calcite-bound uranium and aqueous polyphosphate remediation technology, 4) develop an understanding of the transformation mechanism, the identity of secondary phases, and the kinetics of the reaction between uranyl-carbonate and -silicate minerals with the polyphosphate remedy under solubility-limiting conditions, and 5) quantify the extent and rate of uranium released and immobilized based on the infiltration rate of the polyphosphate remedy and the effect of and periodic wet-dry cycling on the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation for uranium in the vadose zone and smear zone.

  7. 976 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 4, AUGUST 2006 Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malen, Jonathan A.

    976 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 4, AUGUST 2006 Methanol Steam Reformer of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabri- cated is achieved through on-chip resis- tive heaters, whereby methanol steam reforming reactions were studied over

  8. Experimental and theoretical study of exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by a non-thermal arc discharge for syngas production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -thermal arc discharge for syngas production A. Lebouvier1,2 , F. Fresnet2 , F. Fabry1 , V. Boch2 , V. Rohani1% and a conversion rate of 95% have been reached which correspond to a syngas dry molar fraction of 25%. For the most and promote H2O and CO2 production. Keywords: Plasma reformer, syngas, diesel fuel reforming, NOx trap. 1

  9. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test FY09 Status: High Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test FY09 Status: High Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization INTERIM LETTER REPORT

  10. Compatibility of selected ceramics with steam-methane reformer environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Howell, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Williams, J.J.; Rosenberg, R.A. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional steam reforming of methane to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) hasa conversion efficiency of about 85%. Replacement of metal tubes in the reformer with ceramic tubes offers the potential for operation at temperatures high enough to increase the efficiency to 98-99%. However, the two candidate ceramic materials being given strongest consideration, sintered alpha Si carbide and Si carbide particulate-strengthened alumina, have been shown to react with components of the reformer environment. Extent of degradation as a function of steam partial pressure and exposure time has been studied, and results suggest limits under which these structural ceramics can be used in advanced steam-methane reformers.

  11. FOOD REFORM MOVEMENTS Nicolas Larchet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    FOOD REFORM MOVEMENTS Nicolas Larchet Social historians have broadly defined two cycles of American history characterized by an efflorescence of social movements aiming to reform both the individual to the 1920s. The reform impulse thrived wherever there was a perceived vice, abuse or corruption

  12. Autothermal reforming catalyst and process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setzer, H. J.; Karavolis, S.; Lesieur, R. R.; Wnuck, W. G.

    1984-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    High activity steam reforming catalysts are described particularly adapted for use in autothermal reforming processes. A rhodium catalyst on a calcium oxide impregnated alumina substrate allow the autothermal reforming process to take place with substantially no carbon plugging at oxygen to carbon ratios below what had been considered critical for avoiding carbon plugging of the catalyst in the past.

  13. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R&D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  14. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  15. The effect of reformate gas enrichment on extinction limits and NOX formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    The effect of reformate gas enrichment on extinction limits and NOX formation in counterflow CH4 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ont., Canada M3H 5T6 Abstract The reformate gas enriched counterflow lean premixed CH4/air flames were studied by numerical sim- ulation in this paper. The reformate gas was assumed

  16. Fuel Cell Reformer Emissions TIAX, LLC 1601 S. De Anza Blvd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ethanol Start-up PEMFC Anode Gas Gasoline Start-up PrOx Reformate AGB FeedAGB Feed Power RatingFuel Cell Reformer Emissions TIAX, LLC 1601 S. De Anza Blvd Cupertino, California 95014 TIAX Ref: D;2003 Merit Review_TIAX Reformer Emissions.ppt 1 Introduction Goals and Objectives The purpose of this study

  17. DOES HOSPITAL COMPETITION SAVE LIVES? EVIDENCE FROM THE ENGLISH NHS PATIENT CHOICE REFORMS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Jill M.

    DOES HOSPITAL COMPETITION SAVE LIVES? EVIDENCE FROM THE ENGLISH NHS PATIENT CHOICE REFORMS* Zack Cooper, Stephen Gibbons, Simon Jones and Alistair McGuire Recent substantive reforms to the English with fixed prices. This study investigates whether these reforms led to improvements in hospital quality. We

  18. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  19. Quality and Membrane Treatability of the Lake Houston Water Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chellam, Shankar; Sharma, Ramesh; Shetty, Grishma; Wei, Ying

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the membrane. This behavior will be employed predominantly to study solute rejection by NF membranes in this report. Page 7 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Contamin ant rejection (-) Permeate flux (L/m..., Dionex Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA) comprising of a guard column, analytical column (Dionex AG9-HC), suppressor device, and a conductivity detector (Dionex CD 20). Eluent used was 9.0 mM Na 2 CO 3 . A typical calibration curve obtained for chloride ion...

  20. 300-FF-1 physical separations CERCLA treatability test plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separations soil treatability tests in the north process pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site. The overall objective of these tests is to evaluate the use of physical separations systems as a means of concentrating chemical and radioactive contaminants into fine soil fractions, and thereby minimizing waste volumes. If successful, the technology could be applied to clean up millions of cubic meters of contaminated soils at Hanford and other sites. In this document, physical separations refers to a simple and comparatively low cost technology to potentially achieve a significant reduction in the volume of contaminated soils without the use of chemical processes. Removal of metals and radioactive contaminants from the fine fraction of soils may require additional treatment such as chemical extraction, electromagnetic separation, or stabilization. Investigations/testing of these technologies are recommended to assess the economic and technical feasibility of additional treatment, but are not within the scope of this test. This plan provides guidance and specifications for two proposed treatability tests: one to be conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company; and another proposed as competitive bid service contract. The main body of this test plan discusses the tests in general and items that are common to both tests. Attachment A discusses in detail the EPA system test and Attachment B discusses the vendor test.

  1. Highly Active and Stable MgAl2O4 Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts for Methane Steam Reforming: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Kovarik, Libor; Wan, Haiying; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gerber, Mark A.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of stable MgAl2O4 spinel-supported Rh and Ir catalysts for the steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction. Firstly, catalytic performance for a series of noble metal catalysts supported on MgAl2O4 spinel was evaluated for SMR at 600-850°C. Turnover rate at 850°C follows the order: Pd > Pt > Ir > Rh > Ru > Ni. However, Rh and Ir were found to have the best combination of activity and stability for methane steam reforming in the presence of simulated biomass-derived syngas. It was found that highly dispersed ~2 nm Rh and ~1 nm Ir clusters were formed on the MgAl2O4 spinel support. Scanning Transition Electron Microscopy (STEM) images show that excellent dispersion was maintained even under challenging high temperature conditions (e.g. at 850°C in the presence of steam) while Ir and Rh catalysts supported on Al2O3 were observed to sinter at increased rates under the same conditions. These observations were further confirmed by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations which find that ~1 nm Rh and Ir particles (50-atom cluster) bind strongly to the MgAl2O4 surfaces via a redox process leading to a strong metal-support interaction, thus helping anchor the metal clusters and reduce the tendency to sinter. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that these supported smaller Rh and Ir particles have a lower work function than larger more bulk-like ones, which enables them to activate both water and methane more effectively than larger particles, yet have a minimal influence on the relative stability of coke precursors. In addition, theoretical mechanistic studies were used to probe the relationship between structure and reactivity. Consistent with the experimental observations, our theoretical modeling results also suggest that the small spinel-supported Ir particle catalyst is more active than the counterpart of Rh catalyst for SMR. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. Computing time was granted by a user proposal at the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) located at PNNL. Part of the computational time was provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  2. Faculty perceptions of presidential leadership in urban school reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClendon, Rodney Prescott

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The study examined urban university faculty members’ perceptions of their presidents’ leadership role in urban school reform. The population for this study consisted of faculty members from five urban research universities. All of the universities...

  3. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  4. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  5. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  6. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  7. Catalytic reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

    1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

  8. Treatability Test Report: Characterization of Vadose Zone Carbon Tetrachloride Source Strength Using Tomographic Methods at the 216-Z-9 Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Rohay, Virginia J.; Mackley, Rob D.; Parker, Kyle R.

    2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A treatability test was conducted in 2011 at the 216-Z-9 Trench to evaluate methods for collecting characterization information that supports refined assessment of SVE performance goals based on impact to groundwater. The characterization information can also provide input to operational strategies for continued SVE operation and decisions regarding closure of the SVE system or transition to other remedies, if necessary.

  9. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voecks, Gerald E. (La Crescenta, CA)

    1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  10. AEDP & Healthcare Reform Dipti Patel, FSA, MAAA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Don

    Cigna AEDP & Healthcare Reform Dipti Patel, FSA, MAAA March 19, 2012 #12; Introductions Introducing... Cigna An overview of the AEDP Healthcare Reform Questions and Answers Overview #12 Branding ­ "GO YOU" · Things are changing ­ Health Care Reform · Young, energetic, executive leadership

  11. What's right SHIP & Healthcare Reform Forum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Matthew P.

    &Health Reform What's right for you SHIP & Healthcare Reform Forum: What's Right for You This session will help you: * demystify the healthcare reform changes * explore your options * learn how

  12. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Johnson, Christian D.; Clayton, Ray E.; Chronister, Glen B.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the deep vadose zone treatability test program. Desiccation technology relies on removal of water from a portion of the subsurface such that the resultant low moisture conditions inhibit downward movement of water and dissolved contaminants. Previously, a field test report (Truex et al. 2012a) was prepared describing the active desiccation portion of the test and initial post-desiccation monitoring data. Additional monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and is reported herein along with interpretation with respect to desiccation performance. This is an interim report including about 2 years of post-desiccation monitoring data.

  13. 100-D Area In Situ Redox Treatability Test for Chromate-Contaminated Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Szecsody, James E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2000-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A treatability test was conducted for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology at the 100 D Area of the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The target contaminant was dissolved chromate in groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a permeable subsurface treatment zone to reduce mobile chromate in groundwater to an insoluble form. The ISRM permeable treatment zone is created by reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron within the aquifer sediments, which is accomplished by injecting aqueous sodium dithionite into the aquifer and then withdrawing the reaction products. The goal of the treatability test was to create a linear ISRM barrier by injecting sodium dithionite into five wells. Well installation and site characterization activities began in spring 1997; the first dithionite injection took place in September 1997. The results of this first injection were monitored through the spring of 1998. The remaining four dithionite injections were carried out in May through July of 1998.These five injections created a reduced zone in the Hanford unconfined aquifer approximately 150 feet in length (perpendicular to groundwater flow) and 50 feet wide. The reduced zone extended over the thickness of the unconfined zone. Analysis of post-emplacement groundwater samples showed concentrations of chromate, in the reduced zone decreased from approximately 1.0 mg/L before the tests to below analytical detection limits (<0.007 mg/L). Chromate concentrations also declined in downgradient monitoring wells to as low as 0.020 mg/L. These data, in addition to results from pre-test reducible iron characterization, indicate the barrier should be effective for 20 to 25 years. The 100-D Area ISRM barrier is being expanded to a length of up to 2,300 ft to capture a larger portion of the chromate plume.

  14. ECONOMIC REFORM AND COMMUNIST REGIME SURVIVABILTY: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, John

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    of their respective Politburos and may be described as not only ‘surviving’ but thriving, experiencing economic stability and enjoying high rates of growth. This study examines the ramifications of economic and political reform policies implemented by four collapsed...

  15. Isle of Eigg : land reform, people, and power 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Daniel Rhys

    2000-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An historiographical analysis of the present political debates regarding land reform in Scotland provides the point of departure for a case study of the Isle of Eigg and the 1997 purchase of the island by the Isle ofEigg ...

  16. Understanding Educational Reforms: Physics Education Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Understanding Educational Reforms: Impacts of Physics Education Research Steven Pollock Physics Science Education Scientifically Theoretical frames Student concepts and engagement Curricular reforms

  17. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  18. Catalytic autothermal reforming increases fuel cell flexibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To give a better understanding of autothermal reforming (ATR), a process which offers an advantageous alternative to steam reforming for H/sub 2/ production for fuel cells because of the wider range of fuels which can be converted, the conversion of individual fuel components was studied. Attempts have been made to characterize the chemical reactions of light and heavy paraffins and aromatics in ATR. Results of studies to determine the effects of operating parameters on the carbon-forming tendency of each hydrocarbon type are reported. The catalyst used for the ATR process was three-layers of supported nickel catalysts, Norton NC-100 spheres in the top zone, cylindrical G-56B tablets in the bottom one, and either ICI 46-I or ICI 46-4 Raschig rings in the middle zone. A summary of the experimental studies of the ATR of n-hexane, n-tetradecane, benzene, and benzene solutions of naphthalene is presented. (BLM)

  19. Reforming Local Government in Broome County 1 Center for Local Government College of Community & Public Affairs Binghamton University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    #12;Reforming Local Government in Broome County 1 Center for Local Government ­ College on committee findings and issued recommendations in each area studied. Reforming Local Government in Broome;Reforming Local Government in Broome County 2 Center for Local Government ­ College of Community & Public

  20. The Mathematician and the Mathematics Education Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Hung-Hsi

    The Mathematician and the Mathematics Education Reform H. Wu Department of Mathematics #3840 of [education] reform?" ([EW], p.671) With the current mathematics education reform movement in place for al- most a decade, Moore's words of a century ago become all the more relevant now. The "reform" referred

  1. Multipath Curved Planar Reformation of the Peripheral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multipath Curved Planar Reformation of the Peripheral Arterial Tree in CT Angiography1 Justus that cause artifacts in multipath curved planar reformations (MPCPRs) of the peripheral arterial tree in 10-oblique multiplanar reformations perpendicular to the ves- sel centerline (10), and curved planar reformations

  2. Optimization of Multiplanar Reformations from Isotropic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimization of Multiplanar Reformations from Isotropic Data Sets Acquired with 16­ Detector Row coronal reformations at vari- ous thicknesses were ranked qualitatively by three radiol- ogists. Effective reformations of data acquired in the custom phantom were compared, coronal reformations obtained with the 16

  3. Toward a Reformalization of QSIM Benjamin Shults

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    Toward a Reformalization of QSIM Benjamin Shults Department of Mathematics University of Texas is to reformalize part of the framework of the Guaranteed Coverage Theorem for QSIM. The intention is not to reformalize every detail of the proof but merely to mention some areas whose reformalization lends deeper

  4. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the House Oversight and Government Reform...

  5. Liquid fuel reformer development: Autothermal reforming of Diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, C.; Bae, J-M.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

    2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to clean hydrogen feeds for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The process incorporates an autothermal reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. The authors have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, certified low-sulfur grade 1 diesel, and a standard grade 2 diesel. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 850 C, while maximum hydrogen product yields for the two diesel fuels were near 50%. Residual products in all cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, and methane. Further studies with grade 1 diesel showed improved conversion as the water:fuel ratio was increased from 1 to 2 at 850 C. Soot formation was reduced when the oxygen:carbon ratio was maintained at 1 at 850 C. There were no significant changes in hydrogen yield as the space velocity and the oxygen:fuel ratio were varied. Tests with a microchannel monolithic catalyst yielded similar or improved hydrogen levels at higher space velocities than with extruded pellets in a packed bed.

  6. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump-and-treat testing at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The test will be conducted in fulfillment of interim Milestone M-15-06E to begin pilot-scale pump-and-treat operations by August 1994. The scope of the test was determined based on the results of lab/bench-scale tests (WHC 1993a) conducted in fulfillment of Milestone M-15-06B. These milestones were established per agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and documented on Hanford Federal of Ecology Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form M-15-93-02. This test plan discusses a pilot-scale pump-and-treat test for the chromium plume associated with the D Reactor portion of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. Data will be collected during the pilot test to assess the effectiveness, operating parameters, and resource needs of the ion exchange (IX) pump-and-treat system. The test will provide information to assess the ability to remove contaminants by extracting groundwater from wells and treating extracted groundwater using IX. Bench-scale tests were conducted previously in which chromium VI was identified as the primary contaminant of concern in the 100-D reactor plume. The DOWEX 21K{trademark} resin was recommended for pilot-scale testing of an IX pump-and-treat system. The bench-scale test demonstrated that the system could remove chromium VI from groundwater to concentrations less than 50 ppb. The test also identified process parameters to monitor during pilot-scale testing. Water will be re-injected into the plume using wells outside the zone of influence and upgradient of the extraction well.

  7. The Need for Language Repair The Reformation Algorithm Discussion Reformation: A Domain-Independent Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    St Andrews, University of

    The Need for Language Repair The Reformation Algorithm Discussion Reformation: A Domain of Edinburgh University of St Andrews, 27th November 2013 #12;The Need for Language Repair The Reformation Algorithm Discussion Outline 1 The Need for Language Repair 2 The Reformation Algorithm 3 Discussion #12;The

  8. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  9. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parent, Yves O. (Golden, CO); Magrini, Kim (Golden, CO); Landin, Steven M. (Conifer, CO); Ritland, Marcus A. (Palm Beach Shores, FL)

    2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  10. Social scientists prompt educational reforms 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahriar, Selim

    Social scientists prompt educational reforms 2 Museum exhibit project 3 On the BookShelf 3 of the 1998 national curricula reforms. For Takehiko Kariya, a professor at the University of Tokyo's Graduate School of Education and one of the reforms' most vocal critics, this shift confirmed what his and other

  11. Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    4 Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution Carl Shapiro, University of California major reforms to the patent system designed to spur innovation by better aligning the rewards, and strengthening the procedures by which patents are reexamined after they are issued. Three ad- ditional reforms

  12. Distributional Effects of WTO Agricultural Reforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distributional Effects of WTO Agricultural Reforms in Rich and Poor Countries Roman Keeney Purdue Poverty Decrease (000s) Doha Poverty Decrease (000s) Full Reform #12;Farm Income changes for each scenario of Full Reforms -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 Top 10% Median Bottom 10% Land Wealth Change Farm Net Worth

  13. PER-Based Reform at a Multicultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Richard N.

    PER-Based Reform at a Multicultural Institution Some Lessons from Physics Education Research that the most suc- cessful reform strategies require significant interactions among students, and between students and instructor. It is therefore reasonable to wonder about the extent to which PER-based reform

  14. INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE Prepared For: California Energy REPORT (FAR) INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE CYCLES EISG AWARDEE University://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Integral Catalytic Combustion/Fuel Reforming for Gas Turbine Cycles EISG Grant # 99

  15. Treatability study of industrial waste using sanitary sewage to supply nutrients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, James Ritchie

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    treatment by biological treatment methods. The most effective biological process is the activated sludge process. To treat most petrochemical industrial wastewaters by the activated sludge process requires the addition of the nutrients nitrogen... waste either by chemical or biological methods or a combination of both, depending on the nature of the waste (1, 2, 3, 4, 12, 13, 27). Chemical treatment is very expensive and some wastewaters do not treat biologically without the addition...

  16. Indian agricultural development in the context of economic reforms. Causes of change and issues for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Indian agricultural development in the context of economic reforms. Causes of change and issues the influence of reforms in the 1990s regarding the agricultural development in India. Many studies have sector rather than on the agricultural sector. After India gained independence, the government

  17. Integrated reformer and shift reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Dorson, Matthew H.

    2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer for producing diatomic hydrogen gas is disclosed. The reformer includes a first reaction vessel, a shift reactor vessel annularly disposed about the first reaction vessel, including a first shift reactor zone, and a first helical tube disposed within the first shift reactor zone having an inlet end communicating with a water supply source. The water supply source is preferably adapted to supply liquid-phase water to the first helical tube at flow conditions sufficient to ensure discharge of liquid-phase and steam-phase water from an outlet end of the first helical tube. The reformer may further include a first catalyst bed disposed in the first shift reactor zone, having a low-temperature shift catalyst in contact with the first helical tube. The catalyst bed includes a plurality of coil sections disposed in coaxial relation to other coil sections and to the central longitudinal axis of the reformer, each coil section extending between the first and second ends, and each coil section being in direct fluid communication with at least one other coil section.

  18. The Effect of Reformate on PEM Fuel Cell Performance Mahesh Murthy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Zee, John W.

    ). For the reforming process, a steam reforming of methanol and autothermal reforming of natural gas or gasoline

  19. Activity and structure of perovskites as diesel reforming catalysts for solid oxide fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D.-J.; Krumpelt, M.; Chemical Engineering

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent progress in developing perovskite materials as more cost-effective catalysts in autothermal reforming (ATR) of diesel fuel to hydrogen-rich reformate for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) application is reported. Perovskite-type metal oxides with B sites partially exchanged by ruthenium were prepared and evaluated under ATR reaction conditions. The hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and CO{sub x} selectivity of these catalysts were investigated using diesel surrogate fuel with 50 ppm sulfur. The catalyst performances have approached or exceeded a benchmark, high-cost rhodium-based material. In parallel with the reactivity study, we also investigated the physical properties of B-site doped perovskites and their impact on the reforming performance using various characterization techniques such as BET, X-ray powder diffraction, temperature programmable reduction, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We found that ruthenium is highly dispersed into perovskite lattice and its redox behavior is directly associated with reforming activity.

  20. Gas turbine cycles with solid oxide fuel cells. Part 2: A detailed study of a gas turbine cycle with an integrated internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, S.P.; Richter, H.J. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy conversion efficiency can be improved if immediate contact of air and fuel is prevented. One means to prevent this immediate contact is the use of fuel cell technology. High-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have many features that make them attractive for utility and industrial applications. However, in view of their high operating temperatures and the incomplete nature of the fuel oxidation process, such fuel cells must be combined with conventional power generation technology to develop power plant configurations that are both functional and efficient. Most fuel cell cycles proposed in the literature use a high-temperature fuel cell running at ambient pressure and a steam bottoming cycle to recover the waste heat generated by the fuel cell. With such cycles, the inherent flexibility and shorter start-up time characteristics of the fuel cell are lost. In Part 1 of this paper, a pressurized cycle using a solid oxide fuel cell and an integrated gas turbine bottoming cycle was presented. The cycle is simpler than most cycles with steam bottoming cycles and more suited to flexible power generation. In this paper, the authors will discuss this cycle in more detail, with an in-depth discussion of all cycle component characteristics and losses. In particular, they will make use of the fuel cell's internal fuel reforming capability. The optimal cycle parameters were obtained based on calculations performed using Aspen Technology's ASPEN PLUS process simulation software and a fuel cell simulator developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The efficiency of the proposed cycle is 68.1%. A preliminary economic assessment of the cycle shows that it should compare favorable with a state-of-the-art combined cycle plant on a cost per MWe basis.

  1. Plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartvigsen, Joseph J.; Elangovan, S.; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A reformer is disclosed that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding method and system are also disclosed and claimed herein.

  2. Steam reforming utilizing high activity catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setzer, H. J.

    1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    High activity, sulfur tolerant steam reforming catalysts are described comprising rhodium or nickel supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. The catalysts have improved activity over conventionally used catalysts in the presence of sulfur containing hydrocarbon fuel (such as No. 2 fuel oil) in a steam reforming environment. The material has particular utility in autothermal, tubular, cyclic and adiabatic steam reforming processes.

  3. 100-D Area In Situ Redox Treatability Test for Chromate-Contaminated Groundwater: FY 1998 Year-End Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.D.; Vermeul, V.R.; Szecsody, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A treatability test was conducted for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology at the US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington 100D Area. The target contaminant was dissolved chromate [Cr(VI)] in groundwater. The ISRM technology involves creating a permeable subsurface treatment zone to reduce mobile chromate in groundwater to an insoluble form. The ISRM permeable treatment zone is created by reducing ferric iron [Fe(III)] to ferrous iron [Fe(II)] within the aquifer sediments. This is accomplished by injecting aqueous sodium dithionite into the aquifer and withdrawing the reaction products. The goal of the treatability test was to create a linear ISRM barrier by injecting sodium dithionite into five wells. Well installation and site characterization activities began in the spring of 1997. The first dithionite injection took place in September 1997. The results of this first injection were monitored through the spring of 1998; the remaining four dithionite injections were carried out in May through July of 1998. These five injections created a reduced zone in the Hanford unconfined aquifer 150 feet in length (perpendicular to groundwater flow) by 50 feet wide. The reduced zone extended over the thickness of the unconfined zone, which is approximately 15 feet. Analysis of recent groundwater sampling events shows that the concentrations of chromate [Cr(VI)] in groundwater in the reduced zone have been decreased from starting concentrations of approximately 900 ppb to below analytical detection limits (<7 ppb). Chromate concentrations are also declining in some downgradient monitoring wells. Laboratory analysis of iron in the soil indicates that the barrier should remain in place for approximately 20 to 25 years. These measurements will be confirmed by analysis of sediment cores in FY 1999.

  4. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications* L. Bromberg MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Cambridge MA 02139 * Work supported by US...

  5. Hydrogen from Biomass by Autothermal Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Lanny D. Schmidt at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  6. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, R. J.; Czernik, S.; French, R.; Ratcliff, M.; Marda, J.; Dean, A. M.

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation by Bob Evans at the 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review Meeting provides information about NREL's distributed bio-oil reforming efforts.

  7. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment Onboard Plasmatron Generation of Hydrogen rich Gas for...

  8. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  9. Lessons Learned from Prior Attempts at National Security Reform The Project on National Security Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    Lessons Learned from Prior Attempts at National Security Reform The Project on National Security Reform Overarching Issues Working Group Drew Cramer & Grant Mullins Thomas Jefferson Program in Public battles that ensue when attempting to change the national security apparatus can hinder effective reform

  10. Inquiry-Based Learning: An Educational Reform Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLoughlin, Padraig

    -Based Learning: An Educational Reform Based Upon Content-Centred Teaching. 1046-Centred Educational Reform 3 III Inquiry-Based Learning Pedagogy is Content 27 #12; ii Abstract Inquiry-Based Learning: An Educational Reform

  11. A Reformed Mathematics Education at Chalmers Stig Larsson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larsson, Stig

    A Reformed Mathematics Education at Chalmers Stig to reform to effectively use t* *he new tools offered by computers. We present a program for a reformed engineering mathematics * *education. The full program covering the basic mathematics

  12. Apparatus for production of synthesis gas using convective reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karafian, M.; Tsang, I.C.

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a system for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons into a hydrogen-rich gas. It comprises a convective reformer device having indirect heat exchange means for partially reforming a feed mixture of hydrocarbons and steam; a steam reforming furnace having a radiant section, reforming tubes in the radiant section, and means for producing radiant heat for the further reforming of the partially reformed effluent; an auto-thermal reformer for fully reforming the effluent; conduit means for passing the partially reformed effluent; conduit means for passing the effluent; and conduit means for passing the fully reformed effluent to supply the heat of reaction for the partial reformation of the hydrocarbon-steam feed mixture.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  14. National Welfare State Reforms and the Question of Europeanization: From Impact to Usages 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacquot, Sophie

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the literature concerned with the interaction between the European Union and national welfare state reforms. Its interest lies in the studies that have been proposed of the interplay between the European Union and national policy...

  15. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter, concentrating solar dish was modified to accommodate the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer and the integrated system was installed at the Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals test site at McClellan, CA. Several test runs were conducted without catalyst during which the ceramic heat exchanger in the Sunexus Solar Reformer reached temperatures between 1,050 F (566 C) and 2,200 F (1,204 C) during the test period. A dry reforming mixture of CO2/CH{sub 4} (2.0/1.0 molar ratio) was chosen for all of the tests on the integrated solar dish/catalytic reformer during December 2010. Initial tests were carried out to determine heat transfer from the collimated solar beam to the catalytic reactor. The catalyst was operated successfully at a steady-state temperature of 1,125 F (607 C), which was sufficient to convert 35% of the 2/1 CO2/CH{sub 4} mixture to syngas. This conversion efficiency confirmed the results from laboratory testing of this catalyst which provided comparable syngas production efficiencies (40% at 1,200 F [650 C]) with a resulting syngas composition of 20% CO, 16% H{sub 2}, 39% CO2 and 25% CH{sub 4}. As based upon the laboratory results, it is predicted that 90% of the CO2 will be converted to syngas in the solar reformer at 1,440 F (782 C) resulting in a syngas composition of 50% CO: 43% H{sub 2}: 7% CO2: 0% CH{sub 4}. Laboratory tests show that the higher catalyst operating temperature of 1,440 F (782 C) for efficient conversion of CO2 can certainly be achieved by optimizing solar reactor heat transfer, which would result in the projected 90% CO2-to-syngas conversion efficiencies. Further testing will be carried out during 2011, through other funding support, to further optimize the solar dish CO2 reformer. Additional studies carried out in support of this project and described in this report include: (1) An Assessment of Potential Contaminants in Captured CO2 from Various Industrial Processes and Their Possible Effect on Sunexus CO2 Reforming Catalysts; (2) Recommended Measurement Methods for Assessing Contaminant Levels in Captured CO2 Streams; (3) An Asse

  16. Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements...

  17. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility Technical paper...

  18. STEM education reform A public research university imperative!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sin, Peter

    STEM education reform A public research university imperative! University of Florida A significant education reform initiative for introductory courses. Will these -- and a growing number of other national

  19. Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration...

  20. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reforming, Darlene Steward, National Renewable Energy Laboratory High-Pressure Steam Ethanol Reforming, Romesh Kumar, Argonne National Laboratory Investigation of Bio-Ethanol...

  1. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  2. Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on the Interior Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on the Interior Testimony of John Kotek,...

  3. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommenda...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy:...

  4. Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public Administration Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public...

  5. Diesel Reforming for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, R.; Parkinson, W. J.; Inbody, M.; Brosha, E.L.; Guidry, D.R.

    2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This objective of this project was to develop technology suitable for onboard reforming of diesel. The approach was to examine catalytic partial oxidation and steam reforming.

  6. Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment 2003 DEER...

  7. Comparative Investigation of Benzene Steam Reforming over Spinel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigation of Benzene Steam Reforming over Spinel Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts. Comparative Investigation of Benzene Steam Reforming over Spinel Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts....

  8. Enabling Informed Adaptation of Reformed Instructional Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elby, Andy

    Enabling Informed Adaptation of Reformed Instructional Materials Rachel E. Scherr and Andrew Elby 20742 USA Abstract. Instructors inevitably need to adapt even the best reform materials to suit instructors, and video clips of students working on the materials. Our materials thus facilitate their own

  9. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  10. Evaluation of Partial Oxidation Reformer Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unnasch, Stefan; Fable, Scott; Waterland, Larry

    2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a gasoline fuel processor and an ethanol fuel processor were operated under conditions simulating both startup and normal operation. Emissions were measured before and after the AGB in order to quantify the effectiveness of the burner catalyst in controlling emissions. The emissions sampling system includes CEM for O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and THC. Also, integrated gas samples are collected in evacuated canisters for hydrocarbon speciation analysis via GC. This analysis yields the concentrations of the hydrocarbon species required for the California NMOG calculation. The PM concentration in the anode burner exhaust was measured through the placement of a filter in the exhaust stream. The emissions from vehicles with fully developed on board reformer systems were estimated.

  11. Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Chemistry in Low-Oxygen Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Steeper, Richard R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)] [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalaskar, Vickey B [ORNL] [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and other forms of advanced combustion. When fuel is injected into O2-deficient NVO conditions, a portion of the fuel can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO. Additionally, other short chain hydrocarbons are produced by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions. The present study experimentally investigates the fuel reforming chemistry that occurs during NVO. To this end, two very different experimental facilities are utilized and their results are compared. One facility is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which uses a custom research engine cycle developed to isolate the NVO event from main combustion, allowing a steady stream of NVO reformate to be exhausted from the engine and chemically analyzed. The other experimental facility, located at Sandia National Laboratories, uses a dump valve to capture the exhaust from a single NVO event for analysis. Results from the two experiments are in excellent trend-wise agreement and indicate that the reforming process under low-O2 conditions produces substantial concentrations of H2, CO, methane, and other short-chain hydrocarbon species. The concentration of these species is found to be strongly dependent on fuel injection timing and injected fuel type, with weaker dependencies on NVO duration and initial temperature, indicating that NVO reforming is kinetically slow. Further, NVO reforming does not require a large energy input from the engine, meaning that it is not thermodynamically expensive. The implications of these results on HCCI and other forms of combustion are discussed in detail.

  12. A review of "Reformation and Religious Identity in Cambridge, 1590-1644" by David Hoyle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory, Brad S.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    history of the Dutch and their struggle for independence. David Hoyle. Reformation and Religious Identity in Cambridge, 1590-1644. The History of the University of Cambridge: Texts and Studies, 6. Woodbridge: Boydell Press and Cambridge University... a deeply anti-Roman ?prevailing consensus? (69) among Reformed Protestant theologians of various stripes from the 1590s through the 1610s, centered around concerns such as predestination, election, assurance, and perseverance. Theologians...

  13. Steam Reforming on Transition-metal Carbides from Density-functional Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A screening study of the steam reforming reaction on clean and oxygen covered early transition-metal carbides surfaces is performed by means of density-functional theory calculations. It is found that carbides provide a wide spectrum of reactivities, from too reactive via suitable to too inert. Several molybdenum-based systems are identified as possible steam reforming catalysts. The findings suggest that carbides provide a playground for reactivity tuning, comparable to the one for pure metals.

  14. HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM PLASMATRON REFORMERS: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX ADSORBER REGENERATION AND OTHER AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bromberg, L.; Crane, S; Rabinovich, A.; Kong, Y; Cohn, D; Heywood, J; Alexeev, N.; Samokhin, A.

    2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasmatron reformers are being developed at MIT and ArvinMeritor [1]. In these reformers a special low power electrical discharge is used to promote partial oxidation conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen and CO. The partial oxidation reaction of this very fuel rich mixture is difficult to initiate. The plasmatron provides continuous enhanced volume initiation. To minimize electrode erosion and electrical power requirements, a low current, high voltage discharge with wide area electrodes is used. The reformers operate at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Plasmatron reformers provide the advantages of rapid startup and transient response; efficient conversion of the fuel to hydrogen rich gas; compact size; relaxation or elimination of reformer catalyst requirements; and capability to process difficult to reform fuels, such as diesel and bio-oils. These advantages facilitate use of onboard hydrogen-generation technology for diesel exhaust after-treatment. Plasma-enhanced reformer technology can provide substantial conversion even without the use of a catalyst. Recent progress includes a substantial decrease in electrical power consumption (to about 200 W), increased flow rate (above 1 g/s of diesel fuel corresponding to approximately 40 kW of chemical energy), soot suppression and improvements in other operational features.. Plasmatron reformer technology has been evaluated for regeneration of NOx adsorber after-treatment systems. At ArvinMeritor tests were performed on a dual-leg NOx adsorber system using a Cummins 8.3L diesel engine both in a test cell and on a vehicle. A NOx adsorber system was tested using the plasmatron reformer as a regenerator and without the reformer i.e., with straight diesel fuel based regeneration as the baseline case. The plasmatron reformer was shown to improve NOx regeneration significantly compared to the baseline diesel case. The net result of these initial tests was a significant decrease in fuel penalty, roughly 50% at moderate adsorber temperatures. This fuel penalty improvement is accompanied by a dramatic drop in slipped hydrocarbon emissions, which decreased by 90% or more. Significant advantages are demonstrated across a wide range of engine conditions and temperatures. The study also indicated the potential to regenerate NOx adsorbers at low temperatures where diesel fuel based regeneration is not effective, such as those typical of idle conditions. Two vehicles, a bus and a light duty truck, have been equipped for plasmatron reformer NOx adsorber regeneration tests.

  15. Integrated hydrocarbon reforming system and controls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Thijssen, Johannes; Davis, Robert; Papile, Christopher; Rumsey, Jennifer W.; Longo, Nathan; Cross, III, James C.; Rizzo, Vincent; Kleeburg, Gunther; Rindone, Michael; Block, Stephen G.; Sun, Maria; Morriseau, Brian D.; Hagan, Mark R.; Bowers, Brian

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrocarbon reformer system including a first reactor configured to generate hydrogen-rich reformate by carrying out at least one of a non-catalytic thermal partial oxidation, a catalytic partial oxidation, a steam reforming, and any combinations thereof, a second reactor in fluid communication with the first reactor to receive the hydrogen-rich reformate, and having a catalyst for promoting a water gas shift reaction in the hydrogen-rich reformate, and a heat exchanger having a first mass of two-phase water therein and configured to exchange heat between the two-phase water and the hydrogen-rich reformate in the second reactor, the heat exchanger being in fluid communication with the first reactor so as to supply steam to the first reactor as a reactant is disclosed. The disclosed reformer includes an auxiliary reactor configured to generate heated water/steam and being in fluid communication with the heat exchanger of the second reactor to supply the heated water/steam to the heat exchanger.

  16. AN UPDATE ON REFORM IN EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN UPDATE ON REFORM IN EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA Jeffrey Sachs ABSTRACT: The paper reviews the experience of Poland and Russia with economic reform, with occasional comparison to China's experience. The author argues that macroeconomic chaos in Poland and Russia preceded reform and was allayed by reform

  17. Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal J.H. Williams, R. Ghanadan-oriented reforms in their electric power sectors. Despite the widespread adoption of a standard policy model features of non-OECD electricity reform and reappraises reform policies and underlying assumptions

  18. September 25, 2013 AFSCME Continues to Object to Pension Reform;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    September 25, 2013 AFSCME Continues to Object to Pension Reform; UC Implements Latest Bargaining working conditions and reasonable pension reform. However, AFSCME has rejected UC's proposals. From the start, AFSCME leadership has objected to UC's responsible pension reform -- the kind of reform that

  19. REFORM, LOBBIES AND WELFARE: A COMMON AGENCY APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    REFORM, LOBBIES AND WELFARE: A COMMON AGENCY APPROACH Cecilia TESTA London School of Economics are a reform and a compensating taxation. The main feature of the reform is that it creates gainers and losers on tax parameters. keywords: reform, lobbying, redistribution, economic welfare. 1 #12;Introduction

  20. Autothermal Cyclic Reforming Based H2 Generating & Dispensing System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pressure Reforming Comp- ressor 100 psig 100 psig Reformer H2 PSA SyngasNatural Gas Low Pressure Reforming CMP Syngas 5 psig5 psig Reformer CMP 100 psig H2 PSA Natural Gas Syngas CMP HX CMP HX Thermal Reliability (Eliminates Syngas Compressor) Advantages 70-80%70-80%Thermal Efficiency (Excludes Electricity

  1. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farooque, Mohammad (Huntington, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT); Allen, Jeffrey P. (Naugatuck, CT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  2. Steam reforming utilizing iron oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setzer, H. T.; Bett, J. A. S.

    1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    High activity steam reforming iron oxide catalysts are described. Such catalysts can be unsupported utilizing at least 90% by weight iron oxide and various modifiers (Ai/sub 2/O/sub 3/, K/sub 2/O, CaO, SiO/sub 2/) or unmodified and supported on such things as alumina, CaO impregnated alumina, and lanthanum stabilized alumina. When used in steam reformers such as autothermal and tubular steam reformers, these catalysts demonstrate much improved resistance to carbon plugging.

  3. Navigating the tension between the master narrative of the academy and the counter-narrative of reform: personal case studies from within an engineering education coalition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merton, Prudence

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This qualitative study inquired into the personal experience of three engineering professors and one associate dean who participated in an engineering education coalitionÂ?the Foundation CoalitionÂ?a National Science ...

  4. 082714-416430-Water-Resources-Reform Page 1 of 12 Water Resources Reform and Development Act of 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    082714-416430-Water-Resources-Reform Page 1 of 12 Water Resources Reform and Development Act to the Water Resources Reform and Development Act 2014 Listening Session. My name is Jan Rasgus. I'm a senior of you know, President Obama signed the Water Resources Reform and Development Act, WRRDA, of 2014

  5. Copyright Law Reform: Some Achievable Goals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacQueen, Hector L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Copyright law reform in the European Union. The chapter discusses possible actions in light of new and amended EU Directives and whether these balances rights' holders and users' interests....

  6. Electricity reform abroad and US investment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Device for cooling and humidifying reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jian Lian (Belmont, MA); Northrop, William F. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Devices for cooling and humidifying a reformate stream from a reforming reactor as well as related methods, modules and systems includes a heat exchanger and a sprayer. The heat exchanger has an inlet, an outlet, and a conduit between the inlet and the outlet. The heat exchanger is adapted to allow a flow of a first fluid (e.g. water) inside the conduit and to establish a heat exchange relationship between the first fluid and a second fluid (e.g. reformate from a reforming reactor) flowing outside the conduit. The sprayer is coupled to the outlet of the heat exchanger for spraying the first fluid exiting the heat exchanger into the second fluid.

  8. Electrical Generation Tax Reform Act (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act reforms taxes paid by electricity generators to reduce tax rates and imposes replacement taxes in response to the 1997 restructuring of the Montana electric utility industry that allows...

  9. Recipe for Reform: The Food Economy Movement in Britain During the First World War

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckley, Michael Dennis

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    series. However, one food reformer had not plagiarized fromBefore the war, food reformers addressed endemic hungerback on the prewar reformers' program of "food economy."

  10. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  11. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, Ralph E. (Finleyville, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  12. Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Industrial Technologies Div.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product.

  13. Perspective: The road to reform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, J.B. (J. Makowski Associates Inc., Boston, MA (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid transformation underway in the utility industry provides ample evidence that the reality of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 is sinking in. This law reflected Congress's conclusion that competition in wholesale power generation-at the plant busbar-is a demonstrable reality. It expressed the vision of a fully competitive wholesale generation market, with suppliers linked to markets through a grid that would provide service on a nondiscriminatory basis. But will consumers reap the full benefits of effective competition at the wholesale generation level Or will more disorderly forms of competition emerge, reflecting a hybrid of deregulation and old-fashioned monopoly tactics Along the latter course we run the risk of cost shifts among customer classes, customer defections, diminished utility cooperation, and higher overall costs to society. In short, the vision of a competitive market in wholesale generation will not come about without thoughtful efforts at defining the relevant market, as well as careful attention to the management of a difficult transition away from outmodes mindsets and regulatory models. As a national trade association representing independent power producers (IPPs) and suppliers of goods and services to the competitive wholesale electric generation industry, the Electric Generation Association (EGA) believes that constructive dialogue will yield the best approach to managing this difficult process of transition. In that spirit, the EGA Emerging Operational Issues Committee recently released a while paper, [open quotes]Electrifying Change: Strategies for Structural Reform in the Electric Industry,[close quotes] which forms the basis for this article.

  14. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  15. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Christian D.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Chronister, Glen B.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over decades of operation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have released nearly 2 trillion L (450 billion gal.) of liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Much of this discharge of liquid waste into the vadose zone occurred in the Central Plateau, a 200 km2 (75 mi2) area that includes approximately 800 waste sites. Some of the inorganic and radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site are at depths below the limit of direct exposure pathways, but may need to be remediated to protect groundwater. The Tri-Party Agencies (DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology) established Milestone M 015 50, which directed DOE to submit a treatability test plan for remediation of technetium-99 (Tc-99) and uranium in the deep vadose zone. These contaminants are mobile in the subsurface environment and have been detected at high concentrations deep in the vadose zone, and at some locations have reached groundwater. Testing technologies for remediating Tc-99 and uranium will also provide information relevant for remediating other contaminants in the vadose zone. A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the DOE test plan published in March 2008 to meet Milestone M 015 50. The active desiccation portion of the test has been completed. Monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and are reported herein. This is an interim data summary report that includes about 3 years of post-desiccation monitoring data. The DOE field test plan proscribes a total of 5 years of post-desiccation monitoring.

  16. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  17. Low Cost Autothermal Diesel Reforming Catalyst Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shihadeh, J.; Liu, D.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic autothermal reforming (ATR) represents an important step of converting fossil fuel to hydrogen rich reformate for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The state-of-the-art reforming catalyst, at present, is a Rh based material which is effective but costly. The objective of our current research is to reduce the catalyst cost by finding an efficient ATR catalyst containing no rhodium. A group of perovskite based catalysts have been synthesized and evaluated under the reforming condition of a diesel surrogate fuel. Hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and conversion selectivity to carbon oxides of the catalyst ATR reaction are calculated and compared with the benchmark Rh based material. Several catalyst synthesis improvements were carried out including: 1) selectively doping metals on the A-site and B-site of the perovskite structure, 2) changing the support from perovskite to alumina, 3) altering the method of metal addition, and 4) using transition metals instead of noble metals. It was found that the catalytic activity changed little with modification of the A-site metal, while it displayed considerable dependence on the B-site metal. Perovskite supports performed much better than alumina based supports.

  18. Effects of the Third Reform Act and the Irish Home Rule Debate on Edinburgh politics, 1885-6 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael Kyle

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is a study of the effects of the Third Reform Act and Irish Home Rule on the politics of late-Victorian Edinburgh focussing on the general elections of 1885 and 1886. Although the impact on British politics ...

  19. INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: · Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform

  20. Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells Presented at the DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop on...

  1. Electricity reform in Chile : lessons for developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollitt, Michael G.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chile was the first country in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries only Argentina has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. ...

  2. MORE HEALTH CARE REFORM By Victor R. Fuchs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zalta, Edward N.

    MORE HEALTH CARE REFORM By Victor R. Fuchs #12;2 | MORE HEALTH CARE REFORM The Robert Wood Johnson?................................................................................... 8 Government Payment for Health Care -- Causes and Consequences....................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Health Care Is Different -- That's Why Expenditures Matter

  3. How Did Health Care Reform in Massachusetts Impact Insurance Premiums?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, John A.

    It is widely recognized that the 2006 Massachusetts health reforms served as a blueprint for national reform under the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA). As such, there is interest in using the Massachusetts experience to ...

  4. adiabatic reformer processes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CELL of consequences, the most important of which are the possibility to partially reform the raw fuel in the fuel cell and energy balance, different types of fuel reforming...

  5. Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skala, Glenn William (Churchville, NY); Hart-Predmore, David James (Rochester, NY); Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

  6. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  7. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  8. Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ethanol Reforming Options Gas Phase Liquid Phase Virent Steam Partial Oxidation Reforming GE (SCPO) decomposition C2H5OH Æ CH4 + CO + H2 steam reforming CH4 + 2H2O Æ 4H2 + CO2 3) C2H5OH dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde (C2H4O) dehydrogenation C2H5OH Æ C2H4O + H2 decarbonylation C2H4O Æ CH4 + CO steam reforming CH4

  9. Diesel reforming for SOFC auxiliary power units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),; Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Tafoya, J. I. (Jose I.); Guidry, D. R. (Dennis Ray)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to provide auxiliary power for heavy duty trucks can increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions by reducing engine idling time. The logical fuel of choice for a truck SOFC APU is diesel fuel, as diesel is the fuel of choice for these vehicles. SOFC's that directly oxidize hydrocarbon fuels have lower power densities than do SOFC's that operate from hydrocarbon reformate, and since the SOFC is a costly component, maximizing the fuel cell power density provides benefits in reducing the overall APU system cost. Thus current SOFC APU systems require the reformation of higher hydrocarbons for the most efficient and cost effect fuel cell system. The objective of this research is to develop the technology to enable diesel reforming for SOFC truck APU applications. Diesel fuel can be reformed into a H{sub 2} and CO-rich fuel feed stream for a SOFC by autothermal reforming (ATR), a combination of catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx), and steam reforming (SR). The typical autothermal reformer is an adiabatic, heterogeneous catalytic reactor and the challenges in its design, operation and durability on diesel fuel are manifold. These challenges begin with the vaporization and mixing of diesel fuel with air and steam where fuel pyrolysis can occur and improper mixing leads to hot and cold spots, which contribute to carbon formation and incomplete fuel conversion. The exotherm of the partial oxidation reaction can generate temperatures in excess of 800 C, a temperature at which catalysts rapidly sinter, thus reducing their lifetime. The temperature rise can be reduced by the steam reforming endotherm, but this requires the addition of water along with proper design to balance the kinetic rates. Carbon formation during operation and startup can lead to catalyst deactivation and fouling of downstream components, thus reducing durability of the fuel processor. Water addition helps to reduce carbon formation, but a key issue is the source of the water onboard a vehicle. Additionally, changes in diesel fuel composition, such as seasonal changes affect the reactor operation and design considerations. Our research addresses these issues through an experimental and modeling examination of the fundamentals of these processes.

  10. APPROACHING THE LIMIT: EARLY NATIONAL LESSONS FROM WELFARE REFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    APPROACHING THE LIMIT: EARLY NATIONAL LESSONS FROM WELFARE REFORM Sheldon Danziger University of Welfare Reform. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2001. Sheldon Danziger is Henry J, and Bruce Weber, helpful comments on a previous draft. #12;2 Welfare reform has been one of the most

  11. REFORM OF EUROPEAN MERGER POLICY Bruce R Lyons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    REFORM OF EUROPEAN MERGER POLICY by Bruce R Lyons CCR Working Paper CCR 03-5 Abstract This article highlights the main drivers for merger policy reform in the EU, including the consequences of the recent appeal court reverses. It discusses some of the substantive and procedural issues that the reform package

  12. DFMA Cost Estimates of Fuel-Cell/Reformer Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page 1 DFMA Cost Estimates of Fuel-Cell/Reformer Systems at Low/Medium/High Production Rates Brian estimates of complete fuel cell- reformer systems at low/medium/high manufacturing rates to assess of Boothroyd Dewhurst Inc. #12;Page 4 Scope of Project Reformer System Fuel Cell System Fuel Storage What

  13. Tax Reform in the 21st Alan J. Auerbach*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Tax Reform in the 21st Century Alan J. Auerbach* University of California, Berkeley, and NBER May 6 for a conference, "Is it Time for Fundamental Tax Reform?" held at the James A. Baker III Institute at Rice a major reform to make its tax system simpler, fairer and more efficient? In addressing this question, I

  14. The Future of Democracy in Europe Trends, Analyses and Reforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franz, Sven Oliver

    1 The Future of Democracy in Europe Trends, Analyses and Reforms A Green Paper for the Council-level accountability Mechanisms for direct citizen consultation Part III. Recommendations for reform Introduction Guidelines Our "wish list" of recommended reforms 1. Universal citizenship 2. Discretionary voting 3

  15. SANITARY REFORM The Montreal Witness, April 27, 1859

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genest, Christian

    SANITARY REFORM The Montreal Witness, April 27, 1859 A lecture was delivered on this singularly was thoroughly acquainted with his sub- ject, having been for a number of years actively engaged in this reform in England, part of the time as Secretary of an eminent sanitary reformer, and his facts and figures were

  16. ISSN 1745-9648 The Impact of Electricity Market Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 The Impact of Electricity Market Reform on Consumers by Catherine Waddams Price ESRC market reform on residential consumers, using a sequence of hypothetical scenarios which are likely to be prompted by reform. These include raising tariffs to cost-reflective levels and introducing a standing

  17. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer Tore Lid Statoil Mongstad-mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high-octane components for use in high-performance gasoline fuels. The reformer also has a important function

  18. A Reformed Mathematics Education at Chalmers Stig Larsson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larsson, Stig

    A Reformed Mathematics Education at Chalmers Stig Larsson Department of Mathematics Chalmers@math.chalmers.se Kvalitetskonferensen, Norrk¨oping, September 25­27, 2001 Abstract Engineering education faces the challenge to reform to effectively use the new tools offered by computers. We present a program for a reformed engineering

  19. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer Tore Lid Statoil Mongstad-mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high-octane components for use in high-performance gasoline fuels. The reformer also has an important function

  20. Land Reform and Exclusion of Poor Jagat Basnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    141 CHAPTER 6 Land Reform and Exclusion of Poor People Jagat Basnet 6.1 Land Questions Firstly, by land reform, it is widely understood to be a process of confiscating someone's land and award Planning Commission (NPC). Land reform is an important factor for improving the economic status

  1. health reform mattersTM alert ATTORNEY ADVERTISINGropesgray.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    health reform mattersTM alert ATTORNEY ADVERTISINGropesgray.com On March 23, President Obama signed is tracking the myriad other developments of the new health reform law. You can find a wide range of related material, including enacting language, implementing documents, and analysis through the Health Reform

  2. Preliminary and incomplete A Modest Proposal for International Monetary Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grishok, Alla

    Preliminary and incomplete A Modest Proposal for International Monetary Reform International Columbia University #12;- 1 - - 1 - #12;- 2 - A Modest Proposal for International Monetary Reform Bruce are fundamental aspects of the present system and that, without reform, they will continue to plague the global

  3. SECTORAL EFFECTS OF TAX REFORMS IN AN OPEN ECONOMY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    SECTORAL EFFECTS OF TAX REFORMS IN AN OPEN ECONOMY Olivier CARDI Romain RESTOUT December, 2010 REFORMS IN AN OPEN ECONOMY Olivier CARDI Universit´e Panth´eon-Assas ERMES Ecole Polytechnique Romain with traded and non traded goods to in- vestigate the sectoral effects of three tax reforms: i) two revenue

  4. the triple aim MEETING THE GOAL OF HEALTH REFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    the triple aim MEETING THE GOAL OF HEALTH REFORM Produced by OHSU Strategic Communications -- emphasizing shared decision-making and coordination between providers -- could influence reform in a big way care. health reform is about getting better health outcomes for our communities, improving access

  5. Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Ofqual: A level Reform Consultation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Ofqual: A level Reform Consultation September 2012 1 Ofqual: A Level Reform Consultation Response by the Wellcome Trust September 2012 Key Points National Subject to university. We are therefore pleased to respond to this consultation on reforming A levels. Our comments

  6. School Finance Reform: Do Equalized Expenditures Imply Equalized Teacher Salaries?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streams, Meg; Butler, J.S.; Cowen, Joshua; Fowles, Jacob; Toma, Eugenia T.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . It has experienced long-standing 510 Streams, Butler, Cowen, Fowles, and Toma Table 1. Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics of Kentucky and Selected States KY NY FL NC Population, 2007 4,241,474 19,297,729 18,251,243 9,061,032 Bachelor’s degree... employing large- scale administrative data. For this reason, Kentucky’s ex- perience of major school finance and curricular reform is highly salient for understanding teacher labor market dynamics. This study examines the time path of teacher salaries...

  7. Land reform, regional planning and socioeconomic development in Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Souza, Saulo

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    baseline study of PCT settings 96 4.1 Introduction 96 4.2 Access to land under the Land Bill Programme 99 4.3 Agriculture and livestock production on PCT settlements 111 4.4 The standard of living of PCT beneficiaries 119 4.5 The surveyed sites vis... of governance for plan-led land reform 145 Figure 5.3: An illustrative diagram for the regional planning cycle 180 10 ABBREVIATIONS CONTAG National Confederation of Agricultural Workers FUNDEB Basic Education Fund HDI...

  8. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), which represents a national effort to develop and coordinate treatment solutions for mixed waste among all DOE facilities. The hazardous waste component of mixed waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), while the radioactive component is regulated under the Atomic Energy Act, as implemented by the DOE, making mixed waste one of the most complex types of waste for the DOE to manage. The MWFA has the mission to support technologies that meet the needs of the DOE`s waste management efforts to characterize, treat, and dispose of mixed waste being generated and stored throughout the DOE complex. The technologies to be supported must meet all regulatory requirements, provide cost and risk improvements over available technologies, and be acceptable to the public. The most notable features of the DOE`s mixed-waste streams are the wide diversity of waste matrices, volumes, radioactivity levels, and RCRA-regulated hazardous contaminants. Table 1-1 is constructed from data from the proposed site treatment plans developed by each DOE site and submitted to DOE Headquarters. The table shows the number of mixed-waste streams and their corresponding volumes. This table illustrates that the DOE has a relatively small number of large-volume mixed-waste streams and a large number of small-volume mixed-waste streams. There are 1,033 mixed-waste streams with volumes less than 1 cubic meter; 1,112 mixed-waste streams with volumes between 1 and 1,000 cubic meters; and only 61 mixed-waste streams with volumes exceeding 1,000 cubic meters.

  9. In Njeri Wamukonya, ed., Electricity Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    electricity consumption in industrial countries has caused major air pollution problems. In fact, power plants maintain that governing the electricity industry according to market dynamics, rather than socioIn Njeri Wamukonya, ed., Electricity Reform: Social and Environmental Challenges Roskilde, Denmark

  10. Alternative technologies to steam-methane reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tindall, B.M.; Crews, M.A. [Howe-Baker Engineers, Inc., Tyler, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam-methane reforming (SMR) has been the conventional route for hydrogen and carbon monoxide production from natural gas feedstocks. However, several alternative technologies are currently finding favor for an increasing number of applications. The competing technologies include: steam-methane reforming combined with oxygen secondary reforming (SMR/O2R); autothermal reforming (ATR); thermal partial oxidation (POX). Each of these alternative technologies uses oxygen as a feedstock. Accordingly, if low-cost oxygen is available, they can be an attractive alternate to SMR with natural gas feedstocks. These technologies are composed technically and economically. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies can be attractive if low-cost oxygen is available; (2) for competing technologies, the H{sub 2}/CO product ratio is typically the most important process parameter; (3) for low methane slip, the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies are favored; (4) for full CO{sub 2} recycle, POX is usually better than ATR; (5) relative to POX, the ATR is a nonlicensed technology that avoids third-party involvement; (6) economics of each technology are dependent on the conditions and requirements for each project and must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  11. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Shockling, L.A.; George, R.A.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall. 5 figs.

  12. Steam reforming on transition-metal carbides from density-functional theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A screening study of the steam reforming reaction (CH_4 + H_2O -> CO + 3H_2) on early transition-metal carbides (TMC's) is performed by means of density-functional theory calculations. The set of considered surfaces includes the alpha-Mo_2C(100) surfaces, the low-index (111) and (100) surfaces of TiC, VC, and delta-MoC, and the oxygenated alpha-Mo_2C(100) and TMC(111) surfaces. It is found that carbides provide a wide spectrum of reactivities towards the steam reforming reaction, from too reactive via suitable to too inert. The reactivity is discussed in terms of the electronic structure of the clean surfaces. Two surfaces, the delta-MoC(100) and the oxygen passivated alpha-Mo_2C(100) surfaces, are identified as promising steam reforming catalysts. These findings suggest that carbides provide a playground for reactivity tuning, comparable to the one for pure metals.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A CATALYST/SORBENT FOR METHANE REFORMING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.H. Shanks; T.D. Wheelock; Justinus A. Satrio; Timothy Diehl; Brigitte Vollmer

    2004-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This work has led to the initial development of a very promising material that has the potential to greatly simplify hydrocarbon reforming for the production of hydrogen and to improve the overall efficiency and economics of the process. This material, which was derived from an advanced calcium-based sorbent, was composed of core-in-shell pellets such that each pellet consisted of a CaO core and an alumina-based shell. By incorporating a nickel catalyst in the shell, a combined catalyst and sorbent was prepared to facilitate the reaction of hydrocarbons with steam. It was shown that this material not only catalyzes the reactions of methane and propane with steam, it also absorbs CO{sub 2} simultaneously, and thereby separates the principal reaction products, H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the absorption of CO{sub 2} permits the water gas shift reaction to proceed much further towards completion at temperatures where otherwise it would be limited severely by thermodynamic equilibrium. Therefore, an additional water gas shift reaction step would not be required to achieve low concentrations of CO. In a laboratory test of methane reforming at 600 C and 1 atm it was possible to produce a gaseous product containing 96 mole% H{sub 2} (dry basis) while also achieving a H{sub 2} yield of 95%. Methane reforming under these conditions without CO{sub 2} absorption provided a H{sub 2} concentration of 75 mole% and yield of 82%. Similar results were achieved in a test of propane reforming at 560 C and 1 atm which produced a product containing 96 mole% H{sub 2} while CO{sub 2} was being absorbed but which contained only 69 mole% H{sub 2} while CO{sub 2} was not being absorbed. These results were achieved with an improved catalyst support that was developed by replacing a portion of the {alpha}-alumina in the original shell material with {gamma}-alumina having a much greater surface area. This replacement had the unfortunate consequence of reducing the overall compressive strength of the core-in-shell pellets. Therefore, a preliminary study of the factors that control the surface area and compressive strength of the shell material was conducted. The important factors were identified as the relative concentrations and particle size distributions of the {alpha}-alumina, {gamma}-alumina, and limestone particles plus the calcination temperature and time used for sintering the shell material. An optimization of these factors in the future could lead to the development of a material that has both the necessary mechanical strength and catalytic activity.

  14. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Katona, G.; Muresan, L. [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Lazar, M. D., E-mail: diana.lazar@itim-cj.ro [65-103 Donath Street (Romania)

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on ?-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  15. Straddler-based Gender Reform in Saudi Arabia: The Case of Jeddah Chamber of Commerce and Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Katherine

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of pioneering feminist reformers in the country and theof the JCCI illustrates how reformers were able to utilize aconservatives and liberal reformers. These competing social

  16. From the Frontlines to the Bottom Line: Medical Marijuana, the War on Drugs, and the Drug Policy Reform Movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heddleston, Thomas Reed

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    how drug policy reformers used the ballot initiative processand future directions for reformers. Bock’s (2000) work isto analyze how drug policy reformers frame their actions and

  17. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpel, Michael (Naperville, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

    2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  18. The mathematics education reform: What is it and why should you care?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Hung-Hsi

    The mathematics education reform: What is it and why should you care? H. Wu Department. Introduction §2. Special features of the reform §3. A little background §4. The manifesto of the reform the current math- ematics education reform movement. As used here, "reform" refers to both the K-12

  19. Autothermal hydrodesulfurizing reforming method and catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumpelt, Michael; Kopasz, John P.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kao, Richard Li-chih; Randhava, Sarabjit Singh

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reforming a sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel in which the sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel is mixed with H.sub.2 O and an oxidant, forming a fuel/H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture. The fuel H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture is brought into contact with a catalyst composition comprising a dehydrogenation portion, an oxidation portion and a hydrodesulfurization portion, resulting in formation of a hydrogen-containing gas stream.

  20. Partial oxidation fuel reforming for automotive power systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Chalk, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Kumar, R.; Milliken, J.

    1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    For widespread use of fuel cells to power automobiles in the near future, it is necessary to convert gasoline or other transportation fuels to hydrogen on-board the vehicle. Partial oxidation reforming is particularly suited to this application as it eliminates the need for heat exchange at high temperatures. Such reformers offer rapid start and good dynamic performance. Lowering the temperature of the partial oxidation process, which requires the development of a suitable catalyst, can increase the reforming efficiency. Catalytic partial oxidation (or autothermal) reformers and non-catalytic partial oxidation reformers developed by various organizations are presently undergoing testing and demonstration. This paper summarizes the process chemistries as well as recent test data from several different reformers operating on gasoline, methanol, and other fuels.

  1. Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of...

  2. On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel Reformer

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel Reformer Mark Hemingway, Dr. Joachim Kupe, Joseph Bonadies, Mike Seino, Dr. John Kirwan, - Delphi Powertrain DEER, August...

  3. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...

  4. Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed...

  5. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Laboratory Investigation of Reaction Networks and Active Sites in Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt Based Catalysts, Umit Ozkan, Ohio State University Hydrogen...

  6. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport...

  7. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Arlene Anderson at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  8. actinide reformer concept: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Private Insurance Market Renewable Energy Websites Summary: SUMMARY s national health care reform efforts go forward, it is instructive to review states' experience INTRODUCTION...

  9. advance hatchery reform: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Private Insurance Market Renewable Energy Websites Summary: SUMMARY s national health care reform efforts go forward, it is instructive to review states' experience INTRODUCTION...

  10. agricultural price reforms: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    co-payments as well as to sizable decreases in overall producer revenues and health care expenditures. The reform induced consumers to substitute away from branded drugs for...

  11. autothermal steam reforming: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Private Insurance Market Renewable Energy Websites Summary: SUMMARY s national health care reform efforts go forward, it is instructive to review states' experience INTRODUCTION...

  12. abortion law reform: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to reform Massachusetts law Materials Science Websites Summary: , and access to health care. The course benefitted from the continued dedication of an exceptional teachingAdvocacy...

  13. Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    After-treatment Catalyst Clean Exhaust Effective Catalyst Regeneration Emission Reduction Electricity for On-road and Idling Loads SOFC APU Efficiency Boost Reformers for...

  14. Moving Toward a Vision of Family Independence: Local Managers' Views of Michigan's Welfare Reforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    Reforms Kristin S. Seefeldt Jodi Sandfort Sandra K. Danziger February, 1998 This project is supported? .................................................................................39 SECTION IV: MANAGERS' VIEW OF WELFARE REFORM AND IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES......................................................................44 Support for Reform Initiatives

  15. Globalization, Economic Reform, and Structural Price Transmission: SAM Decomposition Techniques with an empirical application to Vietnam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    1 Globalization, Economic Reform, and Structural Price Transmission: SAM Decomposition Techniques those which have been slow to reform systems of administered prices. Such allocation mechanisms now undermine reform and structural adjustments efforts in this important emerging Asian economy. Key words

  16. Reforming the EU: The Future of European Law and Policy IV CONFERENCE PROGRAMME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    Reforming the EU: The Future of European Law and Policy IV CONFERENCE session "Reforming the EU" Chair: Dr Luca Rubini, Deputy Director Institute Rubini Reforming European competition law: should the European Commission have

  17. Negotiating Education Reform: Teacher Evaluations and Incentives in Chile (1990-2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mizala, Alejandra

    Reforms designed to improve the quality of teaching by reforming personnel practices, such as pay for performance arrangements, usually run into opposition from well-organized teacher unions that can either block reform ...

  18. Electricity Sector Reform in Developing Countries: A Survey of Empirical Evidence on Determinants and Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Mota, Raffaella L; Newbery, David; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2004-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the empirical evidence on electricity reform in developing countries. We find that country institutions and sector governance play an important role in success and failure of reform; reforms appear to have increased operating...

  19. Edinburgh Research Explorer Reforming State Pension provision in `Liberal' Anglo Saxon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Reforming State Pension provision in `Liberal' Anglo Saxon Countries, Vickerstaff, S & Loretto, W 2012, 'Reforming State Pension provision in `Liberal' Anglo Saxon Countries: Re University Press. Lain, D., Vickerstaff, S. & Loretto, W. 2012, "Reforming State Pension provision

  20. Assuring Equity Through Health and Health Care Reform Conference Registration Information (Type or Print)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Lucy L.

    Assuring Equity Through Health and Health Care Reform Conference Registration Information (Type Care Structural Reform: What's Happening in Albany and Washington? Changing the Social Determinants of Health Reform in the Pharmaceutical Industry Sustaining Community Health Workers Comparative

  1. Aligning modes of organization with technology: Critical transactions in the reform of infrastructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Aligning modes of organization with technology: Critical transactions in the reform of their reform. Since infrastructures are characterized by strong technical complementarities, we explore the alignment between organization and technology and should be taken explicitly into account when reforming

  2. Sustaining School Reform: Lessons from Georgia Education Policy and Evaluation Center, College of Education, University of Georgia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Robert A.

    Sustaining School Reform: Lessons from Georgia Education Policy and Evaluation Center, College addressing lessons learned from two years of evaluation of Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) grant recipients implementing reform initiatives, in general. Background The Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) Program began

  3. A modeling software linking approach for the analysis of an integrated reforming combined cycle with hot potassium carbonate CO[subscript 2] capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nord, Lars Olof

    The focus of this study is the analysis of an integrated reforming combined cycle (IRCC) with natural gas as fuel input. This IRCC consisted of a hydrogen-fired gas turbine (GT) with a single-pressure steam bottoming cycle ...

  4. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the fourth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of July 1-Sept 30, 2004 along with a recap of progress from the start of the project on Oct 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2004. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule. This year saw progress in several areas. These areas are: (1) External and internal evaluation of coal based methanol and a fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design set up and initial testing of three laboratory scale steam reformers, (3) Design, set up and initial testing of a laboratory scale autothermal reactor, (4) Hydrogen generation from coal-derived methanol using steam reformation, (5) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (6) Initial catalyst degradation studies with steam reformation and coal based methanol, and (7) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  5. Experimental and Numerical Observations of Hydrate Reformation during Depressurization in a Core-Scale Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Myshakin, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas hydrate has been predicted to reform around a wellbore during depressurization-based gas production from gas hydrate-bearing reservoirs. This process has an adverse effect on gas production rates and it requires time and sometimes special measures to resume gas flow to producing wells. Due to lack of applicable field data, laboratory scale experiments remain a valuable source of information to study hydrate reformation. In this work, we report laboratory experiments and complementary numerical simulations executed to investigate the hydrate reformation phenomenon. Gas production from a pressure vessel filled with hydrate-bearing sand was induced by depressurization with and without heat flux through the boundaries. Hydrate decomposition was monitored with a medical X-ray CT scanner and pressure and temperature measurements. CT images of the hydrate-bearing sample were processed to provide 3-dimensional data of heterogeneous porosity and phase saturations suitable for numerical simulations. In the experiments, gas hydrate reformation was observed only in the case of no-heat supply from surroundings, a finding consistent with numerical simulation. By allowing gas production on either side of the core, numerical simulations showed that initial hydrate distribution patterns affect gas distribution and flow inside the sample. This is a direct consequence of the heterogeneous pore network resulting in varying hydraulic properties of the hydrate-bearing sediment.

  6. Beyond National Uniformity: Diverging Local Economic Governance Under Japan's Decentralization Reforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jung Hwan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Public Demand for Deregulation, Decentralization, and De-in market reform for deregulation that makes large privatein market reform for deregulation that makes large private

  7. China's post-reform policy implementation gaps and governmental vs. non-governmental fire alarm solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Melanie M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Reform Committee EIA Environmental Impact Assessmentand Reforms,” Singapore East Asian Institute (EIA),EIA Background Brief No. 418, December 11, 2008, available

  8. Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  9. Autothermal Reforming of Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Lanny D

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of biomass into energy and chemicals is a major research and technology challenge of this century, comparable to petroleum processing in the last century. Recently we have successfully transformed both volatile liquids and nonvolatile liquids and solids into syngas with no carbon formation in autothermal catalytic reactors with residence times of ~10 milliseconds. In the proposed research program we explore the mechanisms of these processes and their extensions to other biomass sources and applications by examining different feeds, catalysts, flow conditions, and steam addition to maximize production of either syngas or chemicals. We will systematically study the catalytic partial oxidation in millisecond autothermal reactors of solid biomass and the liquid products formed by pyrolysis of solid biomass. We will examine alcohols, polyols, esters, solid carbohydrates, and lignocellulose to try to maximize formation of either hydrogen and syngas or olefins and oxygenated chemicals. We will explore molecules and mixtures of practical interest as well as surrogate molecules that contain the functional groups of biofuels but are simpler to analyze and interpret. We will examine spatial profiles within the catalyst and transient and periodic operation of these reactors at pressures up to 10 atm to obtain data from which to explore more detailed mechanistic models and optimize performance to produce a specific desired product. New experiments will examine the conversion of syngas into biofuels such as methanol and dimethyl ether to explore the entire process of producing biofuels from biomass in small distributed systems. Experiments and modeling will be integrated to probe and understand detailed reaction kinetics and the processes by which solid biomass particles are transformed into syngas and chemicals by reactive flash volatilization.

  10. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell is described capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  11. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorne Woods, IL); Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  12. Advanced Fuel Reformer Development Putting the `Fuel' in Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in North Haven, CT · Two major platform technologies under development ­ RCL® catalytic combustors for gas with Microlith® Catalytic Reactors very high surface area Ultra compact Short contact time Rapid thermal response controller, AGB) Reformate Flow Control Thermal balance é Fuel, Air, Water #12;Reformer Controls · Automated

  13. ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece by Ekaterini Iliadou Lawyer - Legal Department of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece

  14. Health Care Reform Challenge: Creating a High Performance Healthcare System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Health Care Reform Challenge: Creating a High Performance Healthcare System Tom Simmer, MD Chief;The Challenge of Reform: Accountable Care Organizations (ACO) · ACO's are provider organizations health care delivery Organized Systems of Care Population focus for primary care physicians, hospitals

  15. BREAKING WITH OR BUILDING ON THE PAST? REFORMING IRISH PUBLIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the application of new public management styles to Ireland. Particular attention is paid to the public serviceBREAKING WITH OR BUILDING ON THE PAST? REFORMING IRISH PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: 1958-2008 Niamh? REFORMING IRISH PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: 1958-2008 Niamh Hardiman and Muiris MacCarthaigh Working Papers

  16. Operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on biodiesel with a partial oxidation reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N, Shekhawat, D.; Gemmen, R.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Office of Research & Development (NETL/ORD) has successfully demonstrated the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using reformed biodiesel. The biodiesel for the project was produced and characterized by West Virginia State University (WVSU). This project had two main aspects: 1) demonstrate a catalyst formulation on monolith for biodiesel fuel reforming; and 2) establish SOFC stack test stand capabilities. Both aspects have been completed successfully. For the first aspect, in–house patented catalyst specifications were developed, fabricated and tested. Parametric reforming studies of biofuels provided data on fuel composition, catalyst degradation, syngas composition, and operating parameters required for successful reforming and integration with the SOFC test stand. For the second aspect, a stack test fixture (STF) for standardized testing, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the Solid Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program, was engineered and constructed at NETL. To facilitate the demonstration of the STF, NETL employed H.C. Starck Ceramics GmbH & Co. (Germany) anode supported solid oxide cells. In addition, anode supported cells, SS441 end plates, and cell frames were transferred from PNNL to NETL. The stack assembly and conditioning procedures, including stack welding and sealing, contact paste application, binder burn-out, seal-setting, hot standby, and other stack assembly and conditioning methods were transferred to NETL. In the future, fuel cell stacks provided by SECA or other developers could be tested at the STF to validate SOFC performance on various fuels. The STF operated on hydrogen for over 1000 hrs before switching over to reformed biodiesel for 100 hrs of operation. Combining these first two aspects led to demonstrating the biodiesel syngas in the STF. A reformer was built and used to convert 0.5 ml/min of biodiesel into mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas.) The syngas was fed to the STF and fuel cell stack. The results presented in this experimental report document one of the first times a SOFC has been operated on syngas from reformed biodiesel.

  17. Economic Reforms and Gender-based Wage Inequality in the Presence of Factor Market Distortions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    1 Economic Reforms and Gender-based Wage Inequality in the Presence of Factor Market Distortions-based wage inequality. The analysis finds that credit market reform and tariff reform produce favourable reforms, general equilibrium. JEL classifications: D50, J16, F21. The authors are thankful to Prof

  18. Page 1 of 16 The reform of passenger rail in Switzerland: more performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Page 1 of 16 The reform of passenger rail in Switzerland: more performance without competition: christian.desmaris@sciencespo-lyon.fr Keywords: Swiss railway reform Regulation Regionalization Railway of ongoing institutional reform. This article strives to shed light on passenger traffic reform, and more

  19. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group & Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Oil Reforming, NREL, Darlene Steward o High Pressure Steam Ethanol Reforming, ANL, Romesh Kumar 12:00 - 12:30 Lunch 12:30 Research Review Continued o Investigation of Bio-ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt basedBio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) & Hydrogen Production

  20. MOVIE "CHICAGO CITY COUNCIL: READY FOR REFORM?" (27 minutes/color)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    , transportation, and health care. 8. Investigate how many of the reform proposals were in place twenty years afterMOVIE ­ "CHICAGO CITY COUNCIL: READY FOR REFORM?" (27 minutes/color) SYNOPSIS Following the death of Mayor Harold Washington, residents and reformers of Chicago still hoped for continued reform in Chicago

  1. Economic and Political Reform in China and the Former Soviet Union

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Thomas

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential for mobilizing popular pressure on the recalcitrant bureaucracy. Political reform was put on the CCs

  2. Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Department for Education's reformed GCSE subject content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    's reformed GCSE subject content consultation - August 2013 Department for Education: Reformed GCSE subject's reformed GCSE subject content consultation. The proposed changes to science qualifications promote reform and have enclosed a copy for information. 1 ` Direct assessment' is based on the direct assessment

  3. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The radioactive Tank 48H DMR product was primarily made up of soluble carbonates. The three most abundant species were thermonatrite, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O], sodium carbonate, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}], and trona, [Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O] the same as the ESTD FBSR. (6) Insoluble solids analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) did not detect insoluble carbonate species. However, they still may be present at levels below 2 wt%, the sensitivity of the XRD methodology. Insoluble solids XRD characterization indicated that various Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn phases are present. These crystalline phases are associated with the insoluble sludge components of Tank 48H slurry and impurities in the Erwin coal ash. The percent insoluble solids, which mainly consist of un-burnt coal and coal ash, in the products were 4 to 11 wt% for the radioactive runs. (7) The Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sub total} REDOX measurements ranged from 0.58 to 1 for the three radioactive Bench-scale tests. REDOX measurements > 0.5 showed a reducing atmosphere was maintained in the DMR indicating that pyrolysis was occurring. (8) Greater than 90% of the radioactivity was captured in the product for all three runs. (9) The collective results from the FBSR simulant tests and the BSR simulant tests indicate that the same chemistry occurs in the two reactors. (10) The collective results from the BSR simulant runs and the BSR radioactive waste runs indicates that the same chemistry occurs in the simulant as in the real waste. The FBSR technology has been proven to destroy the organics and nitrates in the Tank 48H waste and form the anticipated solid carbonate phases as expected.

  4. Catalytic autothermal reforming increases fuel cell flexibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results are presented for the autothermal reforming (ATR) of n-hexane, n-tetradecane, benzene and benzene solutions of naphthalene. The tests were run at atmospheric pressure and at moderately high reactant preheat temperatures in the 800-900 K range. Carbon formation lines were determined for paraffinic and aromatic liquids. Profiles were determined for axial bed temperature and composition. Space velocity efforts were assessed, and the locations and types of carbon were recorded. Significant reactive differences between hydrocarbons were identified. Carbon formation characteristics were hydrocarbon specific. The differing behavior of paraffinic and aromatic fuels with respect to their carbon formation may be important in explaining the narrow range of carbon-free operating conditions found in the ATR of number two fuel oil.

  5. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.S.; Painter, C.F.; Pastore, S.P.; Roth, G.S.; Winchester, D.C.

    1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated process is described for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling. 2 figures.

  6. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary S. (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated process for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling.

  7. A time for reform: the woman suffrage campaign in rural Texas, 1914-1919

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motl, Kevin Conrad

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Cunningham. Despite the scandal of impeachment, Ferguson retained the upper hand: he had alies 9 Elizabeth Hayes Turner, Women, Culture, and Community: Religion and Reform in Galveston, 1880-1920 (New... of feminist consciousnes is hardly novel. Karen Blair has been among the most aggresive, arguing in her study of the New England clubwoman?s culture in the late ninetenth century that clubwomen were ?Domestic Feminists? who purposefully countenanced public...

  8. FACULTY OF LAW Centre for Commercial Law Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Chew Lim

    FACULTY OF LAW Centre for Commercial Law Studies SEMINAR ON FINANCIAL REGULATORY REFORM Obama recently signed into law a package of financial regulatory reforms unparalleled in scope and depth since the 1930s. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act is intended

  9. Integrated process and apparatus for the primary and secondary catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuderer, A.

    1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for the essentially autothermal, integrated primary and secondary reforming of hydrocarbons comprising: (a) an internally insulated outer reactor shell adapted for the positioning of primary and secondary reforming zones therein; (b) means defining a primary reforming zone within the outer reactor shell and having catalyst-containing reformer tubes positioned therein, the primary reforming zone not requiring an external fuel fired source of heat for the endothermic primary reforming reaction occurring therein; (c) means for introducing a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream and steam to the outer reactor shell for passage through the reformer tubes in the primary reforming zone; (d) means defining a secondary reforming zone within the outer reactor shell comprising a secondary reforming catalyst bed, a catalyst-free reaction space defining a feed end adjacent to the catalyst bed and a discharge end at the opposite side of the secondary reforming catalyst bed to the feed end; and (e) conduit means positioned entirely within the outer reactor shell and extending through the secondary reforming catalyst bed for passing partly reformed product effluent from the primary reforming zone to the catalyst-free reaction space in the secondary reforming zone.

  10. LAND REFORM IN NAMIBIA: AN ANALYSIS OF MEDIA COVERAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelbrecht, Petrus J.

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    in ensuring that land reform is successfully designed and executed. The media informs the public, sets the public and political agenda, holds the government accountable, and serves as a public sphere. This project analyses Namibia's three primary daily...

  11. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  12. The Dynamics of Reform of India’s Federal System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    very different set of policies, India has followed China inIssues in Tax Policy and Reform in India, paper presented atWater Disputes in India: Institutions and Policies,” in

  13. Making sense of doctoral training reforms in the social sciences:

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, David

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 125). These reforms continued throughout the 1990s, with a growing attention to supervisor training, institutional research cultures and skills training. The 1993 Government White Paper ‘Realising our Potential’ called for better links with industry...

  14. Electricity Reform in Argentina: Lessons for Developing Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollitt, Michael G.

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Argentina was one of the first countries in the world to implement a comprehensivereform of its electricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries onlyChile has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. This paper traces...

  15. Power Sector Reform in Developing Countries: A Return to Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, James B.

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Instead of following the Restructuring Model most often used in the international community since the 1990s, developing countries should adopt an alternative conceptual model called the Integrated Model in order to develop and implement effective electricity reform programs. (author)

  16. First Generation Indian External Sector Reforms in Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhala, Raj

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , foreign direct investment, and the financial sector. Unfortunately, those reforms lost momentum by the early 2000s. Thus, Part III analyses what happened, namely, backsliding on tariff cuts, persistent tariff escalations, and difficulties in the banking...

  17. Petroleum Refinery Catalytic Reforming -- Cutting High Energy Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is essential that the operation and maintenance of these furnaces be optimized to minimize production costs. This paper describes the performance testing and evaluation of a set of ten refinery furnaces used to thermally drive several reforming reactors...

  18. Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division Catalysts for autothermal reforming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,110,861) awarded Oct 2000: CRADA w/H2Fuel to commercialize reformer Aug 2001: Began work on perovskite catalysts Feb 2002: CRADA w/Süd-Chemie to optimize catalyst performance Oct 2002: Demonstrated conversion

  19. Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Extraction of Hydrogen from Bioethanol Reforming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuncharam, Bhanu Vardhan

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This research explores a novel application of catalytic membrane reactors for high- purity hydrogen extraction from bioethanol reforming. Conventional membrane systems employ hydrogen permselective materials such as palladium, polymer membranes...

  20. Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) Na-Al-Si (NAS) Waste Form Qualification C.M. Jantzen and E.M. Pierce November 18, 2010 2 Participating Organizations 3...

  1. The stability of coerced economic reform : the case of IPR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Trudy

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theories in international relations posit, and empirical evidence has verified, that unwilling states can be compelled by another state or by an international institution to enact domestic policy reform. However, these ...

  2. act contracting reform: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Page 1 of 2 Affordable Care Act Health Care Reform Physics Websites Summary: Page 1 of 2 Affordable Care Act Health Care...

  3. autothermal reformer catalyst: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The paper also argues that small developing countries Roger G. Noll 2000-01-01 23 Hydrogen Production from Carbonaceous Solid Wastes by Steam Reforming CiteSeer Summary:...

  4. Development of a catalytic partial oxidation ethanol reformer for fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, W.L.; Thijssen, J.H.J.; Bentley, J.M.; Marek, N.J.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Arthur D. Little in conjunction with the Department of Energy and the Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs are developing an ethanol fuel processor for fuel cell vehicles. Initial studies were carried out on a 25 kWe catalytic partial oxidation (POX) reformer to determine the effect of equivalence ratio, steam to carbon ratio, and residence time on ethanol conversion. Results of the POX experiments show near equilibrium yields of hydrogen and carbon monoxide for an equivalence ratio of 3.0 with a fuel processor efficiency of 80%. The size and weight of the prototype reformer yield power densities of 1.44 l/kW and 1.74 kg/kW at an estimated cost of $20/kW.

  5. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    circuitry/power supply Non-galvanic Single material (no electrodes) Ethanol/NG Steam O2- 1/2 O2 + 2e- 1/2 O.C2H5OH + 1/2 O2 2CO + 3H2 Predominant products of ethanol reforming: H2, CO, CO2, CH4, H2O #12Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM

  6. POINT DE VUE SUR LES REFORMES EN COURS DANS LE SYST`EME EDUCATIF 61 Point de vue sur les reformes en

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demailly, Jean-Pierre

    POINT DE VUE SUR LES R´EFORMES EN COURS DANS LE SYST`EME ´EDUCATIF 61 Point de vue sur les r´eformes'^etre confront´e `a la r´eflexion sur les r´eformes, que ce soit `a l'Acad´emie des Sciences, `a l'Universit´e ou contenus de programmes reculent de r´eforme en r´eforme; jamais me semble-t-il les coll`egues ne s

  7. Catalytic autothermal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumpelt, M.; Krause, T.; Kopasz, J.; Carter, D.; Ahmed, S.

    2002-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell development has seen remarkable progress in the past decade because of an increasing need to improve energy efficiency as well as to address concerns about the environmental consequences of using fossil fuel for producing electricity and for propulsion of vehicles [1]. The lack of an infrastructure for producing and distributing H{sub 2} has led to a research effort to develop on-board fuel processing technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H{sub 2} [2]. The primary focus is on reforming gasoline, because a production and distribution infrastructure for gasoline already exists to supply internal combustion engines [3]. Existing reforming technology for the production of H{sub 2} from hydrocarbon feedstocks used in large-scale manufacturing processes, such as ammonia synthesis, is cost prohibitive when scaled down to the size of the fuel processor required for transportation applications (50-80 kWe) nor is it designed to meet the varying power demands and frequent shutoffs and restarts that will be experienced during normal drive cycles. To meet the performance targets required of a fuel processor for transportation applications will require new reforming reactor technology developed to meet the volume, weight, cost, and operational characteristics for transportation applications and the development of new reforming catalysts that exhibit a higher activity and better thermal and mechanical stability than reforming catalysts currently used in the production of H{sub 2} for large-scale manufacturing processes.

  8. Improve syngas production using autothermal reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, T.S.; Primdahl, I.I. (Haldor Topsoe, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas or syngas, i.e., mixtures of CO and H[sub 2], is a major route from hydrocarbons to many important bulk chemicals ranging from acetic acid to ammonia. Syngas conversion uses hydrocarbon feedstocks, steam, O[sub 2] and CO[sub 2], either separately or in combinations. Autothermal reforming (ATR) is a low-investment process using a simple reactor design. The process is soot-free due to burner design and fixed-bed catalyst. Developed in the late '50s, ATR's main application was for ammonia and methanol syntheses. In ammonia plants, hydrogen production was maximized by operating at high H[sub 2]O/C ratios ranging from 2.5 to 3.5 mole/mole. In methanol units, CO[sub 2] recycle adjusted the syngas composition. ATR is also used to co-produce CO and H[sub 2] as separate streams at H[sub 2]O/C ratios of 1.4 to 2.0 mole/mole. recent developments and optimizations allow cost-effective operation at very low H[sub 2]O/C feed ratios to produce CO-rich syngas. The paper describes the process, including feedstocks and reactor design, the chemical reactions, development and improvements to the process, test results, soot formation, burner design, burner testing, applications, thermodynamic calculations, industrial application, noncatalytic and catalytic partial oxidation, and future uses.

  9. New Orleans Education Reform: A Guide for Cities or a Warning for Communities? (Grassroots Lessons Learned, 2005-2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buras, Kristen L.; Urban South Grassroots Research Collective, Members

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    organization leaders, education reformers and experts, andlikely possessed by well-heeled reformers (NSNO, 2010a). Anyears, the so-called reformers fail to grasp that there is a

  10. DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) WASTE FORMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium aqueous radioactive wastes. The addition of clay and a catalyst as co-reactants converts high sodium aqueous low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford and Idaho DOE sites to a granular ''mineralized'' waste form that may be made into a monolith form if necessary. Simulant Hanford and Idaho high sodium wastes were processed in a pilot scale FBSR at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The durability of the FBSR waste form products was tested in order to compare the measured durability to previous FBSR waste form testing on Hanford Envelope C waste forms that were made by THOR Treatment Technologies (TTT) and to compare the FBSR durability to vitreous LAW waste forms, specifically the Hanford low activity waste (LAW) glass known as the Low-activity Reference Material (LRM). The durability of the FBSR waste form is comparable to that of the LRM glass for the test responses studied.

  11. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

  12. Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis...

  13. Bachelor of Arts Internship Project Company/Organization: The Howard League for Penal Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Bachelor of Arts Internship Project Company/Organization: The Howard League for Penal Reform Application Due Date: N/A Student Initiated Project The Howard League for Penal Reform is an independent

  14. From negotiation to auction : Land-Conveyance Reform in China and its institutional and social impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhiyu (Zhiyu Jerry)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The land market and the associated land-development-control mechanism in China have been experiencing a series of reforms since the 1990s, of which Land Conveyance Reform (LCR) in 2004 is a very recent and an important ...

  15. Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low Temperature Combustion of n-Heptane Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low Temperature Combustion of...

  16. Voluntary Disclosure and Information Asymmetry: Evidence from the 2005 Securities Offering Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SHROFF, NEMIT

    In 2005, the Securities and Exchange Commission enacted the Securities Offering Reform (Reform), which relaxes “gun-jumping” restrictions, thereby allowing firms to more freely disclose information before equity offerings. ...

  17. Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Abstract:...

  18. Application of a Diesel Fuel Reformer for Tier 2 Bin 5 Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of a Diesel Fuel Reformer for Tier 2 Bin 5 Emissions APPROACH On-board diesel fuel reformation is being evaluated as an alternative to urea SCR to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions...

  19. The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a...

  20. Bargaining in the Chinese Leviathan: An Examination on the Steel Industry after China's SOE Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zichao

    2010-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis centers on the competitions between enterprises in the steel industry in China after the SOE (state-owned enterprises) reform, which can be viewed as a case for mass economic reforms within Chinese Leviathan. To examine the effect...

  1. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Zhiwen (Sandy Hook, CT); Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan (New Milford, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  2. Steam methane reforming in molten carbonate salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, D.C.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the work accomplished on the project {open_quotes}Steam Methane Reforming in Molten Carbonate Salt.{close_quotes}. This effort has established the conceptual basis for molten carbonate-based steam reforming of methane. It has not proceeded to prototype verification, because corrosion concerns have led to reluctance on the part of large hydrogen producers to adopt the technology. Therefore the focus was shifted to a less corrosive embodiment of the same technology. After considerable development effort it was discovered that a European company (Catalysts and Chemicals Europe) was developing a similar process ({open_quotes}Regate{close_quotes}). Accordingly the focus was shifted a second time, to develop an improvement which is generic to both types of reforming. That work is still in progress, and shows substantial promise.

  3. Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV); Haynes, Daniel (Morgantown, WV); Smith, Mark (Morgantown, WV); Spivey, James J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  4. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Poland's Economic Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    permission. Poland's Economic Reform Foreign Affairs; Summer 1990; 69, 3; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 47 #12

  5. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Misage, Robert (Manchester, CT); Scheffler, Glenn W. (Tolland, CT); Setzer, Herbert J. (Ellington, CT); Margiott, Paul R. (Manchester, CT); Parenti, Jr., Edmund K. (Manchester, CT)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  6. O'Leary unveils ambitious contract reform initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes DOE's program to reform contract management of its projects. The department will move away from its traditional cost-reimbursement management toward a performance-based management contract that sets clearer goals, incentives, and expectations for contractors. The key objectives are to better tie compensation to actual performance and make it clear that contractors will be responsible for any cost overruns. Another objective of the reform program is to rebid major contracts more often and to encourage more companies to seek DOE business.

  7. Land Reform in the Time of Neoliberalism: A Many-Splendored

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Land Reform in the Time of Neoliberalism: A Many-Splendored Thing Wendy Wolford Assistant Professor@email.unc.edu Abstract: Over the past 20 years, land reform ­ defined here as the redistribution of land from large differing ideological perspectives have claimed land reform as central to their political, social

  8. Methanol Reformer System Modeling and Control using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    Methanol Reformer System Modeling and Control using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System East, Denmark Introduction This work presents a control strategy for a reformed methanol fuel cell system, which uses a reformer to produce hydrogen for a HTPEM fuel cell. Such systems can advantageously

  9. Reforming a large lecture modern physics course for engineering majors using a PER-based design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Reforming a large lecture modern physics course for engineering majors using a PER-based design S Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA Abstract. We have reformed a large of reforms in this course using pre/post surveys on both content and beliefs. We have found significant

  10. WORKING PAPER N 2012 25 Collateral effects of a pension reform in France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    WORKING PAPER N° 2012 ­ 25 Collateral effects of a pension reform in France Hélène Blake Clémentine Garrouste JEL Codes: Keywords: Retirement ; Health ; Pension Reform PARIS-JOURDAN SCIENCES ECONOMIQUES 48-00703706,version2-2Jul2012 #12;Collateral effects of a pension reform in France Hélène Blake and Clémentine

  11. PROCS-VERBAL DE DPOUILLEMENT ELECTIONS A LA COMMISSION DE REFORME DE L'IRD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PROCÈS-VERBAL DE DÉPOUILLEMENT ELECTIONS A LA COMMISSION DE REFORME DE L'IRD SCRUTIN DU 6 MAI 2009 TALAMOND, Catherine BONTE #12;PROCÈS-VERBAL DE DÉPOUILLEMENT ELECTIONS A LA COMMISSION DE REFORME DE L BONTE #12;PROCÈS-VERBAL DE DÉPOUILLEMENT ELECTIONS A LA COMMISSION DE REFORME DE L'IRD SCRUTIN DU 6 MAI

  12. Control of a methanol reformer system using an Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference System approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    Control of a methanol reformer system using an Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference System approach, Denmark Introduction This work presents a stoichiometry control strategy for a reformed methanol fuel cell system, which uses a reformer to produce hydrogen for an HTPEM fuel cell. One such system is the Serenus

  13. WHAT HAS WELFARE REFORM ACCOMPLISHED? IMPACTS ON WELFARE PARTICIPATION, EMPLOYMENT, INCOME,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    WHAT HAS WELFARE REFORM ACCOMPLISHED? IMPACTS ON WELFARE PARTICIPATION, EMPLOYMENT, INCOME, POVERTY, and RAND for comments. #12;1 Abstract This paper evaluates the effectiveness of recent welfare reforms, investigating the effects of both state-specific waivers in the early 1990s and the 1996 federal reform

  14. Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics New Horizons for Rural Reform in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    11 Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics New Horizons for Rural Reform in China: Resources a reform agenda to alleviate rural poverty and improve environmental sustainability in China. It focuses on labor reform, suggesting reductions in the work week and providing incentives aimed at encouraging exit

  15. The New Reform of the Mathematics Curriculum in the Compulsory Education in China Ma Yunpeng1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    275 The New Reform of the Mathematics Curriculum in the Compulsory Education in China Ma Yunpeng1 and development of international mathematics education reform from 1980's. It is found that there are still many and scholars in different fields have been organized to start a new fundamental education curriculum reform

  16. Immigration Reform and Beyond? Conference on Immigration to the US South

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    Immigration Reform and Beyond? The 5th Conference on Immigration to the US South October 23/or bring in transnational and global perspectives. Now that comprehensive immigration reform is back-term challenges of immigration reform with an emphasis on finding practical and realistic policy alternatives

  17. Embargoed to 0001 BST Wednesday April 24 Research into the UK government's proposed reforms of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Paul

    Embargoed to 0001 BST Wednesday April 24 Research into the UK government's proposed reforms of the funding of care and support published The cost implications of the UK government's recent plans to reform, Principal Research Fellow at LSE's Personal Social Services Research Unit, said: "The government's reforms

  18. Land Reforms in Latin America: Ten Lessons toward a Contemporary Agenda1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    1 Land Reforms in Latin America: Ten Lessons toward a Contemporary Agenda1 by Alain de Janvry years of land reforms in Latin America, we arrive at the following ten lessons that give guidelines for future programs of access to land. Lesson 1: Latin American land reforms have generally been "incomplete

  19. Welfare Reform: How Do We Measure Success? Daniel T. Lichter1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    1 Welfare Reform: How Do We Measure Success? Daniel T. Lichter1 and Rukamalie Jayakody2 Forthcoming;2 Welfare Reform: How Do We Measure Success? Abstract This paper evaluates a burgeoning literature on the effects of the 1996 welfare reform bill. Our goal is to shift the debate from the current preoccupation

  20. WORKING PAPER N 2012 25 Collateral effects of a pension reform in France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    WORKING PAPER N° 2012 ­ 25 Collateral effects of a pension reform in France Hélène Blake Clémentine Garrouste JEL Codes: Keywords: Retirement ; Health ; Pension Reform PARIS-JOURDAN SCIENCES ECONOMIQUES 48-00703706,version1-4Jun2012 #12;Collateral effects of a pension reform in France Hélène Blake and Clémentine

  1. Til efterret kommer videnskabsminis-ter Helge Sander (V) med en reform af

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Til efteråret kommer videnskabsminis- ter Helge Sander (V) med en reform af sektorforskningen Sander. Når Folketinget åbner til oktober, lægger han et forslag frem til en lov, der reforme- rer for det vigtige skridt fra laboratoriet til samlebåndet", siger Helge Sander. Den kommende reform af

  2. WELFARE REFORM, SUBSTANCE USE, AND MENTAL HEALTH1 Rukmalie Jayakody2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    1 WELFARE REFORM, SUBSTANCE USE, AND MENTAL HEALTH1 Rukmalie Jayakody2 Pennsylvania State for useful comments that improved our paper. #12;3 ABSTRACT Welfare reform transformed the traditional-sufficiency that are increasingly important in this era of time-limited benefits. KEYWORDS: welfare reform, substance abuse, mental

  3. Control and experimental characterization of ap methanol reformer for a 350W HTPEM FC system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

    Control and experimental characterization of ap methanol reformer for a 350W HTPEM FC system Søren@et.aau.dk 33 #12;From prototype to commercial product dk 4 www.serenergy.dk #12;Integrated methanol reformerC Reformer temperature 200-300oC System parameters Weight 13.7 kg Volume 27 L sja@et.aau.dk 5 #12

  4. PHS 650 Summer 2012 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    PHS 650 Summer 2012 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform Course Overview in the public and private sectors, and current issues and debates about reform nationally and in Wisconsin health insurance reform; 5. describe three elements of the federal 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable

  5. Tailored Macroporous SiCN and SiC Structures for High-Temperature Fuel Reforming**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Tailored Macroporous SiCN and SiC Structures for High-Temperature Fuel Reforming** By In-Kyung Sung such as the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., die- sel or JP-8) into hydrogen for use in portable power sources the reaction rate of endothermic reactions (such as the steam reforming of hydrocarbons), at the macroscale

  6. The World Bank's Approach and the Right Approach to Pension Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    1 The World Bank's Approach and the Right Approach to Pension Reform by Laurence J. Kotlikoff's approach to pension reform. The reason is that exclusive or predominant investment in domestic asset and actual variety, the Bank's pension reforms reflect and emanate from a common and deeply flawed set

  7. United States House of Representatives Committee on Oversight and Government Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    United States House of Representatives Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Testimony, and the rest of the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, I am very pleased to have the opportunity responsible way. #12;Daniel M. Kammen ­ House of Representatives Committee on Oversight and Government Reform

  8. PHS 650 Summer 2011 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    PHS 650 Summer 2011 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform 2011 Course Overview in the public and private sectors, and current issues and debates about reform nationally and in Wisconsin the relationship between federal law and state health insurance reform; 5. describe three elements of the federal

  9. Novel Catalytic Fuel Reforming Using Micro-Technology with Advanced Separations Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novel Catalytic Fuel Reforming Using Micro-Technology with Advanced Separations Technology Patricia by the combustion of membrane raffinate for the production of clean hydrogen by steam reforming natural gas. Advanced membrane technology is being used to remove CO and CO2 from the reformate. The fuel processor

  10. Welfare Reform Policy From Nixon to Clinton: What Role for Social Science?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    1 Welfare Reform Policy From Nixon to Clinton: What Role for Social Science? Sheldon Danziger on the conference draft. #12;2 Welfare Reform Policy From Nixon to Clinton: What Role for Social Science? Social implications were virtually ignored, however, in the welfare reform debates leading up to President Clinton

  11. Working Towards Reform in Mathematics Education: Parents', Teachers', and Students' Views of "Different"1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Civil, Marta

    Working Towards Reform in Mathematics Education: Parents', Teachers', and Students' Views presented at the ACCLAIM Research Symposium 3, Mathematics Education: Reform and Resistance;2 This essay is a reflection on several aspects related to my encounters with the concept of reform

  12. Structural Reforms and Agricultural Export Performance D. Susanto, C. P. Rosson, and R. Costa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Structural Reforms and Agricultural Export Performance D. Susanto, C. P. Rosson, and R. Costa;INTRODUCTION Structural reforms: policy measures that reduce or remove impediments to the efficient allocation of resources. Structural reforms would imply reduced government interventions, including such as (1) removal

  13. A Proposal to Reform the Kyoto Protocol: the Role of Escape Clauses and Foresight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    A Proposal to Reform the Kyoto Protocol: the Role of Escape Clauses and Foresight Larry Karp University of California, Berkeley Jinhua Zhao Iowa Sate University February 23, 2007 Abstract A reform be designed. We propose a reform to the Kyoto Proto- col that allows signatories to avoid achieving the target

  14. Volume 8, Issue 1 2010 Article 8 THE POLITICS OF HEALTH CARE REFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelman, Andrew

    Volume 8, Issue 1 2010 Article 8 The Forum THE POLITICS OF HEALTH CARE REFORM Public Opinion on Health Care Reform Andrew Gelman, Columbia University Daniel Lee, Columbia University Yair Ghitza Opinion on Health Care Reform," The Forum: Vol. 8: Iss. 1, Article 8. DOI: 10

  15. Bureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Bureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective Jane E. #12;Bureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective Jane E perspective on e-government can provide important insights into bureaucratic reform, political development

  16. THE MATHEMATICS EDUCATION REFORM: WHY YOU SHOULD BE CONCERNED AND WHAT YOU CAN DO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Hung-Hsi

    THE MATHEMATICS EDUCATION REFORM: WHY YOU SHOULD BE CONCERNED AND WHAT YOU CAN DO H. WU To Chih with another mathematics education reform. In the usual way in which this term is understood, it refers to both the K-12 mathematics education reform led by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM

  17. 2007 DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts Hua Song Lingzhi Zhang Umit S heatheat heatheat heatheat COCO--freefree BioethanolBioethanol steamsteam Reforming reactor is $0.08/kWh; "OSU" catalyst is used for bioethanol steam reforming with 3,000h-1 GHSV and 1,000h

  18. SOLAR UPGRADE OF METHANE USING DRY REFORMING IN DIRECT CONTACT BUBBLE REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    process of a solar reformer of dry methane reforming was proposed to operate in a temperature range of 600SOLAR UPGRADE OF METHANE USING DRY REFORMING IN DIRECT CONTACT BUBBLE REACTOR Khalid Al-Ali 1 including lower melting point, thermal and chemical stability, acting simultaneously as heat transport

  19. Working Group Meeting Presentation Guidance at a Glance Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .31 O2 + 0.26 H2O 0.71 CO2 + 0.96 H2 #12;Key Performance Metrics Catalytic Steam Reforming of Bio-Oil Case (Ethanol Case) Bio-oil Storage Tank $106,040 Reformer $803,000 Shift Reactor, PSA, BOP $1Working Group Meeting Presentation Guidance at a Glance Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis

  20. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ReviewReport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 12:30ResearchReviewContinued Investigation of Bio-ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt based Ethanol Reforming,ANL,RomeshKumar ..................23 MeritBio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen

  1. ENGINEERING SCALE UP OF RENEWABLE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF PEANUT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENGINEERING SCALE UP OF RENEWABLE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF PEANUT SHELLS, and academic organizations is developing a steam reforming process to be demonstrated on the gaseous byproducts, catalytic, steam-reforming reactor was then successfully operated on methane and peanut shell pyrolysis

  2. Fiscal Sustainability and Retirement Security: A Reform Proposal for the Illinois State Universities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    situation: health care and retirement. First, Medicaid expenditures, already a substantial share of state1 Fiscal Sustainability and Retirement Security: A Reform Proposal for the Illinois State errors, are those of the authors alone. I.The Urgent Need for Reform Public pension reform is a national

  3. Health Care Reform: What School Mental Health Professionals Need to Know

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, David J.

    Health Care Reform: What School Mental Health Professionals Need to Know On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed comprehensive health care reform, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), into law (P.L. 111-148). This major reform to health care certainly has had and will continue to have

  4. Mexico's Energy Reform: What Does It Mean for Mexico and Beyond?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Mexico's Energy Reform: What Does It Mean for Mexico and Beyond? The Mexican Senate is currently and Energy and Environment Program for a discussion on elements of the reform, questions for the road ahead, and the broader impacts of reform. The event will launch the Atlantic Council's new issue brief, Mexico Rising

  5. Even if it's not Bribery: The Case for Campaign Finance Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Grant J.

    Even if it's not Bribery: The Case for Campaign Finance Reform Brendan Daley Erik Snowberg Duke reform alleviates this phenomenon and improves voter welfare at the expense of politicians. Thus, we expect successful politicians to oppose true campaign finance reform. We also show our model

  6. Copyright reform on the EU level European Network for Copyright in support of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhlen, Rainer

    Copyright reform on the EU level European Network for Copyright in support of Education and Budapest Business School #12;Copyright reform on the EU level What can science and education expect from a copyright reform on the EU level? Rainer Kuhlen University of Konstanz, HumboldtUniversity Berlin, IPR

  7. BEHIND THE VEIL THE REFORM OF ISLAM IN INTER-WAR ALBANIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    107 BEHIND THE VEIL THE REFORM OF ISLAM IN INTER-WAR ALBANIA OR THE SEARCH FOR A "MODERN" of the country. The dominant role of secularist elites paved the way for the "reform of Islam." This process in the organization and reform of official religious institutions. For example, it interfered in the organization

  8. WELLCOME TRUST CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    WELLCOME TRUST CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England April 2013 1 Department for Education: Reform of the National Curriculum in England CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England April 2013 2

  9. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform February 16, 2010 of the Environment (CoEnv) to make useful contributions to the Governor's natural resource agency reform initiative. As a result, the Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform ad hoc Committee was established and given

  10. Combined Steam Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas under Electrical Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard

    Combined Steam Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas under Electrical production from simultaneous steam reforming and partial oxidation of methane using an ac corona discharge production has been steam reforming, shown in reaction 4. It is very useful to use low-cost materials

  11. Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual's GCSE reform consultation -August 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual's GCSE reform consultation - August 2013 1 Ofqual: GCSE reform consultation Response by the Wellcome Trust August 2013 Key points and indirect practical assessment in its reform proposals. The total contribution of direct and indirect

  12. August 15, 2013 Bargaining Update 8: UC stresses fair compensation and reasonable pension reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    reform UC stressed with the California Nurses Association on Aug. 6-8, 2013 the need to reach a fair's market. UC's pension reform proposal calls for: · Employees hired before July 1, 2013: UC would in substantive negotiations over responsible and necessary pension reform. CNA has not accepted UC's pension

  13. Inequality and the Politics of Social Policy Implementation: Gender, Age and Chile's 2004 Health Reforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Reforms CHRISTINA EWIG and GASTO´ N A. PALMUCCI * University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA Summary implementation. We examine the 2004 Chilean health reforms that sought to regulate private insurers, and measure their effects on gender and age inequality. We find that reforms intended to decrease these inequalities largely

  14. Using a CSCL-Driven Shift in Agency to Undertake Educational Reform1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzdial, Mark

    1 Using a CSCL-Driven Shift in Agency to Undertake Educational Reform1 Mark Guzdial1, Matthew educational reform efforts, but there are many challenges to face before achieving that vision. Two attempting to use this tool to leverage a particular kind of educational reform goal: Achieving integration

  15. Method for improving catalyst function in auto-thermal and partial oxidation reformer-based processors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Lee, Sheldon H.D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method for reforming fuel, the method comprising contacting the fuel to an oxidation catalyst so as to partially oxidize the fuel and generate heat; warming incoming fuel with the heat while simultaneously warming a reforming catalyst with the heat; and reacting the partially oxidized fuel with steam using the reforming catalyst.

  16. Hydrocarbon reforming for hydrogen fuel cells. Annual report, 1 October 1979 to 30 September 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, C.; Hou, P.Y.; Laine, R.M.; McCarty, J.G.; Sheridan, D.; Wise, H.; Wood, B.J.

    1981-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of carbon formation on nickel autothermal steam reforming catalysts has been studied by temperature-programming, thermogravimetric and electron microscopic techniques. Temperature programmed surface reaction (TPSR) studies of carbon deposited on nickel reforming catalysts by the decomposition of ethylene exhibit seven forms of carbon that are distinguished by their characteristic reactivity with H/sub 2/ and 3.0 vol% H/sub 2/O/He. The relative population of the different carbon states depends primarily on the temperature during deposition. The reactivity of the carbon states are not altered by exposure to steam in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O mixtures, but the amount of carbon deposited decreases to zero as the H/sub 2/O/C increases past a critical ratio. Critical steam-to-carbon ratios have been measured in the presence of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O mixtures so as to establish the carbon formation boundary for several alumina-supported nickel, Ni-Rh, and Ni-Ir alloy catalysts. The critical H/sub 2/O/C ratio measured with a gravimetric balance decreased from approx. 30 at 773/sup 0/K to approx. 1 at 1073/sup 0/K for all the catalysts studied. The very rapid rate of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ reforming over this temperature range caused mass transport gradients, which in turn lowered the apparent critical H/sub 2/O/C ratios. Carbon deposited on a 17 wt% Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst at 875/sup 0/K and 1073/sup 0/K was examined by transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. Results are reported and discussed.

  17. Treatability of Stormwater Heavy Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    for Chemical Treatment · Type 1 water: high turbidity, >100 NTU, and high alkalinity, >250 mg/L as CaCO3, CaCO3 (alkalinity may need to be added for alum or ferric chloride). · Type 3 water: low turbidity, 250 mg/L as CaCO3 (most stormwaters approach this category

  18. Reforming designs: education and training in Scotland and Higher Still 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howieson, Cathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and economic stance, and its current preoccupations and ambitions for itself. Thus the thesis uses the example of the Higher Still reform of post compulsory education and training in Scotland (from 1999 onwards) to reflect more generally on education and social...

  19. Reformed Epistemology and the Epistemic Status of Religious Belief 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolos, Anthony

    2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss the reformed epistemologist and his claim that one is within one’s epistemic rights in believing in God without any evidence or argument. The basis for this claim hinges on a parity argument that compares one’s perceptual experiences...

  20. ISSN 1745-9648 Potential Impact of Electricity Reforms on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    reforming her energy sector in line with EU Energy Acquis since 2001. Introducing a cost reflective tariff Bagdadioglu Department of Public Finance, Hacettepe University & Alparslan Basaran Department of Public for price changes, and consumption information from the 2003 Turkish Household Expenditure Survey. Turkey

  1. Fuel reforming for scramjet thermal management and combustion optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and the composition of the cracked fuel entering the combustor, an accurate predictive model of the thermalFuel reforming for scramjet thermal management and combustion optimization E. DANIAU* , M. BOUCHEZ of the main issues of hypersonic flight is the thermal management of the overall vehicle and more specifically

  2. ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Romania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Romania by Oana Diaconu Department of Economics and Management-11 Abstract: Romania is a net exporter of electricity to the SE Europe region. Its performance of this role for international transmission. Romania has committed itself to an electricity restructuring plan that includes

  3. The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Daniel L.

    The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform Yueyi I. Liu, MD, PhD, Daniel L. Rubin, MD, MS Improving health care quality while simultaneously reducing cost has become a high priority of health care (such as radiation dose tracking) and quality initiatives. Key Words: Informatics; health care. ª

  4. Healthcare Reform in Texas: How the Affordable Care Act (ACA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Healthcare Reform in Texas: How the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Will Impact Small Employer Health requirements, the function of health insurance exchanges and the future of employer-sponsored health insurance Shield of Texas Katrina Daniel Associate Commissioner, Life, Accident and Health Section Regulatory

  5. SECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN CHILE, POWER EXCHANGE MODEL. THE SOLUTION?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    their electric power systems, encouraging competition in generation and allowing private investments organizations, the Power Exchange (PX) and the Independent System Operator (ISO). Based on the electricitySECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN CHILE, POWER EXCHANGE MODEL. THE SOLUTION? David Watts Paulo Atienza

  6. Electricity reform and Gains from the reallocation of resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, Malcolm

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Perhaps the greatest beneficiary of electricity reform in Australia was the state government of Victoria itself, which was able to reduce debt levels and post budget surpluses even while increasing expenditure and employment levels in education, health care, and law and order. (author)

  7. French public management reform: an evaluation Gilles Jeannot, Danile Guillemot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    shared opposition in principle to certain New Public Management precepts (especially benchmarking1 French public management reform: an evaluation Gilles Jeannot, Danièle Guillemot International journal of public sector management, vol 26, n° 4, 2013, p. 283-297 Comparative research depicts France

  8. Integrated autothermal reactor concepts for oxidative coupling and reforming of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Twente, Universiteit

    #12;Integrated autothermal reactor concepts for oxidative coupling and reforming of methane #12-90-365-2985-3, DOI 10.3990/1.9789036529853 #12;INTEGRATED AUTOTHERMAL REACTOR CONCEPTS FOR OXIDATIVE COUPLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.5 Dual function catalyst particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.6 Autothermal

  9. Argonne Electrochemical Technology Program Sulfur removal from reformate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argonne Electrochemical Technology Program Sulfur removal from reformate Xiaoping Wang, Theodore Krause, and Romesh Kumar Chemical Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies 2003 Merit Review Berkeley, CA May 19-22, 2003 #12;Argonne Electrochemical Technology

  10. Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide Jessica Whalen, Oscar Marin Flores, Su University INTRODUCTION Energy consumption continues to skyrocket worldwide. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel as potential feedstock in solid oxide fuel cells. Petroleum based fuels become scarcer daily, and biodiesel

  11. Reforming with a platinum-barium-zeolite of l family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.; Hughes, T.R.

    1987-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described of reforming hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbons with a catalyst comprising: (a) a zeolite of the L family; (b) at least one Group VIII metal; and (c) an alkaline earth metal selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium and calcium.

  12. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) PRODUCT: MONOLITH FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The most important requirement for Hanford's low activity waste (LAW) form for shallow land disposal is the chemical durability of the product. A secondary, but still essential specification, is the compressive strength of the material with regards to the strength of the material under shallow land disposal conditions, e.g. the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations, because the term ''near-surface disposal'' indicates disposal in the uppermost portion, or approximately the top 30 meters, of the earth's surface. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) mineral waste form for LAW is granular in nature because it is formed by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). As a granular product it has been shown to be as durable as Hanford's LAW glass during testing with ASTM C-1285-02 known as the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and with the Single Pass Flow Through Test (SPFT). Hanford Envelope A and Envelope C simulants both performed well during PCT and SPFT testing and during subsequent performance assessment modeling. This is partially due to the high aluminosilicate content of the mineral product which provides a natural aluminosilicate buffering mechanism that inhibits leaching and is known to occur in naturally occurring aluminosilicate mineral analogs. In order for the TTT Na-Al-Si (NAS) granular mineral product to meet the compressive strength requirements (ASTM C39) for a Hanford waste form, the granular product needs to be made into a monolith or disposed of in High Integrity Containers (HIC's). Additionally, the Hanford intruder scenario for disposal in the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) trench is mitigated as there is reduced intruder exposure when a waste form is in a monolithic form. During the preliminary testing of a monolith binder for TTT's FBSR mineral product, four parameters were monitored: (1) waste loading (not optimized for each waste form tested); (2) density; (3) compressive strength; and (4) durability must not be compromised--binding agent should not react with the NAS product and binding agent should not create an unfavorable pH environment that may cause accelerated leaching. It is the goal of the present study to survey cementitious waste forms based on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Ceramicrete, and hydroceramic binders by correlating waste loading, density and compressive strength and then determine if these binders affect the product performance in terms of the PCT response. This will be done by making a one-to-one comparison of the PCT response measured on granular NAS mineral product (mixed bed and fines products) with the PCT response of the monolithed NAS product in the different binders. Future studies may include, refining the above binders, and examining other binders. It is likely that binders formed from kaolin would be most compatible with the chemistry of the THOR{reg_sign} mineral waste form which is made by steam reforming of kaolin and sodium rich wastes. The economics of production on a large scale have yet to be investigated for any of the binders tested.

  13. Durability Testing of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.; PAREIZS, JOHN M.; LORIER, TROY H.; MARRA, JAMES C.

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes but especially aqueous high sodium wastes at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The FBSR technology converts organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, converts nitrate/nitrite species to N{sub 2}, and produces a solid residue through reactions with superheated steam, the fluidizing media. If clay is added during processing a ''mineralized'' granular waste form can be produced. The mineral components of the waste form are primarily Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The cage and ring structured minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc{sup 99} and Cs{sup 137} and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals appear to stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Durability testing of the FBSR products was performed using ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The FBSR mineral products (bed and fines) evaluated in this study were found to be two orders of magnitude more durable than the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass requirement of 2 g/m{sup 2} release of Na{sup +}. The PCT responses for the FBSR samples tested were consistent with results from previous FBSR Hanford LAW product testing. Differences in the response can be explained by the minerals formed and their effects on PCT leachate chemistry.

  14. Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual Consultation: Completing GCSE, AS and A Level Reform -July 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    GCSE, AS and A Level Reform - July 2014 1 Ofqual: Completing GCSE, AS and A Level Reform Response core content in partnership does not deter exam boards from reforming worthwhile qualifications. 5: Completing GCSE, AS and A Level Reform - July 2014 2 6. Under the new proposals, exam boards will be required

  15. Wellcome Trust SUBMISSION OF EVIDENCE Wellcome Trust response to the NHS Future Forum inquiry into the NHS reforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    into the NHS reforms October 2011 1 NHS Future Forum: Inquiry into the NHS reforms Response by the Wellcome focus primarily on the impact of the reforms on health research and innovation, which run throughout the Future Forum's four themes. 3. The reforms of the NHS and public health systems must bring about

  16. Wellcome Trust SUBMISSION OF EVIDENCE Wellcome Trust response to Department for Education: Reforming Key Stage 4 qualifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    : Reforming Key Stage 4 qualifications December 2012 Department for Education: Reforming Key Stage 4 science skills. 2. We are pleased to have the opportunity to respond to the consultation on reforms to Key consultations on the reform to curriculum and assessment at various stages of schooling. There is an opportunity

  17. Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of Supported Noble Metal Catalysts in Steam Reforming of Liquid Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of...

  18. Reforming petroleum-based fuels for fuel cell vehicles : composition-performance relationships.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopasz, J. P.; Miller, L. E.; Ahmed, S.; Devlin, P. R.; Pacheco, M.

    2001-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Onboard reforming of petroleum-based fuels, such as gasoline, may help ease the introduction of fuel cell vehicles to the marketplace. Although gasoline can be reformed, it is optimized to meet the demands of ICEs. This optimization includes blending to increase the octane number and addition of oxygenates and detergents to control emissions. The requirements for a fuel for onboard reforming to hydrogen are quite different than those for combustion. Factors such as octane number and flame speed are not important; however, factors such as hydrogen density, catalyst-fuel interactions, and possible catalyst poisoning become paramount. In order to identify what factors are important in a hydrocarbon fuel for reforming to hydrogen and what factors are detrimental, we have begun a program to test various components of gasoline and blends of components under autothermal reforming conditions. The results indicate that fuel composition can have a large effect on reforming behavior. Components which may be beneficial for ICEs for their octane enhancing value were detrimental to reforming. Fuels with high aromatic and naphthenic content were more difficult to reform. Aromatics were also found to have an impact on the kinetics for reforming of paraffins. The effects of sulfur impurities were dependent on the catalyst. Sulfur was detrimental for Ni, Co, and Ru catalysts. Sulfur was beneficial for reforming with Pt catalysts, however, the effect was dependent on the sulfur concentration.

  19. Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

  20. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, C?lin C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  1. Electrochemical cell apparatus having an integrated reformer-mixer nozzle-mixer diffuser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical apparatus (10) is made having a generator section (22) containing electrochemical cells (16), a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet (28), a gaseous feed oxidant inlet (30), and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel (46), where the spent fuel recirculation channel (46), passes from the generator chamber (22) to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet (28) to form a reformable mixture, where a reforming chamber (54) contains an outer portion containing reforming material (56), an inner portion preferably containing a mixer nozzle (50) and a mixer-diffuser (52), and a middle portion (64) for receiving spent fuel, where the mixer nozzle (50) and mixer-diffuser (52) are preferably both within the reforming chamber (54) and substantially exterior to the main portion of the apparatus, where the reformable mixture flows up and then backward before contacting the reforming material (56), and the mixer nozzle (50) can operate below 400.degree. C.

  2. Electrochemical cell apparatus having an integrated reformer-mixer nozzle-mixer diffuser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shockling, L.A.

    1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical apparatus is made having a generator section containing electrochemical cells, a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet, a gaseous feed oxidant inlet, and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel, where the spent fuel recirculation channel, passes from the generator chamber to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet to form a reformable mixture, where a reforming chamber contains an outer portion containing reforming material, an inner portion preferably containing a mixer nozzle and a mixer-diffuser, and a middle portion for receiving spent fuel, where the mixer nozzle and mixer-diffuser are preferably both within the reforming chamber and substantially exterior to the main portion of the apparatus, where the reformable mixture flows up and then backward before contacting the reforming material, and the mixer nozzle can operate below 400 C. 1 figure.

  3. Steam Reforming, 6-in. Bench-Scale Design and Testing Project -- Technical and Functional Requirements Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Losinski, Sylvester John; Marshall, Douglas William

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Feasibility studies and technology development work are currently being performed on several processes to treat radioactive liquids and solids currently stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), located within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies and development work will be used to select a treatment process for treatment of the radioactive liquids and solids to meet treatment milestones of the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One process under consideration for treating the radioactive liquids and solids, specifically Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) and tank heel solids, is fluid bed steam reforming (FBSR). To support both feasibility and development studies a bench-scale FBSR is being designed and constructed. This report presents the technical and functional requirements, experimental objectives, process flow sheets, and equipment specifications for the bench-scale FBSR.

  4. At the Nexus of Social Policy and Capital Markets: Pension Reform and Enterprise Governance in Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziegler, J. Nicholas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Company Pension Schemes in Germany,” Monthly Report, March.2001. “Pension Reform in Germany,” draft chapter in R. Kentof Stakeholderism in Germany,”forthcoming, Industrielle

  5. Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dederer, J.T.; Hager, C.A.

    1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier. 10 figs.

  6. Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Mars, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier.

  7. A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2, 2004 2 2004 DEER Conference September 2, 2004 Introduction * ArvinMeritor's Plasma Fuel Reformer converts dieselair mixture into a hydrogen rich gas * Based on Partial...

  8. Corporate governance reform in a developing country : the case of Bangladesh 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobhan, Md. Abdus

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Bangladesh reformed its corporate governance by adopting Bangladesh Corporate Governance Guidelines-2006 (the BCGG-2006 hereafter) due to pressures from international financial institutions (IFIs). However, there is huge ...

  9. Fuel-flexible partial oxidation reforming of hydrocarbons for automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Carter, J. D.; Kopasz, J. P.; Krumpelt, M.; Wilkenhoener, R.

    1999-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro-reactor tests indicate that our partial oxidation catalyst is fuel-flexible and can reform conventional (gasoline and diesel) and alternative (ethanol, methanol, natural gas) fuels to hydrogen rich product gases with high hydrogen selectivity. Alcohols are reformed at lower temperatures (< 600 C) while alkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons require slightly higher temperatures. Cyclic hydrocarbons and aromatics have also been reformed at relatively low temperatures, however, a different mechanism appears to be responsible for their reforming. Complex fuels like gasoline and diesel, which are mixtures of a broad range of hydrocarbons, require temperatures of > 700 C for maximum hydrogen production.

  10. Regulatory Reform in the Wake of the Financial Crisis of 2007—2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Andrew W.

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse regulatory reform in the wake of the financial crisis of 2007-2008.

  11. A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Processor for Rapid and Efficient Regeneration of Single Leg NOx Adsorber Systems Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment...

  12. arc plasma-catalyst reformer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Private Insurance Market Renewable Energy Websites Summary: SUMMARY s national health care reform efforts go forward, it is instructive to review states' experience INTRODUCTION...

  13. Mayors, Markets and Municipal Reform: The Politics of Water Delivery in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Veronica Maria Sol

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bank and Policy Reform in Mexico and Argentina. ” Latinand policies, such as Pinochet’s Chile, Menem’s Argentina, and

  14. Autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based fuel processor, method for improving catalyst function in autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based processors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Lee, Sheldon H. D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a fuel processor comprising a linear flow structure having an upstream portion and a downstream portion; a first catalyst supported at the upstream portion; and a second catalyst supported at the downstream portion, wherein the first catalyst is in fluid communication with the second catalyst. Also provided is a method for reforming fuel, the method comprising contacting the fuel to an oxidation catalyst so as to partially oxidize the fuel and generate heat; warming incoming fuel with the heat while simultaneously warming a reforming catalyst with the heat; and reacting the partially oxidized fuel with steam using the reforming catalyst.

  15. High School Principals' Perceptions of Their Effectiveness in Leading District Initiated High School Reform: An Analysis of High School Principals Previously Engaged in High School Reform in an Urban Texas School District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rios, Carlos

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    school reform. However, to date, research has not provided examples of a successful relationship between campus principals as a collective group and the district (central office) leadership team attempting to implement district-wide high school reform...

  16. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Congress funded the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project via annual appropriations to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) beginning in fiscal year 2000. Congress established the project because it recognized that while hatcheries have a necessary role to play in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmonids, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform. Most hatcheries were producing fish for harvest primarily to mitigate for past habitat loss (rather than for conservation of at-risk populations) and were not taking into account the effects of their programs on naturally spawning populations. With numerous species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), conservation of salmon in the Puget Sound area was a high priority. Genetic resources in the region were at risk and many hatchery programs as currently operated were contributing to those risks. Central to the project was the creation of a nine-member independent scientific review panel called the Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG). The HSRG was charged by Congress with reviewing all state, tribal and federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and Coastal Washington as part of a comprehensive hatchery reform effort to: conserve indigenous salmonid genetic resources; assist with the recovery of naturally spawning salmonid populations; provide sustainable fisheries; and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of hatchery programs. The HSRG worked closely with the state, tribal and federal managers of the hatchery system, with facilitation provided by the non-profit organization Long Live the Kings and the law firm Gordon, Thomas, Honeywell, to successfully complete reviews of over 200 hatchery programs at more than 100 hatcheries across western Washington. That phase of the project culminated in 2004 with the publication of reports containing the HSRG's principles for hatchery reform and recommendations for Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to better meet both conservation and harvest goals. For each Columbia River Basin Environmentally Significant Unit

  17. California | Connecticut | Illinois | Maine | Maryland | Massachusetts | Michigan | New Hampshire | New Jersey | New York | Oregon | Vermont | Washington STATES' PRINCIPLES ON REFORM OF THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    | New Jersey | New York | Oregon | Vermont | Washington STATES' PRINCIPLES ON REFORM OF THE TOXIC chemical alternatives assessments. #12;States' Principles on Reform of the Toxic Substances Control Act

  18. SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell industry is in the role of third party independent testing. In order for tests to be conducted, hardware must be purchased and delivered. The fuel cell industry is still in a pre-commercial state, however. Commercial products are defined as having a fixed set of specifications, fixed price, fixed delivery date, and a warrantee. Negotiations with fuel cell companies over these issues are often complex, and the results of these discussions often reveal much about the state of development of the technology. This work includes some of the results of these procurement experiments. Fuel cells may one day replace heat engines as the source of electrical power in remote areas. However, the results of this program to date indicate that currently available hardware is not developed sufficiently for these environments, and that significant time and resources will need to be committed for this to occur.

  19. DOE Safety and Security Reform Meeting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"WaveInteractions and PolicyCybersecurityThisSafety and Security Reform

  20. Hiring Reform Memoranda and Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar PowerCommercial Cold ClimateHiring Reform Memoranda and

  1. IT Reform at the Department of Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of Energy IRS Issues New TaxModernizationReform at

  2. National Development and Reform Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall, Pennsylvania: EnergyEnergy Information Conference of State HistoricReform

  3. Hydrocarbon autothermal reforming program. Final technical report, 28 September 1979-31 October 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, D.O.; Lewis, P.F.; Lord, G.W.; Yarrington, R.M.; Hwang, H.S.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the PSI program was to understand the mechanisms of the formation of carbon deposits under conditions relevant to authothermal reformers (ATR). The first year of this two year program was dedicated almost entirely to investigations of gas phase soot formation. It was speculated that soot could form in the gas phase and deposit downstream in the catalyst bed. A high temperature experimental test rig was constructed and comptuer models developed to aid in understanding this process. The conclusion of these studies is that soot does not form in the gas phase upstream of the catalyst bed, under ATR conditions, at least, not under well mixed conditions. In the second year, the program was redirected to study carbon formation processes on surfaces and to perform testing and analysis of Engelhard's six inch ATR rig. This work has resulted in an operational computer code for use in modeling the Engelhard ATR. This code requires rate constant information for performance prediction. The PSI laboratory experiments have shown that coke formation on surfaces of nickel catalysts is very rapid, particularly from olefins. Filamentary carbon was formed. Various relevant processes and their relative rates were studied on various nickel surfaces. Coke was not observed when precious metal catalysts were used. Testing on the Engelhard reactor was performed. These preliminary tests show that the Engelhard catalysts can be used to reform number two fuel oil with no problems associated with carbonaceous deposits. Some hydrocarbon breakthrough was observed, increasing at low oxygen to carbon ratio (0.355). These limited data clearly indicate a high potential for a useful ATR. Further testing and analysis are clearly necessary.

  4. Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-06-00192

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czernik, S.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is for Chevron and NREL to collaborate in determining the effect of bio-oil composition variability on autothermal reforming performance including bio-oil volatilization, homogeneous oxidative cracking, and catalytic reforming.

  5. Control and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350WControl and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350Wp high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systemhigh temperature polymer electrolyte memb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Control and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350WControl and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350Wp high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, 9220 Aalborg East, Denmarkp gy gy g y pp g Introd ction Steam reforming of methanol for a HTPEM f el

  6. Electricity Markets: Should the Rest of the World Adopt the UK Reforms?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    PWP-069 Electricity Markets: Should the Rest of the World Adopt the UK Reforms? Catherine D;1 Electricity Markets: Should the Rest of the World Adopt the UK Reforms?1 By Catherine D. Wolfram2 Britain was one of the first countries to liberalize its electricity industry when it restructured and privatized

  7. A Planar Anode -Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 A Planar Anode - Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas.brault@univ-orleans.fr Abstract Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are of great interest due to their high energy efficiency, low, a mathematical model of a co - flow planar anode - supported solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming

  8. Inaugural Lecture The Politics of Belief and U.S. Health Care Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    1 Inaugural Lecture The Politics of Belief and U.S. Health Care Reform Joseph White Ph.D John G will not pretend to fully explain the politics of health care reform in the U.S.. I could make many other caveats is to give you some interesting ideas that you might use in thinking about American government. Health care

  9. HealtH reform and oHsu how we'll change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    HealtH reform and oHsu how we'll change Health reform will touch all of oHsu's missions. the coming changes are about more than public policy and health insurance. We will see transformation in how care is delivered, how health professionals are trained and how we decide what health care to buy. oHsu's missions

  10. Mexico's Energy Reform and the Potential Impact on Texas' Transportation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and extraction since 1997 · Increased imports of refined products and crude oil ­Mexico to become a net oil of industrial safety and environmental protection Footer Text Mexico's Energy Reform #12;· Reserves availableMexico's Energy Reform and the Potential Impact on Texas' Transportation System Jolanda Prozzi

  11. Wage and Job Dynamics After Welfare Reform: The Importance of Job Skills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    Wage and Job Dynamics After Welfare Reform: The Importance of Job Skills Rucker C. Johnson), and the Office of the Vice-President for Research at the University of Michigan. #12;Wage and Job Dynamics After Welfare Reform: The Importance of Job Skills Abstract I use data from employers and longitudinal data from

  12. A review of "Godly Reformers and their Opponents in Early Modern England: Religion in Norwich." by Matthew Reynolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Geoff

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , to say nothing of the usefulness of the Glossary of Rhetorical Terms (omitted from the con- tents page), these technical flaws are a pity indeed. Matthew Reynolds. Godly Reformers and their Opponents in Early Modern England: Religion in Norwich c.1560... relatively uncontested Reformation, Norwich became Protestant ?in a process that was far from quiet? (35). The religious divisions the Reformation created remained rife, providing Laudian reforms with a measure of lay support within the city, which in turn...

  13. Agenda Setting And The Role Of Leadership In National Health Care Reform During The Early 1990s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Michael S,

    2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Health care reform was the dominant issue on the political agenda during the early 1990s. Few issues

  14. GOVERNMENT VERSUS GOVERNANCE AS A FRAMEWORK Government versus Governance as a Framework to analyze Mexico's Energy Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    branch, the oil company PEMEX' union, other critics of the reform among a part of the left party Partido

  15. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the second report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1--March 31, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) Internal and external evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel; (2) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation; (3) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor; (4) Steam reformation of Coal Based Methanol; and (5) Initial catalyst degradation studies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  16. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the third report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 30, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) External evaluation of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design, set up and initial testing of the autothermal reactor, (3) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (4) Catalyst degradation studies, and (5) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  17. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) With Hanford Low Activity Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Burket, P. R.; Bannochie, C. J.; Daniel, W. G.; Nash, C. A.; Cozzi, A. D.; Herman, C. C.

    2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750?C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

  18. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the tenth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2006. This quarter saw progress in six areas. These areas are: (1) The effect of catalyst dimension on steam reforming, (2) Transient characteristics of autothermal reforming, (3) Rich and lean autothermal reformation startup, (4) Autothermal reformation degradation with coal derived methanol, (5) Reformate purification system, and (6) Fuel cell system integration. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  19. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of INEEL SBW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arlin L. Olson; Nicholas R. Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many studies have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. DOE desired further experimental data, with regard to steam reforming technology, to make informed decisions concerning selection of treatment technology for SBW. Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was performed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel September 27 through October 1, 2004. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, and located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Personnel from Science Applications International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, operated the pilot plant. The pilot scale test was terminated as planned after achieving a total of 100 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation. About 230 kg of SBW surrogate were processed that resulted in about 88 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 62%. The process achieved about a 90% turnover of the starting bed. Samples of mineralized solid product materials were analyzed for chemical/physical properties. Results of product performance testing conducted by SRNL will be reported separately by SRNL.

  20. Reforming small-scale mining in sub-Saharan Africa: Political and ideological challenges to a Fair Trade gold initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reforming small-scale mining in sub-Saharan Africa: Political and ideological challenges to a Fair-related challenges. However, recent at- tempts to reform ASM have, for the most part, failed to ameliorate its furthered by mining sector reforms (Noetstaller, 1996). Gilman's adaptation of Noetstaller's (1996

  1. Introduction In the past two decades China has embarked on a series of ambitious reforms, not the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Youqin

    Introduction In the past two decades China has embarked on a series of ambitious reforms because of the coexistence of housing markets and the socialist government. Furthermore, housing reform in urban China is decentralized, with central govern- ment laying out the framework of housing reform

  2. Experimental Evaluation of a Pt-based Heat Exchanger Methanol Reformer for a HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Experimental Evaluation of a Pt-based Heat Exchanger Methanol Reformer for a HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack as e.g. methanol as the hydrogen carrier and reforming it to a hydrogen rich gas can solve some of these storage issues. The work presented here examines the use of a heat exchanger methanol reformer for use

  3. Committee on Government Reform, United States House of Representatives Testimony for the September 21, 2006 Hearing on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Committee on Government Reform, United States House of Representatives Testimony for the September Waxman, and other members of the House Committee on Government Reform, I am grateful for the opportunity on Government Reform, September 21, 2006 - 2- In July of last year the Honourable R. John Efford

  4. Comedy, Science, and the Reform of Description in Lombard Painting of the Late Renaissance: Arcimboldo, Vincenzo Campi, and Bartolomeo Passerotti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salzman, Daniel

    Comedy, Science, and the Reform of Description in Lombard Painting of the Late Renaissance, and the Reform of Description in Lombard Painting of the Late Renaissance: Arcimboldo, Vincenzo Campi, as part of an aesthetic "reform" of description and its critical reputation. Considering that all three

  5. If it's Broken, Don't Fix it: The Government of the Euro area in the EU "Reform Treaty"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    If it's Broken, Don't Fix it: The Government of the Euro area in the EU "Reform Treaty" N° 2007: The Government of the Euro area in the EU "Reform Treaty" Éloi Laurent OFCE (Sciences-po Center for Economic failure. This paper examines the reforms of the "economic governance" of the euro area proposed

  6. Mathematics education reform:The role of coherence within the complexity of change Christine Suurtamm, Associate Professor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    535 Mathematics education reform:The role of coherence within the complexity of change Christine), that examines the implementation of a reform (inquiry-oriented) mathematics curriculum in Grades 7 ­ 10 as a catalyst to prompt reform in mathematics education. Current thinking in mathematics education and, in many

  7. A Collaborative Model for Calculus Reform--A Preliminary Report Po-Hung Liu, Ching-Ching Lin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    372 A Collaborative Model for Calculus Reform--A Preliminary Report Po-Hung Liu, Ching-Ching Lin1 two decades, both pros and cons of calculus reform have been discussed. A question often asked is, "Has the calculus reform project improved students' understanding of mathematics?" The advocates

  8. Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non-thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non- thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration to the reforming of Diesel fuel with Diesel engine exhaust gas using a non-thermal plasma torch for NOx trap Diesel fuel reforming with hal-00617141,version1-17May2013 Author manuscript, published in "Energy

  9. Fairness lost in immigration reform; Never before have sweeping changes to policies been undertaken with so little public debate or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Todd C.

    Fairness lost in immigration reform; Never before have sweeping changes to policies been undertaken reform is unique neither in terms of its controversial substance nor in its lack of meaningful democratic processes. In the past, major immigration reform has typically been the result of parliamentary deliberation

  10. [98e]-Catalytic reforming of gasoline and diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, C.; Wilkenhoener, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

    2000-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a fuel processor for converting liquid hydrocarbon fuels to a hydrogen-rich product suitable for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack. The processor uses an autothermal reformer to convert the feed to a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water with trace quantities of other components. The carbon monoxide in the product gas is then converted to carbon dioxide in water-gas shift and preferential oxidation reactors. Fuels that have been tested include standard and low-sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Iso-octane and n-hexadecane were also examined as surrogates for gasoline and diesel, respectively. Complete conversion of gasoline was achieved at 750 C in a microreactor over a novel catalyst developed at Argonne. Diesel fuel was completely converted at 850 C over this same catalyst. Product streams contained greater than 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis with iso-octane, gasoline, and n-hexadecane. For a diesel fuel, product streams contained >50% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis. The catalyst activity did not significantly decrease over >16 hours operation with the diesel fuel feed. Coke formation was not observed. The carbon monoxide fraction of the product gas could be reduced to as low as 1% on a dry, nitrogen-free basis when the water-gas shift reactors were used in tandem with the reformer.

  11. NiW and NiRu Bimetallic Catalysts for Ethylene Steam Reforming: Alternative Mechanisms for Sulfur Resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangan, M.; Yung, M. M.; Medlin, J. W.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous investigations of Ni-based catalysts for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons have indicated that the addition of a second metal can reduce the effects of sulfur poisoning. Two systems that have previously shown promise for such applications, NiW and NiRu, are considered here for the steam reforming of ethylene, a key component of biomass derived tars. Monometallic and bimetallic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Ni and W catalysts were employed for ethylene steam reforming in the presence and absence of sulfur. The NiW catalysts were less active than Ni in the absence of sulfur, but were more active in the presence of 50 ppm H{sub 2}S. The mechanism for the W-induced improvements in sulfur resistance appears to be different from that for Ru in NiRu. To probe reasons for the sulfur resistance of NiRu, the adsorption of S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} on several bimetallic NiRu alloy surfaces ranging from 11 to 33 % Ru was studied using density functional theory (DFT). The DFT studies reveal that sulfur adsorption is generally favored on hollow sites containing Ru. Ethylene preferentially adsorbs atop the Ru atom in all the NiRu (111) alloys investigated. By comparing trends across the various bimetallic models considered, sulfur adsorption was observed to be correlated with the density of occupied states near the Fermi level while C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption was correlated with the number of unoccupied states in the d-band. The diverging mechanisms for S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption allow for bimetallic surfaces such as NiRu that enhance ethylene binding without accompanying increases in sulfur binding energy. In contrast, bimetallics such as NiSn and NiW appear to decrease the affinity of the surface for both the reagent and the poison.

  12. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

  13. FEEDSTOCK-FLEXIBLE REFORMER SYSTEM (FFRS) FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL (SOFC)- QUALITY SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly Jezierski; Andrew Tadd; Johannes Schwank; Roland Kibler; David McLean; Mahesh Samineni; Ryan Smith; Sameer Parvathikar; Joe Mayne; Tom Westrich; Jerry Mader; F. Michael Faubert

    2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory funded this research collaboration effort between NextEnergy and the University of Michigan, who successfully designed, built, and tested a reformer system, which produced highquality syngas for use in SOFC and other applications, and a novel reactor system, which allowed for facile illumination of photocatalysts. Carbon and raw biomass gasification, sulfur tolerance of non-Platinum Group Metals (PGM) based (Ni/CeZrO2) reforming catalysts, photocatalysis reactions based on TiO2, and mild pyrolysis of biomass in ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at low and medium temperatures (primarily 450 to 850 C) in an attempt to retain some structural value of the starting biomass. Despite a wide range of processes and feedstock composition, a literature survey showed that, gasifier products had narrow variation in composition, a restriction used to develop operating schemes for syngas cleanup. Three distinct reaction conditions were investigated: equilibrium, autothermal reforming of hydrocarbons, and the addition of O2 and steam to match the final (C/H/O) composition. Initial results showed rapid and significant deactivation of Ni/CeZrO2 catalysts upon introduction of thiophene, but both stable and unstable performance in the presence of sulfur were obtained. The key linkage appeared to be the hydrodesulfurization activity of the Ni reforming catalysts. For feed stoichiometries where high H2 production was thermodynamically favored, stable, albeit lower, H2 and CO production were obtained; but lower thermodynamic H2 concentrations resulted in continued catalyst deactivation and eventual poisoning. High H2 levels resulted in thiophene converting to H2S and S surface desorption, leading to stable performance; low H2 levels resulted in unconverted S and loss in H2 and CO production, as well as loss in thiophene conversion. Bimetallic catalysts did not outperform Ni-only catalysts, and small Ni particles were found to have lower activities under S-free conditions, but did show less effect of S on performance, in this study. Imidazolium-based ILs, choline chloride compounds and low-melting eutectics of metal nitrates were evaluated, and it was found that, ILs have some capacity to dissolve cellulose and show thermal stability to temperatures where pyrolysis begins, have no vapor pressure, (simplifying product recoveries), and can dissolve ionic metal salts, allowing for the potential of catalytic reactions on breakdown intermediates. Clear evidence of photoactive commercial TiO2 was obtained, but in-house synthesis of photoactive TiO2 proved difficult, as did fixed-bed gasification, primarily due to the challenge of removing the condensable products from the reaction zone quickly enough to prevent additional reaction. Further investigation into additional non-PGM catalysts and ILs is recommended as a follow-up to this work.

  14. Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons in a Novel Hydrogen-Selective Membrane-Based Fuel Processor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, asymmetric dense Pd/porous stainless steel composite membranes were fabricated by depositing palladium on the outer surface of the tubular support. The electroless plating method combined with an osmotic pressure field was used to deposit the palladium film. Surface morphology and microstructure of the composite membranes were characterized by SEM and EDX. The SEM and EDX analyses revealed strong adhesion of the plated pure palladium film on the substrate and dense coalescence of the Pd film. Membranes were further characterized by conducting permeability experiments with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium gases at temperatures from 325 to 450 C and transmembrane pressure differences from 5 to 45 psi. The permeation results showed that the fabricated membranes have both high hydrogen permeability and selectivity. For example, the hydrogen permeability for a composite membrane with a 20 {micro}m Pd film was 3.02 x 10{sup -5} moles/m{sup 2}.s.Pa{sup 0.765} at 450 C. Hydrogen/nitrogen selectivity for this composite membrane was 1000 at 450 C with a transmembrane pressure difference of 14.7 psi. Steam reforming of methane is one of the most important chemical processes in hydrogen and syngas production. To investigate the usefulness of palladium-based composite membranes in membrane-reactor configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen, steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift was studied. The steam reforming of methane using a packed-bed inert membrane tubular reactor (PBIMTR) was simulated. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model with parallel flow configuration was developed for steam reforming of methane. The shell volume was taken as the feed and sweep gas was fed to the inside of the membrane tube. Radial diffusion was taken into account for concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system and then solved by finite difference method with appropriate boundary and initial conditions. An iterative scheme was used to obtain a converged solution. Membrane reactor performance was compared to that in a traditional non-membrane packed-bed reactor (PBR). Their performances were also compared with thermodynamic equilibrium values achievable in a conventional non-membrane reactor. Numerical results of the models show that the methane conversions in the PBIMTR are always higher than that in the PBR, as well as thermodynamic equilibrium conversions. For instance, at a reaction pressure of 6 atm, a temperature of 650 C, a space velocity of 900/16.0 SCCM/gm{sub cat}, a steam to methane molar feed ratio of 3.0, a sweep ratio of 0.15, the conversion in the membrane reactor is about 86.5%, while the conversion in the non-membrane reactor is about 50.8%. The corresponding equilibrium conversion is about 56.4%. The effects on the degree of conversion and hydrogen yield were analyzed for different parameters such as temperature, reactor pressure, feed and sweep flow rate, feed molar ratio, and space time. From the analysis of the model results, it is obvious that the membrane reactor operation can be optimized for conversion or yield through the choice of proper operating and design parameters. Comparisons with available literature data for both membrane and non-membrane reactors showed a good agreement.

  15. Reforming of Diesel Fuel for Transportation Applications J. P. Kopasz, S. Lottes, D-J. Liu, R. Ahluwalia, V. Novick and S. Ahmed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reforming of Diesel Fuel for Transportation Applications J. P. Kopasz, S. Lottes, D-J. Liu, R. Ahluwalia, V. Novick and S. Ahmed Argonne National Laboratory Applications of diesel fuel reforming reformate injection in internal combustion engine (ICE) and/or reformate feed to selective catalytic

  16. CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES, UC BERKELEY 11Spring 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    . The future is promising, the foreign press says. Mexico has crossed the threshold and approved reformsCENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES, UC BERKELEY 11Spring 2014 M exico waking up. Mexico moving, propose reforms, and approve them. A country that no longer wants to be hostage to archaic traditions

  17. Modeling of On-Cell Reforming Reaction for Planar SOFC Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Choongmo; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Hwang, Soon Cheol; Kim, Dohyung; Lai, Canhai; Koeppel, Brian J.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack is known to suffer thermal problem from high stack temperature during operation to generate high current. On-Cell Reforming (OCR) phenomenon is often used to reduce stack temperature by an endothermic reaction of steam-methane reforming process. RIST conducted single-cell experiment to validate modeling tool to simulate OCR performance including temperature measurement. 2D modeling is used to check reforming rate during OCR using temperature measurement data, and 3D modeling is used to check overall thermal performance including furnace boundary conditions.

  18. How fuel composition affects on-board reforming for fuel cell vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopasz, J. P.; Miller, L. E.; Applegate, D. V.; Chemical Engineering

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Different blends of gasoline range hydrocarbons were investigated to determine the effect of aromatic, naphthenic, and paraffinic content on performance in an autothermal reformer. In addition, we investigated the effects of detergent, antioxidant, and oxygenate additives. These tests indicate that composition effects are minimal at temperatures of 800C and above, but at lower temperatures or at high gas hourly space velocities (GHSV approaching 100,000 h{sup -1} ) composition can have a large effect on catalyst performance. Fuels high in aromatic and naphthenic components were more difficult to reform. In addition, additives, such as detergents and oxygenates were shown to decrease reformer performance at lower temperatures.

  19. Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven F. Rice; David P. Mann

    2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Süd-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO2 in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the burner allow for the direct participation of CO2 in the oxidation chemistry.

  20. Five Kilowatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Diesel Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing fossil fuel consumption both for energy security and for reduction in global greenhouse emissions has been a major goal of energy research in the US for many years. Fuel cells have been proposed as a technology that can address both these issues--as devices that convert the energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy, they offer low emissions and high efficiencies. These advantages are of particular interest to remote power users, where grid connected power is unavailable, and most electrical power comes from diesel electric generators. Diesel fuel is the fuel of choice because it can be easily transported and stored in quantities large enough to supply energy for small communities for extended periods of time. This projected aimed to demonstrate the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on diesel fuel, and to measure the resulting efficiency. Results from this project have been somewhat encouraging, with a laboratory breadboard integration of a small scale diesel reformer and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell demonstrated in the first 18 months of the project. This initial demonstration was conducted at INEEL in the spring of 2005 using a small scale diesel reformer provided by SOFCo and a fuel cell provided by Acumentrics. However, attempts to integrate and automate the available technology have not proved successful as yet. This is due both to the lack of movement on the fuel processing side as well as the rather poor stack lifetimes exhibited by the fuel cells. Commercial product is still unavailable, and precommercial devices are both extremely expensive and require extensive field support.

  1. The Forgotten Children: African American Children and Child Welfare Reform in St. Louis, 1890-1930

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thirlkel, Thomas E.

    2010-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Forgotten Children examines the influence of racial ideology on the trajectory of child welfare reform in late nineteenth century and early twentieth century St. Louis. The modern American child welfare system emerged in this time period...

  2. OXIDATION OF FUELS IN THE COOL FLAME REGIME FOR COMBUSTION AND REFORMING FOR FUEL CELLS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NAIDJA,A.; KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.; MAHAJAN,D.

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE REVIEW INTEGRATES RECENT INVESTIGATIONS ON AUTO OXIDATION OF FUEL OILS AND THEIR REFORMING INTO HYDROGEN RICH GAS THAT COULD SERVE AS A FEED FOR FUEL CELLS AND COMBUSTION SYSTEMS.

  3. The wholesale market for electricity in England and Wales : recent developments and future reforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeting, Andrew

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The England and Wales wholesale electricity market is about to undergo major reform (NETA). I describe and analyse the proposed arrangements, contrasting them with those currently in operation. I argue that while NETA will ...

  4. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Zhang, Gong (Murrysville, PA)

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  5. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Background Paper

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Paper by Arlene Anderson and Tracy Carole presented at the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group, with a focus on key drivers, purpose, and scope.

  6. The risk of reform : privatisation and liberalisation in the Brazilian electric power industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tankha, Sunil, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1996, when Brazil was well-underway to privatising and liberalising its electric power industry, few would have predicted that within five years the reforms would be a shambles. Like its neighbors Argentina and Chile, ...

  7. Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther Dieckmann

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

  8. Admonition and the academy : installation, video, and performance art in Reform Era China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oen, Karin Grace

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China's Reform Era (1978-present) has seen the reinvigoration of academic, and artistic practice, and a rapprochement between the Chinese Communist Party and the intellectual elite. At its beginnings in the early- to ...

  9. Effects of operating conditions, compression ratio, and gasoline reformate on SI engine knock limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerty, Michael D

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of experiments was performed to investigate the effects of air-fuel ratio, inlet boost pressure, hydrogen rich fuel reformate, and compression ratio on engine knock behavior. For each condition the effect of spark ...

  10. Building the Reformed Kirk: the cultural use of ecclesiastical buildings in Scotland, 1560–1645 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chernoff, Graham Thomas

    2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the built environment and culture of Scotland between 1560 and 1645 by analysing church buildings erected during the period. The mid-sixteenth century ecclesiastical Reformation and mid-seventeenth-century ...

  11. An Act to Reform Land Use Planning in the Unorganized Territory (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An Act to Reform Land Use Planning in the Unorganized Territory alters the makeup and responsibilities of Maine's Land Use Regulation Commission (LURC). It took effect on August 29, 2012 and...

  12. The Li'an ("Docketing") Process: Barriers to Initiating Lawsuits in China and Possible Reforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheuk, Andrea

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supreme People's Court ("SPC") found it necessary to pro-note 10, at 88-9. The 1999 SPC Five Year Reform Program ("On May 29, 1997, the SPC issued the Li'an ("Docketing") Work

  13. Kill Fewer, Kill Carefully: An Analysis of the 2006 to 2007 Death Penalty Reforms in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minas, Stephen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supreme People's Court ("SPC") review of every death sen-view of each sentence by the SPC. These reforms are the mostdoubts about whether the SPC would effectively implement

  14. Computational heterogeneous catalysis applied to steam methane reforming over nickel and nickel/silver catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaylock, Donnie Wayne

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction is the primary industrial means for producing hydrogen gas. As such, it is a critical support process for applications including petrochemical processing and ammonia synthesis. ...

  15. Earnings Determination and Taxes: Evidence from a Cohort-Based Payroll Tax Reform in Greece

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saez, Emmanuel; Matsaganis, Manos; Tsakloglou, Panos

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pension outcomes i n Greece." British Jour¬ nal ofIndustrialL T A X R E F O R M IN GREECE Emmanuel Saez Manos MatsaganisBased Payroll Tax Reform in Greece Emmanuel Saez, Manos

  16. The impact of Basel II reforms : a contraction in SME lending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charpentier, Apolline

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The implementation of Basel II reforms has been designed to protect the international financial system from major bank collapses through the enforcement of minimum capital adequacy ratios. This new set of rules has raised ...

  17. Periodicities in societal systems behaviors: relationships of economies, generations, and technologies to reforms in medical education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinra, Reva Elaine

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    , Marchetti). In seeking to discover how medical education responds to such societal changes, this research analyzes past educational reforms in the context of concurrent social environments. By discovering temporal connections between cyclical behaviors...

  18. The rules of ruling : charter reform in Los Angeles, 1850-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingram, James Warren

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    s persistent tabling and shelving of reform proposals didalso accounts for their shelving of LARC’s proposal for analso accounts for their shelving of LARC's proposal for an

  19. Organizational sense making : responsibilities to the MCAS reform in the Massachusetts public schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Janice J., 1953-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Educational reform has become a central concern of public policy debates at both the state and federal level. The policy trend both nationally and locally is towards uniform standards in education, with testing as the ...

  20. Deregulating and regulatory reform in the U.S. electric power sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the evolution of wholesale and retail competition in the U.S electricity sector and associated industry restructuring and regulatory reforms. It begins with a discussion of the industry structure and ...

  1. Reforming Small Power Systems under Political Volatility: The Case of Nepal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nepal, Rabindra; Jamasb, Tooraj

    electricity systems in Nepal and other South Asian countries are inefficient and suffer from institutionalized corruption and persistent rent seeking behaviour together with poor economic governance of the power sector (Smith, 2004). 3. Major Reforms... electricity reforms initiatives was mooted after the creation of NEA by merging the Electricity Department, Electricity Boards and Nepal Electricity Corporation in 1985 in accordance with the provisions of NEA Act of 1984 (Thakur, 2002). The establishment...

  2. Evaluating the Evidence on Electricity Reform: Lessons for the South East Europe (SEE) Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollitt, Michael G.

    at evaluating the impact of any given step (e.g. privatisation or the introduction of incentive regulation etc.) problematic. These observations immediately give rise to the suggestion that it is not clear that a proper evaluation of the impact of electricity... .g. with a single reform variable) or to distinguish all the elements of reform carefully (e.g. incentive regulation). Clearly the ability of the model to deliver efficient investment, especially in generation, has not been established by econometrics...

  3. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the eighth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005 and includes an entire review of the progress for year 2 of the project. This year saw progress in eight areas. These areas are: (1) steam reformer transient response, (2) steam reformer catalyst degradation, (3) steam reformer degradation tests using bluff bodies, (4) optimization of bluff bodies for steam reformation, (5) heat transfer enhancement, (6) autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (7) autothermal catalyst degradation, and (8) autothermal reformation with bluff bodies. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

  4. Methane steam reforming analysis in a palladium-based catalytic membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbieri, G. [CNR, Rende (Italy). Inst. of Research on Membranes and Chemical Reactors Modeling] [CNR, Rende (Italy). Inst. of Research on Membranes and Chemical Reactors Modeling; Violante, V. [CR ENEA Frascati (Italy)] [CR ENEA Frascati (Italy); Maio, F.P. di; Criscuoli, A. [Univ. of Calabria, Rende (Italy). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials] [Univ. of Calabria, Rende (Italy). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials; Drioli, E. [CNR, Rende (Italy). Inst. of Research on Membranes and Chemical Reactors Modeling] [CNR, Rende (Italy). Inst. of Research on Membranes and Chemical Reactors Modeling; [Univ. of Calabria, Rende (Italy). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The methane steam reforming in a catalytic membrane reactor has been studied. A previous theoretical study of this reaction has been carried out. In the model a global kinetic rate as a function of three reactions over nickel catalyst as proposed by Xu and Froment has been considered. It has been shown that the counterflow configuration has, at high temperature (500 C), a marginal advantage on parallel flow and, also, that the space velocity cannot be considered a design variable for membrane reactors. A laboratory plant was realized utilizing membranes of Pd and Pd/Ag supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The Pd membranes utilized have been prepared using the co-condensation technique and the electroless plating method. A comparison of the overall membrane performance has also been carried out. The experiments were aimed to study the effects of several parameters such as temperature, feed flow rate, and feed molar ratio on the methane conversion. The experimental results have been compared with the data predicted by the previously developed theoretical model.

  5. Methods of reforming hydrocarbon fuels using hexaaluminate catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Todd H. (Morgantown, WV); Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV)

    2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal substituted hexaaluminate catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas of the general formula AB.sub.yAl.sub.12-yO.sub.19-.delta., A being selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and lanthanide metals or mixtures thereof. A dopant or surface modifier selected from a transitions metal, a spinel of an oxygen-ion conductor is incorporated. The dopant may be Ca, Cs, K, La, Sr, Ba, Li, Mg, Ce, Co, Fe, Ir, Rh, Ni, Ru, Cu, Pe, Os, Pd, Cr, Mn, W, Re, Sn, Gd, V, Ti, Ag, Au, and mixtures thereof. The oxygen-ion conductor may be a perovskite selected from M'RhO.sub.3, M'PtO.sub.3, M'PdO.sub.3, M'IrO.sub.3, M'RuO.sub.3 wherein M'=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca; a spinel selected from MRh.sub.2O.sub.4, MPt.sub.2O.sub.4, MPd.sub.2O.sub.4, MIr.sub.2O.sub.4, MRu.sub.2O.sub.4 wherein M=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca and mixtures thereof; a florite is selected from M''O.sub.2.

  6. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voelker, G.E.; Steedman, W.G. [Thermochem, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Chandran, R.R. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the treatment and disposal of an inventory of approximately 160,000 tons of Low-Level Mixed Waste (LLMW). Most of this LLMW is stored in drums, barrels and steel boxes at 20 different sites throughout the DOE complex. The basic objective of low-level mixed waste treatment systems is to completely destroy the hazardous constituents and to simultaneously isolate and capture the radionuclides in a superior final waste form such as glass. The DOE is sponsoring the development of advanced technologies that meet this objective while achieving maximum volume reduction, low-life cycle costs and maximum operational safety. ThermoChem, Inc. is in the final stages of development of a steam-reforming system capable of treating a wide variety of DOE low-level mixed waste that meets these objectives. The design, construction, and testing of a nominal 1 ton/day Process Development Unit is described.

  7. From the Frontlines to the Bottom Line: Medical Marijuana, the War on Drugs, and the Drug Policy Reform Movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heddleston, Thomas Reed

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Policy Reform: How an Illegal ‘Safer Injection Room’ Led toof African-Americans became illegal, the rise of “punitiveby wealthy whites, such as illegal prescription drug use by

  8. Interim Report: 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: Low Concentration Calcium Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Xie, YuLong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N Area will include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment if necessary (most likely phytoremediation). Since then, the agencies have worked together to agree on which apatite sequestration technology has the greatest chance of reducing Sr-90 flux to the river at a reasonable cost. In July 2005, aqueous injection, (i.e., the introduction of apatite-forming chemicals into the subsurface) was endorsed as the interim remedy and selected for field testing. Studies are in progress to assess the efficacy of in situ apatite formation by aqueous solution injection to address both the vadose zone and the shallow aquifer along the 300 ft of shoreline where Sr-90 concentrations are highest. This report describes the field testing of the shallow aquifer treatment.

  9. Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co/CeO2: The Effect of ZnO Promoter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of ZnO promoted Co/CeO2 catalysts were synthesized and characterized using XRD, TEM, H2-TPR, CO chemisorption, O2-TPO, IR-Py, and CO2-TPD. The effects of ZnO on the catalytic performances of Co/CeO2 were studied in ethanol steam reforming. It was found that the addition of ZnO facilitated the oxidation of Co0 via enhanced oxygen mobility of the CeO2 support which decreased the activity of Co/CeO2 in C–C bond cleavage of ethanol. 3 wt% ZnO promoted Co/CeO2 exhibited minimum CO and CH4 selectivity and maximum CO2 selectivity. This resulted from the combined effects of the following factors with increasing ZnO loading: (1) enhanced oxygen mobility of CeO2 facilitated the oxidation of CHx and CO to form CO2; (2) increased ZnO coverage on CeO2 surface reduced the interaction between CHx/CO and Co/CeO2; and (3) suppressed CO adsorption on Co0 reduced CO oxidation rate to form CO2. In addition, the addition of ZnO also modified the surface acidity and basicity of CeO2, which consequently affected the C2–C4 product distributions.

  10. Promotion effect of cobalt-based catalyst with rare earth for the ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiou, Josh Y. Z.; Chen, Ya-Ping; Yu, Shen-Wei; Wang, Chen-Bin [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Tahsi, Taoyuan 33509, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic performance of ethanol steam reforming (ESR) was investigated on praseodymium (Pr) modified ceria-supported cobalt oxide catalyst. The ceria-supported cobalt oxide (Ce-Co) catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation-oxidation (CPO) method, and the doped Pr (5 and 10 wt% loading) catalysts (Pr{sub 5}?Ce?Co and Pr{sub 10}?Ce?Co) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The reduction pretreatment under 250 and 400 °C (H250 and H400) was also studied. All samples were characterized by XRD, TPR and TEM. Catalytic performance of ESR was tested from 250 to 500 °C in a fixed-bed reactor. The doping of Pr into the ceria lattice has significantly promoted the activity and reduced the coke formation. The products distribution also can be influenced by the different reduction pretreatment. The Pr{sub 10}?Ce?Co?H400 sample is a preferential ESR catalyst, where the hydrogen distribution approaches 73% at 475 °C with less amounts (< 2%) of CO and CH{sub 4}.

  11. Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. This goal of this campaign was study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the mineral product encapsulated in a monolith to meet compressive strength requirements. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory.

  12. Development of a Catalyst/Sorbent for Methane Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.H. Shans; T.D. Wheelock; Justinus Satrio; Karl Albrecht; Tanya Harris Janine Keeley; Ben Silva; Aaron Shell; Molly Lohry; Zachary Beversdorf

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project led to the further development of a combined catalyst and sorbent for improving the process technology required for converting CH{sub 4} and/or CO into H{sub 2} while simultaneously separating the CO{sub 2} byproduct all in a single step. The new material is in the form of core-in-shell pellets such that each pellet consists of a CaO core surrounded by an alumina-based shell capable of supporting a Ni catalyst. The Ni is capable of catalyzing the reactions of steam with CH{sub 4} or CO to produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, whereas the CaO is capable of absorbing the CO{sub 2} as it is produced. The absorption of CO{sub 2} eliminates the reaction inhibiting effects of CO{sub 2} and provides a means for recovering the CO{sub 2} in a useful form. The present work showed that the lifecycle performance of the sorbent can be improved either by incorporating a specific amount of MgO in the material or by calcining CaO derived from limestone at 1100 C for an extended period. It also showed how to prepare a strong shell material with a large surface area required for supporting an active Ni catalyst. The method combines graded particles of {alpha}-alumina with noncrystalline alumina having a large specific surface area together with a strength promoting additive followed by controlled calcination. Two different additives produced good results: 3 {micro}m limestone and lanthanum nitrate which were converted to their respective oxides upon calcination. The oxides partially reacted with the alumina to form aluminates which probably accounted for the strength enhancing properties of the additives. The use of lanthanum made it possible to calcine the shell material at a lower temperature, which was less detrimental to the surface area, but still capable of producing a strong shell. Core-in-shell pellets made with the improved shell materials and impregnated with a Ni catalyst were used for steam reforming CH{sub 4} at different temperatures and pressures. Under all conditions tested, the CH{sub 4} conversion was large (>80%) and nearly equal to the predicted thermodynamic equilibrium level as long as CO{sub 2} was being rapidly absorbed. Similar results were obtained with both shell material additives. Limited lifecycle tests of the pellets also produced similar results that were not affected by the choice of additive. However, during each lifecycle test the period during which CO{sub 2} was rapidly absorbed declined from cycle to cycle which directly affected the corresponding period when CH{sub 4} was reformed rapidly. Therefore, the results showed a continuing need for improving the lifecycle performance of the sorbent. Core-in-shell pellets with the improved shell materials were also utilized for conducting the water gas shift reaction in a single step. Three different catalyst formulations were tested. The best results were achieved with a Ni catalyst, which proved capable of catalyzing the reaction whether CO{sub 2} was being absorbed or not. The calcined alumina shell material by itself also proved to be a very good catalyst for the reaction as long as CO{sub 2} was being fully absorbed by the core material. However, neither the alumina nor a third formulation containing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were good catalysts for the reaction when CO{sub 2} was not absorbed by the core material. Furthermore, the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-containing catalyst was not as good as the other two catalysts when CO{sub 2} was being absorbed.

  13. Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided Fundamental Atomistic Insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suljo Linic

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, various Ni alloy catalysts as potential carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. The alloy catalysts were synthesized and tested in steam reforming and partial oxidation of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalysts are much more carbon-tolerant than monometallic Ni catalysts under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by two characteristics: (a) knowledge-based, bottomup approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) the focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

  14. New Insights into Reaction Mechanisms of Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co-ZrO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction pathway of ethanol steam reforming on Co-ZrO2 has been identified and the active sites associated with each step are proposed. Ethanol is converted to acetaldehyde and then to acetone, followed by acetone steam reforming. More than 90% carbon was found to follow this reaction pathway. N2-Sorption, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), in situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy, as well as theoretical Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been employed to identify the structure and functionality of the catalysts, which was further used to correlate their performance in ESR. It was found that metallic cobalt is mainly responsible for the acetone steam reforming reactions; while, CoO and basic sites on the support play a key role in converting ethanol to acetone via dehydrogenation and condensation/ketonization reaction pathways. The current work provides fundamental understanding of the ethanol steam reforming reaction mechanisms on Co-ZrO2 catalysts and sheds light on the rational design of selective and durable ethanol steam reforming catalysts.

  15. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR THE BENCH STEAM REFORMER TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BANNING DL

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing. The type, quantity and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluid bed steam reformer (FBSR). A determination of the adequacy of the FBSR process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the FBSR process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used to test the FBSR process. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the testing criteria.

  16. Process and apparatus for the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sircar, Shivaji (Wescosville, PA); Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond (Fogelsville, PA); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the steam reforming of hydrocarbon, particularly methane, under elevated temperature and pressure to produce hydrogen, a feed of steam and hydrocarbon is fed into a first reaction volume containing essentially only reforming catalyst to partially reform the feed. The balance of the feed and the reaction products of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are then fed into a second reaction volume containing a mixture of catalyst and adsorbent which removes the carbon dioxide from the reaction zone as it is formed. The process is conducted in a cycle which includes these reactions followed by countercurrent depressurization and purge of the adsorbent to regenerate it and repressurization of the reaction volumes preparatory to repeating the reaction-sorption phase of the cycle.

  17. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    of coal and coke are consumed for heating and reducing iron oxides [2,3]. As a result, BFs have becomeHydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction 2012 Available online 18 June 2012 Keywords: Steam reforming Hydrogen and syngas production Coke oven

  18. Isotopic and kinetic assessment of the mechanism of methane reforming and decomposition reactions on supported iridium catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Isotopic and kinetic assessment of the mechanism of methane reforming and decomposition reactions reforming reactions. 1. Introduction Methane is an essential raw material in the synthesis of liquid fuels and petrochemical, but its strong C­H bonds (439 kJ molÀ1 1 ) require active catalysts and severe reaction

  19. Demonstration of Energy Efficient Steam Reforming in Microchannels for Automotive Fuel Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whyatt, Greg A.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Geeting, John GH; Davis, James M.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, energy efficient microchannel steam reforming system has been demonstrated. The unit generates sufficient reformate to provide H2 to a 10 kWe PEM fuel cell (when coupled with a water-gas shift and CO cleanup reactors). The overall volume of the reactor is 4.9 liters while that of the supporting network of heat exchangers is 1.7 liters . Use of a microchannel configuration in the steam reforming reactor produces rapid heat and mass transport which enables fast kinetics for the highly endothermic reaction. Heat is provided to the reactor by a combustion gas flowing in interleaved microchannels in cross flow with the reaction channels. A network of microchannel heat exchangers allows recovery of heat in the reformate product and combustion exhaust streams for use in vaporizing water and fuel, preheating reactants to reactor temperature and preheating combustion air. The microchannel architecture enables very compact and highly effective heat exchangers to be constructed. As a result of the heat exchange network, the system exhaust temperatures are typically ~50?C for the combustion gas and ~130?C for the reformate product while the reactor is operated at 750?C. While reforming isooctane at a rate sufficient to supply a 13.7 kWe fuel cell the system achieved 98.6% conversion with an estimated overall system efficiency after integration with WGS and PEM fuel cell of 44% (electrical output / LHV fuel). The efficiency estimate assumes integration with a WGS reactor (90% conversion CO to CO2 with 100% selectivity) and a PEM fuel cell (64% power conversion effectiveness with 85% H2 utilization for an overall 54% efficiency) and does not include parasitic losses for compression of combustion air. Acknowledgement The work described here was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technology as part of the OTT Fuel Cells Program.

  20. The Olympus Scandal and Corporate Governance Reform: Can Japan Find a Middle Ground between the Board Monitoring Model and Management Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aronson, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OLYMPUS SCANDAL AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE REFORM: CAN JAPANScandal and Corporate Governance Issues A. Background of theunder Japan's Corporate Governance System ..