National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for reforming catalytic cracking

  1. Catalytic cracking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Baker, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved catalytic cracking, specifically improved recovery of olefins, LPG or hydrogen from catalytic crackers. The improvement is achieved by passing part of the wet gas stream across membranes selective in favor of light hydrocarbons over hydrogen.

  2. Catalytic reforming methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  3. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  4. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer Tore Lid Statoil Mongstad model of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving five pseudo components, was presented) developed a more de- tailed model of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving 35 pseudo

  5. Catalytic cracking. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of catalytic cracking in fluidized beds, moving beds, refineries, vacuum distillation, and reformers. Design criteria, models, controls, and operating procedures are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Catalytic cracking. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of catalytic cracking in fluidized beds, moving beds, refineries, vacuum distillation, and reformers. Design criteria, models, controls, and operating procedures are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer Tore Lid Statoil Mongstad of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving 35 pseudo compo- nents. They claimed that the simplified-mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high

  8. Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Extraction of Hydrogen from Bioethanol Reforming 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuncharam, Bhanu Vardhan

    2013-11-26

    -gas-shift catalytic membrane reactor, and (2) a multi-layer design for bioethanol reforming. A two-dimensional model is developed to describe reaction and diffusion in the catalytic membrane coupled with plug-flow equations in the retentate and permeate volumes using...

  9. Agglutination of single catalyst particles during fluid catalytic cracking as observed by X-ray nanotomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meirer, F.; Kalirai, S.; Weker, J. Nelson; Liu, Y.; Andrews, J. C.; Weckhuysen, B. M.

    2015-04-14

    Metal accumulation at the catalyst particle surface plays a role in particle agglutination during fluid catalytic cracking.

  10. Catalytic activation and reforming of methane on supported palladium clusters Aritomo Yamaguchi, Enrique Iglesia *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Catalytic activation and reforming of methane on supported palladium clusters Aritomo Yamaguchi and 13 C18 O, and 13 CO and 12 CO during CH4 reforming catalysis. This catalytic sequence, but do not contribute to steady-state catalytic reforming rates. The high reactivity of Pd surfaces in C

  11. Catalytic cracking receives heavy attention at Q and A meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-19

    Refiners discussed fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) - the workhorse of the modern refinery - in great detail at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association's annual question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology. Among the topics covered were the newest FCC refractory lining and particulate-control methods. The panel of experts also answered questions on the role of FCC in reducing gasoline benzene to meet reformulated gasoline specifications. This paper discusses refractories; particulate control; gasoline feeds; and benzene reduction.

  12. Producing Clean Syngas via Catalytic Reforming for Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magrini, K. A.; Parent, Y.; Jablonski, W.; Yung, M.

    2012-01-01

    Thermochemical biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals can be achieved through gasification to syngas. The biomass derived raw syngas contains the building blocks of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as well as impurities such as tars, light hydrocarbons, and hydrogen sulfide. These impurities must be removed prior to fuel synthesis. We used catalytic reforming to convert tars and hydrocarbons to additional syngas, which increases biomass carbon utilization. In this work, nickel based, fluidizable tar reforming catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for tar and methane reforming performance with oak and model syngas in two types of pilot scale fluidized reactors (recirculating and recirculating regenerating). Because hydrogen sulfide (present in raw syngas and added to model syngas) reacts with the active nickel surface, regeneration with steam and hydrogen was required. Pre and post catalyst characterization showed changes specific to the syngas type used. Results of this work will be discussed in the context of selecting the best process for pilot scale demonstration.

  13. Reaction kinetics of olefin saturation in the hydrodesulfurization of fluid catalytic cracked naphtha 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumann, Brian Herbert

    1995-01-01

    U.S. governmental agencies are calling for strict environmental regulations on the quality of gasoline. Fluid catalytic cracked naphtha is an important blending component of the gasoline pool. The majority of the sulfur in the gasoline pool comes...

  14. Diffusion and Catalytic Cracking of 1,3,5 Tri-iso-propyl-benzene in FCC Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

    1 Diffusion and Catalytic Cracking of 1,3,5 Tri-iso- propyl-benzene in FCC Catalysts S.Al-Khattaf1 describes catalytic cracking experiments developed in a novel CREC Riser Simulator using 1,3,5-Tri-iso-propyl-benzene

  15. Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-06-00192

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czernik, S.

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this project is for Chevron and NREL to collaborate in determining the effect of bio-oil composition variability on autothermal reforming performance including bio-oil volatilization, homogeneous oxidative cracking, and catalytic reforming.

  16. Fischer-Tropsch indirect coal liquefaction design/economics-mild hydrocracking vs. fluid catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, G.N.; Kramer, S.J.; Tam, S.S. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States); Reagan, W.J. [Amoco Oil Co., Naperville, IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    In order to evaluate the economics of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) indirect coal liquefaction, conceptual plant designs and detailed cost estimates were developed for plants producing environmentally acceptable, high-quality, liquid transportation fuels meeting the Clean Air Act requirements. The designs incorporate the latest developments in coal gasification technology and advanced (F-T) slurry reactor design. In addition, an ASPEN Plus process simulation model was developed to predict plant material and energy balances, utility requirements, operating and capital costs at varying design conditions. This paper compares mild hydrocracking and fluid catalytic cracking as alternative methods for upgrading the F-T wax.

  17. Electro-catalytic oxidation device for removing carbon from a fuel reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

    2010-02-23

    An electro-catalytic oxidation device (ECOD) for the removal of contaminates, preferably carbonaceous materials, from an influent comprising an ECOD anode, an ECOD cathode, and an ECOD electrolyte. The ECOD anode is at a temperature whereby the contaminate collects on the surface of the ECOD anode as a buildup. The ECOD anode is electrically connected to the ECOD cathode, which consumes the buildup producing electricity and carbon dioxide. The ECOD anode is porous and chemically active to the electro-catalytic oxidation of the contaminate. The ECOD cathode is exposed to oxygen, and made of a material which promotes the electro-chemical reduction of oxygen to oxidized ions. The ECOD electrolyte is non-permeable to gas, electrically insulating and a conductor to oxidized. The ECOD anode is connected to the fuel reformer and the fuel cell. The ECOD electrolyte is between and in ionic contact with the ECOD anode and the ECOD cathode.

  18. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-01-01

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.

  19. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-02-13

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.

  20. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-02-13

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (more »from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.« less

  1. Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on Co/MgO catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Ayman M.; Su, Yu; Engelhard, Mark H.; King, David L.; Wang, Yong

    2011-02-25

    Abstract: The catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol were investigated over Co/MgO catalysts. Catalysts with different Co0/(Co0+Co2+) fraction were prepared through calcination and/or reduction at different temperatures, and the Co0 fraction was quantified by TPR and in-situ XPS. High temperature calcination of Co/MgO allowed us to prepare catalysts with more non-reducible Co2+ incorporated in the MgO lattice, while lower calcination temperatures allowed for the preparation of catalysts with higher Co0/(Co0+Co2+) fractions. The catalytic tests on Co0, non-reducible Co2+, and reducible Co2+ indicated that Co0 is much more active than either reducible or non-reducible Co2+ for C-C cleavage and water gas shift reaction. In addition, catalysts with a higher Co0 surface fraction exhibited a lower selectivity to CH4.

  2. A fast hybrid start-up process for thermally self-sustained catalytic n-butane reforming in micro-SOFC power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    A fast hybrid start-up process for thermally self-sustained catalytic n-butane reforming in micro at the investigation and optimization of a hybrid start-up process for a self-sustained reactor for n-butane to syngas

  3. High Efficiency Solar-based Catalytic Structure for CO{sub 2} Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menkara, Hisham

    2013-09-30

    Throughout this project, we developed and optimized various photocatalyst structures for CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbon fuels and various commodity chemical products. We also built several closed-loop and continuous fixed-bed photocatalytic reactor system prototypes for a larger-scale demonstration of CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbons, mainly methane and formic acid. The results achieved have indicated that with each type of reactor and structure, high reforming yields can be obtained by refining the structural and operational conditions of the reactor, as well as by using various sacrificial agents (hole scavengers). We have also demonstrated, for the first time, that an aqueous solution containing acid whey (a common bio waste) is a highly effective hole scavenger for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor system and can help reform CO{sub 2} into several products at once. The optimization tasks performed throughout the project have resulted in efficiency increase in our conventional reactors from an initial 0.02% to about 0.25%, which is 10X higher than our original project goal. When acid whey was used as a sacrificial agent, the achieved energy efficiency for formic acid alone was ~0.4%, which is 16X that of our original project goal and higher than anything ever reported for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor. Therefore, by carefully selecting sacrificial agents, it should be possible to reach energy efficiency in the range of the photosynthetic efficiency of typical crop and biofuel plants (1-3%).

  4. ,"Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0.Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet nameVolumeCatalytic

  5. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  6. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA); DeZubay, Egon A. (Mt. Lebanon, PA); Murray, Alexander P. (Murrysville, PA); Vidt, Edward J. (Churchill, PA)

    1985-03-12

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  7. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA); DeZubay, Egon A. (Mt. Lebanon, PA); Murray, Alexander P. (Murrysville, PA); Vidt, Edward J. (Churchill, PA)

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  8. The influence of nano-architectured CeOx supports in RhPd/CeO? for the catalytic ethanol steam reforming reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Divins, N. J.; Senanayake, S. D.; Casanovas, A.; Xu, W.; Trovarelli, A.; Llorca, J.

    2015-01-19

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction has been tested over RhPd supported on polycrystalline ceria in comparison to structured supports composed of nanoshaped CeO? cubes and CeO? rods tailored towards the production of hydrogen. At 650-700 K the hydrogen yield follows the trend RhPd/CeO?-cubes > RhPd/CeO? -rods > RhPd/CeO?- polycrystalline, whereas at temperatures higher than 800 K the catalytic performance of all samples is similar and close to the thermodynamic equilibrium. The improved performance of RhPd/CeO?-cubes and RhPd/CeO? -rods for ESR at low temperature is mainly ascribed to higher water-gas shift activity and a strong interaction between the bimetallic -more »oxide support interaction. STEM analysis shows the existence of RhPd alloyed nanoparticles in all samples, with no apparent relationship between ESR performance and RhPd particle size. X-ray diffraction under operating conditions shows metal reorganization on {100} and {110} ceria crystallographic planes during catalyst activation and ESR, but not on {111} ceria crystallographic planes. The RhPd reconstructing and tuned activation over ceria nanocubes and nanorods is considered the main reason for better catalytic activity with respect to conventional catalysts based on polycrystalline ceria« less

  9. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-27

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  10. Evaluate reformer performance at a glance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nag, A. [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Gujarat (India)

    1996-02-01

    Catalytic reforming is becoming increasingly important in replacing octane lost as the removal of lead from worldwide gasoline pools continues. A method has been developed that can quickly evaluate the performance of any catalytic reformer. The catalytic naphtha reforming process primarily involves three well-known reactions. These are aromatization of naphthenes, cyclization of paraffins and hydrocracking of paraffins. Hydrogen is produced in the process of aromatization and dehydrocyclization of paraffins. Reformer performance is normally evaluated with a reformate analysis (PONA) and yield of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate. This method of quick evaluation of reformer performance is based upon the main assumption that the increase in hydrocarbon moles in the process is equal to the number of C{single_bond}C bond ruptures and one mole of hydrogen is absorbed to saturate the same. This new method calculates aromatization efficiency, paraffin conversion, aromatic selectivity and finally the paraffin, naphthene and aromatic content of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate.

  11. Hydrocarbon cracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, R.D.

    1980-12-02

    A cracking reactor is controlled in response to the proportion of heavy aromatic constituents in a feedstock to be cracked.

  12. Catalytic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaron, Timothy Mark (East Amherst, NY); Shah, Minish Mahendra (East Amherst, NY); Jibb, Richard John (Amherst, NY)

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  13. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  14. Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    molybdenum dioxide displays excellent behavior as catalytic material for the oxidative reforming of bothOxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide Jessica Whalen, Oscar Marin Flores, Su candidate as an effective catalyst for biodiesel. Few papers have been published on the topic of catalytic

  15. Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

    2004-04-15

    A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

  16. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  17. Ritterschaft & Reformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kallenrode, May-Britt

    Ritterschaft & Reformation Renaissancesaal im Ledenhof 23. und 24. Oktober 2014 Osnabrückgefördert deutsche Reformation in Böhmen und Mähren (1520-1620) Dr. Josef Hrdlicka, Ceské Budjovice 10:30 Kaffeepause. Olga Weckenbrock, Osnabrück 11:45 Die Bedeutung der Reichsritterschaft für Reformation und

  18. Fluid Catalytic Cracking Power Recovery Computer Simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samurin, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    operating conditions. The digital computer model simulates the performance of the axial compressor, power recovery expander, regenerator section, and system pressure drops. The program can simulate the process system design conditions for compatibility...

  19. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parent, Yves O. (Golden, CO); Magrini, Kim (Golden, CO); Landin, Steven M. (Conifer, CO); Ritland, Marcus A. (Palm Beach Shores, FL)

    2011-03-29

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  20. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  1. 976 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 4, AUGUST 2006 Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malen, Jonathan A.

    of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabri- cated976 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 4, AUGUST 2006 Methanol Steam Reformer is achieved through on-chip resis- tive heaters, whereby methanol steam reforming reactions were studied over

  2. Acquisition Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapolsky, Harvey

    This report reviews the six most recent major acquisition reform reports, starting in 1949 with the Hoover Commissions and including McNamara's Total Package Procurement, Fitzhugh Commission, the Commission on Government ...

  3. Aalborg Universitet Methanol Reformer System Modeling and Control using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    by a catalytic burner, which uses the excess hydrogen of the fuel cell. Figure 1 shows the reformer and fuel cellAalborg Universitet Methanol Reformer System Modeling and Control using an Adaptive Neuro., & Sahlin, S. L. (2012). Methanol Reformer System Modeling and Control using an Adaptive Neuro

  4. Integrated hydrocarbon reforming system and controls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Thijssen, Johannes; Davis, Robert; Papile, Christopher; Rumsey, Jennifer W.; Longo, Nathan; Cross, III, James C.; Rizzo, Vincent; Kleeburg, Gunther; Rindone, Michael; Block, Stephen G.; Sun, Maria; Morriseau, Brian D.; Hagan, Mark R.; Bowers, Brian

    2003-11-04

    A hydrocarbon reformer system including a first reactor configured to generate hydrogen-rich reformate by carrying out at least one of a non-catalytic thermal partial oxidation, a catalytic partial oxidation, a steam reforming, and any combinations thereof, a second reactor in fluid communication with the first reactor to receive the hydrogen-rich reformate, and having a catalyst for promoting a water gas shift reaction in the hydrogen-rich reformate, and a heat exchanger having a first mass of two-phase water therein and configured to exchange heat between the two-phase water and the hydrogen-rich reformate in the second reactor, the heat exchanger being in fluid communication with the first reactor so as to supply steam to the first reactor as a reactant is disclosed. The disclosed reformer includes an auxiliary reactor configured to generate heated water/steam and being in fluid communication with the heat exchanger of the second reactor to supply the heated water/steam to the heat exchanger.

  5. Journal of Power Sources 142 (2005) 184193 Modeling and optimization of catalytic partial oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    2005-01-01

    of a micro-reformer for a fuel cell unit based on catalytic partial oxidation using a systematic numerical is around 80% is identified. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Catalytic partial oxidationJournal of Power Sources 142 (2005) 184­193 Modeling and optimization of catalytic partial

  6. Integrating Gas Turbines with Cracking Heaters - Impact on Emissions and Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Platvoet, E.

    2011-01-01

    Turbine Exhaust Gas (TEG) contains high levels of oxygen, typically 15 vol. percent, due to gas turbine blade material temperature limits. As such it can be used as an oxidant for combustion in cracking furnaces and reformers. Its high temperature...

  7. Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV); Haynes, Daniel (Morgantown, WV); Smith, Mark (Morgantown, WV); Spivey, James J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2012-03-13

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  8. Immigration Reform: 1986 & Today

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    voice has  forced immigration reform back to the  political known as the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (

  9. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpel, Michael (Naperville, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  10. Hydrocarbon Processing`s refining processes `96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The paper compiles information on the following refining processes: alkylation, benzene reduction, benzene saturation, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, coking, crude distillation, deasphalting, deep catalytic cracking, electrical desalting, ethers, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, hydrogenation, hydrotreating, isomerization, resid catalytic cracking, treating, and visbreaking. The application, products, a description of the process, yield, economics, installation, and licensor are given for each entry.

  11. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2013-01-01

    LBL-11 019 UC-61 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,Catalytic Liquefaction of Biomass,n M, Seth, R. Djafar, G.of California. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION QUARTERLY

  12. Tailored Macroporous SiCN and SiC Structures for High-Temperature Fuel Reforming**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Tailored Macroporous SiCN and SiC Structures for High-Temperature Fuel Reforming** By In-Kyung Sung such as the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., die- sel or JP-8) into hydrogen for use in portable power sources. Performing heterogeneous catalytic reactions in porous struc- tures at the microscale has certain advantages

  13. Catalytic Coherence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johan Aberg

    2014-10-20

    Due to conservation of energy we cannot directly turn a quantum system with a definite energy into a superposition of different energies. However, if we have access to an additional resource in terms of a system with a high degree of coherence, as for standard models of laser light, we can overcome this limitation. The question is to what extent coherence gets degraded when utilized. Here it is shown that coherence can be turned into a catalyst, meaning that we can use it repeatedly without ever diminishing its power to enable coherent operations. This finding stands in contrast to the degradation of other quantum resources, and has direct consequences for quantum thermodynamics, as it shows that latent energy that may be locked into superpositions of energy eigenstates can be released catalytically.

  14. Preliminary Thoughts on Copyright Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuelson, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Thoughts on Copyright Reform by Pamela Samuelson * Myriadfor undertaking a copyright reform project. For one thing,product of a copyright reform process that was initiated in

  15. First-Principles Study on the Origin of the Different Selectivities for Methanol Steam Reforming on Cu(111) and Pd(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weixue

    different catalytic processes, including methanol decomposition (eq 1), methanol steam reforming (eq 2First-Principles Study on the Origin of the Different Selectivities for Methanol Steam Reforming steam reforming (MSR) is an important industrial process for hydrogen production, and fundamental

  16. Shadows and Cracks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dowson, Mark

    The VIRGIN program will interpret pictures of crack and shadow free scenes by labelling them according to the Clowes/Huffman formalism. This paper indicates methods of extending the program to include cracks and shadows ...

  17. Crack coalescence in granite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, James Thomas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    This thesis experimentally investigates crack coalescence in prismatic Barre Granite specimens with two pre-cut, open flaws under uniaxial compression. Using a high-speed video system, crack initiation, propagation, and ...

  18. MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Havstad, Mark A.

    2011-08-09

    Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

  19. PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN A THIN-FILM CATALYTIC MICROREACTOR: ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Besser, Ronald S.

    PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN A THIN-FILM CATALYTIC MICROREACTOR: ADVANTAGES stream after hydrocarbon fuel reforming and water-gas-shift reactions. This process, referred to as CO intermediate, which enhances the catalytic activity at temperatures below 200°C. With the same catalyst system

  20. CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth, Manu

    2012-01-01

    liquid Fuels from Biomass: "Catalyst Screening and KineticUC-61 (l, RCO osn CDL or BIOMASS CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION ManuCATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS Manu Seth, Roger Djafar,

  1. The relationship between crack-tip strain and subcritical cracking...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    crack-tip strain and subcritical cracking thresholds for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The relationship between crack-tip...

  2. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2013-01-01

    Solvent Systems Catalystic Biomass Liquefaction Investigatereactor Product collection Biomass liquefaction process12-13, 1980 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,

  3. IEEE TRANSACTION ON CONTROL SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2003 1 Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Applications Jay T. Pukrushpan, Anna G that reforms natural gas to hydrogen-rich mixture to feed the anode field of fuel cell stack is considered. The first reactor that generates the majority of the hydrogen in the fuel processor is based on catalytic

  4. Fluidic Catalytic Cracking Power Recovery Dynamic Computer Simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samurin, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    as the mechanical equipment and controls or outside electrical utility operation. The addition 622 ESL-IE-80-04-114 Proceedings from the Second Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 13-16, 1980 TYPICAL TH O(SK;N CONTROL SOlEMAllC fOR r.... The regenerator is modeled as a simple combustion chamber with compatibility of variable heat combustion capabilities. G. The motor/generator is modeled as either a sink or source load depending on speed, expander power, and axial compressor power...

  5. Energy Conservation Revamps in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, J. W.; Sloan, H. D.

    1984-01-01

    and product recovery through revamping. Older FCCU designs did not take full advantage of the heat available in the main fractionator. These older designs typically reject large amounts of heat to air or water cooling while using steam to reboil towers...

  6. Energy Recovery System for Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, H.; Lou, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    hot gas expanders. Flue gas from the FCC regenerator passes through a special cyclone separator to remove most of the entrained catalyst fines. It then enters the expander train to generate power for the compressor which supplies air...

  7. Tax Reform and Real Estate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maisel, Sherman J.; Quigley, John M.

    1985-01-01

    WORKING PAPER 85-100 TAX REFORM AND REAL ESTATE BY SHERMANof wider import. TAX REFORM AND REAL ESTATE by Sherman J.B. The Initial Impact of Tax Reform IV. RESULTS: RESTORING

  8. Rich catalytic injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  9. Fundamental kinetic modeling of the catalytic reforming process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sotelo-Boyas, Rogelio

    2007-04-25

    model are the reduction of aromatics, mainly benzene. The results from the simulations agree with the typical performance found in the industrial process....

  10. Petroleum Refinery Catalytic Reforming -- Cutting High Energy Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    and to regenerate catalysts. Firing rates provide an input of 216.2 x 106 Btu/hr. to the furnaces, at $1.90 per 106 Btu. The units are fitted with multiple natural draft burners. There is insufficient turbulence and swirl in the burners. Operators manually set up...

  11. Hydrogen from Biomass Catalytic Reforming of Pyrolysis Vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kg H2/day) with catalyst attrition rates Biomass Feedstocks 6 CO2 +6 H2O C6 waste Issues: Biomass Availability and Costs Georgia Biomass Feedstock Supply 0 3 6 9 12 2000 2010 2020

  12. Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6RUBUFFALO PENNELProcess:

  13. Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

  14. Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

    1998-02-01

    The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

  15. The Aftermath of Redistricting Reform in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchler, Justin

    2011-01-01

    2009. “Redistricting Reform Will Not Solve California’sMatthew. 2009. “Redistricting Reform Could Save California2. ———. 2011. “Redistricting Reform Revisited. ” California

  16. Bank Regulation and Mortgage Market Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffee, Dwight M.

    2011-01-01

    Regulation and Mortgage Market Reform Dwight M. Jaffee Boothfinancial sector regulatory reform initiatives are currentlyset concerns bank regulatory reform as embedded in the 2010

  17. Mapping the Consequences of Electoral Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latner, Michael S; Roach, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Consequences of Electoral Reform Table A2. Unrotated Matrixthe Consequences of Electoral Reform California Journal ofConsequences of Electoral Reform Michael S. Latner and Kyle

  18. Politics and Policy in State Health Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelman, Walter; Melamed, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Policy in State Health Reform by Walter Zelman, Ph.D.c Greenberge, S.S. , “Healthcare reform efforts win praise

  19. Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Carl

    2007-01-01

    Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution † CarlThis paper analyzes two major reforms to the patent systemthey are issued. Three additional reforms relating to patent

  20. Constitutional Reform in California: The Surprising Divides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binder, Mike; Frisby, Tammy; Kousser, Thad B

    2010-01-01

    Issue 2 Constitutional Reform in California: The Surprisingviews on constitutional reform than whites and African-and opposition to proposed reforms, such as the elimination

  1. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical requirement for commercial deployment of biomass-based power/heat co-generation and biofuels production. There are several commonly used syngas clean-up technologies: (1) Syngas cooling and water scrubbing has been commercially proven but efficiency is low and it is only effective at small scales. This route is accompanied with troublesome wastewater treatment. (2) The tar filtration method requires frequent filter replacement and solid residue treatment, leading to high operation and capital costs. (3) Thermal destruction typically operates at temperatures higher than 1000oC. It has slow kinetics and potential soot formation issues. The system is expensive and materials are not reliable at high temperatures. (4) In-bed cracking catalysts show rapid deactivation, with durability to be demonstrated. (5) External catalytic cracking or steam reforming has low thermal efficiency and is faced with problematic catalyst coking. Under this program, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) is being evaluated for syngas tar clean-up in biomass gasification. The CPO reaction is exothermic, implying that no external heat is needed and the system is of high thermal efficiency. CPO is capable of processing large gas volume, indicating a very compact catalyst bed and a low reactor cost. Instead of traditional physical removal of tar, the CPO concept converts tar into useful light gases (eg. CO, H2, CH4). This eliminates waste treatment and disposal requirements. All those advantages make the CPO catalytic tar conversion system a viable solution for biomass gasification downstream gas clean-up. This program was conducted from October 1 2008 to February 28 2011 and divided into five major tasks. - Task A: Perform conceptual design and conduct preliminary system and economic analysis (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2009) - Task B: Biomass gasification tests, product characterization, and CPO tar conversion catalyst preparation. This task will be conducted after completing process design and system economics analysis. Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system

  2. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  3. Working Group Meeting Presentation Guidance at a Glance Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Performance Carbon Deposit Removal and Catalyst Regeneration Management Process Energy Integration Integrated and 7 2007 R. J. Evans, NREL D. M. Steward, NREL #12;Innovation / Overview Biomass pyrolysis produces.31 O2 + 0.26 H2O 0.71 CO2 + 0.96 H2 #12;Key Performance Metrics Catalytic Steam Reforming of Bio

  4. Long life catalytic membrane reactors for spontaneous conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, M., White, J., Deych, S., Millard, J., Myers, M., Sammells, A.

    1997-10-01

    This program is focusing on the development of mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials based on the brown millerite structure for use in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs). These CMRs are being evaluated for promoting the spontaneous and highly selective oxidative reforming of carbon dioxide / natural gas mixtures to synthesis gas.

  5. Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrogen Using Combinatorial Shici Duan and Selim Senkan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrogen Using Combinatorial Methods Shici Duan and Selim Senkan* Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1532 Ethanol in this area focused on steam reforming of ethanol at relatively high temperatures (T > 500 °C), where carbon

  6. CGIAR Reform - Why So Difficult? Review, Reform, Renewal, Restructuring, Reform Again and then "The New CGIAR" - So Much Talk and So Little Basic Structural Change - Why?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalla, Alex F

    2014-01-01

    Secretariat, FAO CGIAR Reform-Why So Difficult? 2013 TAC/of California, Davis CGIAR Reform — Why So Difficult?Review, Reform, Renewal, Restructuring, Reform Again and

  7. Ashcroft, A. T., Cheetham, A. K., Jones, R. H., Natarajan, S., Thomas, J. M., Waller, D. and Clark, S. M., "An in situ, energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction study of natural gas conversion by CO2 reforming", J.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reforming", J. Physical Chemistry, Vol. 97, pg. 3355 (1993) Bastiaansen, C., Schmidt, H.-W., Nishino, T., "Synthesis, structure, and catalytic properties of the layered oxide SbOReO4·2H2O: Location of hydrogen

  8. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for petroleum refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Schott and L.A. Stapf, 1988. Hydrocracking? Upgrade Recycle.Catalytic Reforming Hydrocracking Hydrotreating Alkylationcatalytic cracking. Hydrocracking and hydrogen production

  9. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  10. Reforming using erionite catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liers, J.; Meusinger, J.; Moesch, A. (Univ. of Leipzig (Germany)); Reschetilowski, W. (Karl Winnacker Inst. of DECHEMA, Frankfurt (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    The advantage of reforming on erionite catalysts is a product with high octane numbers and low amounts of aromatics. This advantage seems to be slight at reaction pressures lower than 25 bar. But it is possible to compensate for the influence of pressure by varying the erionite content within the catalyst and the reaction temperature. When reforming on Pt/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts, the following reactions take place: dehydrocyclization of paraffins to naphthenes, dehydrogenation of naphthenes to aromatics, isomerication of normal paraffins remains in the product, lowering its octane number. By using a Ni/H-erionite catalyst, the octane rating can be increased by 3 to 7 numbers through selective hydrocracking of n-alkanes in the reformate. Erionite catalysts favor shape-selective hydrocracking of normal paraffins and the formation of cyclopentane derivatives lowering the content of aromatics during reforming reactions. Reducing the reaction pressure decreases hydrocracking activity and cyclopentane formation. These results can be interpreted in terms of thermodynamic restrictions and deactivation.

  11. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  12. Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther Dieckmann

    2006-06-30

    In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

  13. A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production...

  14. Catalytic conversion of LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Vora, B.V.; Mowry, J.R.; Anderson, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The low reactivity of light paraffins has long hindered their utilization as petrochemical feedstocks. Except for their use in ethylene crackers, LPG fractions have traditionally been consumed as fuel. New catalytic processes now being commercialized open new avenues for the utilization of LPG as sources of valuable petrochemical intermediates. This paper discusses processes for the dehydrogenation and aromatization of LPG.

  15. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  16. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  17. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  18. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  19. Stress corrosion crack growth in porous sandstones. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojala, Ira O

    Stress corrosion crack growth occurs when the chemical weakening of strained crack tip bonds facilitates crack propagation. I have examined the effect of chemical processes on the growth of a creack population by carrying out triaxial compression...

  20. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  1. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  2. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by NREL's Robert Evans at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  3. Tax Reform and Real Estate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maisel, Sherman J.; Quigley, John M.

    1985-01-01

    Berkeley CENTER Eon REAL ESTATE ANDURBAN ECONOMICS WORKING85-100 TAX REFORM AND REAL ESTATE BY SHERMAN J. MAISEL JOHNADMINISTRATION CENTER FOR REAL ESTATE AND URBAN ECONOMICS

  4. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  5. AEDP & Healthcare Reform Dipti Patel, FSA, MAAA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Don

    Cigna AEDP & Healthcare Reform Dipti Patel, FSA, MAAA March 19, 2012 #12; Introductions Introducing... Cigna An overview of the AEDP Healthcare Reform Questions and Answers Overview #12 Branding ­ "GO YOU" · Things are changing ­ Health Care Reform · Young, energetic, executive leadership

  6. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Hryn, John N. (Naperville, IL); Elam, Jeffrey W. (Elmhurst, IL)

    2009-12-01

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity.

  7. Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data Resources Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data Resources FITARA Resources Available for...

  8. Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Chemistry in Low-Oxygen Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Steeper, Richard R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)] [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalaskar, Vickey B [ORNL] [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and other forms of advanced combustion. When fuel is injected into O2-deficient NVO conditions, a portion of the fuel can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO. Additionally, other short chain hydrocarbons are produced by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions. The present study experimentally investigates the fuel reforming chemistry that occurs during NVO. To this end, two very different experimental facilities are utilized and their results are compared. One facility is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which uses a custom research engine cycle developed to isolate the NVO event from main combustion, allowing a steady stream of NVO reformate to be exhausted from the engine and chemically analyzed. The other experimental facility, located at Sandia National Laboratories, uses a dump valve to capture the exhaust from a single NVO event for analysis. Results from the two experiments are in excellent trend-wise agreement and indicate that the reforming process under low-O2 conditions produces substantial concentrations of H2, CO, methane, and other short-chain hydrocarbon species. The concentration of these species is found to be strongly dependent on fuel injection timing and injected fuel type, with weaker dependencies on NVO duration and initial temperature, indicating that NVO reforming is kinetically slow. Further, NVO reforming does not require a large energy input from the engine, meaning that it is not thermodynamically expensive. The implications of these results on HCCI and other forms of combustion are discussed in detail.

  9. Catalysis of 6? Electrocyclizations & Catalytic Disproportionation of Lignin Model Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Lee

    2010-01-01

    catalytic reductions, and catalytic oxidations. 13 The high-processes for the catalytic oxidation of lignin has focusedand paper industry. Catalytic oxidation is of less interest

  10. Peridynamic model for fatigue cracking.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silling, Stewart A.; Abe Askari

    2014-10-01

    The peridynamic theory is an extension of traditional solid mechanics in which the field equations can be applied on discontinuities, such as growing cracks. This paper proposes a bond damage model within peridynamics to treat the nucleation and growth of cracks due to cyclic loading. Bond damage occurs according to the evolution of a variable called the %22remaining life%22 of each bond that changes over time according to the cyclic strain in the bond. It is shown that the model reproduces the main features of S-N data for typical materials and also reproduces the Paris law for fatigue crack growth. Extensions of the model account for the effects of loading spectrum, fatigue limit, and variable load ratio. A three-dimensional example illustrates the nucleation and growth of a helical fatigue crack in the torsion of an aluminum alloy rod.

  11. Chemisorption of Organics on Platinum. 2. Chemisorption of C2Hx and CHx on Pt(111) Jeremy Kua and William A. Goddard III*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    -H activation and are ubiquitous in the catalytic cracking and reforming processes used in the petrochemical for the structures and energies for hydrocarbons on Pt- (111) surfaces. Many important catalytic processes use highly

  12. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter, concentrating solar dish was modified to accommodate the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer and the integrated system was installed at the Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals test site at McClellan, CA. Several test runs were conducted without catalyst during which the ceramic heat exchanger in the Sunexus Solar Reformer reached temperatures between 1,050 F (566 C) and 2,200 F (1,204 C) during the test period. A dry reforming mixture of CO2/CH{sub 4} (2.0/1.0 molar ratio) was chosen for all of the tests on the integrated solar dish/catalytic reformer during December 2010. Initial tests were carried out to determine heat transfer from the collimated solar beam to the catalytic reactor. The catalyst was operated successfully at a steady-state temperature of 1,125 F (607 C), which was sufficient to convert 35% of the 2/1 CO2/CH{sub 4} mixture to syngas. This conversion efficiency confirmed the results from laboratory testing of this catalyst which provided comparable syngas production efficiencies (40% at 1,200 F [650 C]) with a resulting syngas composition of 20% CO, 16% H{sub 2}, 39% CO2 and 25% CH{sub 4}. As based upon the laboratory results, it is predicted that 90% of the CO2 will be converted to syngas in the solar reformer at 1,440 F (782 C) resulting in a syngas composition of 50% CO: 43% H{sub 2}: 7% CO2: 0% CH{sub 4}. Laboratory tests show that the higher catalyst operating temperature of 1,440 F (782 C) for efficient conversion of CO2 can certainly be achieved by optimizing solar reactor heat transfer, which would result in the projected 90% CO2-to-syngas conversion efficiencies. Further testing will be carried out during 2011, through other funding support, to further optimize the solar dish CO2 reformer. Additional studies carried out in support of this project and described in this report include: (1) An Assessment of Potential Contaminants in Captured CO2 from Various Industrial Processes and Their Possible Effect on Sunexus CO2 Reforming Catalysts; (2) Recommended Measurement Methods for Assessing Contaminant Levels in Captured CO2 Streams; (3) An Asse

  13. CHEMICAL AND CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTAL CARBON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    of kinetic data for the catalytic oxidation of S0 by variousand mechanism for the catalytic oxidation of so 2 on carbonthe pH is low. The catalytic oxidation of sulfurous acid on

  14. Catalytic Filter for Diesel Exhaust Purification | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Filter for Diesel Exhaust Purification Catalytic Filter for Diesel Exhaust Purification This project is developing a precious metal-free passive diesel particulate...

  15. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants...

  16. Worldwide refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-12-19

    The paper consists of several tables compiling data on refinery capacities by country, by state, and by company. The capacity data are given by process as well as by final product. Processes include vacuum distillation, thermal operations, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, catalytic hydrocracking, catalytic hydrorefining, and catalytic hydrotreating. Products include alkylates, polymers, and dimers; aromatics and isomers; oxygenates; hydrogen; asphalts; and coke.

  17. 1996 worldwide refining survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-23

    Data are presented on the capacity of refineries for the following processes: vacuum distillation, coking, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, catalytic hydrocracking, catalytic hydrorefining, and catalytic hydrotreating. Production capacities are also noted for alkylation, polymerization/dimerization, aromatics, isomerization, lubricants, oxygenates, hydrogen, coke, sulfur, and asphalts. Country totals are given, as well as the data for individual companies within each country, state, or province.

  18. Worldwide refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-18

    Data are presented on refining capacity by country and by company within each country. Capacity data are divided into the following processes: vacuum distillation, thermal operations, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, catalytic hydrocracking, catalytic hydrorefining, and catalytic hydrotreating. Production capacity is divided into: alkylation/polymerization/dimerization; aromatics/isomerization; lubricants; oxygenates; hydrogen; petroleum coke; and asphalts.

  19. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mines Bio-Derived Liquids Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting HFC&IT Program Baltimore, MD October 24, 2006 1 Gasification Partial oxidation CH 1.46 O .67 + 0.16 O 2 ...

  20. Tax Reform and Real Estate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Kenneth T.; Lepcio, Andrea

    1986-01-01

    investment opportunities in real estate. -13- Appentlix CashBerkeley CENTER FOR REAL ESTATE S AND URBAN ECONOMICSPAPER 86-117 TAX REFORM AND REAL ESTATE_ BY KENNETH T. ROSEN

  1. Applications of solar reforming technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiewak, I.; Tyner, C.E.; Langnickel, U.

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  2. The Dynamics of Reform of India’s Federal System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2007-01-01

    Conflict and Economic Reform in the Developing World, Newconstraints to economic reforms that provide aggregateExpenditures and Economic Reform in India,” Journal of

  3. Essays on India’s Economy: Perspectives on Policy Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on Policy Reform Nirvikar Singh Professor ofwith economic policy reform. The essays are organized intofinancial inclusion and tax reform. This is followed by a

  4. Changing Tracks? The Prospect for California Pension Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kogan, Vladimir; McCubbins, Mathew D

    2010-01-01

    for California Pension Reform Notes We focus on the combinedfor California Pension Reform Vladimir Kogan University ofCalifornia budget, pension reform, fiscal oversight

  5. Administering Democracy: Public Opinion on Election Reform in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Consequences of Electoral Reform in the United States. ”Turnout and Institutional Reform in Oregon. ” Social SciencePublic Opinion on Election Reform in California Elizabeth

  6. The role of the district office in instructional practice reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rizzi, Karen Schultz

    2008-01-01

    reality: Standards-based reform in urban districts. MenloW. A. (1989). Using reform: Conceptualizing districtHow districts support school reform. Seattle: University of

  7. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Donald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Holdaway, Ray F. (Clinton, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  8. Cracking in reinforced concrete bent caps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Bradley S.

    2000-01-01

    cracking in order to improve durability and reduce maintenance costs of bent caps throughout the lifetime of the structure. Excessive cracking in RC bent caps can be controlled through improved design detailing for both flexure and shear. For flexure...

  9. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2008-03-15

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, United States House of Representatives...

  11. Cracking of n-butane catalyzed by iron- and maganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, T.K.; d`Itri, J.L.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-05-01

    Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, the significant reactions were isomerization and disproportionation; in the range of 225-300{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking, and at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup {minus}9}mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). This comparison suggests that the catalytic activity of the promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C is about the same as that of the zeolite, although its activity for n-butane isomerization and disproportionation at temperatures <100{degrees}C is orders of magnitude greater than those of zeolites. Thus the indication of superacidity of the promoted sulfated zirconia does not extend to high temperatures. The results raise questions about the nature of the presumed superacidity: perhaps the low-temperature reactions may involve catalyst functions other than the acidic function responsible for high-temperature cracking reactions or perhaps superacidic sites may be very rapidly poisoned at cracking temperatures. 14 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Bringing electricity reform to the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fe Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria

    2008-12-15

    Electricity reforms will not translate to competition overnight. But reforms are inching their way forward in institutions and stakeholders of the Philippine electricity industry, through regulatory and competition frameworks, processes, and systems promulgated and implemented. (author)

  13. ALBERTA LAW REFORM INSTITUTE EDMONTON, ALBERTA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMillan, Andrew

    ALBERTA LAW REFORM INSTITUTE EDMONTON, ALBERTA CONTRACTS FOR THE SALE AND PURCHASE OF LAND;#12;Table of Contents ALBERTA LAW REFORM INSTITUTE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHAPTER 2. COMPARISON OF THE PRESENT AND PREVIOUS LAW OF ALBERTA

  14. Informationsveranstaltung zur Reform des gymnasialen Lehramtes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Informationsveranstaltung zur Reform des gymnasialen Lehramtes W¨urzburg, 3. Mai 2013 ... was lange montags 16-17 Uhr und freitags 10-11 Uhr Euch und allen an der Reform Beteiligten ein herzliches Danke

  15. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  16. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Applications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  17. PER-Based Reform at a Multicultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Richard N.

    PER-Based Reform at a Multicultural Institution Some Lessons from Physics Education Research that the most suc- cessful reform strategies require significant interactions among students, and between students and instructor. It is therefore reasonable to wonder about the extent to which PER-based reform

  18. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, Sang Hoon

    2011-01-01

    sensitivity The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO)stabilizer. The catalytic activity of CO oxidation overintriguing catalytic behavior for CO oxidation 5-15 ; while

  19. Integrated reformer and shift reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Dorson, Matthew H.

    2006-06-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer for producing diatomic hydrogen gas is disclosed. The reformer includes a first reaction vessel, a shift reactor vessel annularly disposed about the first reaction vessel, including a first shift reactor zone, and a first helical tube disposed within the first shift reactor zone having an inlet end communicating with a water supply source. The water supply source is preferably adapted to supply liquid-phase water to the first helical tube at flow conditions sufficient to ensure discharge of liquid-phase and steam-phase water from an outlet end of the first helical tube. The reformer may further include a first catalyst bed disposed in the first shift reactor zone, having a low-temperature shift catalyst in contact with the first helical tube. The catalyst bed includes a plurality of coil sections disposed in coaxial relation to other coil sections and to the central longitudinal axis of the reformer, each coil section extending between the first and second ends, and each coil section being in direct fluid communication with at least one other coil section.

  20. The Effect Of ZnO Addition On Co/C Catalyst For Vapor And Aqueous Phase Reforming Of Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Hong, Yongchun; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-05

    The effect of ZnO addition on the oxidation behavior of Co along with catalytic performance in vapor and aqueous phase reforming of ethanol were investigated on Co supported on carbon black (XC-72R). Carbon was selected to minimize the support interactions. Effect of ZnO addition during both vapor and aqueous phase reforming were compared at 250 °C. ZnO addition inhibited the reduction of cobalt oxides by H2 and created surface sites for H2O activation. During vapor phase reforming at 450 °C the redox of cobalt, driven by steam oxidation and H2 reduction, trended to an equilibrium of Co0/Co2+. ZnO showed no significant effect on cobalt oxidation, inferred from the minor changes of C1 product yield. Surface sites created by ZnO addition enhanced water activation and oxidation of surface carbon species, increasing CO2 selectivity. At 250 °C cobalt reduction was minimal, in situ XANES demonstrated that ZnO addition significantly facilitated oxidation of Co0 under vapor phase reforming conditions, demonstrated by lower C1 product yield. Sites introduced by ZnO addition improved the COx selectivity at 250 °C. Both Co/C and Co-ZnO/C rapidly oxidized under aqueous phase reaction conditions at 250 °C, showing negligible activity in aqueous phase reforming. This work suggests that ZnO affects the activation of H2O for Co catalysts in ethanol reforming.

  1. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-13

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on ?-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  2. Reformer assisted lean NO.sub.x catalyst aftertreatment system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalyanaraman, Mohan (Media, PA); Park, Paul W. (Peoria, IL); Ragle, Christie S. (Havana, IL)

    2010-06-29

    A method and apparatus for catalytically processing a gas stream passing therethrough to reduce the presence of NO.sub.x therein, wherein the apparatus includes a first catalyst composed of a silver-containing alumina that is adapted for catalytically processing the gas stream at a first temperature range, a second catalyst composed of a copper-containing zeolite located downstream from the first catalyst, wherein the second catalyst is adapted for catalytically processing the gas stream at a lower second temperature range relative to the first temperature range, a hydrocarbon compound for injection into the gas stream upstream of the first catalyst to provide a reductant, and a reformer for reforming a portion of the hydrocarbon compound into H.sub.2 and/or oxygenated hydrocarbon for injection into the gas stream upstream of the first catalyst. The second catalyst is adapted to facilitate the reaction of reducing NOx into N.sub.2, whereby the intermediates are produced via the first catalyst reacting with NOx and hydrocarbons.

  3. The influence of cracks in rotating shafts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinou, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of transverse cracks in a rotating shaft is analysed. The paper addresses the two distinct issues of the changes in modal properties and the influence of crack breathing on dynamic response during operation. Moreover, the evolution of the orbit of a cracked rotor near half of the first resonance frequency is investigated. The results provide a possible basis for an on-line monitoring system. In order to conduct this study, the dynamic response of a rotor with a breathing crack is evaluated by using the alternate frequency/time domain approach. It is shown that this method evaluates the nonlinear behaviour of the rotor system rapidly and efficiently by modelling the breathing crack with a truncated Fourier series. The dynamic response obtained by applying this method is compared with that evaluated through numerical integration. The resulting orbit during transient operation is presented and some distinguishing features of a cracked rotor are examined.

  4. The influence of cracks in rotating shafts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Jacques Sinou; A. W. Lees

    2008-01-19

    In this paper, the influence of transverse cracks in a rotating shaft is analysed. The paper addresses the two distinct issues of the changes in modal properties and the influence of crack breathing on dynamic response during operation. Moreover, the evolution of the orbit of a cracked rotor near half of the first resonance frequency is investigated. The results provide a possible basis for an on-line monitoring system. In order to conduct this study, the dynamic response of a rotor with a breathing crack is evaluated by using the alternate frequency/time domain approach. It is shown that this method evaluates the nonlinear behaviour of the rotor system rapidly and efficiently by modelling the breathing crack with a truncated Fourier series. The dynamic response obtained by applying this method is compared with that evaluated through numerical integration. The resulting orbit during transient operation is presented and some distinguishing features of a cracked rotor are examined.

  5. Characterization of geothermal reservoir crack patterns using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with form History Characterization of geothermal reservoir crack patterns using shear-wave splitting Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  6. On Macroscopic and MicroscopicAnalyses for Crack Initiationand Crack Growth Toughness in DuctileAlloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    On Macroscopic and MicroscopicAnalyses for Crack Initiationand Crack Growth Toughness in Ductile microvoid coalescence, expressions are shown for the fracture toughness of materials in terms and the nondimensionalized crack initiation fracture toughness Ji~ is described and shown to yield a good fit to experimental

  7. Plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartvigsen, Joseph J.; Elangovan, S.; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

    2013-06-11

    A reformer is disclosed that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding method and system are also disclosed and claimed herein.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming, catalyzed interconnect for use therewith, and methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Di-Jia; Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2010-06-08

    A catalyzed interconnect for an SOFC electrically connects an anode and an anodic current collector and comprises a metallic substrate, which provides space between the anode and anodic current collector for fuel gas flow over at least a portion of the anode, and a catalytic coating on the metallic substrate comprising a catalyst for catalyzing hydrocarbon fuel in the fuel gas to hydrogen rich reformate. An SOFC including the catalyzed anodic inter-connect, a method for operating an SOFC, and a method for making a catalyzed anodic interconnect are also disclosed.

  9. Characterization of Fatigue Cracking and Healing of Asphalt Mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Xue

    2012-07-16

    Fatigue cracking is one of the most common distresses of asphalt pavements, whereas healing is a counter process to cracking which alleviates cracking damage and extends fatigue life of asphalt pavements. Most of existing ...

  10. Investigation of Cracked Lithium Hydride Reactor Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    bird, e.l.; mustaleski, t.m.

    1999-06-01

    Visual examination of lithium hydride reactor vessels revealed cracks that were adjacent to welds, most of which were circumferentially located in the bottom portion of the vessels. Sections were cut from the vessels containing these cracks and examined by use of the metallograph, scanning electron microscope, and microprobe to determine the cause of cracking. Most of the cracks originated on the outer surface just outside the weld fusion line in the base material and propagated along grain boundaries. Crack depths of those examined sections ranged from {approximately}300 to 500 {micro}m. Other cracks were reported to have reached a maximum depth of 1/8 in. The primary cause of cracking was the creation of high tensile stresses associated with the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the filler metal and the base metal during operation of the vessel in a thermally cyclic environment. This failure mechanism could be described as creep-type fatigue, whereby crack propagation may have been aided by the presence of brittle chromium carbides along the grain boundaries, which indicates a slightly sensitized microstructure.

  11. Hydrogen from Biomass by Autothermal Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation by Lanny D. Schmidt at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  12. Constraint effects observed in crack initiation stretch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.M.; Ernst, H.A.

    1995-12-31

    The current paper characterizes constraint in fracture: J-modified resistance (Jr) curves were developed for two tough structural materials, 6061-T651 (aluminum) and IN718-STA1 (nickel-base superalloy). A wide variety of configurations was tested to consider load configurations from bending to tension including three specimen types (compact tension, center-crack tension, and single-edge notched tension), and a range of ligament lengths and thicknesses, as well as side-grooved and smooth-sided ligaments. The Jr curves exhibited an inflection point after some crack extension, and the data were excluded beyond the inflection. Qualified Jr curves for the two materials showed similar behavior, but R-curves were identical for equal ligament length-to-thickness ratio (RL), for the aluminum alloy, with increasing slope for increasing RL, while for the nickel, the resistance curves aligned for equal ligament thickness, B, and the slope increased for decreasing B. Displacements at the original crack tip (CToD) were recorded throughout the test for several specimens. CToD-versus-crack extension curves were developed, and data were excluded beyond the inflection point (as with the Jr curves). The data collapsed into two distinct curves, thought to represent the surface, plane stress effect and the central, plane strain effect. This was observed for both materials. A technique called profiling is presented for the aluminum alloy only, where the crack face displacements are recorded at the final point of the test as a function of the position throughout the crack cavity, along with an effort to extract the observations in a usable form. Displacements were consistent throughout the cross-section at and behind the original crack tip. In the region where the crack grew, this displacement was developed by a combination of stretch and crack growth. The stretch required to initiate crack extension was a function of the depth beneath the surface into the cross-section.

  13. Welfare reform and liberal governance: disciplining Cambodian-American bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Should Know About Welfare Reform (Series A, No. A- 52).2001). The Impact of Welfare Reform on Asians and PacificPunishment: How Welfare Reform Punishes the Poor. Oakland,

  14. State Finances in India: A Case for Systemic Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2006-01-01

    M. Govinda (2000), “Tax Reform in India: Achievements andState Level Fiscal Reforms in India”, paper presented aton Indian Economic Reform, April 19-20. M. Govinda Rao and

  15. Inquiry-Based Learning: An Educational Reform Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLoughlin, Padraig

    -Based Learning: An Educational Reform Based Upon Content-Centred Teaching. 1046-Centred Educational Reform 3 III Inquiry-Based Learning Pedagogy is Content 27 #12; ii Abstract Inquiry-Based Learning: An Educational Reform

  16. A second opinion on U.S. health care reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaufan, Claudia MD, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Cost Implications of Health Care Reform. N Engl J Med: p.opinion on U.S. health care reform Posted by PNHP on Friday,Obama argued that a model of reform as that implemented by

  17. Swimming Upstream: The Hard Politics of Health Reform in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelman, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The Hard Politics of Health Reform in California June 2009Report on State Health Access Reform,” Health Affairs, WebPolicy in State Health Reform,” Zelman, W. A. , and Melamed,

  18. Analysis of Senate Bill 92: Health Care Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    CJ. Effects of State Reforms on Health Insurance Coverage ofMorrisey MA. Small Group Reform and Insurance Provision byInterest Groups and Health Reform: Lessons from California.

  19. What is "Comprehensive Immigration Reform"? Taking the Long View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motomura, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Stumpf. 1. Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, Pub.8 U.S.C. ). 35. Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986,about “comprehensive immigration reform”—in the way the next

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  1. Making Sense of Reform in Mathematics Education : : The Impact on Practice by Interactions Between Teachers' Beliefs, Reform Policy and Collaboration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javier, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    L. , & Cohen, D. K. (1996). Reform by the book: What is: Orlearning and instructional reform? Educational Researcher,school mathematics: The anti-reform of 1997-99. Phi Delta

  2. The Definitive Reform. How the 1996 Electoral Reform Triggered the Demise of the PRI's Dominant-Party Regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrido de Sierra, Sebastián

    2014-01-01

    the PRI Approve the Reform? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi 4 How the 1996 Reform Triggered the End of the PRI’seffect of the 1996 electoral reform on the PRI’s unity . The

  3. Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Hydrogen Source 2003deermauss.pdf More...

  4. Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reforming Targets Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Kick-Off Meeting Proceedings Hilton Garden Inn-BWI,Baltimore, MD October 24, 2006...

  5. Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment 2003 DEER...

  6. Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public Administration Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public...

  7. Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT,...

  8. Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements...

  9. Secretary Moniz's Remarks on Project Management Reform at the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Management Reform at the National Academy of Public Administration -- As Delivered Secretary Moniz's Remarks on Project Management Reform at the National Academy of Public...

  10. Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration...

  11. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Government...

  12. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommenda...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research...

  13. STEM education reform A public research university imperative!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sin, Peter

    STEM education reform A public research university imperative! University of Florida A significant education reform initiative for introductory courses. Will these -- and a growing number of other national

  14. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  15. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Targets (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...

  16. Advanced control and information systems `97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Data are presented on advanced control and information systems, describing specific application, control strategy, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Uses include alkylation, amine treating, catalytic reforming, cryogenic separation, catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, hydrogen production, LNG separation, lube oils, olefins, plant scheduling, polymers, refineries, steam reforming, and utilities.

  17. Enabling Informed Adaptation of Reformed Instructional Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elby, Andy

    Enabling Informed Adaptation of Reformed Instructional Materials Rachel E. Scherr and Andrew Elby 20742 USA Abstract. Instructors inevitably need to adapt even the best reform materials to suit instructors, and video clips of students working on the materials. Our materials thus facilitate their own

  18. Olefins from High Yield Autothermal Reforming Process

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2012-03-06

    The autothermal reforming method employs an improved dehydrogenation process for olefin production, utilizing platinum based dehydrogenation catalysts in the presence of oxygen. The autothermal process requires no external energy input following ignition and produces high conversions and yields from the gaseous hydrocarbon feeds. Autothermal reforming is an effective solution that meets the high demands of the chemical market industry by producing high yields...

  19. In Njeri Wamukonya, ed., Electricity Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    electricity consumption in industrial countries has caused major air pollution problems. In fact, power plantsIn Njeri Wamukonya, ed., Electricity Reform: Social and Environmental Challenges Roskilde, Denmark: UNEP-RISÃ? Centre. Rethinking reform in the electricity sector: Power liberalisation or energy

  20. Cracked-fuel mechanics. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williford, R.E.; Lanning, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a modelling concept and a set of measurable parameters that have been shown to improve the prediction of the mechanical behavior of cracked fuel/cladding systems without added computational expense. The transition from classical annular gap/cylindrical pellet models to modified bulk properties and further to local behavior for cracked fuel systems is discussed. The results of laboratory experiments to verify these modelling parameters are shown. Data are also presented from laboratory experiments on unirradiated and irradiated rods which show that fuel rod mechanical response depends on fuel fragment size. The impact of these data on cracked fuel behavior and failure modelling is also discussed.

  1. "Reform" or "Opening"? Reform of China's State-Owned Enterprises and WTO Accession - The Dilemma of Applying GATT to Marketing Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumental, David

    1998-01-01

    China's Assurances on Reform Please U.S. , AsIAN WALL ST.REFORM" OR "OPENING"?REFORM OF CHINA'S STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES AND WTO

  2. Catalytic oxidizers and Title V requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberoi, M.; Rach, S.E.

    1999-07-01

    Catalytic oxidizers have been used to reduce VOC emissions from various industries including printing, chemical, paint, coatings, etc. A catalytic oxidizer uses a catalyst to reduce the operating temperature for combustion to approximately 600 F, which is substantially lower than thermal oxidation unit. Title V requirements have renewed the debate on the best methods to assure compliance of catalytic oxidizers, with some suggesting the need for continuous emission monitoring equipment. This paper will discuss the various aspects of catalytic oxidation and consider options such as monitoring inlet/outlet temperatures, delta T across the catalyst, periodic laboratory testing of catalyst samples, and preventive maintenance procedures as means of assuring continuous compliance.

  3. Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1998-01-27

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  4. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been...

  5. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE)...

  6. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the...

  7. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 The research was...

  8. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 You are accessing a...

  9. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 You are accessing...

  10. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 In this Quarter, the...

  11. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the two...

  12. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report You are accessing a document from the Department of...

  13. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 40 CHEMISTRY; COAL LIQUIDS;...

  14. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and...

  15. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The team is now exploring techniques that would permit two- and three-dimensional mapping of catalytic reactions. Multidimensional imaging will give the ability to know...

  16. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    Energy-Efficient Catalytic Hydrogenation Reactions. Hydrogenation reactions are very versatile and account for 10% to 20% of all reactions in the pharmaceutical industry.

  17. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Reductants Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx...

  18. Catalytic membranes for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL)

    2011-04-19

    A fuel cell of the present invention comprises a cathode and an anode, one or both of the anode and the cathode including a catalyst comprising a bundle of longitudinally aligned graphitic carbon nanotubes including a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally and atomically distributed throughout the graphitic carbon walls of said nanotubes. The nanotubes also include nitrogen atoms and/or ions chemically bonded to the graphitic carbon and to the transition metal. Preferably, the transition metal comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and Cr.

  19. Fatigue Enhancement of Undersized, Drilled Crack-Stop Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crain, Joshua Sakumura

    2010-04-20

    A common technique used to prevent the propagation of cracks in bridge girders is drilling crack-stop holes at the crack tips. By doing so, stress concentrations at the tip of the cracks are reduced and fatigue life of the ...

  20. Effect of Desiccation Cracks on Earth Embankments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandelwal, Siddharth

    2012-07-11

    Levees are earth structures used for flood protection. Due to their easy availability and low permeability, clays are the most common material used for the construction of levees. Clays are susceptible to desiccation cracks ...

  1. Methodology for extracting local constants from petroleum cracking flows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shen-Lin (Woodridge, IL); Lottes, Steven A. (Naperville, IL); Zhou, Chenn Q. (Munster, IN)

    2000-01-01

    A methodology provides for the extraction of local chemical kinetic model constants for use in a reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer code with chemical kinetic computations to optimize the operating conditions or design of the system, including retrofit design improvements to existing systems. The coupled CFD and kinetic computer code are used in combination with data obtained from a matrix of experimental tests to extract the kinetic constants. Local fluid dynamic effects are implicitly included in the extracted local kinetic constants for each particular application system to which the methodology is applied. The extracted local kinetic model constants work well over a fairly broad range of operating conditions for specific and complex reaction sets in specific and complex reactor systems. While disclosed in terms of use in a Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) riser, the inventive methodology has application in virtually any reaction set to extract constants for any particular application and reaction set formulation. The methodology includes the step of: (1) selecting the test data sets for various conditions; (2) establishing the general trend of the parametric effect on the measured product yields; (3) calculating product yields for the selected test conditions using coupled computational fluid dynamics and chemical kinetics; (4) adjusting the local kinetic constants to match calculated product yields with experimental data; and (5) validating the determined set of local kinetic constants by comparing the calculated results with experimental data from additional test runs at different operating conditions.

  2. Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications Naomi Klinghoffer Submitted Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications Naomi Klinghoffer Utilization takes place during catalytic decomposition. This thesis focuses on the utilization of char as a catalyst

  3. September 25, 2013 AFSCME Continues to Object to Pension Reform;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    September 25, 2013 AFSCME Continues to Object to Pension Reform; UC Implements Latest Bargaining working conditions and reasonable pension reform. However, AFSCME has rejected UC's proposals. From the start, AFSCME leadership has objected to UC's responsible pension reform -- the kind of reform that

  4. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farooque, Mohammad (Huntington, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT); Allen, Jeffrey P. (Naugatuck, CT)

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  5. Method of fabricating a catalytic structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rollins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-09-22

    A precursor to a catalytic structure comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide. The zinc oxide has a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology and the copper oxide comprises particles of copper oxide. The copper oxide is reduced to copper, producing the catalytic structure. The catalytic structure is fabricated by a hydrothermal process. A reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent is formed. The reaction mixture is heated under confined volume conditions to produce the precursor. The copper oxide in the precursor is reduced to copper. A method of hydrogenating a carbon oxide using the catalytic structure is also disclosed, as is a system that includes the catalytic structure.

  6. Nicholas Barr: USS reform directions Ver. 2 1 26 March 2015 What reform directions for USS?1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Nicholas Barr: USS reform directions Ver. 2 1 26 March 2015 What reform directions for USS?1 Nicholas Barr2 Summary This note discusses reform of USS as simply as possible (see glossary at end why and how a wider view of de-risking is both feasible and desirable. Some of the reforms of USS

  7. Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus Water Distillation for Water Detritiation Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus Water...

  8. Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic stripper for comparison with Europe's PMP protocol Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...

  9. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed...

  10. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion This research, which is relevant to the...

  11. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion You are accessing a document from...

  12. Contstraint effects of shallow cracks in structures containing fillet weld toe cracks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neligon, Melinda T

    1995-01-01

    for structures containing a/W--O.l and a/W--O.5 fillet weld toe cracks. The Anderson-Dodds scaling model is applied to quantify the effects of finite size on J contour integral values for structures containing a/W=O.l and a/W=0.5 fillet weld toe cracks loaded...

  13. Characterization of cracking restraint at sawcut joints using the German Cracking Frame 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vepakomma, Shilpa

    2002-01-01

    shrinkage and creep. Early age creep and shrinkage also appear to be key factors of stress and cracking. Experiments were run to provide insight on the effect of shrinkage and creep on crack developments. The results were useful in evaluating the behavior...

  14. Discontinuous surface cracks during stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel single crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    becomes equal to the fracture toughness, KIC, the crack will open and prop- agate. Stroh showed a crack [18]. Therefore, the fracture of most FCC metals is ductile. The chemical environment changes KIC and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), University of Science and Technology

  15. MATERIAL POINT METHOD CALCULATIONS WITH EXPLICIT CRACKS, FRACTURE PARAMETERS, AND CRACK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    MATERIAL POINT METHOD CALCULATIONS WITH EXPLICIT CRACKS, FRACTURE PARAMETERS, AND CRACK PROPAGATION." This new method has several advantages for numerical work on fracture. Compared to finite element analysis works well for calculating key fracture parameters such as J integral, stress intensity factors

  16. TRANSPORT THROUGH CRACKED CONCRETE: LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.

    2012-05-11

    Concrete containment structures and cement-based fills and waste forms are used at the Savannah River Site to enhance the performance of shallow land disposal systems designed for containment of low-level radioactive waste. Understanding and measuring transport through cracked concrete is important for describing the initial condition of radioactive waste containment structures at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for predicting performance of these structures over time. This report transmits the results of a literature review on transport through cracked concrete which was performed by Professor Jason Weiss, Purdue University per SRR0000678 (RFP-RQ00001029-WY). This review complements the NRC-sponsored literature review and assessment of factors relevant to performance of grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal. This review was performed by The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, and The University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Scotland and was focused on tank closure. The objective of the literature review on transport through cracked concrete was to identify information in the open literature which can be applied to SRS transport models for cementitious containment structures, fills, and waste forms. In addition, the literature review was intended to: (1) Provide a framework for describing and classifying cracks in containment structures and cementitious materials used in radioactive waste disposal, (2) Document the state of knowledge and research related to transport through cracks in concrete for various exposure conditions, (3) Provide information or methodology for answering several specific questions related to cracking and transport in concrete, and (4) Provide information that can be used to design experiments on transport through cracked samples and actual structures.

  17. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  18. Catalytic reactor with improved burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faitani, Joseph J. (Hartford, CT); Austin, George W. (Glastonbury, CT); Chase, Terry J. (Somers, CT); Suljak, George T. (Vernon, CT); Misage, Robert J. (Manchester,all of, CT)

    1981-01-01

    To more uniformly distribute heat to the plurality of catalyst tubes in a catalytic reaction furnace, the burner disposed in the furnace above the tops of the tubes includes concentric primary and secondary annular fuel and air outlets. The fuel-air mixture from the primary outlet is directed towards the tubes adjacent the furnace wall, and the burning secondary fuel-air mixture is directed horizontally from the secondary outlet and a portion thereof is deflected downwardly by a slotted baffle toward the tubes in the center of the furnace while the remaining portion passes through the slotted baffle to another baffle disposed radially outwardly therefrom which deflects it downwardly in the vicinity of the tubes between those in the center and those near the wall of the furnace.

  19. Catalytic cartridge SO3 decomposer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1982-05-25

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a crossflow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axialflow cartridge, so3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  20. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  1. Petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)); Handwerk, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report is on the following topics: Refinery Products; Refinery Feedstocks; Crude Distillation; Coking and Thermal Processes; Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization; Catalytic Cracking; Hydrotreating Catalytic Hydrocracking and Hydroprocessing Alkylation and Polymerization; Product Blending; Supporting Processes; Lubricating Oils; Petrochemical Feedstocks; Cost Estimation; and Economic Evaluation.

  2. Device for cooling and humidifying reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jian Lian (Belmont, MA); Northrop, William F. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2008-04-08

    Devices for cooling and humidifying a reformate stream from a reforming reactor as well as related methods, modules and systems includes a heat exchanger and a sprayer. The heat exchanger has an inlet, an outlet, and a conduit between the inlet and the outlet. The heat exchanger is adapted to allow a flow of a first fluid (e.g. water) inside the conduit and to establish a heat exchange relationship between the first fluid and a second fluid (e.g. reformate from a reforming reactor) flowing outside the conduit. The sprayer is coupled to the outlet of the heat exchanger for spraying the first fluid exiting the heat exchanger into the second fluid.

  3. Bank Regulation and Mortgage Market Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffee, Dwight M.

    2011-01-01

    July 2008. U.S. Treasury/HUD (2011), “Reforming America’sthe recent U.S. Treasury/HUD (2011) White Paper. The Whitepresented in the Treasury/HUD (2011) White paper. I then

  4. Electricity reform abroad and US investment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. Copyright Law Reform: Some Achievable Goals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacQueen, Hector L

    2007-01-01

    Copyright law reform in the European Union. The chapter discusses possible actions in light of new and amended EU Directives and whether these balances rights' holders and users' interests....

  6. Carbon Dioxide Conversion to Valuable Chemical Products over Composite Catalytic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Hu, Jianli; Jones, Susanne B.; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Frye, John G.; White, J. F.; Jiang, Juyuan; Wang, Yong

    2013-05-01

    Presented is an experimental study on catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into methanol, ethanol and acetic acid. Catalysts having different catalytic functions were synthesized and combined in different ways to enhance selectivity to desired products. The combined catalyst system possessed the following functions: methanol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, water-gas-shift and hydrogenation. Results showed that the methods of integrating these catalytic functions played important role in achieving desired product selectivity. It was speculated that if methanol synthesis sites were located adjacent to the C-C chain growth sites, the formation rate of C2 oxygenates would be enhanced. The advantage of using high temperature methanol catalyst PdZnAl in the combined catalyst system was demonstrated. In the presence of PdZnAl catalyst, the combined catalyst system was stable at temperature of 380oC. It was observed that, at high temperature, kinetics favored oxygenate formation. Results implied that the process can be intensified by operating at high temperature using Pd-based methanol synthesis catalyst. Steam reforming of the byproduct organics was demonstrated as a means to provide supplemental hydrogen. Preliminary process design, simulation, and economic analysis of the proposed CO2 conversion process were carried out. Economic analysis indicates how ethanol production cost was affected by the price of CO2 and hydrogen.

  7. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN TEAR DROP SPECIMENS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P; Philip Zapp, P; Jonathan Duffey, J; Kerry Dunn, K

    2009-05-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of 304L stainless steel used to construct the containment vessels for the storage of plutonium-bearing materials. The tear drop corrosion specimens each with an autogenous weld in the center were placed in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures. Cracking was found in two of the specimens in the heat affected zone (HAZ) at the apex area. Finite element analysis was performed to simulate the specimen fabrication for determining the internal stress which caused SCC to occur. It was found that the tensile stress at the crack initiation site was about 30% lower than the highest stress which had been shifted to the shoulders of the specimen due to the specimen fabrication process. This finding appears to indicate that the SCC initiation took place in favor of the possibly weaker weld/base metal interface at a sufficiently high level of background stress. The base material, even subject to a higher tensile stress, was not cracked. The relieving of tensile stress due to SCC initiation and growth in the HAZ and the weld might have foreclosed the potential for cracking at the specimen shoulders where higher stress was found.

  8. The Ambiguous Transition: Building State Capacity and Expanding Popular Participation in Venezuela's Agrarian Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page, Tiffany Linton

    2011-01-01

    the Democracy? Crisis and Reform in Venezuela. ” Journal ofLaura. 1997. Agrarian Reform and Class Consciousness inCristóbal. 1978. “Agrarian Reform and the Class Struggle in

  9. The politics of criminal law reform : a comparative analysis of lower court decision-making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiede, Lydia Brashear

    2008-01-01

    the Goals of Sentencing Reform. Washington, DC: USSC.1991. “The Sentencing Reform Act of 1984: A Bold Approach to2008. “The Constitutional Reform Act 2005. ” Available at

  10. What Charter Reform Commissions Can Teach Us About a Proposed Constitutional Convention in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonenshein, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    eds. 1995. Constitutional Reform in California. Berkeley:The Reemergence of Municipal Reform. New York: Academy ofin the Los Angeles Charter Reform of 1996-1999. ” In David

  11. Excellence through General Education: The Status of General Education Reform in Chinese Universities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Xuehong

    2012-01-01

    of General Education Reform in Two Chinese Universities”.of general education reform. Change, 29(4), 18- AssociationGlobalization and educational reforms in Anglo-American

  12. The Political Economy of India’s Fiscal Federal System and its Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, M. Govinda; Singh, Nirvikar

    2006-01-01

    Political Economy and Issues for Reform, eds. , SatuIncentives, and Economic Reforms in India, New Delhi: Sageon Indian Economic Reform, June. Musgrave, Richard A. (

  13. The Resurgence of Land Reform Policy and Agrarian Movements in Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachman, Noer Fauzi

    2011-01-01

    2006. Tafsir(an) Land Reform dalam Alur Sejarah Indonesia:Bibingka Strategy in Land Reform Implementation: Autonomous2006a. “Redistributive Land Reform in ‘Public (Forest) Land?

  14. You Must Learn! Hip-Hop Steps Into the Educational Reform Discourse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allahjah, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    in School: Afrocentric reform, urban youth & the promise of2005). Standards-Based Reform and Low Performing Schools: AIn F. Hess, Urban School Reform: Lessons From San Diego,

  15. School Reform for Students of Color and English Learners: Leaving Pedagogy Behind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trujillo, Tina

    2011-01-01

    School Reform for Students of Color and English Learners:non-profit school reform organizations, universities, for-non- profit school reform organizations have proliferated in

  16. The Politics of Revenue-Raising Tax Reform in Latin America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairfield, Tasha

    2010-01-01

    George, ed. 1998. “Fiscal Reforms in Low-Income Countries:Markets, and Structural Reform in Latin America. Miami:Imperatives and Tax Reform: Lessons from Postcommunist

  17. Is California Different? State-Specific Risk Adjustment Needs under Health Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fulton, Brent D.; Dow, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Adjustment Needs under Health Reform Brent D. Fulton andinsurance market under reform is the use of risk adjustmentplans. Keywords: health care reform, The Affordable Health

  18. Mayors, Markets and Municipal Reform: The Politics of Water Delivery in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Veronica Maria Sol

    2011-01-01

    Economy of Water Pricing Reforms. Washington, DC: WorldEconomy of Policy Reform. Washington, DC: Institute for2001. “Constructing Reform Coalitions: The Politics of

  19. Reform or Radicalism: Left Social Movements from the Battle of Seattle to Occupy Wall Street

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowe, James K; Carroll, Myles

    2014-01-01

    abstract antipathy towards ‘tepid reform’ and ‘unrealisticReform or Radicalism: Left Social Movements from the Battledynamism between radical and reform wings drove gains. This

  20. Prospects for Comprehensive Immigration Reform in 2012-2013: Accounting for Trends in Immigration Public Opinion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrejano, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive Immigration Reform in 2012-2013: Accountingpromised to make immigration reform a priority in his firstComprehensive Immigration Reform in 2012-2013 Accounting for

  1. Role of metal-support interactions on the activity of Pt and Rh catalysts for reforming methane and butane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossignol, C.; Krause, T.; Krumpelt, M.

    2002-01-11

    For residential fuel cell systems, reforming of natural gas is one option being considered for providing the H{sub 2} necessary for the fuel cell to operate. Industrially, natural gas is reformed using Ni-based catalysts supported on an alumina substrate, which has been modified to inhibit coke formation. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have developed a new family of catalysts derived from solid oxide fuel cell technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H{sub 2}. These catalysts consist of a transition metal supported on an oxide-ion-conducting substrate, such as ceria, that has been doped with a small amount of a non-reducible element, such as gadolinium, samarium, or zirconium. Unlike alumina, the oxide-ion-conducting substrate has been shown to induce strong metal-support interactions. Metal-support interactions are known to play an important role in influencing the catalytic activity of many metals supported on oxide supports. Based on results from temperature-programmed reduction/oxidation and kinetic reaction studies, this paper discusses the role of the metal and the substrate in the metal-support interactions, and how these interactions influence the activity and the selectivity of the catalyst in reforming methane and butane to hydrogen for use in fuel cell power systems.

  2. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, Ralph E. (Finleyville, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  3. Crack detection using pulsed eddy current stimulated thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostson, E.; Weekes, B.; Almond, D. P. [RCNDE, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath (United Kingdom); Wilson, J.; Tian, G. Y. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Newcastle University (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    This contribution presents results from studies investigating factors that influence the detection of surface breaking cracks using pulsed eddy current thermography. The influences of the current strength and crack orientation in both ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic metals have been investigated. It has been found that crack detection is far more sensitive to crack orientation in non-ferromagnetic metals than in ferromagnetic metals. The effects of crack size on detectability are presented for a large number of steel, nickel alloy and titanium samples. Results of studies comparing crack images obtained prior and after coating a nickel alloy sample with a thermal barrier coating are presented.

  4. Crack detection using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Bell, Thomas M. (Santa Fe, NM); Rhodes, George W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for detecting crack-like flaws in components. A plurality of exciting frequencies are generated and applied to a component in a dry condition to obtain a first ultrasonic spectrum of the component. The component is then wet with a selected liquid to penetrate any crack-like flaws in the component. The plurality of exciting frequencies are again applied to the component and a second ultrasonic spectrum of the component is obtained. The wet and dry ultrasonic spectra are then analyzed to determine the second harmonic components in each of the ultrasonic resonance spectra and the second harmonic components are compared to ascertain the presence of crack-like flaws in the component.

  5. Crack detection using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, A.; Bell, T.M.; Rhodes, G.W.

    1994-10-04

    Method and apparatus are provided for detecting crack-like flaws in components. A plurality of exciting frequencies are generated and applied to a component in a dry condition to obtain a first ultrasonic spectrum of the component. The component is then wet with a selected liquid to penetrate any crack-like flaws in the component. The plurality of exciting frequencies are again applied to the component and a second ultrasonic spectrum of the component is obtained. The wet and dry ultrasonic spectra are then analyzed to determine the second harmonic components in each of the ultrasonic resonance spectra and the second harmonic components are compared to ascertain the presence of crack-like flaws in the component. 5 figs.

  6. Fracture of surface cracks loaded in bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Y.J.; Reuter, W.G.

    1997-12-31

    Theoretical background of the constraint effect in brittle fracture of solids is reviewed. Fracture test data from D6-aC, a high strength steel, using three-point-bend (SE(B)) specimens and surface cracked plate (SC(B)) specimens under bending are presented. It is shown that the SE(B) data has an elevated fracture toughness for increasing a/W, i.e., a crack geometry with a larger T/K corresponds to a higher K{sub c} which is consistent with the theoretical prediction. The fundamental fracture properties, i.e., the critical strain and the critical distance, determined from the SE(B) test data are then applied to the interpretation and prediction of the SC(B) test data. Reasonable agreement is achieved for the crack growth initiation site and the load.

  7. Environmentally assisted cracking of LWR materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Kassner, T. F.; Park, J. H.; Shack, W. J.; Zhang, J.; Brust, F. W.; Dong, P.

    1997-12-05

    The effect of dissolved oxygen level on fatigue life of austenitic stainless steels is discussed and the results of a detailed study of the effect of the environment on the growth of cracks during fatigue initiation are presented. Initial test results are given for specimens irradiated in the Halden reactor. Impurities introduced by shielded metal arc welding that may affect susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking are described. Results of calculations of residual stresses in core shroud weldments are summarized. Crack growth rates of high-nickel alloys under cyclic loading with R ratios from 0.2-0.95 in water that contains a wide range of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen concentrations at 289 and 320 C are summarized.

  8. Effect of electronic structures on catalytic properties of CuNi alloy and Pd in MeOH-related reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, An-Pang [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Kimura, Tomofumi; Suzuki, Yukinori; Kameoka, Satoshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Shimoda, Masahiko [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Ishii, Yasushi [Department of Physics, Chuo University, Kasuga, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2013-04-14

    We investigated the catalytic properties of a CuNi solid solution and Pd for methanol-related reactions and associated valence electronic structures. Calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed that the CuNi alloy has a similar valence electronic structure to Pd and hence they exhibited similar CO selectivities in steam reforming of methanol and decomposition of methanol. Samples prepared by various processes were found to have similar CO selectivities. We conjecture that alloying of Cu and Ni dramatically alters the valence electronic structures, making it similar to that of Pd so that the alloy exhibits similar catalytic properties to Pd. First-principles slab calculations of surface electronic structures support this conjecture.

  9. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  10. Reflective cracking of shear keys in multi-beam bridges 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharpe, Graeme Peter

    2009-06-02

    strength to resist cracking from vehicular loads, but uneven temperature changes and shrinkage strains cause high tensile stresses in the shear key regions and lead to reflective cracking. The analyses showed the highest stresses were often times near...

  11. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  12. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Gruber, E.E. [and others

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from April 1995 to December 1995. Topics that have been investigated include fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steel used in reactor piping and pressure vessels, EAC of Alloy 600 and 690, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of Type 304 SS. Fatigue tests were conducted on ferritic steels in water that contained various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) to determine whether a slow strain rate applied during different portions of a tensile-loading cycle are equally effective in decreasing fatigue life. Crack-growth-rate tests were conducted on compact-tension specimens from several heats of Alloys 600 and 690 in simulated LWR environments. Effects of fluoride-ion contamination on susceptibility to intergranular cracking of high- and commercial- purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-tensile tests at 288 degrees Centigrade. Microchemical changes in the specimens were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether trace impurity elements may contribute to IASCC of these materials.

  13. Strip edge cracking simulation in cold rolling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.

    2011-01-17

    This research work focuses on a specific defect which occurs during cold rolling of steel strips: edge-serration. Investigations on the industrial processes have led to the conclusion that this defect is the result of the edge-trimming and cold rolling sequences. The aim of this research work is to analyze the effect of the cutting process and the cold rolling on cracks occurrence, especially on strip edges.This study is performed using an experimental testing stand called Upsetting Rolling Test (URT). It allows to reproduce cold rolling contact parameters such as forward slip, reduction ratio and friction coefficients. Specimens sampled near trimmed industrial strip edges are deformed using the URT stand. Two sets of specimens with different stress states, obtained by annealing, are submitted to two reduction passes with extreme forward slips.Scanning electron microscopy observations added to 3D optical surface profiler topographies show that on one hand, forward slip has a major effect on cracks opening. On the other hand, cracks opening decreases according to high roll strip speed gradient. Concerning the heat-treated specimens, no crack appeared after all reduction passes, showing a large influence of the cutting process and consequently of the local stress state in the vicinity of the burnish and fracture regions.

  14. SCATTERING BY CRACKS BENEATH FLUIDSOLID INTERFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craster, Richard

    , and accurately determine the position of, cracks. The non­destructive testing of a solid to detect such flaws as the fluid coupling tends to zero is non­uniform, that is, the Rayleigh wave is not related to the Sch

  15. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, S. [EPRI, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  16. CO2 Reduction by Dry Methane Reforming Over Hexaluminates: A Promising Technology for Decreasing Global Warming in a Cost Effective Manner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar-Villalpando, M.D.; Gardner, T.H.

    2008-03-01

    Efficient utilization of CO2 can help to decrease global warming. Methane reforming using carbon dioxide has been of interest for many years, but recently that interest has experienced a rapid increase for both environmental and commercial reasons. The use of CO2 provides a source of clean oxygen, which eliminates the need for costly oxygen separation plants. The product of dry reforming is useful syn-gas, which can be used to generate electrical power in a SOFC or in the production of synthetic fuels (hydrocarbons and alcohols). Hexaaluminate catalysts prepared at NETL may represent a product that can be utilized for the conversion of CO2 to syn-gas. In this work, transition metals dispersed in barium hexaaluminate have shown to be promising new catalysts for dry methane reforming. In this investigation, a series of BaNixAl12-yO19-? catalysts with varying Ni content were prepared by co-precipitation followed by calcination at 1400°C. CO2 reduction by dry methane reforming was carried out to determine catalyst performance as a function of temperature and carbon formation was also quantified after the reforming tests. Results of catalysts characterization, dispersion and surface area, were correlated to catalytic performance.

  17. Stress corrosion cracking and crack tip characterization of Alloy X-750 in light water reactor environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

    2011-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of Inconel Alloy X-750 in the HTH condition has been evaluated in high purity water at 93 and 288°C under Boiling Water Reactor Normal Water Chemistry (NWC) and Hydrogen Water ...

  18. Stress Corrosion Cracking and Crack Tip Characterization of Alloy X-750 in Light Water Reactor Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of Inconel Alloy X-750 in the HTH condition has been evaluated in high purity water at 93 and 288°C under Boiling Water Reactor Normal Water Chemistry (NWC) and Hydrogen Water ...

  19. Application of the cracked pipe element to creep crack growth prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brochard, J.; Charras, T.

    1997-04-01

    The modification of a computer code for leak before break analysis is very briefly described. The CASTEM2000 code was developed for ductile fracture assessment of piping systems with postulated circumferential through-wall cracks under static or dynamic loading. The modification extends the capabilities of the cracked pipe element to the determination of fracture parameters under creep conditions (C*, {phi}c and {Delta}c). The model has the advantage of evaluating significant secondary effects, such as those from thermal loading.

  20. Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

    2009-09-08

    A method for producing a crude product is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce one or more crude products. At least one of the crude products has a boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. as determined by ASTM Method D5307. The crude product having the boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. is catalytically cracked to produce one or more additional crude products. At least one of the additional crude products is a second gas stream. The second gas stream has a boiling point of at most 38.degree. C. at 0.101 MPa.

  1. Electricity reform in Chile : lessons for developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollitt, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    Chile was the first country in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries only Argentina has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. ...

  2. Promoting Public Policy Reform from Inside and Outside Government

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Promoting Public Policy Reform from Inside and Outside Government Sponsored by SF-makers who have had the unique opportunity to fight for social policy reforms from both the inside

  3. The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Daniel L.

    The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform Yueyi I. Liu, MD, PhD, Daniel L. Rubin, MD, MS reform. Informatics is crucial in tackling this challenge. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

  4. How Did Health Care Reform in Massachusetts Impact Insurance Premiums?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, John A.

    It is widely recognized that the 2006 Massachusetts health reforms served as a blueprint for national reform under the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA). As such, there is interest in using the Massachusetts experience to ...

  5. Voting Systems and Election Reform: What Do Election Officials Think? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation contains two essays on the effect of welfare reform on child- birth, marriage, and divorce. In the first essay, I exploit the cross state variation in welfare reform implementation to identify its effect on birth rates. The results...

  6. INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: · Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform

  7. Online appendix for Teacher Pay Reform and Productivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    Online appendix for Teacher Pay Reform and Productivity by Sojourner, Mykerezi & West September 26 Figure 1: Effects of P4P-centered HRM reform on reading and math achievement as measured by the MCA

  8. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  9. Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skala, Glenn William (Churchville, NY); Hart-Predmore, David James (Rochester, NY); Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY)

    2001-01-01

    A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

  10. Selective oxidation of hydrocarbons in a catalytic dense membrane reactor: Catalytic properties of BIMEVOX (Me = Ta)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Selective oxidation of hydrocarbons in a catalytic dense membrane reactor: Catalytic properties for syngas or H2 production from light hydrocarbons. #12;2 Keywords: Dense membrane reactor, BIMEVOX, BITAVOX to decouple the two steps of the redox mechanism that prevails in selective oxidation of hydrocarbons [1

  11. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  12. Longevity, Life-cycle Behavior and Pension Reform , Victoria Prowse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrova, Ivana

    Longevity, Life-cycle Behavior and Pension Reform Peter Haan , Victoria Prowse July 4, 2011 Abstract How can public pension systems be reformed to ensure fiscal stability in the face of increasing and retirement behavior. Keywords: Life Expectancy; Public Pension Reform; Retirement; Employment; Life

  13. Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Ofqual: A level Reform Consultation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Ofqual: A level Reform Consultation September 2012 1 Ofqual: A Level Reform Consultation Response by the Wellcome Trust September 2012 Key Points National Subject to university. We are therefore pleased to respond to this consultation on reforming A levels. Our comments

  14. The Myth of "Broken Britain": Welfare Reform and the Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Myth of "Broken Britain": Welfare Reform and the Production of Ignorance Tom Slater School, dependency) is repeatedly invoked by the architects of welfare reform to manufacture ignorance of alternative. Keywords: agnotology, welfare reform, Broken Society, Big Society, Iain Duncan-Smith, think tanks

  15. Reformation and Revolution in Early Modern England History 418

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 Reformation and Revolution in Early Modern England History 418 Consider Resources Primary (Online) Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation (Online) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online and reformation B. Look up Historical Figures, Organizations, and Agencies... If you know of a person involved

  16. the triple aim MEETING THE GOAL OF HEALTH REFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    the triple aim MEETING THE GOAL OF HEALTH REFORM Produced by OHSU Strategic Communications -- emphasizing shared decision-making and coordination between providers -- could influence reform in a big way care. health reform is about getting better health outcomes for our communities, improving access

  17. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation Jeong Y.that the catalytic activity under CO oxidation with partiallayers on catalytic activity during CO oxidation is not

  18. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation Jeong Y.that the catalytic activity under CO oxidation with partiallayers on catalytic activity during CO oxidation is not

  19. Hydrogen Oxidation-Driven Hot Electron Flow Detected by Catalytic Nanodiodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hervier, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    In conclusion, the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen on a Pt/chemicurrent from catalytic CO oxidation at atmosphericchemicurrent in catalytic hydrogen oxidation on Pt. Hydrogen

  20. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) ON ACTIVATED CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSION: KINETICS AND MECHANISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, Richard

    2012-01-01

    and Mechanism for the Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxidekinetic study of the catalytic oxidation on carbon particlesthe kinetics of the catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide on

  1. Soil cracking modelling using the mesh-free SPH method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bui, H H; Kodikara, J; Sanchez, M

    2015-01-01

    The presence of desiccation cracks in soils can significantly alter their mechanical and hydrological properties. In many circumstances, desiccation cracking in soils can cause significant damage to earthen or soil supported structures. For example, desiccation cracks can act as the preference path way for water flow, which can facilitate seepage flow causing internal erosion inside earth structures. Desiccation cracks can also trigger slope failures and landslides. Therefore, developing a computational procedure to predict desiccation cracking behaviour in soils is vital for dealing with key issues relevant to a range of applications in geotechnical and geo-environment engineering. In this paper, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method will be extended for the first time to simulate shrinkage-induced soil cracking. The main objective of this work is to examine the performance of the proposed numerical approach in simulating the strong discontinuity in material behaviour and to learn about the crack ...

  2. The effect of in-situ noble metal chemical addition on crack growth rate behavior of structural materials in 288 C water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andresen, P.L.; Angeliu, T.

    1996-10-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC), especially in existing boiling water reactor (BVM) components, is most effectively accomplished by reducing the corrosion potential. This was successfully demonstrated by adding hydrogen to BNM water, which reduced oxidant concentration and corrosion potential by recombining with the radiolytically formed oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. However, reduction in the corrosion potential for some vessel internals is difficult, and others require high hydrogen addition rates, which results in an increase in the main steam radiation level from volatile N{sup 16}. Noble metal electrocatalysis provides a unique opportunity to efficiently achieve a dramatic reduction in corrosion potential and SCC in BWRs, by catalytically reacting all oxidants that diffuse to a (catalytic) metal surface with hydrogen. There are many techniques for creating catalytic surfaces, including alloying with noble metals or applying noble metal alloy powders to existing BWR components by thermal spraying or weld cladding. A novel system-wide approach for producing catalytic surfaces on all wetted components has been developed which employs the reactor coolant water as the medium of transport. This approach is termed in-situ noble metal chemical addition (NMCA), and has been successfully used in extensive laboratory tests to coat a wide range of pre-oxidized structural materials. In turn, these specimens have maintained catalytic response in long term, cyclic exposures to extremes in dissolved gases, impurity levels, pH, flow rate, temperature, straining, etc. With stoichiometric excess H{sub 2}, the corrosion potential drops dramatically and crack initiation and growth are greatly reduced, even at high O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels. Without excess H{sub 2} (i.e., in normal BWR water chemistry), noble metals do not increase the corrosion potential or SCC.

  3. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, W. R.; Anoshkina, E.

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1- Implementation Plan, Phase 2- Validation Testing and Phase 3 – Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  4. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1 - Implementation Plan, Phase 2 - Validation Testing and Phase 3 - Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  5. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina; P. Szedlacsek

    2006-03-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse is conducting a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1-Implementation Plan, Phase 2-Validation Testing and Phase 3-Field Testing. The Phase 1 program has been completed. Phase II was initiated in October 2004. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCL{trademark}) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to react part of the fuel, increasing the fuel/air mixture temperature. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the catalytic concept will be demonstrated through subscale testing. Phase III will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  6. Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doctor, R.D.

    1993-10-05

    A process is described for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded. 1 figures.

  7. Circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karwoski, K.J.

    1997-04-01

    On April 28, 1995, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 95-03, {open_quote}Circumferential Cracking of Steam Generator Tubes.{close_quote} GL 95-03 was issued to obtain information needed to verify licensee compliance with existing regulatory requirements regarding the integrity of steam generator tubes in domestic pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). This report briefly describes the design and function of domestic steam generators and summarizes the staff`s assessment of the responses to GL 95-03. The report concludes with several observations related to steam generator operating experience. This report is intended to be representative of significant operating experience pertaining to circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes from April 1995 through December 1996. Operating experience prior to April 1995 is discussed throughout the report, as necessary, for completeness.

  8. Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doctor, Richard D. (Lisle, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A process for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded.

  9. Dynamical Event during Slow Crack Propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma {sup o}loy, Knut Jorgen; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2001-09-03

    We address the role of material heterogeneities on the propagation of a slow rupture at laboratory scale. With a high speed camera, we follow an in-plane crack front during its propagation through a transparent heterogeneous Plexiglas block. We obtain two major results. First, the slip along the interface is strongly correlated over scales much larger than the asperity sizes. Second, the dynamics is scale dependent. Locally, mechanical instabilities are triggered during asperity depinning and propagate along the front. The intermittent behavior at the asperity scale is in contrast with the large scale smooth creeping evolution of the average crack position. The dynamics is described on the basis of a Family-Vicsek scaling.

  10. Structures for dense, crack free thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); De Jonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2011-03-08

    The process described herein provides a simple and cost effective method for making crack free, high density thin ceramic film. The steps involve depositing a layer of a ceramic material on a porous or dense substrate. The deposited layer is compacted and then the resultant laminate is sintered to achieve a higher density than would have been possible without the pre-firing compaction step.

  11. Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    4 Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution Carl Shapiro, University of California the current U.S. patent system allows patent holders to capture private rewards that exceed their social with the patent system and discourage in- novation by others. Economic efficiency is promoted if rewards to patent

  12. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Plub Borough, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall.

  13. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Shockling, L.A.; George, R.A.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-06-18

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall. 5 figs.

  14. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

  15. An investigation of crack-tip stress field criteria of predicting cleavage-crack initiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeney-Walker, J.; Bass, B.R.; Landes, J.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Cleavage-crack initiation in large-scale wide-plate (WP) specimens could not be accurately predicted from small, compact (CT) specimens by using a linear-elastic fracture-mechanics, K{sub Ic}, methodology. In the wide-plate tests conducted by the Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, crack initiation has consistently occurred at stress-intensity (K{sub I}) values ranging from two to four times those predicted by the CT specimens. Studies were initiated to develop crack-tip stress field criteria incorporating effects of geometry, size, and constraint that will lead to improved predictions of cleavage initiation in WP specimens from CT specimens. The work centers around nonlinear two-and three-dimensional finite-element analyses of the crack-tip stress fields in these geometries. Analyses were conducted on CT and WP specimens for which cleavage initiation fracture had been measured in laboratory tests. The local crack-tip field generated for these specimens were then used in the evaluation of fracture correlation parameters to augment the K{sub I} parameter for predicting cleavage initiation. Parameters of hydrostatic constraint and of maximum principal stress, measured volumetrically, are included in these evaluations. The results suggest that the cleavage initiation process can be correlated with the local crack-tip fields via a maximum principal stress criterion based on achieving a critical area within a critical stress contour. This criterion has been successfully applied to correlate cleavage initiation in 2T-CT and WP specimen geometries. 23 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Promotion effect of cobalt-based catalyst with rare earth for the ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiou, Josh Y. Z.; Chen, Ya-Ping; Yu, Shen-Wei; Wang, Chen-Bin

    2013-12-16

    Catalytic performance of ethanol steam reforming (ESR) was investigated on praseodymium (Pr) modified ceria-supported cobalt oxide catalyst. The ceria-supported cobalt oxide (Ce-Co) catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation-oxidation (CPO) method, and the doped Pr (5 and 10 wt% loading) catalysts (Pr{sub 5}?Ce?Co and Pr{sub 10}?Ce?Co) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The reduction pretreatment under 250 and 400 °C (H250 and H400) was also studied. All samples were characterized by XRD, TPR and TEM. Catalytic performance of ESR was tested from 250 to 500 °C in a fixed-bed reactor. The doping of Pr into the ceria lattice has significantly promoted the activity and reduced the coke formation. The products distribution also can be influenced by the different reduction pretreatment. The Pr{sub 10}?Ce?Co?H400 sample is a preferential ESR catalyst, where the hydrogen distribution approaches 73% at 475 °C with less amounts (< 2%) of CO and CH{sub 4}.

  17. FCC Tail Gas olefins conversion to gasoline via catalytic distillation with aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partin, E.E. (Brown and Root U.S.A., Inc., Houston, TX (US))

    1988-01-01

    The goal of every refiner is to continually improve profitability by such means as increasing gasoline production, increasing gasoline octane pool and in cases where fuel balance becomes a problem, decreasing refinery fuel gas production. A new refinery process is currently being developed which accomplish these goals. Chemical Research and Licensing Company (CR and L) developed Catalytic Distillation technology in 1978 to produce MTBE. They have since used the Catalytic Distillation technique to produce cumene. CR and L has further developed this technology to convert olefin gases currently consumed as refinery fuel, to high octane gasoline components. The process, known as CATSTILL, alkylates olefin gases such as ethylene, propylene and butylene, present in FCC Tail Gas with light aromatics such as benzene, toluene and xylene, present in reformate, to produce additional quantities of high octane gasoline components. A portable CATSTILL demonstration plant has been constructed by Brown and Root U.S.A., under an agreement with CR and L, for placement in a refinery to further develop data necessary to design commercial plants. This paper presents current data relative to the CATSTILL development.

  18. Application of the cracked pipe element to creep crack growth prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brochard, J.; Charras, T. [C.E.A.-C.E.-Saclay DRN/DMT, Gif Sur Yvette (France); Ghoudi, M. [C.E.A.-C.E.-Saclay, Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    1997-04-01

    Modifications to a computer code for ductile fracture assessment of piping systems with postulated circumferential through-wall cracks under static or dynamic loading are very briefly described. The modifications extend the capabilities of the CASTEM2000 code to the determination of fracture parameters under creep conditions. The main advantage of the approach is that thermal loads can be evaluated as secondary stresses. The code is applicable to piping systems for which crack propagation predictions differ significantly depending on whether thermal stresses are considered as primary or secondary stresses.

  19. Process for catalytically oxidizing cycloolefins, particularly cyclohexene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizuno, Noritaka (Sapporo, JP); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Finke, Richard G. (Eugene, OR)

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a process for catalytically oxidizing cycloolefins, particularly cyclohexenes, to form a variety of oxygenates. The catalyst used in the process is a covalently bonded iridium-heteropolyanion species. The process uses the catalyst in conjunction with a gaseous oxygen containing gas to form 2-cyclohexen-1-ol and also 2-cyclohexen-1-one.

  20. Transparent and Catalytic Carbon Nanotube Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    for the dye-sensitized solar cell. Other possible applications include batteries, fuel cells and intercalation in hydrogen fuel cells and lithium ion batteries.1,10,12,14 However, the electrochemical activity to optimize performance through processing. In this study, we quantify the catalytic activity of single

  1. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  2. Anodic aluminium oxide catalytic membranes for asymmetric epoxidation{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anodic aluminium oxide catalytic membranes for asymmetric epoxidation{ So-Hye Cho, Nolan D. Walther, the catalytic membrane reactor configuration confers a significant advantage to oxidation reactions--the use of a catalytic membrane can provide a reactive interface for the oxidation to take place while avoiding long

  3. Capturing fleeting intermediates in a catalytic CH amination reaction cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    for the mechanistic study of catalytic processes. mass spectrometry | transient intermediates | C­H oxidation | catalysis Catalytic methods for selective C­H oxidation rely on the exquisite choreography of a series oxidant (4, 5, 11). The fast rates of the on- and off-path steps in this catalytic process

  4. Catalytic Oxidation Hot Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201400134

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Catalytic Oxidation Hot Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201400134 Trinuclear Pd3O2 Intermediate in Aerobic* Abstract: The activation of O2 is a key step in selective catalytic aerobic oxidation reactions mediated aerobic oxidation of alcohols. The formation and catalytic activity of the trinuclear Pd3O2 species

  5. Novel Fast Pyrolysis/Catalytic Technology for the Production of Stable Upgraded Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyama, Ted; Agblevor, Foster; Battaglia, Francine; Klein, Michael

    2013-01-18

    The objective of the proposed research is the demonstration and development of a novel biomass pyrolysis technology for the production of a stable bio-oil. The approach is to carry out catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and upgrading together with pyrolysis in a single fluidized bed reactor with a unique two-level design that permits the physical separation of the two processes. The hydrogen required for the HDO will be generated in the catalytic section by the water-gas shift reaction employing recycled CO produced from the pyrolysis reaction itself. Thus, the use of a reactive recycle stream is another innovation in this technology. The catalysts will be designed in collaboration with BASF Catalysts LLC (formerly Engelhard Corporation), a leader in the manufacture of attrition-resistant cracking catalysts. The proposed work will include reactor modeling with state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics in a supercomputer, and advanced kinetic analysis for optimization of bio-oil production. The stability of the bio-oil will be determined by viscosity, oxygen content, and acidity determinations in real and accelerated measurements. A multi-faceted team has been assembled to handle laboratory demonstration studies and computational analysis for optimization and scaleup.

  6. Medicaid Expansion and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Lessons and Hopes for Implementation of Healthcare Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kieber-Emmons, Autumn; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Grumbach, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Coverage under Health Care Reform. UCLA Center for HealthHow Will Health Care Reform Affect Costs and Coverage? – Ex-Implementing Healthcare Reform in California. ” NEJM Epub. (

  7. Effect of CTE on Fatigue Cracking of Stainless Steel Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, E. L.; Mustaleski, T. M.

    2002-01-31

    Visual examination of lithium hydride reactor vessels revealed cracks that were adjacent to welds. Most cracks were parallel to the weld in the bottom portion of the vessel. Sections were cut out of the vessel containing these cracks and examined using the metallograph, scanning electron microscope, and microprobe to determine the cause of cracking. most of the cracks originated on the outer surface just outside the weld fusion line in the heat affected zone and propagated along grain boundaries. Crack depth of those sections examined ranged from about 300 to 500 {micro}m. Other cracks were reported to have reached a maximum depth of 0.32-cm (0.125-inch). The primary cause of cracking was the creation of high tensile stresses associated with the CTE differences between the filler metal and the base metal during operation of the vessel in a thermally cyclic environment. This failure mechanism could be described as creep-type fatigue whereby crack propagation might have been aided by the presence of brittle chromium carbides along the grain boundaries, which is indicative of a slightly sensitized microstructure.

  8. Hot Rolling Scrap Reduction through Edge Cracking and Surface...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Our Approach use a precompetitive material to develop new modeling technology (AA-7050) account for the anisotropic behavior during crack growth. validate model to...

  9. Shrinkage - cracking characteristics of structural lightweight concrete 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKeen, Robert Gordon

    1969-01-01

    restraint of the material, such as reinforcement and external fri. ction 28 (h) chemical admixtures employed (i) unit water content 2. 4 ~fk' f. C 2. 4. 1 General The cracking of concrete has been a subject of interest to desi. gners for many years... were made on two six by t. )elve in. c; linders from each batch of concrete for purposes of control. . The pecimens were moist cured 14 days prior to testing. Testing was performed in accordance with ASTM C39-64. The data were taken to provid...

  10. 3:2:1 Crack Spread

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1:2:1 Crack

  11. Superior performance of Ni-W-Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernandez-Garica, Marcos; et al

    2014-11-26

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was studied over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (more »The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.« less

  12. Autothermal hydrodesulfurizing reforming method and catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael; Kopasz, John P.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kao, Richard Li-chih; Randhava, Sarabjit Singh

    2005-11-22

    A method for reforming a sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel in which the sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel is mixed with H.sub.2 O and an oxidant, forming a fuel/H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture. The fuel H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture is brought into contact with a catalyst composition comprising a dehydrogenation portion, an oxidation portion and a hydrodesulfurization portion, resulting in formation of a hydrogen-containing gas stream.

  13. Method and apparatus for a catalytic firebox reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Lance L. (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Ulkarim, Hasan (Hamden, CT); Castaldi, Marco J. (Bridgeport, CT); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic firebox reactor employing an exothermic catalytic reaction channel and multiple cooling conduits for creating a partially reacted fuel/oxidant mixture. An oxidation catalyst is deposited on the walls forming the boundary between the multiple cooling conduits and the exothermic catalytic reaction channel, on the side of the walls facing the exothermic catalytic reaction channel. This configuration allows the oxidation catalyst to be backside cooled by any fluid passing through the cooling conduits. The heat of reaction is added to both the fluid in the exothermic catalytic reaction channel and the fluid passing through the cooling conduits. After discharge of the fluids from the exothermic catalytic reaction channel, the fluids mix to create a single combined flow. A further innovation in the reactor incorporates geometric changes in the exothermic catalytic reaction channel to provide streamwise variation of the velocity of the fluids in the reactor.

  14. Will electricity market reform likely reduce retail rates?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, C.K.; Zarnikau, Jay

    2009-03-15

    To win public support, proponents for electricity market reform to introduce competition often promise that the post-reform retail rates will be lower than the average embedded cost rates that would have prevailed under the status quo of a regulated monopoly. A simple economic analysis shows that such a promise is unlikely to occur without the critical assumption that the post-reform market has marginal costs below average costs. (author)

  15. Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Return to Search Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming National Energy Technology...

  16. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Short Contact Time Hydrogen Generator, Wei Wei, GE Global Research Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming, Darlene Steward, National Renewable Energy Laboratory High-Pressure Steam...

  17. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) on October 24, 2006, in Baltimore, Maryland. The Working Group is addressing technical challenges to distributed...

  18. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation by Arlene Anderson at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  19. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Oversight and Government Reform ubcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement By: Kathleen Hogan, Deputy Assistant Secretary Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  20. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in...

  1. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation...

  2. Catalysts get concentrated attention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruch, H.W.

    1989-02-27

    At the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association annual question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology, refiners concentrated heavily on questions pertaining to modern catalyst technology and its applications and operating experiences, including: fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, hydrotreating, and catalytic reforming.

  3. Experimental Determination of Crack Driving Forces in Integrated Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    8/2/2004 1 Experimental Determination of Crack Driving Forces in Integrated Structures Jun He in a structure, the crack driving force G is the reduction of the elastic energy in the structure, associated. In practice, however, such a calculation is prohibitively difficult for integrated structures of complex

  4. Crack patterns in thin lms Z. Cedric Xiaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, John W.

    Crack patterns in thin ®lms Z. Cedric Xiaa , John W. Hutchinsonb, * a Ford Research Laboratory elastic ®lms. Speci®c examples are presented for ®lms subject to equi-biaxial residual tensile stress Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Crack propagation; Thin ®lms; Integral equations 1

  5. Fracture mechanics analysis of slow crack growth in polyethylene 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Self, Robert Alan

    1997-01-01

    Slow crack growth in polyethylene is often the limiting factor in long-term service of plastic pipe or other structural applications. A new test method and analysis method was developed to study slow crack growth in polyethylene. Two high density...

  6. WATER PERMEABILITY OF CRACKED CEMENTITIOUS MICHAEL LEPECH & VICTOR C. LI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lepech, Michael D.

    of ECC material exhibits a water permeability close to that of uncracked concrete when strained up to 1 structures. With compressive strengths twice that of normal concrete and a low water permeability coefficient is the permeability of concrete structures in the cracked state. Regardless of the reason for cracking, whether

  7. CRACKING OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE CONTAINMENTS DUE TO INTERNAL PRESSURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    applied to a 1/14 scale test structure. Observed values agreed well with predicted values. #12;Mac of a containment vessel (wall segment tests) reported in this paper and Ref. 4 and 5, and a test of a 1/14 size reached, all cracks observed in the tests had formed. At greater strains certain existing cracks became

  8. The Simulation of Paint Cracking and Peeling Eric Paquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montréal, Université de

    The Simulation of Paint Cracking and Peeling Eric Paquette D´ep. I.R.O., Universit´e de Montr of time results in cracking and peeling of layers such as paint. To include these ef- fects in computer of paint peeling. We present a new approach which computes such a simulation on surfaces. Our simulation

  9. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  10. Preface: Challenges for Catalytic Exhaust Aftertreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-03-31

    This special issue of Catalysis Today continues the tradition established since the 18th NAM in Cancun, 2003, of publishing the highlights coming from these catalytic after-treatment technologies sessions, where this volume contains 18 papers based on oral and poster presentations of the 23rd NAM, 2013. The guest editors would like to thank all of the catalyst scientists and engineers who presented in the "Emission control" sessions, and especially the authors who contributed to this special issue of Catalysis Today.

  11. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

    1995-12-01

    Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results.

  12. Prospects for Comprehensive Immigration Reform in 2012-2013: Accounting for Trends in Immigration Public Opinion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrejano, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Reform in 2012-2013: Accounting for Trends in ImmigrationReform in 2012-2013 Accounting for Trends in ImmigrationReform in 2012-2013 Accounting for Trends in Immigration

  13. Negotiating Education Reform: Teacher Evaluations and Incentives in Chile (1990-2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mizala, Alejandra

    Reforms designed to improve the quality of teaching by reforming personnel practices, such as pay for performance arrangements, usually run into opposition from well-organized teacher unions that can either block reform ...

  14. Statutory Damages in Copyright Law: A Remedy in Need of Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuelson, Pamela; Wheatland, Tara

    2009-01-01

    consider whether legislative reform of U.S. statutory damagewe consider whether statutory reform might be desirable toTo put our suggestions for reform of U.S. statutory damages

  15. The rules of ruling : charter reform in Los Angeles, 1850-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingram, James Warren

    2008-01-01

    the Challenges of Charter Reform, Kevin F. McCarthy, Stevenof Los Angeles Charter Reform,” Appendix B of Meetingthe Challenges of Charter Reform, Kevin F. McCarthy, Steven

  16. Californians Newly Eligible for Medi-Cal under Health Care Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pourat, Nadereh; Martinez, Ana E.; Kominski, Gerald F.

    2011-01-01

    for Medi-Cal under Health Care Reform Nadereh Pourat, Ana E.implementation of health care reform by incorporating manyCal under Health Care Reform. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center

  17. Modernization and Post-1978 Chinese Educational Reform: Impact on a Migrating Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Weiling

    2013-01-01

    upon the new curricular reform in China. Curriculum,A. Park (Eds. ). Education and Reform in China, (pp. 27-43).in Chinese educational reform. Journal of Education Studies,

  18. Managing Multiple Mandates : : Teachers' Practice in the Nexus of Educational Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasselbrink, Stephanie Lynn

    2014-01-01

    M. B. (1992). Getting reform right: What works and whatfor comprehensive school reform. In G. Orfield & E. H.Facts, not fads, in Title I reform (pp. 111-119). Cambridge,

  19. The Politics of School Reform: A Broader and Bolder Approach for Newark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noguera, Pedro A.; Wells, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    economy of urban educational reform. New York, NY: TeachersR. F. (2004). School reform from the inside out: Policy,The Politics of School Reform 23 Gonzalez, J. (2010, May

  20. Predicting crack growth in continuous-fiber composite materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordes, J.A.; Yazici, R.

    1995-12-31

    Pre-notched composite lamina with unidirectional fibers were studied experimentally and using finite element analysis. Experiments were conducted on notched graphite/aluminum and glass/epoxy panels and the results were compared to a finite element method. Under remote tensile loading, cracks in the graphite/aluminum panels propagated perpendicular to the applied load without stable crack growth. In the glass/epoxy panels, crack propagation was initially stable and parallel to the fibers. A nonlinear damage zone method (DZM) was used to predict the crack growth directions, estimate damages, model stable and unstable crack growths, and predict the loads at failure. For both materials, the predicted loads at failure were within 20% of experimental loads.

  1. Fatigue cracking in materials with brittle surface coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suresh, S.; Sugimura, Y.; Ogawa, T. (Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States))

    1993-07-15

    Ceramic coatings enhance the resistance of metal alloys to wear, oxidation, thermal exposure, corrosion, erosion and delamination in a variety of structural, optical, electrical , electronic and bioengineering applications. Recent experimental work on steel-steel bimaterials has shown that the conditions for the growth or arrest of a fatigue crack, which approaches the interface between the two steels perpendicularly, are determined by whether the crack propagates to the interface from the weaker or the stronger material. Specifically, it is found that as the fatigue crack advances toward the interface from the weaker steel, the interaction of the crack-tip plastic zone with the interface results in the arrest of the crack. However, when the fatigue crack is propagated from the stronger to the weaker steel, crack growth occurs unimpeded through the interface. In this paper, the authors present additional experimental and mechanistic descriptions of fatigue crack growth normal to interfaces. They then apply the mechanisms underlying these experiments to the design of fatigue-resistant surface coatings for alloys. In particular, they demonstrate experimentally that a fatigue crack emanating from the brittle outercoating and advancing into the substrate can be arrested and/or deflected by proper choices of ductile interlayers. Experimental results of fatigue crack profiles and high-cycle fatigue lives are presented for two different coated materials: a steel coated with a Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] layer and a steel coated with a Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] outerlayer and a soft Ni-Al interlayer. The paper also includes a brief discussion of the application of proposed concepts to nitrided titanium alloys.

  2. ffe1098 FFE March 7, 2007 21:55 Crack tip displacements of microstructurally small cracks in 316L steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cizelj, Leon

    -strain finite element crystal plasticity model. The model consists of 212 randomly shaped, sized and oriented plane. Keywords crack tip displacements; crystal plasticity; polycrystals; small cracks. NOMENCLATURE a) and sliding displacements (CTSD) for single crystal and polycrystal models, considering also different

  3. The effect of crack surface interaction on the stress intensity factor in Mode III crack growth in round shafts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaziri, Ashkan

    in round shafts A. Vaziri 1 , H. Nayeb-Hashemi * Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing March 2004; accepted 31 March 2004 Available online 6 July 2004 Abstract Turbine-generator shafts and propagate a circumferential crack in the shafts. Mode III crack growth in turbo-generator shafts often

  4. Mixed-mode, high-cycle fatigue-crack growth thresholds in II. Quantication of crack-tip shielding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    -tip shielding J.P. Campbell, R.O. Ritchie * Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering, University 2000; accepted 11 May 2000 Abstract The role of crack-tip shielding in in¯uencing mixed-mode (mode I crack-tip shielding with respect to both the mode I and mode II applied loading, enabling an estimation

  5. Short and Large Crack, Mixed-Mode Fatigue-Crack Growth Thresholds in Ti-6Al-4V1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    and control of failures due to high cycle fatigue (HCF) in turbine engine components is currently one, Dr. J. P. Campbell and Professor R. O. Ritchie2 Department of Materials Science and Engineering-crack growth thresholds with crack size and shape are reported for a Ti-6Al-4V turbine blade alloy, heat

  6. Cracking in liquid petroleum gas Horton spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivedi, D.K. Gupta, S.C.

    1997-07-01

    A gas processing plant on the western coast of India produces sweet gas after processing sour natural gas. Liquid petroleum gas (LPG) is recovered from the sweet gas. The LPG, containing a H{sub 2}S concentration of 10 ppm to 20 ppm, is stored in Horton spheres, each 17 m in diameter with a capacity of {minus}27 C to 55 C. Horton spheres for containing liquid petroleum gas (LPG) were fabricated on-site using prestressed plates of high-strength carbon steel (CS) SA 537 Class-1 with post-weld heat treatment. High-residual tensile stresses and hydrogen absorption from H{sub 2}S present in LPG could be the cause of cracking at weld and heat-affected zone interfaces at high hardness locations. Recommendations are given for inspection and use of lower-strength CS and improved welding procedures.

  7. Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  8. Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal J.H. Williams, R. Ghanadan-3050, USA Abstract Since about 1990, many developing and transition countries have undertaken market-oriented reforms in their electric power sectors. Despite the widespread adoption of a standard policy model

  9. ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece by Ekaterini Iliadou Lawyer - Legal Department of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece

  10. Electricity Reform Abroad and U.S. Investment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom in an attempt to better understand how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries of Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom.

  11. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorne Woods, IL); Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  12. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-07-13

    A fuel cell is described capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  13. The cracking and spalling of multilayered chromium coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joergensen, O.; Horsewell, A.; Soerensen, B.F. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Materials Dept.] [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Materials Dept.; Leisner, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Centre of Advanced Electroplating] [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Centre of Advanced Electroplating

    1995-11-01

    Cracks in a chromium coating on a steel substrate which are caused by residual stresses developed during an electroplating process are examined. The chromium coating, formed as a multilayer by alternating electroplating utilizing direct current (DC) and periodic current reversal (PR), is in a state of biaxial tensile stress due to a volume contraction in the successive DC layers which occurs during deposition. A uniform biaxial misfit strain idealizes this layerwise contraction. The state of stress in the multilayer is model during laminate theory. Special emphasis is given to the influence of the substrate flexibility on the stress build-up. It is shown that the flexibility of the substrate produces an equal biaxial bending moment in the coating. At a critical coating thickness, the chromium multilayer cracks and spalls off the substrate. The radius of curvature of detached coating fragments provides a measure of the size of the bending moment and, indirectly, of the misfit strain. The observed fracture mechanism is qualitatively divided into cracks channeling in the coating and debonding cracks running in the interface between the coating and the substrate. Long crack asymptotic solutions for the two distinct crack types are presented. The fracture analyses of the multilayered chromium coating show the functional dependence of relative layer and substrate thicknesses and flexibility on the energy release rate for crack propagation.

  14. Reliability of steam generator tubes with axial cracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cizelj, L.; Mavko, B. [Jozef Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia). Reactor Engineering Div.; Vencelj, P. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-11-01

    An approach for estimating the failure probability of tubes containing through-wall axial cracks has already been proposed by the authors. It is based on probabilistic fracture mechanics and accounts for scatter in tube geometry and material properties, scatter in residual and operational stresses responsible for crack propagation, and characteristics of nondestructive examination and plugging procedures (e.g., detection probability, sizing accuracy, human errors). Results of preliminary tests demonstrated wide applicability of this approach and triggered some improvements. The additions to the model are extensively discussed in this paper. Capabilities are demonstrated by results of analysis of steam generator no. 1 in Slovenian nuclear power plant located in Krsko after the 1992 inspection and plugging campaign. First, the number of cracked tubes and the crack length distribution were estimated using data obtained by the 100% motorized pancake coil inspection. The inspection and plugging activities were simulated in the second step to estimate the efficiency of maintenance in terms of single and multiple-tube rupture probabilities. They were calculated as a function of maximum allowable crack length. The importance of human errors and some limitations of present nondestructive examination techniques were identified. The traditional wall thickness and crack-length-based plugging criteria are compared. The crack-length-based criterion is shown to be more efficient and more safe, especially because of strong suppression effect on probability of multiple-tube rupture. The results are considered to be important for safety and maintenance of existing plants and for further research.

  15. Three-dimensional crack growth assessment by microtopographic examination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, W.R.; Piascik, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The initial stage of the stable tearing process in two 2.3 mm sheet 2024-T3 aluminum alloy M(T) specimens are analyzed using fracture surface microtopography reconstruction techniques. The local crack tip opening angles (CTOA) in the interior of the specimens are determined relative to both crack extension and through-thickness position. The microtopographic analysis of cracks grown in the L-T and T-L orientations reveal that interior CTOA is comparable to those measured on the surface using standard optical analysis methods. Similar to surface CTOA results, interior (mid-thickness) CTOA exhibit a transient behavior; CTOA transitions from high angles, at near crack initiation, to a lower steady-state value of 5 deg. and 4.2 deg. for L-T and T-L, respectively, at crack lengths greater than 1.5mm. Fracture surface topographic projection maps are used to study the evolution of crack front tunneling during the initial stage of the fracture process. Stable tearing initiates at mid-thickness followed by a crack front tunneling process to a depth of approximately 2mm. A brief discussion of the basis of the fracture process reconstruction method is provided and comments on the general utility of microtopographic fracture surface examination for general assessment of elastic-plastic and fully-plastic fracture processes are made.

  16. Fatigue crack growth behavior of Ti-1100 at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.C.; Nicholas, T.

    1995-12-31

    Effects of temperature, frequency, and cycles with superimposed hold times are evaluated in Ti-1100 in order to study the complex creep-fatigue-environment interactions in this material. Crack growth rate tests conducted at cyclic loading frequency of 1.0 Hz show that raising the temperature from 593 to 650 C has only a slightly detrimental effect on crack growth rate, although these temperatures produce growth rates significantly higher than at room temperature. From constant {Delta}K tests, the effects of temperature at constant frequency show a minimum crack growth rate at 250 C. From the minimum crack growth rate at 250 C, the crack growth rate increases linearly with temperature. Increases in frequency at constant temperatures of 593 and 650 C produce a continuous decrease in growth rate in going from 0.001 to 1.0 Hz, although the behavior is primarily cycle dependent in this region. Tests at 1.0 Hz with superimposed hold times from 1 to 1,000 s are used to evaluate creep-fatigue-environment interactions. Hold times at maximum load are found to initially decrease and then increase the cyclic crack growth rate with increasing duration. This is attributed to crack-tip blunting during short hold times and environmental degradation at long hold times. Hold times at minimum load show no change in growth rates, indicating that there is no net environmental degradation to the bulk material beyond that experienced during the baseline 1 Hz cycling.

  17. Standard test method for creep-fatigue crack growth testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep-fatigue crack growth properties of nominally homogeneous materials by use of pre-cracked compact type, C(T), test specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic forces. It concerns fatigue cycling with sufficiently long loading/unloading rates or hold-times, or both, to cause creep deformation at the crack tip and the creep deformation be responsible for enhanced crack growth per loading cycle. It is intended as a guide for creep-fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. Therefore, this method requires testing of at least two specimens that yield overlapping crack growth rate data. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and enhanced crack growth vary with material and with temperature for a given material. The effects of environment such as time-dependent oxidation in enhancing the crack growth ra...

  18. Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes vs...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    at Tritium Focus Group Meeting, April 22-24, 2014, Aiken, SC COMPARISON OF WATER-HYDROGEN CATALYTIC EXCHANGE PROCESSES VERSUS WATER DISTILLATION FOR WATER DETRITIATION A. Busigin,...

  19. Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of different fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Bei-Jing; Yang, Fan; Yang, Qing-Tao

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of methane (CH{sub 4}), n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and dimethyl ether (DME) were studied experimentally in a Pt-coated monolith catalytic reactor. It is concluded that DME has the lowest catalytic ignition temperature and the least required H{sub 2} flow, while CH{sub 4} has the highest catalytic ignition temperature and the highest required H{sub 2} flow among the three fuels. (author)

  20. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  1. Piloted rich-catalytic lean-burn hybrid combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newburry, Donald Maurice (Orlando, FL)

    2002-01-01

    A catalytic combustor assembly which includes, an air source, a fuel delivery means, a catalytic reactor assembly, a mixing chamber, and a means for igniting a fuel/air mixture. The catalytic reactor assembly is in fluid communication with the air source and fuel delivery means and has a fuel/air plenum which is coated with a catalytic material. The fuel/air plenum has cooling air conduits passing therethrough which have an upstream end. The upstream end of the cooling conduits is in fluid communication with the air source but not the fuel delivery means.

  2. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to develop a unique, fuel-flexible catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultra-low emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide range of gaseous opportunity fuels. Fact...

  3. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed state-of-the-art passive catalytic technology designed to reduce NOx released during vehicle cold start portion of the FTP-75 cycle

  4. Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of NO by Hydrocarbons Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Progress on Acidic Zirconia Mixed Oxides for Efficient NH3-SCR Catalysis...

  5. Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown...

  6. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Next Generation Manufacturing Processes project to develop a unique, fuel-flexible catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultra-low emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide...

  7. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified....

  8. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway...

  9. Probing Hot Electron Flow Generated on Pt Nanoparticles with Au/TiO2 Schottky Diodes during Catalytic CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.

    2009-01-01

    Schottky Diodes during Catalytic CO Oxidation Jeong Y. Parkwere measured during catalytic CO oxidation at pressures ofexothermic catalytic carbon monoxide oxidation was directly

  10. Stress-corrosion cracking of copper single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sieradzki, K.; Newman, R.C.; Sabatini, R.L.

    1984-10-01

    Constant extension rate tests have been carried out in a sodium nitrite solution. Crack velocities up to 30 nm per second were obtained at 30/sup 0/C. If dynamic straining is stopped, the cracks apparently stop growing within about 20 ..mu..m. The steps between adjacent flat facets are more energy-absorbing than in ..cap alpha..-brass, providing a possible explanation for the importance of dynamic strain. Simultaneous acoustic emission and electrochemical current transients suggest that cracking proceeds by discontinuous cleavage.

  11. Tearing of thin sheets: Cracks interacting through an elastic ridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabian Brau

    2014-12-17

    We study the interaction between two cracks propagating quasistatically during the tearing of a thin brittle sheet. We show that the cracks attract each other following a path described by a power law resulting from the competition between elastic and fracture energies. The power law exponent (8/11) is in close agreement with experiments. We also show that a second (asymptotic) regime, with an exponent of 9/8, emerges for small distances between the two crack tips due to the finite transverse curvature of the elastic ridge joining them.

  12. Thin film porous membranes for catalytic sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, R.C.; Boyle, T.J.; Gardner, T.J. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This paper reports on new and surprising experimental data for catalytic film gas sensing resistors coated with nanoporous sol-gel films to impart selectivity and durability to the sensor structure. This work is the result of attempts to build selectivity and reactivity to the surface of a sensor by modifying it with a series of sol-gel layers. The initial sol-gel SiO{sub 2} layer applied to the sensor surprisingly showed enhanced O{sub 2} interaction with H{sub 2} and reduced susceptibility to poisons such as H{sub 2}S.

  13. Surface Structure and Catalytic $CO$ Oxidation Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Danielak; A. Perera; M. Moreau; M. Frankowicz; R. Kapral

    1996-02-13

    A cellular automaton model is used to describe the dynamics of the catalytic oxidation of $CO$ on a $Pt(100)$ surface. The cellular automaton rules account for the structural phase transformations of the $Pt$ substrate, the reaction kinetics of the adsorbed phase and diffusion of adsorbed species. The model is used to explore the spatial structure that underlies the global oscillations observed in some parameter regimes. The spatiotemporal dynamics varies significantly within the oscillatory regime and depends on the harmonic or relaxational character of the global oscillations. Diffusion of adsorbed $CO$ plays an important role in the synchronization of the patterns on the substrate and this effect is also studied.

  14. Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Tim; Shah, Nihar

    2007-01-01

    NH3 Platform Catalytic steam reformation technology InternalNH3 Platform Catalytic steam reformation technology Supports

  15. Exergy & Economic Analysis of Catalytic Coal Gasifiers Coupled with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Nicholas; Litster, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has undertaken a review of coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide. One way to achieve an overall system efficiency of greater than 60% is in a power plant in which a catalytic coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis and this is sent to a SOFC, with CO{sub 2} capture occurring either before or after the SOFC. Integration of a catalytic gasifier with a SOFC, as opposed to a conventional entrained flow gasifier, is improved due to (a) decreased exergy destruction inside a catalytic, steam-coal gasifier producing a high-methane content syngas, and (b) decreased exergy destruction in the SOFC due to the ability to operate at lower air stoichiometric flow ratios. For example, thermal management of the SOFC is greatly improved due to the steam-methane reforming in the anode of the fuel cell. This paper has two main goals. First, we converted the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) estimates of various research groups into an average internal rate of return on investment (IRR) in order to make comparisons between their results, and to underscore the increased rate of return on investment for advanced integrated gasification fuel cell systems with carbon capture & sequestration (IGFC-CCS) compared with conventional integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC-CCS) systems and pulverized coal combustion (PCC-CCS) systems. Using capital, labor, and fuel costs from previous researchers and using an average price of baseload electricity generation of $61.50 / MW-hr, we calculated inflation-adjusted IRR values of up to 13%/yr for catalytic gasification with pressurized fuel cell and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), whereas we calculate an IRR of ?4%/yr and ?2%/yr for new, conventional IGCC-CCS and PCC-CCS, respectively. If the carbon dioxide is used for enhanced oil recovery rather than for saline aquifer storage, then the IRR values improve to 16%/yr, 10%/yr, and 8%/yr, respectively. For comparison, the IRR of a new conventional IGCC or PCC power plant without CO{sub 2} capture are estimated to be 11%/yr and 15.0%/yr, respectively. Second, we conducted an exergy analysis of two different configurations in which syngas from a catalytic gasifier fuels a SOFC. In the first case, the CO{sub 2} is captured before the SOFC, and the anode tail gas is sent back to the catalytic gasifier. In the second case, the anode tail gas is oxy-combusted using oxygen ion ceramic membranes and then CO{sub 2} is captured for sequestration. In both cases, we find that the system efficiency is greater than 60%. These values compare well with previous system analysis. In future work, we plan to calculate the IRR of these two cases and compare with previous economic analyses conducted at NETL.

  16. White(etching!matter!in!bearing!steel! Part1:!Controlled(cracking!of!52100!steel!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    ! quenched! and! untempered! steel! normally! used! in! the! manufacture! of! bearings.!The!varieties!of!cracks!studied!include!sparsely!distributed!martensite(lubricant!interactions,!or!hydrogen!trapping!can!be!studied!further.! ! Keywords:!bearing!steel,!indentation!cracks,!cracked!martensite,!grain(boundary!decohesion,! surface! 1! White(etching!matter!in!bearing!steel! Part1:!Controlled(cracking!of!52100!steel! ! W

  17. Modeling of crack initiation, propagation and coalescence in rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonçalves da Silva, Bruno Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Natural or artificial fracturing of rock plays a very important role in geologic processes and for engineered structures in and on rock. Fracturing is associated with crack initiation, propagation and coalescence, which ...

  18. Crack coalescence in rock-like material under cycling loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Tae Young, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    A total of 170 tests (68 tests for monotonic loading, 102 tests for cyclic loading) have been performed to investigate crack initiation, propagation and coalescence. The specimens have two pre-existing flaws which are ...

  19. Catalytic reactor for low-Btu fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Lance (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Karim, Hasan (Simpsonville, SC); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

    2009-04-21

    An improved catalytic reactor includes a housing having a plate positioned therein defining a first zone and a second zone, and a plurality of conduits fabricated from a heat conducting material and adapted for conducting a fluid therethrough. The conduits are positioned within the housing such that the conduit exterior surfaces and the housing interior surface within the second zone define a first flow path while the conduit interior surfaces define a second flow path through the second zone and not in fluid communication with the first flow path. The conduit exits define a second flow path exit, the conduit exits and the first flow path exit being proximately located and interspersed. The conduits define at least one expanded section that contacts adjacent conduits thereby spacing the conduits within the second zone and forming first flow path exit flow orifices having an aggregate exit area greater than a defined percent of the housing exit plane area. Lastly, at least a portion of the first flow path defines a catalytically active surface.

  20. THE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) SLURRIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    THE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) SLURRIESTHE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) SLURRIESreactive species in catalytic oxidation of S(IV). so 3 2- as

  1. KINETICS AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, R.

    2012-01-01

    AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDEmechanism for the catalytic oxidation of in an aqueous sus1ECHANISf 1 1 FOR TilE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

  2. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Ex-Situ Catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis In ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis, biomass is heated with catalysts...

  3. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: In-Situ Catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis The in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis pathway involves rapidly heating...

  4. HealtH reform and oHsu how we'll change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    HealtH reform and oHsu how we'll change Health reform will touch all of oHsu's missions. the coming will have to grow and adapt to meet new challenges. For years, health reform has been a political football for academic health centers like OHSU to truly lead. Reform will touch all of OHSU's missions. Our hospitals

  5. Paper ID #10519 Sustainable Reform of "Introductory Dynamics" Driven by a Community of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Matthew

    Paper ID #10519 Sustainable Reform of "Introductory Dynamics" Driven by a Community of Practice;Sustainable Reform of Introductory Dynamics Driven by a Community of Practice Abstract The Strategic to initiate reforms, SIIP aims to improve the sustainability of reforms by forming Communities of Practice (Co

  6. 2007 DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    )(organic fraction) DistillationDistillation Reformation of ethanolReformation of ethanol Biogas reformationBiogas Deactivation/Regeneration #12;Overview of the Economic Analysis Strategies Process Mass and Heat Balance for reaction and heating; Reformer is simulated as RYield with temperature at 450oC and furnace is simulated

  7. Analytical determination of critical crack size in solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.P.

    1988-05-01

    Although solar cells usually have chips and cracks, no material specifications concerning the allowable crack size on solar cells are available for quality assurance and engineering design usage. Any material specifications that the cell manufacturers use were developed for cosmetic reasons that have no technical basis. Therefore, the Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) has sponsored a continuing program for the fracture mechanics evaluation of GaAs. Fracture mechanics concepts were utilized to develop an analytical model that can predict the critical crack size of solar cells. This model indicates that the edge cracks of a solar cell are more critical than its surface cracks. In addition, the model suggests that the material specifications on the allowable crack size used for Si solar cells should not be applied to GaAs solar cells. The analytical model was applied to Si and GaAs solar cells, but it would also be applicable to the semiconductor wafers of other materials, such as a GaAs thin film on a Ge substrate, using appropriate input data.

  8. Antibody-Metalloporphyrin Catalytic Assembly Mimics Natural Oxidation Enzymes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Ehud

    Antibody-Metalloporphyrin Catalytic Assembly Mimics Natural Oxidation Enzymes Shai Nimri and Ehud-metalloporphyrin assembly that catalyzes the enantioselective oxidation of aromatic sulfides to sulfoxides is presented-naphthoxy ligand. The catalytic assembly comprising antibody SN37.4 and a ruthenium- (II) porphyrin cofactor

  9. Roles of grain boundaries in cleavage cracking and thermal crack arrest experiments in iron-silicon alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Yu, 1972-

    2002-01-01

    High-angle grain boundaries in steel offer an important resistance to the propagation of cleavage cracks that affects the fracture toughness and can modulate the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of fracture downward. ...

  10. Grain-by-grain study of the mechanisms of crack propagation during iodine stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haddad, R.E. [CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dorado, A.O. [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the tests conducted to determine the conditions leading to cracking of a specified grain of metal, during the iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of zirconium alloys, focusing on the crystallographic orientation of crack paths, the critical stress conditions, and the significance of the fractographic features encountered. In order to perform crystalline orientation of fracture surfaces, a specially heat-treated Zircaloy-4 having very large grains, grown up to the wall thickness, was used. Careful orientation work has proved that intracrystalline pseudo-cleavage occurs only along basal planes. the effects of anisotropy, plasticity, triaxiality, and residual stresses originated in thermal contraction have to be considered to account for the influence of the stress state. A grain-by-grain calculation led to the conclusion that transgranular cracking always takes place on those bearing the maximum resolved tensile stress perpendicular to basal planes. Propagation along twin boundaries has been identified among the different fracture modes encountered.

  11. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary S. (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling.

  12. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.S.; Painter, C.F.; Pastore, S.P.; Roth, G.S.; Winchester, D.C.

    1991-10-15

    An integrated process is described for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling. 2 figures.

  13. Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of Biphenylene with Platinum, Palladium, and Nickel Phosphine Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of Biphenylene with Platinum, Palladium, and Nickel Phosphine Complexes activation and formation by plati- num and palladium phosphine complexes.4g The oper- ating catalytic cycle

  14. A Catalytic Mechanism for Cysteine N-Terminal Nucleophile Hydrolases, as Revealed by Free Energy Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    2 | e32397 A Catalytic Mechanism for Cysteine Ntn-Hydrolaseson the catalytic mechanism of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA):serine protease- like mechanism with an N-terminal threonine

  15. Strengthening, Crack Arrest And Multiple Cracking In Brittle Materials Using Residual Stresses.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, David J. (State College, PA); Sglavo, Vincenzo M. (Roncegno, IT); Tandon, Rajan (Fremont, CA)

    2003-02-11

    Embodiments include a method for forming a glass which displays visible cracking prior to failure when subjected to predetermined stress level that is greater than a predetermined minimum stress level and less than a failure stress level. The method includes determining a critical flaw size in the glass and introducing a residual stress profile to the glass so that a plurality of visible cracks are formed prior to failure when the glass is subjected to a stress that is greater than the minimum stress level and lower than the critical stress. One method for forming the residual stress profile includes performing a first ion exchange so that a first plurality of ions of a first element in the glass are exchanged with a second plurality of ions of a second element that have a larger volume than the first ions. A second ion exchange is also performed so that a plurality of the second ions in the glass are exchanged back to ions of the first element.

  16. Multi-component Zirconia-Titania Mixed Oxides: Catalytic Materials with Unprecedented Performance in the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx with NH3 after harsh hydrothermal ageing. Nathalie MARCOTTE1#, Bernard catalytic reduction. 1. Introduction. The abatement of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM% H2O, ~ 1050 K) is a prerequisite for deNOx catalysts of tomorrow in Diesel exhaust gas treatment

  17. Preparation and characterization of VOx/TiO2 catalytic coatings on stainless steel plates for structured catalytic reactors.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Preparation and characterization of VOx/TiO2 catalytic coatings on stainless steel plates are used in the mild oxidation of hydrocarbons and NOx abatement are studied. Stainless steel (316 L) was chosen because of its large application in industrial catalytic reactors. TiO2 films on stainless steel

  18. Simulation of catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic NOx reduction in lean-exhaust hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K

    2012-01-01

    We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  19. Make the most of catalytic hydrogenations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landert, J.P.; Scubla, T. [Biazzi S.A., Chailly-Montreux (Switzerland)

    1995-03-01

    Liquid-phase catalytic hydrogenation is one of the most useful and versatile reactions available for organic synthesis. Because it is environmentally clean, it has replaced other reduction processes, such as the Bechamp reaction, and zinc and sulfide reductions. Moreover, the economics are favorable, provided that raw materials free of catalyst poisons are used. The hydrogenation reaction is very selective with appropriate catalysts and can often be carried out without a solvent. Applications include reduction of unsaturated carbon compounds to saturated derivatives (for example, in vegetable-oil processing), carbonyl compounds to alcohols (such as sorbitol), and nitrocompounds to amines. the reactions are usually run in batch reactors to rapidly reach complete conversion and allow quick change-over of products. The paper describes the basics of hydrogenation; steering clear of process hazards; scale-up and optimization; and system design in practice.

  20. Biofuel from fast pyrolysis and catalytic hydrodeoxygenation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-09-04

    This review addresses recent developments in biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading by catalytic hydrotreating. The research in the field has expanded dramatically in the past few years with numerous new research groups entering the field while existing efforts from others expand. The issues revolve around the catalyst formulation and operating conditions. Much work in batch reactor tests with precious metal catalysts needs further validation to verify long-term operability in continuous flow systems. The effect of the low level of sulfur in bio-oil needs more study to be better understood. Utilization of the upgraded bio-oil for feedstock to finished fuels is still in an early stage of understanding.

  1. Catalytic cartridge SO.sub.3 decomposer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, Terry R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO.sub.3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  2. Catalytic cartridge SO.sub.3 decomposer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, Terry R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A catalytic cartridge internally heated is utilized as a SO.sub.3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube being internally heated. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and being internally heated. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  3. Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-11-18

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety. A fusion reactor may be used as the heat source.

  4. The stability of coerced economic reform : the case of IPR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Trudy

    2005-01-01

    Theories in international relations posit, and empirical evidence has verified, that unwilling states can be compelled by another state or by an international institution to enact domestic policy reform. However, these ...

  5. Estimate of resources required for a meaningful reform of education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glazek, Stanislaw D

    2012-01-01

    A simple estimate in terms of currency units shows that a meaningful educational reform process can be launched and sustained over many generations of teachers with support of parents of students. In the estimate, the steady inflow of resources from parents provides support for advanced studies by teachers. Not to waste the resources on spurious activities, the estimated inflow proceeds directly from the parents as clients to the providers of required reform program. The providers are the experts in various disciplines who excel in helping teachers become great. Their services to teachers are ultimately assessed by parents on the basis of changes in behavior of children. The resulting reform program grows slowly from small seeds. The running cost of the reform process to parents appears surprisingly low while its development leads to the desired changes over time.

  6. School Finance Reform: Do Equalized Expenditures Imply Equalized Teacher Salaries?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streams, Meg; Butler, J.S.; Cowen, Joshua; Fowles, Jacob; Toma, Eugenia T.

    2011-10-01

    school finance and curricular reform is highly salient for understanding teacher labor market dynamics. This study examines the time path of teacher salaries in Appalachian and non-Appalachian Kentucky using a novel teacher-level administrative data set...

  7. The NCAA's Academic Performance Program: Academic Reform or Academic Racism?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackman, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    Academic Reform or Academic Racism? Phillip C. Blackman* I.or Merely to Promote Racism? ,14 N.Y.L Sch. J. Hum. Rts.and sorrowful continuation of racism in this country, this

  8. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  9. Process Reform, Security and Suitability- December 17, 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is to report on the progress made to improve the timeliness and effectiveness of our hiring and clearing decisions and the specific plan to reform the process further, in accordance with our initial proposals made in April ofthis year.

  10. Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Office of Nuclear Energy Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on the Interior 4-22-15JohnKotek FT HOGR.pdf More Documents &...

  11. Faculty perceptions of presidential leadership in urban school reform 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClendon, Rodney Prescott

    2009-06-02

    The study examined urban university faculty members’ perceptions of their presidents’ leadership role in urban school reform. The population for this study consisted of faculty members from five urban research universities. All of the universities...

  12. LAND REFORM IN NAMIBIA: AN ANALYSIS OF MEDIA COVERAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelbrecht, Petrus J.

    2014-08-31

    in ensuring that land reform is successfully designed and executed. The media informs the public, sets the public and political agenda, holds the government accountable, and serves as a public sphere. This project analyses Namibia's three primary daily...

  13. Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co/CeO2: The Effect of ZnO Promoter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2013-12-02

    A series of ZnO promoted Co/CeO2 catalysts were synthesized and characterized using XRD, TEM, H2-TPR, CO chemisorption, O2-TPO, IR-Py, and CO2-TPD. The effects of ZnO on the catalytic performances of Co/CeO2 were studied in ethanol steam reforming. It was found that the addition of ZnO facilitated the oxidation of Co0 via enhanced oxygen mobility of the CeO2 support which decreased the activity of Co/CeO2 in C–C bond cleavage of ethanol. 3 wt% ZnO promoted Co/CeO2 exhibited minimum CO and CH4 selectivity and maximum CO2 selectivity. This resulted from the combined effects of the following factors with increasing ZnO loading: (1) enhanced oxygen mobility of CeO2 facilitated the oxidation of CHx and CO to form CO2; (2) increased ZnO coverage on CeO2 surface reduced the interaction between CHx/CO and Co/CeO2; and (3) suppressed CO adsorption on Co0 reduced CO oxidation rate to form CO2. In addition, the addition of ZnO also modified the surface acidity and basicity of CeO2, which consequently affected the C2–C4 product distributions.

  14. Reforming the Power Sector in Transition: Do Institutions Matter?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nepal, Rabindra; Jamasb, Tooraj

    and Uzbekistan. Besides these countries, Turkey and Mongolia are also included in the group of transition economies as per European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) areas of operation. 2 For instance, the oil and gas exports for Turkmenistan... ). Stiglitz (1999) argues that the enforcement mechanisms of reforms (including  power  sector  reforms) were weak  as  the  state’s  legal  and  judicial  capacities were  limited during the transition process brewing inefficient rent...

  15. New Voices in U.S. Immigration Debates: Latino and Asian American Attitudes Toward the Building Blocks of Comprehensive Immigration Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeSipio, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Louis. 2013. “Immigration Reforms from the Perspective ofthe Target of the Reform: Immigrant Generation and LatinoPreferences on Immigration Reform. ” In Gary P. Freeman,

  16. Media Framing Of U.S. Health Care Reform: A New Era Or Reinforcing Dominant Ideologies Of Health And The Health Care System?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaworski, Beth Kristen

    2012-01-01

    values shaping today’s health reform debate. Health Affairs,back on health care reform: “No easy choices. ” Healthopinion and health care reform. Defining Ideas. Retrieved

  17. Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, R.V.; Parida, B.K.

    1995-12-31

    Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441 having a marginally lower lithium content, compared to 80xx and 20xx series Al-Li alloys is presented in this paper. This investigation was conducted on single edge tension--SE(T)--specimens, under constant amplitude as well as under MiniLCA flight spectrum loading with the specific objective of determining the effects of stress ratio, orientation, thickness and cladding. Three thicknesses were considered: 1.2 mm(clad and unclad), 2.0 mm(clad and unclad) and 8.0 mm unclad. Constant amplitude fatigue tests were conducted at stress ratios of {minus}0.3, 0.1 and 0.7. Testing was performed under ambient conditions and along three orientations, namely L-T, T-L and L+45 degrees. Crack growth characteristics of this alloy are compared with that of BS:L73 (2014-T4 equivalent) for assessing the possibility of replacing BS:L73. Significant effect of stress ratio on crack growth rate was observed in all thicknesses. However, in case of 1.2 and 2.0 mm thick sheets, the effect was minimal at intermediate-crack growth regime. The orientation of the specimen does not adversely affect the fatigue crack growth behavior of 8.0 mm and 2.0 mm thick specimens. However, for 1.2 mm unclad sheet crack growth resistance in L-T direction was found to be superior to that along T-L direction. In majority of test cases considered, no significant effect was observed on crack growth rate due to thickness or cladding. Crack growth characteristics of Al-Li alloy 1441 and Al-Cu alloy BS:L73 under constant amplitude as well as MiniLCA spectrum loading are similar in the low and intermediate-crack growth rate regime. Based on these observations, it is felt that this Al-Li alloy has the potential for future aerospace applications.

  18. Sequential tasks performed by catalytic pumps for colloidal crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Afshar Farniya; Maria J. Esplandiu; Adrian Bachtold

    2014-10-20

    Gold-platinum catalytic pumps immersed in a chemical fuel are used to manipulate silica colloids. The manipulation relies on the electric field and the fluid flow generated by the pump. Catalytic pumps perform various tasks, such as the repulsion of colloids, the attraction of colloids, and the guided crystallization of colloids. We demonstrate that catalytic pumps can execute these tasks sequentially over time. Switching from one task to the next is related to the local change of the proton concentration, which modifies the colloid zeta potential and consequently the electric force acting on the colloids.

  19. Sequential tasks performed by catalytic pumps for colloidal crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farniya, Ali Afshar; Bachtold, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Gold-platinum catalytic pumps immersed in a chemical fuel are used to manipulate silica colloids. The manipulation relies on the electric field and the fluid flow generated by the pump. Catalytic pumps perform various tasks, such as the repulsion of colloids, the attraction of colloids, and the guided crystallization of colloids. We demonstrate that catalytic pumps can execute these tasks sequentially over time. Switching from one task to the next is related to the local change of the proton concentration, which modifies the colloid zeta potential and consequently the electric force acting on the colloids.

  20. Boundary integral formulation for interfacial cracks in thermodiffusive bimaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Morini; A. Piccolroaz

    2015-04-29

    An original boundary integral formulation is proposed for the problem of a semi-infinite crack at the interface between two dissimilar elastic materials in the presence of heat flows and mass diffusion. Symmetric and skew-symmetric weight function matrices are used together with a generalized Betti's reciprocity theorem in order to derive a system of integral equations that relate the applied loading, the temperature and mass concentration fields, the heat and mass fluxes on the fracture surfaces and the resulting crack opening. The obtained integral identities can have many relevant applications, such as for the modelling of crack and damage processes at the interface between different components in electrochemical energy devices characterized by multi-layered structures (solid oxide fuel cells and lithium ions batteries).

  1. Rejuvenation and reuse of spent fluid cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvin, F.J. (ChemCat Corp., New Orleans, LA (US))

    1988-01-01

    Refineries processing heavy, high metals feedstocks have reused other refineries' spent cracking catalyst for the past ten years without observing any yield debits. ChemCat has developed a process whereby a refinery can reuse its own spent catalyst without suffering any yield debits. The new DEMET process is being demonstrated in the world's first commercial fluid cracking catalyst rejuvenation and demetallization plant. The plant is located in Meraux, Louisiana and processes 20 tons/day of spent cracking catalyst for local refineries. The plant removes contaminant metals from zeolite catalysts, while simultaneously increasingly the zeolite and matrix surface areas. The demetallized catalyst has a higher activity and better selectivity than the undemetallized spent catalyst. The demetallized catalyst is also more hydrothermally stable than the spent catalyst. ChemCat's DEMET process enables refiners to eliminate the high cost of spent FCCU catalyst disposal and to significantly reduce their consumption and cost of fresh catalyst.

  2. Method for fabrication of crack-free ceramic dielectric films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Chao, Sheng; Liu, Shanshan; Narayanan, Manoj

    2014-02-11

    The invention provides a process for forming crack-free dielectric films on a substrate. The process comprise the application of a dielectric precursor layer of a thickness from about 0.3 .mu.m to about 1.0 .mu.m to a substrate. The deposition is followed by low temperature heat pretreatment, prepyrolysis, pyrolysis and crystallization step for each layer. The deposition, heat pretreatment, prepyrolysis, pyrolysis and crystallization are repeated until the dielectric film forms an overall thickness of from about 1.5 .mu.m to about 20.0 .mu.m and providing a final crystallization treatment to form a thick dielectric film. Also provided was a thick crack-free dielectric film on a substrate, the dielectric forming a dense thick crack-free dielectric having an overall dielectric thickness of from about 1.5 .mu.m to about 20.0 .mu.m.

  3. Relationships between stress corrosion cracking tests and utility operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baum, Allen

    1999-10-22

    Several utility steam generator and stress corrosion cracking databases are synthesized with the view of identifying the crevice chemistry that is most consistent with the plant cracking data. Superheated steam and neutral solution environments are found to be inconsistent with the large variations in the observed SCC between different plants, different support plates within a plant, and different crevice locations. While the eddy current response of laboratory tests performed with caustic chemistries approximates the response of the most extensively affected steam generator tubes, the crack propagation kinetics in these tests differ horn plant experience. The observations suggest that there is a gradual conversion of the environment responsible for most steam generator ODSCC from a concentrated, alkaline-forming solution to a progressively more steam-enriched environment.

  4. Stochastic bi-resonance without external signal in the CO O2 catalytic oxidation reaction system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Lingfa

    Stochastic bi-resonance without external signal in the CO O2 catalytic oxidation reaction system reaction systems13 including the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO O2) and the catalytic reduction; accepted 19 April 1999 The noisy dynamic behavior of a surface catalytic reaction model to describe

  5. Weld solidification cracking in 304 to 204L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochanadel, Patrick W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lienert, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Jesse N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Matthew Q [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-15

    A series of annulus welds were made between 304 and 304L stainless steel coaxial tubes using both pulsed laser beam welding (LBW) and pulsed gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). In this application, a change in process from pulsed LBW to pulsed gas tungsten arc welding was proposed to limit the possibility of weld solidification cracking since weldability diagrams developed for GTAW display a greater range of compositions that are not crack susceptible relative to those developed for pulsed LBW. Contrary to the predictions of the GTAW weldability diagram, cracking was found.This result was rationalized in terms of the more rapid solidification rate of the pulsed gas tungsten arc welds. In addition, for the pulsed LBW conditions, the material compositions were predicted to be, by themselves, 'weldable' according to the pulsed LBW weldability diagram. However, the composition range along the tie line connecting the two compositions passed through the crack susceptible range. Microstructurally, the primary solidification mode (PSM) of the material processed with higher power LBW was determined to be austenite (A), while solidification mode of the materials processed with lower power LBW apparently exhibited a dual PSM of both austenite (A) and ferrite-austenite (FA) within the same weld. The materials processed by pulsed GTAW showed mostly primary austenite solidification, with some regions of either primary austenite-second phase ferrite (AF) solidification or primary ferrite-second phase austenite (FA) solidification. This work demonstrates that variations in crack susceptibility may be realized when welding different heats of 'weldable' materials together, and that slight variations in processing can also contribute to crack susceptibility.

  6. Weld solidification cracking in 304 to 304L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochanadel, Patrick W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lienert, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Jesse N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Raymond J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Matthew Q [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    A series of annulus welds were made between 304 and 304L stainless steel coaxial tubes using both pulsed laser beam welding (LBW) and pulsed gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). In this application, a change in process from pulsed LBW to pulsed gas tungsten arc welding was proposed to limit the possibility of weld solidification cracking since weldability diagrams developed for GTAW display a greater range of compositions that are not crack susceptible relative to those developed for pulsed LBW. Contrary to the predictions of the GTAW weldability diagram, cracking was found. This result was rationalized in terms of the more rapid solidification rate of the pulsed gas tungsten arc welds. In addition, for the pulsed LBW conditions, the material compositions were predicted to be, by themselves, 'weldable' according to the pulsed LBW weldability diagram. However, the composition range along the tie line connecting the two compositions passed through the crack susceptible range. Microstructurally, the primary solidification mode (PSM) of the material processed with higher power LBW was determined to be austenite (A), while solidification mode of the materials processed with lower power LBW apparently exhibited a dual PSM of both austenite (A) and ferrite-austenite (FA) within the same weld. The materials processed by pulsed GT A W showed mostly primary austenite solidification, with some regions of either primary austenite-second phase ferrite (AF) solidification or primary ferrite-second phase austenite (FA) solidification. This work demonstrates that variations in crack susceptibility may be realized when welding different heats of 'weldable' materials together, and that slight variations in processing can also contribute to crack susceptibility.

  7. Dynamic crack initiation toughness : experiments and peridynamic modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, John T.

    2009-10-01

    This is a dissertation on research conducted studying the dynamic crack initiation toughness of a 4340 steel. Researchers have been conducting experimental testing of dynamic crack initiation toughness, K{sub Ic}, for many years, using many experimental techniques with vastly different trends in the results when reporting K{sub Ic} as a function of loading rate. The dissertation describes a novel experimental technique for measuring K{sub Ic} in metals using the Kolsky bar. The method borrows from improvements made in recent years in traditional Kolsky bar testing by using pulse shaping techniques to ensure a constant loading rate applied to the sample before crack initiation. Dynamic crack initiation measurements were reported on a 4340 steel at two different loading rates. The steel was shown to exhibit a rate dependence, with the recorded values of K{sub Ic} being much higher at the higher loading rate. Using the knowledge of this rate dependence as a motivation in attempting to model the fracture events, a viscoplastic constitutive model was implemented into a peridynamic computational mechanics code. Peridynamics is a newly developed theory in solid mechanics that replaces the classical partial differential equations of motion with integral-differential equations which do not require the existence of spatial derivatives in the displacement field. This allows for the straightforward modeling of unguided crack initiation and growth. To date, peridynamic implementations have used severely restricted constitutive models. This research represents the first implementation of a complex material model and its validation. After showing results comparing deformations to experimental Taylor anvil impact for the viscoplastic material model, a novel failure criterion is introduced to model the dynamic crack initiation toughness experiments. The failure model is based on an energy criterion and uses the K{sub Ic} values recorded experimentally as an input. The failure model is then validated against one class of problems showing good agreement with experimental results.

  8. Emerging catalytic processes for the production of adipic acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Vyver, Stijn

    Research efforts to find more sustainable pathways for the synthesis of adipic acid have led to the introduction of new catalytic processes for producing this commodity chemical from alternative resources. With a focus on ...

  9. Control of Substrate Access to the Active Site and Catalytic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control of Substrate Access to the Active Site and Catalytic Mechanism of Methane and Toluene Monooxygenases Friday, June 22, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL Main Conference Room 137-322 Prof....

  10. An Energy Analysis of the Catalytic Combustion Burner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Q.; Zhang, S.; Duan, Z.; Zhou, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The gas boilers of conventional flame always produce varying degrees of combustion products NOx and CO, which pollute the environment and waste energy. As a new way of combustion, catalytic combustion breaks the flammable limits of conventional...

  11. Hydrogen permeable protective coating for a catalytic surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golen, CO); Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO)

    2007-06-19

    A protective coating for a surface comprising a layer permeable to hydrogen, said coating being deposited on a catalyst layer; wherein the catalytic activity of the catalyst layer is preserved.

  12. Catalytic oxidation of VOC`s and air toxics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lassen, M.A.; Chu, W. [Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Catalytic oxidation for VOC control of stationary sources has been in use since the 1940`s for energy recovery and odor control. Widespread use of catalytic oxidation, as a means for controlling emissions began in earnest in the early 1970`s with the passage of the Clean Air Act of 1970. Since that time, catalytic technology has undergone many improvements and advancements. Some of these include higher destruction efficiencies at lower temperatures, poison resistance, enhanced durability and the ability to effectively control halogenated hydrocarbon compounds. This is particularly important for meeting the Title III requirements, since many of the air toxics regulated under Title III are halogenated VOC`s. This paper will describe catalytic oxidation, how it works, its benefits and limitations, its cost relative to thermal, and describe recent technology advances.

  13. Direct Catalytic Upgrading of Current Dilute Alcohol Fermentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Catalytic Upgrading of Current Dilute Alcohol Fermentation Streams to Hydrocarbons for Fungible Fuels 2.3.1.100 Chaitanya Narula, 1 Zhenglong Li, 1 E. Casbeer, 1 Robert A....

  14. Catalytic H2O2 decomposition on palladium surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salinas, S. Adriana

    1998-01-01

    The catalytic decomposition of H?O? at smooth single-crystal and polycrystalline palladium surfaces that had been subjected to various surface modifications has been studied. Monolayer and submonolayer coverages of I, Br and Cl adsorbates were used...

  15. In situ XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with Applications to Fuel Cells and Batteries Friday, July 12, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Qingying...

  16. FEEDSTOCK-FLEXIBLE REFORMER SYSTEM (FFRS) FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL (SOFC)- QUALITY SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly Jezierski; Andrew Tadd; Johannes Schwank; Roland Kibler; David McLean; Mahesh Samineni; Ryan Smith; Sameer Parvathikar; Joe Mayne; Tom Westrich; Jerry Mader; F. Michael Faubert

    2010-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory funded this research collaboration effort between NextEnergy and the University of Michigan, who successfully designed, built, and tested a reformer system, which produced highquality syngas for use in SOFC and other applications, and a novel reactor system, which allowed for facile illumination of photocatalysts. Carbon and raw biomass gasification, sulfur tolerance of non-Platinum Group Metals (PGM) based (Ni/CeZrO2) reforming catalysts, photocatalysis reactions based on TiO2, and mild pyrolysis of biomass in ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at low and medium temperatures (primarily 450 to 850 C) in an attempt to retain some structural value of the starting biomass. Despite a wide range of processes and feedstock composition, a literature survey showed that, gasifier products had narrow variation in composition, a restriction used to develop operating schemes for syngas cleanup. Three distinct reaction conditions were investigated: equilibrium, autothermal reforming of hydrocarbons, and the addition of O2 and steam to match the final (C/H/O) composition. Initial results showed rapid and significant deactivation of Ni/CeZrO2 catalysts upon introduction of thiophene, but both stable and unstable performance in the presence of sulfur were obtained. The key linkage appeared to be the hydrodesulfurization activity of the Ni reforming catalysts. For feed stoichiometries where high H2 production was thermodynamically favored, stable, albeit lower, H2 and CO production were obtained; but lower thermodynamic H2 concentrations resulted in continued catalyst deactivation and eventual poisoning. High H2 levels resulted in thiophene converting to H2S and S surface desorption, leading to stable performance; low H2 levels resulted in unconverted S and loss in H2 and CO production, as well as loss in thiophene conversion. Bimetallic catalysts did not outperform Ni-only catalysts, and small Ni particles were found to have lower activities under S-free conditions, but did show less effect of S on performance, in this study. Imidazolium-based ILs, choline chloride compounds and low-melting eutectics of metal nitrates were evaluated, and it was found that, ILs have some capacity to dissolve cellulose and show thermal stability to temperatures where pyrolysis begins, have no vapor pressure, (simplifying product recoveries), and can dissolve ionic metal salts, allowing for the potential of catalytic reactions on breakdown intermediates. Clear evidence of photoactive commercial TiO2 was obtained, but in-house synthesis of photoactive TiO2 proved difficult, as did fixed-bed gasification, primarily due to the challenge of removing the condensable products from the reaction zone quickly enough to prevent additional reaction. Further investigation into additional non-PGM catalysts and ILs is recommended as a follow-up to this work.

  17. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marks, Tobin Jay

    2013-05-08

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  18. From the Frontlines to the Bottom Line: Medical Marijuana, the War on Drugs, and the Drug Policy Reform Movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heddleston, Thomas Reed

    2012-01-01

    1993. “Cannabis: Legal Reform, Medicinal Use and HarmBruce 2004. "Drug Policy Reform and Its Detractors: TheRobins. 2003. Cannabis Law Reform in Canada: Is the “Saga of

  19. Identifying mistakes to discipline a New State : the rectification campaigns in China's land reform, 1946-1952

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Jiangsui

    2008-01-01

    de tudi gaige [The land reform during the war of liberation,Projects…………………………………..84 Chapter Three Land Reform andMistakes: Land Reform in Xigou………………………………87 I. Xigou and

  20. New Orleans Education Reform: A Guide for Cities or a Warning for Communities? (Grassroots Lessons Learned, 2005-2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buras, Kristen L.; Urban South Grassroots Research Collective, Members

    2013-01-01

    Orleans-style education reform: A guide for cities (Lessonspolitics of corporate school reform (pp. 160–188). New York,April 26). New Orleans school reform: Pass or fail? (Askwith

  1. A Family Affair: The Marriage of Elizabeth Cady and Henry Brewster Stanton and the Development of Reform Politics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Linda Christine

    2012-01-01

    and the Crusade for Social Reform Hamilton, NY: Log Cabinof the splits within the reform-minded congregations. InElizur Wright and the Reform Impulse Kent, Ohio: The Kent

  2. Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

    1998-07-28

    A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

  3. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-10-07

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  5. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adeniyi Lawal; Woo Lee; Ron Besser; Donald Kientzler; Luke Achenie

    2010-12-22

    We successfully demonstrated a novel process intensification concept enabled by the development of microchannel reactors, for energy efficient catalytic hydrogenation reactions at moderate temperature, and pressure, and low solvent levels. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for hydrogenation of onitroanisole and a proprietary BMS molecule. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we designed and developed a fully-automated skid-mounted multichannel microreactor pilot plant system for multiphase reactions. The system is capable of processing 1 – 10 kg/h of liquid substrate, and an industrially relevant immiscible liquid-liquid was successfully demonstrated on the system. Our microreactor-based pilot plant is one-of-akind. We anticipate that this process intensification concept, if successfully demonstrated, will provide a paradigm-changing basis for replacing existing energy inefficient, cost ineffective, environmentally detrimental slurry semi-batch reactor-based manufacturing practiced in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries.

  6. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement in the United States Petroleum Refining Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01

    distillation, petroleum coking, catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, hydrotreating (catalytic cracker feed/diesel/kerosene/naphtha/gasoline),

  7. Failure probability of axially cracked steam generator tubes; A probabilistic fracture mechanics model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, B.; Cizelj, L. (Jozef Stefan Inst., Reactor Engineering Div., P.O. Box 100, 61111 Ljubljana, Slovenia (YU))

    1992-05-01

    In this paper a model for estimating the failure probability of axially cracked steam generator tubes is proposed. The model compares observed crack length distribution with critical crack length distribution by means of probabilistic fracture mechanics. The observed crack length is influenced by measured data, measurement reliability, sizing accuracy, and predicted crack growth rate. The critical crack length is defined by a deterministic mechanical model. All cracks are conservatively assumed to extend through the tube wall. The effect of the plugging limit is studied along with the number of cracked tubes to perform risk-based lifetime optimization of steam generators. A numerical example presented considers hypothetical accidental operating conditions during a feedwater line break.

  8. The application of a logic framework for fatigue crack growth analyses to microstructural effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, J.G.; Liu, H.W.

    1995-12-31

    {Delta}K has been widely used to correlate da/dN data. The relation between da/dN and {Delta}K is usually found empirically. However, fatigue crack growth relations can also be derived theoretically. Three fatigue crack growth theories are derived for the state of small scale yielding and plane strain. These three theories constitute a logic framework useful for fatigue crack growth analyses. The application of the logic framework to the analyses of microstructural effects on fatigue crack growth is illustrated. The fatigue crack growth curve of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy has five distinct regions. A fatigue crack grows by crack-tip shear decohesion forming striations and by brittle fractures of particles followed by localized shear decohesion at these microcracks forming dimples. The logic framework helps to relate the fatigue crack growth behaviors in these five regions to the fractures of inclusions and to the resistance of grain boundaries and dispersoids to shear decohesion.

  9. Monitoring Cracking of a Smectitic Vertisol using Three-dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerson, Jason Paul

    2013-11-20

    Upon desiccation, the matrix of Vertisols and other expansive soils shrinks. Matrix shrinkage results in the formation of cracks that can alter the hydrology of the soil. Despite the importance of cracks, many hydrologic models do not account...

  10. Numerical simulation of oxidation and its effect on the crack growth resistance of titanium alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Triharjanto, Robertus Heru

    1997-01-01

    though the oxidation generally degrades the MMC, the oxidation from the crack surfaces may improve the crack growth resistance of the metal matrix. Titanium alloys are potential candidates for use in MMC. Therefore, a more thorough understanding...

  11. Dependence of dynamic fracture resistance on crack velocity in tungsten: Pt. II. Bicrystals and polycrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liv, J.M.; Shen, B.W.

    1986-06-01

    The experimental techniques for crack velocity measurements have been applied to bicrystals of tungsten with twist orientations about (100) and polycrystals. The hesitation of the propagating cleavage crack in the vicinity of the grain boundary is examined. The contributions to energy dissipation from deformation and fracture processes in the grain boundary region as well as the in direct effects of crack deceleration are discussed. These findings have been applied to explain th dynamic fracture resistance and crack arrest in polycrystals.

  12. Incipient Crack Detection in Composite Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Stuart G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Mijin [Chonbuk National University, Korea; Jeong, Hyomi [Chonbuk National University, Korea; Jang, Jae Kyeong [Chonbuk National University, Korea; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam National University, Korea; Farinholt, Kevin [Commonwealth Center for Advanced Manufacturing, VA; Farrar, Charles R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ammerman, Curtt N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Jung-Ryul [Chonbuk National University, Korea

    2012-08-28

    This paper presents some analysis results for incipient crack detection in a 9-meter CX-100 wind turbine blade that underwent fatigue loading to failure. The blade was manufactured to standard specifications, and it underwent harmonic excitation at its first resonance using a hydraulically-actuated excitation system until reaching catastrophic failure. This work investigates the ability of an ultrasonic guided wave approach to detect incipient damage prior to the surfacing of a visible, catastrophic crack. The blade was instrumented with piezoelectric transducers, which were used in an active, pitchcatch mode with guided waves over a range of excitation frequencies. The performance results in detecting incipient crack formation in the fiberglass skin of the blade is assessed over the range of frequencies in order to determine the point at which the incipient crack became detectable. Higher excitation frequencies provide consistent results for paths along the rotor blade's carbon fiber spar cap, but performance falls off with increasing excitation frequencies for paths off of the spar cap. Lower excitation frequencies provide more consistent performance across all sensor paths.

  13. CONTAINED PLASTIC DEFORMATION NEAR CRACKS AND NOTCHES UNDER LONGITUDINAL SHEAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONTAINED PLASTIC DEFORMATION NEAR CRACKS AND NOTCHES UNDER LONGITUDINAL SHEAR James R. Rice* ABSTRACT An exact linear elastic-perfectly plastic solution is presented for the problem of a sharp notch coordinates corresponding to given stresses, position of the elastic-plastic boundary, and accompanying

  14. Thin film with oriented cracks on a flexible substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Bao; McGilvray, Andrew; Shi, Bo

    2010-07-27

    A thermoelectric film is disclosed. The thermoelectric film includes a substrate that is substantially electrically non-conductive and flexible and a thermoelectric material that is deposited on at least one surface of the substrate. The thermoelectric film also includes multiple cracks oriented in a predetermined direction.

  15. Solvent control of crack dynamics in a reversible hydrogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tristan Baumberger; Christiane Caroli; David Martina

    2006-05-16

    The resistance to fracture of reversible biopolymer hydrogels is an important control factor of the cutting/slicing and eating characteristics of food gels. It is also critical for their utilization in tissue engineering, for which mechanical protection of encapsulated components is needed. Its dependence on loading rate and, recently, on the density and strength of cross-links has been investigated. But no attention was paid so far to solvent nor to environment effects. Here we report a systematic study of crack dynamics in gels of gelatin in water/glycerol mixtures. We show on this model system that: (i) increasing solvent viscosity slows down cracks; (ii) soaking with solvent increases markedly gel fragility; (iii) tuning the viscosity of the (miscible) environmental liquid affects crack propagation via diffusive invasion of the crack tip vicinity. The results point toward the fact that fracture occurs by viscoplastic chain pull-out. This mechanism, as well as the related phenomenology, should be common to all reversibly cross-linked (physical) gels.

  16. Crack-resistant siloxane molding compounds. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, J.W.; Swearngin, C.B.

    1980-11-03

    The crack resistance of phenyl silicone molding resins containing siliceous fillers is improved by incorporating therein about 0.5 to 5.5% by weight of ..beta..-eucryptite, a lithium aluminum silicate having a negative thermal expansion coefficient. These molding resins are particularly suitable for encapsulating electronic devices such as diodes, coils, resistors, and the like.

  17. Method of making crack-free zirconium hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Richard W. (Denver, CO)

    1980-01-01

    Crack-free hydrides of zirconium and zirconium-uranium alloys are produced by alloying the zirconium or zirconium-uranium alloy with beryllium, or nickel, or beryllium and scandium, or nickel and scandium, or beryllium and nickel, or beryllium, nickel and scandium and thereafter hydriding.

  18. PENNY--SHAPED CRACK BRIDGED BY N.V. Movchan,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bath, University of

    PENNY--SHAPED CRACK BRIDGED BY FIBRES N.V. Movchan, School of Mathematical Sciences, University and Theoretical Physics, Silver Street, Cambridge, CB3 9EW, U.K. Abstract An axi--symmetric problem for a penny traction distribution. In the present paper we deal only with the second step, namely we consider a penny

  19. Self-determination and student involvement in standards-based reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Field, Sharon; Doren, Bonnie; Jones, Bonnie; Mason, Christine

    2004-01-01

    of the current educational context. We particularly examine the role of promoting self-determination in light of federal standards-based reform initiatives. We conclude that school reform efforts provide an opportunity to infuse instruction in self...

  20. Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis...

  1. Evaluating the Evidence on Electricity Reform: Lessons for the South East Europe (SEE) Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollitt, Michael G.

    This paper discusses the evidence on electricity reform and relates it to the current situation of the South East Europe (SEE) electricity market. We begin by discussing the main elements of the European Union (EU) electricity reform model. Then we...

  2. Reforming pharmaceutical regulation: a case study of generic drugs in Brazil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fonseca, Elize Massard da

    2011-12-09

    Brazil is renowned worldwide for its remarkable reforms in pharmaceutical regulation, which have enhanced access to essential medicines while lowering drug costs. As part of these reforms, the Generic Drug Act was introduced in 1999. This policy...

  3. Reforming pharmaceutical regulation: a case study of generic drugs in Brazil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fonseca, Elize Massard

    2012-06-29

    Brazil is renowned worldwide for its remarkable reforms in pharmaceutical regulation, which have enhanced access to essential medicines while lowering drug costs. As part of these reforms, the Generic Drug Act was ...

  4. 10 December 2009 Educators for Reform response to HEFCE Research Excellence Framework consultation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, Paul

    1 10 December 2009 Educators for Reform response to HEFCE Research Excellence Framework that is already taking place in the private sector. Instead research funding should be reformed to give more

  5. 1. INTRODUCTION Current design methods focus on crack growth curves which are material properties for given

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hively, Lee M.

    propagation. This technique has been demonstrated by test and analysis in fiberglass composite, aircraft fatigue, as well as Mode I low-temperature creep and stress corrosion. During the 1930s, A. A. Griffith sustained loading of cracks) and stress corrosion cracking (KI scc, JI scc, sustained loading of cracks

  6. Hot cracking in tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy AZ91D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei

    Hot cracking in tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy AZ91D W. Zhou*, T. Z. Long and C. K of the plates were produced using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding method. The TIG arc was also used to deposit welding beads on some of the thin plates. No cracking was found in the butt joints. However, hot cracking

  7. Brittle film-induced cracking of ductile substrates , Lijie Qiao a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Brittle film-induced cracking of ductile substrates Tao Guo a , Lijie Qiao a, , Xiaolu Pang b 29 May 2015 Revised 22 July 2015 Accepted 23 July 2015 Keywords: Brittle film Ductile substrate Film-induced cracking Dislocations Crack velocity a b s t r a c t Film and substrate mechanical integrity is essential

  8. Mechanics and mechanisms of fatigue damage and crack growth in advanced materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Mechanics and mechanisms of fatigue damage and crack growth in advanced materials R.O. Ritchie*, C 94720-1760, USA Abstract The mechanisms of fatigue-crack propagation in ceramics and intermetallics growth is considered to be a mutual competition between intrinsic mechanisms of crack advance ahead

  9. Permeability and elastic properties of cracked glass under pressure A. OugierSimonin,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortin, Jérôme

    for independent controls of the confining pressure, the axial stress, and pore pressure. We produced cracks with identified average aspect ratio and crack aperture, (2) a very small permeability which decreases as a power behavior of a cracked elastic brittle solid is reversible and independent of the fluid nature. Two

  10. A cracked beam finite element for rotating shaft dynamics and stability analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A cracked beam finite element for rotating shaft dynamics and stability analysis Saber El Arem Palaiseau, France Abstract In this paper, a method for the construction of a cracked beam finite element is presented. The additional flexibility due to the cracks is identified from three- dimensional finite element

  11. Automated Detection of Cracked Railway Axle Journals Using an Ultrasonic Phased Array Technique 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baik, Jaeyong

    2014-06-27

    ) automated detection system of a cracked axle journal using the ultrasonic phased array technique, 2) detection of a cracked axle journal using a chain scanner, and 3) cracked axle journal detection using surface waves. An ultrasonic phased array system has a...

  12. Fatigue-Crack Growth Behavior in the Superelastic and Shape-Memory Alloy Nitinol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Fatigue-Crack Growth Behavior in the Superelastic and Shape-Memory Alloy Nitinol A.L. McKELVEY and R.O. RITCHIE This article presents a study of fatigue-crack propagation behavior in Nitinol, a 50Ni, and constitutive behavior on crack-growth rates in NiTi.* NITINOL is a thermoelastic alloy with a composition

  13. A penny-shaped cohesive crack model for material damage G. Wang, S.F. Li *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Shaofan

    A penny-shaped cohesive crack model for material damage G. Wang, S.F. Li * Department of Civil solids with ran- domly distributed penny-shaped cohesive micro-cracks (Barenblatt­Dugdale type). Energy are derived based on homogenization of randomly distributed penny-shaped cohesive cracks (Barenblatt

  14. Crack Response to Blast Vibrations and Moisture Induced Volumetric Changes in Foundation Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crack Response to Blast Vibrations and Moisture Induced Volumetric Changes in Foundation Soils By C, Evanston, IL. Abstract In this paper vibratory crack response is compared to that produced by volumetric over a period of weeks to several months. On the other hand, crack response produced by volumetric

  15. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  16. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  17. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Zhiwen (Sandy Hook, CT); Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan (New Milford, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT)

    2008-10-07

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  18. The Church,the Councils,& Reform TheChurch,theCouncils,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pukelsheim, Friedrich

    The Church,the Councils,& Reform #12;#12;TheChurch,theCouncils, & Reform TheLegacyof the of Congress CaTaloging-in-PUbliCaTion DaTa The church,the councils,and reform:the legacy of the fifteenthPeCtIves Introduction 25 ThomasM.Izbicki 1. Councils of the Catholic Reformation:A Historical Survey 27 Nelson

  19. O'Leary unveils ambitious contract reform initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-02-04

    This article describes DOE's program to reform contract management of its projects. The department will move away from its traditional cost-reimbursement management toward a performance-based management contract that sets clearer goals, incentives, and expectations for contractors. The key objectives are to better tie compensation to actual performance and make it clear that contractors will be responsible for any cost overruns. Another objective of the reform program is to rebid major contracts more often and to encourage more companies to seek DOE business.

  20. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Misage, Robert (Manchester, CT); Scheffler, Glenn W. (Tolland, CT); Setzer, Herbert J. (Ellington, CT); Margiott, Paul R. (Manchester, CT); Parenti, Jr., Edmund K. (Manchester, CT)

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  1. Mexico's Energy Reform: What Does It Mean for Mexico and Beyond?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Mexico's Energy Reform: What Does It Mean for Mexico and Beyond? The Mexican Senate is currently and Energy and Environment Program for a discussion on elements of the reform, questions for the road ahead, and the broader impacts of reform. The event will launch the Atlantic Council's new issue brief, Mexico Rising

  2. The effect of reformate gas enrichment on extinction limits and NOX formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    , known as reformate gas, contains not only hydrogen, but also carbon monoxide and some other components premixed combustion. When the reformate gas is added, the formation of NO is reduced in a near advantage of the reformate gas enriched lean premixed combustion is that it greatly reduces the formation

  3. Health Care Reform: What School Mental Health Professionals Need to Know

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, David J.

    Health Care Reform: What School Mental Health Professionals Need to Know On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed comprehensive health care reform, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), into law (P.L. 111-148). This major reform to health care certainly has had and will continue to have

  4. OFQUAL Consultation on A-Level Reform Response from the London Mathematical Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrahams, I. David

    1 OFQUAL Consultation on A-Level Reform Response from the London Mathematical Society The present administration signalled clearly when in opposition that they wished to `reform' the existing A level structure by academics over a number of years. The consequent `reform' is therefore a matter of profound importance

  5. August 15, 2013 Bargaining Update 8: UC stresses fair compensation and reasonable pension reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    reform UC stressed with the California Nurses Association on Aug. 6-8, 2013 the need to reach a fair's market. UC's pension reform proposal calls for: · Employees hired before July 1, 2013: UC would in substantive negotiations over responsible and necessary pension reform. CNA has not accepted UC's pension

  6. The New York Times > Opinion > Making Votes Count: Voting Reform Could Backfire May 9, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Ronald L.

    The New York Times > Opinion > Making Votes Count: Voting Reform Could Backfire May 9, 2004 MAKING VOTES COUNT Voting Reform Could Backfire n 2000, untold thousands of eligible voters were prevented from. This is an important reform, but unless it is done right, provisional ballots could actually disenfranchise many

  7. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform February 16, 2010 of the Environment (CoEnv) to make useful contributions to the Governor's natural resource agency reform initiative. As a result, the Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform ad hoc Committee was established and given

  8. WELLCOME TRUST CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    WELLCOME TRUST CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England April 2013 1 Department for Education: Reform of the National Curriculum in England CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England April 2013 2

  9. Inaugural Lecture The Politics of Belief and U.S. Health Care Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    1 Inaugural Lecture The Politics of Belief and U.S. Health Care Reform Joseph White Ph.D John G reform is, for this purpose, a useful case study. Yet I will not talk only about that conflict. I also will not pretend to fully explain the politics of health care reform in the U.S.. I could make many other caveats

  10. `Pure air, pure water and good light' Sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858-1898

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    `Pure air, pure water and good light' Sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858-1898 Irish Centre for Nursing & Midwifery History Spring-summer Seminar series Sanitary reform in the Dublin and hospital sanitation `Pure air, pure water and good light' Sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858

  11. Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual's GCSE reform consultation -August 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual's GCSE reform consultation - August 2013 1 Ofqual: GCSE reform consultation Response by the Wellcome Trust August 2013 Key points and indirect practical assessment in its reform proposals. The total contribution of direct and indirect

  12. A Proposal to Reform the Kyoto Protocol: the Role of Escape Clauses and Foresight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    A Proposal to Reform the Kyoto Protocol: the Role of Escape Clauses and Foresight Larry Karp University of California, Berkeley Jinhua Zhao Iowa Sate University February 23, 2007 Abstract A reform be designed. We propose a reform to the Kyoto Proto- col that allows signatories to avoid achieving the target

  13. Bureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Bureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective Jane E. #12;Bureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective Jane E perspective on e-government can provide important insights into bureaucratic reform, political development

  14. The Rhetoric of Science Education Reform Paper presentation prepared for the annual meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobern, William W.

    1 The Rhetoric of Science Education Reform Paper presentation prepared for the annual meeting. W. (2000, Nov). The rhetoric of science education reform. The Physics Teacher, 38, 20-21. William W, when has there ever not been reform movement in science education? Leon M. Lederman, Nobel Prize

  15. Addressing the Needs of Students Living in Poverty through Comprehensive School Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    Addressing the Needs of Students Living in Poverty through Comprehensive School Reform Joseph John had 100% of their students qualifying for FRL. Nationally, Comprehensive School Reform efforts, which proposes a Full Service Community Schools model for Comprehensive School Reform, and (b) AB 448

  16. Copyright reform on the EU level European Network for Copyright in support of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhlen, Rainer

    Copyright reform on the EU level European Network for Copyright in support of Education and Budapest Business School #12;Copyright reform on the EU level What can science and education expect from a copyright reform on the EU level? Rainer Kuhlen University of Konstanz, HumboldtUniversity Berlin, IPR

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    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Monica A.

    1 The Employers' Proposals for Reform of USS A Summary for USS Members Universities UK, on behalf and the Pensions Regulator and to negotiation with UCU and so may change. Why is reform necessary? In short will be based on final pensionable salary at the date the reforms come into effect and revalued each year

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    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelman, Andrew

    Volume 8, Issue 1 2010 Article 8 The Forum THE POLITICS OF HEALTH CARE REFORM Public Opinion on Health Care Reform Andrew Gelman, Columbia University Daniel Lee, Columbia University Yair Ghitza Opinion on Health Care Reform," The Forum: Vol. 8: Iss. 1, Article 8. DOI: 10

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    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurnia, Sherah

    Chapter 13 The contribution of Internet electronic commerce to advanced supply chain reform retailers and distributors in implementing supply chain reforms. Unwillingness on the part of SMEs to adopt enabling role for advanced supply chain reforms. We begin by describing in detail a new distribution

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    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Lee, Sheldon H.D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2014-08-26

    The invention provides a method for reforming fuel, the method comprising contacting the fuel to an oxidation catalyst so as to partially oxidize the fuel and generate heat; warming incoming fuel with the heat while simultaneously warming a reforming catalyst with the heat; and reacting the partially oxidized fuel with steam using the reforming catalyst.