National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for reform affecting inefficient

  1. EERE Success Story-Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered Energy Systems EERE Success Story-Arizona: ... fossil-fueled agricultural production systems to renewable energy power. ...

  2. Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems | Department of Energy Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered Energy Systems Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered Energy Systems May 1, 2014 - 9:33am Addthis The Agricultural Renewable Energy Conversion Incentive Program, funded in part by DOE's State Energy Program (SEP), assists farmers and ranchers to convert fossil-fueled agricultural production systems to renewable energy power. The program will install solar panels to replace

  3. EERE Success Story-Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fuel-Powered Energy Systems | Department of Energy Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered Energy Systems EERE Success Story-Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered Energy Systems May 1, 2014 - 9:33am Addthis The Agricultural Renewable Energy Conversion Incentive Program, funded in part by DOE's State Energy Program (SEP), assists farmers and ranchers to convert fossil-fueled agricultural production systems to renewable energy power. The program

  4. Idling - cruising the fuel inefficiency highway.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.; Levinson, T.

    2011-06-30

    What is the purpose of idling? The scale of idling can be small, as when parents idle their vehicles while waiting for their children outside of school, or it can be large, as when ocean liners are in port. In many cases, the primary purpose for idling is to control the temperature of a passenger or freight compartment. Large line-haul trucks idle overnight to keep fuel and the engine warm, for the resting driver's comfort, to mask out noises and smells, and for safety. In addition, all classes of trucks idle during the workday at ports and terminals, busy delivery sites, border crossings, and other work sites. They may be idling to enable slow movement in a queue (creep idling) or to provide other services. Bus drivers also idle their vehicles while they wait for passengers and to warm up in the morning. Even locomotive engines are idled so they start, for hotel load, to keep the battery charged, to keep the toilet water from freezing, and for air brakes, or because the operator idles out of habit. Although this document focuses on long-haul trucks, much of the information applies to other vehicles as well. The impacts of idling are substantial, with as much as 6 billion gallons of fuel burned unnecessarily each year in the United States at a cost of over $20 billion. The extra hours of engine operation also cost the owners money for more frequent maintenance and overhauls. In addition, idling vehicles emit particulates (PM{sub 10}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). These emissions, along with noise from idling vehicles, have led to many local and state restrictions on idling. Two main factors have combined to create a surge of interest in idling reduction (IR): (1) Increasing restrictions on idling for heavy vehicles and (2) The price of diesel fuel. Because stakeholders focus their efforts on improving different factors (air quality, fuel economy, noise level), they do not necessarily agree on the most advantageous technological alternatives to implement. In addition, although many equipment manufacturers have tried to educate customers and government agencies, they often provide conflicting claims about the comparative merits of different devices. This makes it difficult for truck owners to choose the right equipment for their needs. In this study, we present the first comparison of IR technologies with each other and with idling on the basis of both costs and full fuel-cycle emissions, for different locations, fuel prices, and idling patterns. The preferences described are for the technologies that reduce total emissions the most and cost truck owners the least. We also discuss how regulatory issues and legislation affect IR, what financial incentives help to promote IR, and how outreach and education approaches can be adopted to reduce the need to idle. Finally, we offer a prediction of how future research and development (R&D), regulations, and citizen involvement can help to improve fuel economy and clean the air.

  5. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models ...

  6. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA); DeZubay, Egon A. (Mt. Lebanon, PA); Murray, Alexander P. (Murrysville, PA); Vidt, Edward J. (Churchill, PA)

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  7. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  8. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA); DeZubay, Egon A. (Mt. Lebanon, PA); Murray, Alexander P. (Murrysville, PA); Vidt, Edward J. (Churchill, PA)

    1985-03-12

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  9. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models Shown to Violate Minimum Efficiency Standards DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of ...

  10. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Pump Models Shown to Violate Minimum Efficiency Standards | Department of Energy AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models Shown to Violate Minimum Efficiency Standards DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models Shown to Violate Minimum Efficiency Standards March 30, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Today, the Department of Energy announced that it is requiring AeroSys, Inc. to stop

  11. DOE Requires Air-Con International to Cease Sales of Inefficient Air

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Conditioners and Proposes Penalties | Department of Energy Air-Con International to Cease Sales of Inefficient Air Conditioners and Proposes Penalties DOE Requires Air-Con International to Cease Sales of Inefficient Air Conditioners and Proposes Penalties September 21, 2010 - 6:43pm Addthis The Department has issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination and Proposed Civil Penalty to Air-Con, International, requiring Air-Con to cease the sale of certain air-conditioning systems in the

  12. Oh, the Joys of Energy-Inefficient Smartphone Ownership! | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Oh, the Joys of Energy-Inefficient Smartphone Ownership! Oh, the Joys of Energy-Inefficient Smartphone Ownership! August 22, 2011 - 1:23pm Addthis Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory So, I recently purchased my first smartphone. For the most part, I love the daylights out of it. But you know what? Its battery life is horrible. Smartphones take a lot of charging. I was horrified when one of my friends got a smartphone about a year ago and promptly

  13. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Heat Pump Models | Department of Energy Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models March 30, 2010 - 10:05am Addthis Today, the Department of Energy announced that it is requiring AeroSys, Inc. to stop distributing two product models - one air conditioner and one heat pump - that DOE testing found to consume more energy than allowed under federal efficiency

  14. Performance analysis of distributed applications using automatic classification of communication inefficiencies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2005-02-01

    The method and system described herein presents a technique for performance analysis that helps users understand the communication behavior of their message passing applications. The method and system described herein may automatically classifies individual communication operations and reveal the cause of communication inefficiencies in the application. This classification allows the developer to quickly focus on the culprits of truly inefficient behavior, rather than manually foraging through massive amounts of performance data. Specifically, the method and system described herein trace the message operations of Message Passing Interface (MPI) applications and then classify each individual communication event using a supervised learning technique: decision tree classification. The decision tree may be trained using microbenchmarks that demonstrate both efficient and inefficient communication. Since the method and system described herein adapt to the target system's configuration through these microbenchmarks, they simultaneously automate the performance analysis process and improve classification accuracy. The method and system described herein may improve the accuracy of performance analysis and dramatically reduce the amount of data that users must encounter.

  15. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  16. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  17. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-27

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  18. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  19. NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CONTRACTING REFORM GUIDANCE U.S. Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Office of NEPA Policy and Assistance December 1996 printed on recycled paper NEPA CONTRACTING REFORM GUIDANCE Overview To reduce the cost and time of the NEPA process, it is critical to do it right the first time. An effective NEPA Contracting Strategy includes: < defining early what contractors should accomplish < establishing contracts ahead of time < minimizing cost while maintaining quality by *

  20. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  1. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  2. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  3. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  4. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  5. Hydrogen Production: Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liquids derived from biomass resources—including ethanol and bio-oils—can be reformed to produce hydrogen in a process similar to natural gas reforming.

  6. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation The Department of Energy (DOE) today publishes a final...

  7. Hydrogen Production: Natural Gas Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon the existing natural gas pipeline delivery infrastructure. Today, 95% of the hydrogen produced in the United States is made by natural gas reforming in large central plants. This is an important technology pathway for near-term hydrogen production.

  8. Applications of solar reforming technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiewak, I.; Tyner, C.E.; Langnickel, U.

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  9. Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform By: Secretary...

  10. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming Presentation by NREL's Robert Evans at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming ...

  11. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy,...

  12. Bringing electricity reform to the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fe Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria

    2008-12-15

    Electricity reforms will not translate to competition overnight. But reforms are inching their way forward in institutions and stakeholders of the Philippine electricity industry, through regulatory and competition frameworks, processes, and systems promulgated and implemented. (author)

  13. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parent, Yves O. (Golden, CO); Magrini, Kim (Golden, CO); Landin, Steven M. (Conifer, CO); Ritland, Marcus A. (Palm Beach Shores, FL)

    2011-03-29

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  14. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming R. Evans, S. Czernik, R. French, M. Ratcliff National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. Marda, A. M. Dean Colorado School of Mines Bio-Derived Liquids Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting HFC&IT Program Baltimore, MD October 24, 2006 1 Gasification Partial oxidation CH 1.46 O .67 + 0.16 O 2 → CO + 0.73 H 2 Biomass Syngas Water-Gas Shift CO + H 2 O CO 2 + H 2 CH 1.46 O .67 + 0.16 O 2 +H 2 O →CO 2 + 1.73 H 2 Biomass Hydrogen (14.3% yield) Practical yields

  15. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  16. Integrated reformer and shift reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Dorson, Matthew H.

    2006-06-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer for producing diatomic hydrogen gas is disclosed. The reformer includes a first reaction vessel, a shift reactor vessel annularly disposed about the first reaction vessel, including a first shift reactor zone, and a first helical tube disposed within the first shift reactor zone having an inlet end communicating with a water supply source. The water supply source is preferably adapted to supply liquid-phase water to the first helical tube at flow conditions sufficient to ensure discharge of liquid-phase and steam-phase water from an outlet end of the first helical tube. The reformer may further include a first catalyst bed disposed in the first shift reactor zone, having a low-temperature shift catalyst in contact with the first helical tube. The catalyst bed includes a plurality of coil sections disposed in coaxial relation to other coil sections and to the central longitudinal axis of the reformer, each coil section extending between the first and second ends, and each coil section being in direct fluid communication with at least one other coil section.

  17. Plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartvigsen, Joseph J.; Elangovan, S.; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

    2013-06-11

    A reformer is disclosed that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding method and system are also disclosed and claimed herein.

  18. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform | Department of Energy Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement

  19. Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming Success Story Converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as diesel and coal-based fuels, into hydrogen-rich synthesis gas is a necessary step for fuel cells and other applications. The high sulfur and aromatic content of these fuels poses a major technical challenge since these components can deactivate reforming catalysts. Taking on this challenge, NETL researchers invented a novel fuel-reforming catalyst that overcomes limitations of current catalysts by

  20. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasmatron Generation of Hydrogen rich Gas for Diesel Aftertreatment and Other Applications A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation

  1. Hydrogen from Biomass by Autothermal Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Lanny D. Schmidt at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  2. Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources Available for Download: DOE IT Policy Archive: ZIP IT Leadership Directory: HTML | JSON CIO Governance Board Membership List: HTML | JSON DOE IT Reform Cost Savings...

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  4. Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. PDF icon 03_dti_cost_analysis_bio-derived_liquids_reforming.pdf More Documents & Publications BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working

  5. HST-COS SPECTROSCOPY OF THE COOLING FLOW IN A1795EVIDENCE FOR INEFFICIENT STAR FORMATION IN CONDENSING INTRACLUSTER GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, Michael; Ehlert, Steven; Roediger, Joel; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2014-08-20

    We present far-UV spectroscopy from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope of a cool, star-forming filament in the core of A1795. These data, which span 1025 < ?{sub rest} < 1700, allow for the simultaneous modeling of the young stellar populations and the intermediate-temperature (10{sup 5.5}K) gas in this filament, which is far removed (?30kpc) from the direct influence of the central active galactic nucleus. Using a combination of UV absorption line indices and stellar population synthesis modeling, we find evidence for ongoing star formation, with the youngest stars having ages of 7.5{sub ?2.0}{sup +2.5}Myr and metallicities of 0.4{sub ?0.1}{sup +0.2} Z {sub ?}. The latter is consistent with the local metallicity of the intracluster medium. We detect the O VI?1038 line, measuring a flux of f {sub O} {sub VI,} {sub 1038} = 4.0 0.9 10{sup 17} erg s{sup 1} cm{sup 2}. The O VI?1032 line is redshifted such that it is coincident with a strong Galactic H{sub 2} absorption feature, and is not detected. The measured O VI?1038 flux corresponds to a cooling rate of 0.85 0.2 (stat) 0.15 (sys) M {sub ?} yr{sup 1} at ?10{sup 5.5}K, assuming that the cooling proceeds isochorically, which is consistent with the classical X-ray luminosity-derived cooling rate in the same region. We measure a star formation rate of 0.11 0.02 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1} from the UV continuum, suggesting that star formation is proceeding at 13{sub ?2}{sup +3}% efficiency in this filament. We propose that this inefficient star formation represents a significant contribution to the larger-scale cooling flow problem.

  6. Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration ...

  7. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)

  8. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Technical Team Research Review Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids

  9. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 ...

  10. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Government...

  11. Energy Reform: New Paradigm forMexico's Growth

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... E&P contracts Before the reform After the reform Responsible of energy security More commercially oriented enterprise, whose purpose is to increase the national outcomes. ...

  12. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommenda...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: ...

  13. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  14. New model accurately predicts reformate composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. )

    1994-01-31

    Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.

  15. Integrated hydrocarbon reforming system and controls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Thijssen, Johannes; Davis, Robert; Papile, Christopher; Rumsey, Jennifer W.; Longo, Nathan; Cross, III, James C.; Rizzo, Vincent; Kleeburg, Gunther; Rindone, Michael; Block, Stephen G.; Sun, Maria; Morriseau, Brian D.; Hagan, Mark R.; Bowers, Brian

    2003-11-04

    A hydrocarbon reformer system including a first reactor configured to generate hydrogen-rich reformate by carrying out at least one of a non-catalytic thermal partial oxidation, a catalytic partial oxidation, a steam reforming, and any combinations thereof, a second reactor in fluid communication with the first reactor to receive the hydrogen-rich reformate, and having a catalyst for promoting a water gas shift reaction in the hydrogen-rich reformate, and a heat exchanger having a first mass of two-phase water therein and configured to exchange heat between the two-phase water and the hydrogen-rich reformate in the second reactor, the heat exchanger being in fluid communication with the first reactor so as to supply steam to the first reactor as a reactant is disclosed. The disclosed reformer includes an auxiliary reactor configured to generate heated water/steam and being in fluid communication with the heat exchanger of the second reactor to supply the heated water/steam to the heat exchanger.

  16. Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use As part of the U.S. Navy's overall energy strategy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate market- ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology- retrofitting rooftop air- conditioning units with an advanced rooftop control system-was identified as a

  17. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farooque, Mohammad (Huntington, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT); Allen, Jeffrey P. (Naugatuck, CT)

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  18. Device for cooling and humidifying reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jian Lian (Belmont, MA); Northrop, William F. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2008-04-08

    Devices for cooling and humidifying a reformate stream from a reforming reactor as well as related methods, modules and systems includes a heat exchanger and a sprayer. The heat exchanger has an inlet, an outlet, and a conduit between the inlet and the outlet. The heat exchanger is adapted to allow a flow of a first fluid (e.g. water) inside the conduit and to establish a heat exchange relationship between the first fluid and a second fluid (e.g. reformate from a reforming reactor) flowing outside the conduit. The sprayer is coupled to the outlet of the heat exchanger for spraying the first fluid exiting the heat exchanger into the second fluid.

  19. Electricity reform abroad and US investment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Contracting Reform Guidance NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance This documents provides guidance on NEPA contracting strategy, including: defining the work of the contractor; establishing contracts ahead of time; minimizing cost while maintaining quality. Guidance also provides: model statements of work, direction on NEPA contract management by NEPA Document Manager; a system for measuring NEPA costs and for evaluating contractor procedures; details on the DOE NEPA website. PDF icon NEPA

  1. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, Ralph E. (Finleyville, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  2. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  3. Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skala, Glenn William (Churchville, NY); Hart-Predmore, David James (Rochester, NY); Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY)

    2001-01-01

    A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

  4. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  5. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  6. The Effect Of ZnO Addition On Co/C Catalyst For Vapor And Aqueous Phase Reforming Of Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Hong, Yongchun; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-05

    The effect of ZnO addition on the oxidation behavior of Co along with catalytic performance in vapor and aqueous phase reforming of ethanol were investigated on Co supported on carbon black (XC-72R). Carbon was selected to minimize the support interactions. Effect of ZnO addition during both vapor and aqueous phase reforming were compared at 250 C. ZnO addition inhibited the reduction of cobalt oxides by H2 and created surface sites for H2O activation. During vapor phase reforming at 450 C the redox of cobalt, driven by steam oxidation and H2 reduction, trended to an equilibrium of Co0/Co2+. ZnO showed no significant effect on cobalt oxidation, inferred from the minor changes of C1 product yield. Surface sites created by ZnO addition enhanced water activation and oxidation of surface carbon species, increasing CO2 selectivity. At 250 C cobalt reduction was minimal, in situ XANES demonstrated that ZnO addition significantly facilitated oxidation of Co0 under vapor phase reforming conditions, demonstrated by lower C1 product yield. Sites introduced by ZnO addition improved the COx selectivity at 250 C. Both Co/C and Co-ZnO/C rapidly oxidized under aqueous phase reaction conditions at 250 C, showing negligible activity in aqueous phase reforming. This work suggests that ZnO affects the activation of H2O for Co catalysts in ethanol reforming.

  7. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Analysis Overview, Darlene Steward, National Renewable Energy Laboratory ... Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming, Darlene Steward, National Renewable Energy Laboratory ...

  8. Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. PDF icon 06_nrel_distributed_reforming_biomass_pyrolysis_oils.pdf More Documents & Publications Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D

  9. Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Testimony of Daniel Poneman, Deputy Secretary of Energy Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform PDF icon 8-1-13_ Daniel_Pohema FT HOGR.pdf More Documents & Publications Email from BPA Acting Administrator Eliot Mainzer -- July 19, 2013 Gregory H. Friedman: Provided for The Committee on Oversight and Government Reform U.S. House of Representatives

  10. DOE Safety and Security Reform Meeting | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Safety and Security Reform Meeting DOE Safety and Security Reform Meeting Meeting Date: August 13, 2010 HSS senior managers with lead responsibilities in DOE's safety and security reform activities met with labor union representatives to discuss approach and process for the engagement of worker stakeholders in the reform efforts. Documents Available for Download PDF icon Meeting Agenda PDF icon Meeting Summary More Documents & Publications Work Group Telecom (Draft Charters) Focus Group

  11. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  12. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Plub Borough, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall.

  13. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Shockling, L.A.; George, R.A.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-06-18

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall. 5 figs.

  14. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpel, Michael; Liu, Di-Jia

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  15. Autothermal hydrodesulfurizing reforming method and catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael; Kopasz, John P.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kao, Richard Li-chih; Randhava, Sarabjit Singh

    2005-11-22

    A method for reforming a sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel in which the sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel is mixed with H.sub.2 O and an oxidant, forming a fuel/H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture. The fuel H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture is brought into contact with a catalyst composition comprising a dehydrogenation portion, an oxidation portion and a hydrodesulfurization portion, resulting in formation of a hydrogen-containing gas stream.

  16. Hiring Reform Memoranda and Action Plan

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    0585 October 7, 2010 MEMORANDUM FOR HEADS OF ALL DEPARTMENTAL ELEMEI\lTS HUMAI\l RESOURCES DIRECTORS FROM: MICHAELC. KANE~~~ CHIEF HUMAN CAPITAL ~ c* SUBJECT: IMPROVING DOE RECRUITMENT AND HIRING PROCESSES This is a follow-up to the Deputy Secretary's Memorandum dated October 6, 2010 where he communicated the need to implement the Action Plan developed to improve the recruitment and hiring processes throughout the Department. One of the central tenets of the President's reform efforts and the

  17. Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Academy of Public Administration | Department of Energy to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public Administration Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public Administration January 12, 2015 - 10:30am Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public Administration WASHINGTON- On Thursday, January 15, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz will give a

  18. Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    aftertreatment | Department of Energy generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Massachusetts Institute of Technology PDF icon 2003_deer_bromberg.pdf More Documents & Publications H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications

  19. Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 December 17, 2004 To reform the intelligence community and the intelligence and intelligence-related activities of the United States Government, and for other purposes. SEC. 102. (a) DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.-(1) There is a Director of National Intelligence who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and

  20. Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Life Requirements | Department of Energy Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements EAS performance results following 500 DeSOx CyclesMeets Off-Road Final Tier 4 and HD On-road Emission Standards PDF icon deer09_mccarthy.pdf More Documents & Publications Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System

  1. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) | Department of Energy Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. PDF icon 11_anl_distributed_reforming_using_otm.pdf More Documents & Publications Cost

  2. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Presentation) | Department of Energy Targets (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. PDF icon 01_doe_bio-derived_liquids_to_h2_reforming_targets.pdf More Documents & Publications BILIWG: Consistent "Figures of Merit" (Presentation) Distributed Hydrogen Fueling Station Based on GEGR SCPO

  3. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) | Department of Energy Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer System. PDF

  4. Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on the Interior | Department of Energy Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on the Interior Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on the Interior Testimony of John Kotek, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary, Office of Nuclear Energy Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on the Interior PDF icon 4-22-15_John_Kotek FT HOGR.pdf More Documents & Publications Excess Uranium Inventory Management Plan 2008

  5. Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources | Department of Energy Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data Resources Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data Resources FITARA Resources Available for Download: DOE IT Policy Archive: ZIP IT Leadership Directory: HTML | JSON CIO Governance Board Membership List: HTML | JSON DOE IT Reform Cost Savings/Avoidance: JSON | PDF DOE IT Policies Package icon policyarchive.zip HTML icon bureaudirectory.html Binary Data

  6. Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Return to Search Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming National Energy Technology...

  7. Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    improvements in system performance while reducing system cost PDF icon deer10mccarthy.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System...

  8. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), launched in October 2006, provides a forum for effective communication and collaboration among participants in DOE...

  9. New process model proves accurate in tests on catalytic reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J. )

    1994-07-25

    A mathematical model has been devised to represent the process that takes place in a fixed-bed, tubular, adiabatic catalytic reforming reactor. Since its development, the model has been applied to the simulation of a commercial semiregenerative reformer. The development of mass and energy balances for this reformer led to a model that predicts both concentration and temperature profiles along the reactor. A comparison of the model's results with experimental data illustrates its accuracy at predicting product profiles. Simple steps show how the model can be applied to simulate any fixed-bed catalytic reformer.

  10. Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review This is the agenda for the working group sessions held in Laurel, Maryland...

  11. Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Installations Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications Onboard Plasmatron Generation of Hydrogen rich Gas for Diesel...

  12. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentations on October 24, 2006 Review of Working Group Charter and DOE RD&D Targets for ... Generation from Biomass-Derived Carbohydrates via Aqueous Phase Reforming, Randy ...

  13. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Arlene Anderson at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  14. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    denitration mineralization reformer (DMR) (polyethylene (PE) beads, PG, PE beads + PG, Sugar, Coal, Sugar + Coal). Only coal as DMR reductant produced acceptable results....

  15. Hydrogen Production via Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Yong Wang and David King at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  16. Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on the Interior Testimony of John Kotek, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary, Office of Nuclear Energy Before the House...

  17. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kick-Off Meeting | Department of Energy Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting The U.S. Department of Energy held a kick-off meeting for the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) on October 24, 2006, in Baltimore, Maryland. The Working Group is addressing technical challenges to distributed reforming of biomass-derived,

  18. NNSA Contract Reform in Action: Supply Chain Management Center...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Contract Reform in Action: Supply Chain Management Center | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile...

  19. Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  20. Electricity Reform Abroad and U.S. Investment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom in an attempt to better understand how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries of Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom.

  1. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorne Woods, IL); Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  2. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-07-13

    A fuel cell is described capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  3. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  4. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  5. Evaluation of Partial Oxidation Reformer Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unnasch, Stefan; Fable, Scott; Waterland, Larry

    2006-01-06

    In this study, a gasoline fuel processor and an ethanol fuel processor were operated under conditions simulating both startup and normal operation. Emissions were measured before and after the AGB in order to quantify the effectiveness of the burner catalyst in controlling emissions. The emissions sampling system includes CEM for O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and THC. Also, integrated gas samples are collected in evacuated canisters for hydrocarbon speciation analysis via GC. This analysis yields the concentrations of the hydrocarbon species required for the California NMOG calculation. The PM concentration in the anode burner exhaust was measured through the placement of a filter in the exhaust stream. The emissions from vehicles with fully developed on board reformer systems were estimated.

  6. Reforming natural gas markets: the antitrust alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, J.D.; Gilfoyle, N.P.

    1983-05-12

    Although the centerpiece of the Department of Energy's proposed legislation is gradual decontrol of all wellhead natural gas prices by Jan. 1, 1986, it also addresses the structural problems that have contributed to the current market disorder. Intended to promote increased competition in the marketing of natural gas, the provisions are based on fundamental tenets of antitrust law. This review of relevant antitrust principles as they relate to the natural gas industry places the remedial features of the proposed legislation in legal context. These features concern the pipelines' contract carrier obligation, gas purchase contract modifications, and limitations on passthrough of purchase gas costs. Should the legislation fail to pass, private antitrust litigation will remain as an inducement to structural and economic reform in the gas industry.

  7. Hydrocarbon fuel reforming catalyst and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ming, Qimin; Healey, Todd; Irving, Patricia Marie

    2006-06-27

    The subject invention is a catalyst consisting of an oxide or mixed oxide support and bimetallic catalytically active compounds. The supporting oxide can be a single oxide, such as Al.sub.2O.sub.3; it also can be a mixture of oxides, such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 stabilized ZrO.sub.2 (YSZ), Al.sub.2O.sub.3 with CeO.sub.2, Al.sub.2O.sub.3 with YSZ and others. The bimetallic compounds, acting as active components, are selected from platinum, and ruthenium, prepared in an appropriate ratio. The catalyst is used in the steam reforming of hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen for applications such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  8. Guidance_Application_Federal_Vacancies_Reform_Act_1998.pdf | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Guidance_Application_Federal_Vacancies_Reform_Act_1998.pdf Guidance_Application_Federal_Vacancies_Reform_Act_1998.pdf PDF icon Guidance_Application_Federal_Vacancies_Reform_Act_1998.pdf More Documents & Publications Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 Bond Amendment, Security Clearances - January 1, 2008 National Historic Preservation Act (1966, amended 2014)

  9. Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Hydrogen Source PDF icon 2003_deer_mauss.pdf More Documents & Publications On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel Reformer Application of a Diesel Fuel Reformer for Tier 2 Bin 5 Emissions Delphi On-board Ammonia Generation (OAG)

  10. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.S.; Painter, C.F.; Pastore, S.P.; Roth, G.S.; Winchester, D.C.

    1991-10-15

    An integrated process is described for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling. 2 figures.

  11. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary S. (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling.

  12. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Presentation) | Department of Energy High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. PDF icon 07_anl_high_pressure_steam_ethanol_reforming.pdf More Documents & Publications High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production Bio-Derived

  13. Hiring Reform Memoranda and Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Hiring Reform Memoranda and Action Plan Responsible Contacts Kenneth Venuto Director, Office of Human Capital Management E-mail kenneth.venuto@hq.doe.gov More Documents & ...

  14. Process Reform, Security and Suitability- December 17, 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is to report on the progress made to improve the timeliness and effectiveness of our hiring and clearing decisions and the specific plan to reform the process further, in accordance with our initial proposals made in April ofthis year.

  15. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  16. Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on Oversight and Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives By: Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman, U.S. Department of Energy FinalTestimonyPoneman0922111.pdf More Documents...

  17. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to the NRC Committee on Research Universities | Department of Energy and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the

  18. Comments on Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    issued February 3, 2011 (Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 23 /Thursday, February 3, 2011 /Notices). | Department of Energy Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform issued February 3, 2011 (Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 23 /Thursday, February 3, 2011 /Notices). Comments on Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform issued February 3, 2011 (Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 23 /Thursday, February 3, 2011 /Notices). I have reviewed the Request For Information

  19. NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance (December 1996) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidance (December 1996) NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance (December 1996) This guidance provides: model statements of work, information on contract types and incentives, direction on effective NEPA contract management by the NEPA Document Manager, a system for measuring NEPA process costs, NEPA contractor evaluation procedures, and details on the DOE NEPA Web site. The statement of work here is superseded by that of the DOE-wide Contracts. PDF icon NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance (December

  20. Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells Presented at the DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop on March 29, 2011. PDF icon apu2011_6_roychoudhury.pdf More Documents & Publications System Design - Lessons Learned, Generic Concepts, Characteristics & Impacts Fuel Cells For Transportation - 1999 Annual Progress Report Energy Conversion Team Fuel Cell Systems Annual Progress Report

  1. Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review | Department of Energy Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review This is the agenda for the working group sessions held in Laurel, Maryland on November 6, 2007. PDF icon biliwg_agenda.pdf More Documents &

  2. Recuperative Reforming (RR) for H2 Enhanced Combustion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Recuperative Reforming (RR) for H2 Enhanced Combustion Recuperative Reforming (RR) for H2 Enhanced Combustion 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_pratapas.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Cummins, Inc., June 2011 Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion Regimes

  3. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities January 21, 2011 Introduction At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) have assembled a set of ten recommendations for regulatory reform that would improve research

  4. Development of a Catalyst/Sorbent for Methane Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.H. Shans; T.D. Wheelock; Justinus Satrio; Karl Albrecht; Tanya Harris Janine Keeley; Ben Silva; Aaron Shell; Molly Lohry; Zachary Beversdorf

    2008-12-31

    This project led to the further development of a combined catalyst and sorbent for improving the process technology required for converting CH{sub 4} and/or CO into H{sub 2} while simultaneously separating the CO{sub 2} byproduct all in a single step. The new material is in the form of core-in-shell pellets such that each pellet consists of a CaO core surrounded by an alumina-based shell capable of supporting a Ni catalyst. The Ni is capable of catalyzing the reactions of steam with CH{sub 4} or CO to produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, whereas the CaO is capable of absorbing the CO{sub 2} as it is produced. The absorption of CO{sub 2} eliminates the reaction inhibiting effects of CO{sub 2} and provides a means for recovering the CO{sub 2} in a useful form. The present work showed that the lifecycle performance of the sorbent can be improved either by incorporating a specific amount of MgO in the material or by calcining CaO derived from limestone at 1100 C for an extended period. It also showed how to prepare a strong shell material with a large surface area required for supporting an active Ni catalyst. The method combines graded particles of {alpha}-alumina with noncrystalline alumina having a large specific surface area together with a strength promoting additive followed by controlled calcination. Two different additives produced good results: 3 {micro}m limestone and lanthanum nitrate which were converted to their respective oxides upon calcination. The oxides partially reacted with the alumina to form aluminates which probably accounted for the strength enhancing properties of the additives. The use of lanthanum made it possible to calcine the shell material at a lower temperature, which was less detrimental to the surface area, but still capable of producing a strong shell. Core-in-shell pellets made with the improved shell materials and impregnated with a Ni catalyst were used for steam reforming CH{sub 4} at different temperatures and pressures. Under all conditions tested, the CH{sub 4} conversion was large (>80%) and nearly equal to the predicted thermodynamic equilibrium level as long as CO{sub 2} was being rapidly absorbed. Similar results were obtained with both shell material additives. Limited lifecycle tests of the pellets also produced similar results that were not affected by the choice of additive. However, during each lifecycle test the period during which CO{sub 2} was rapidly absorbed declined from cycle to cycle which directly affected the corresponding period when CH{sub 4} was reformed rapidly. Therefore, the results showed a continuing need for improving the lifecycle performance of the sorbent. Core-in-shell pellets with the improved shell materials were also utilized for conducting the water gas shift reaction in a single step. Three different catalyst formulations were tested. The best results were achieved with a Ni catalyst, which proved capable of catalyzing the reaction whether CO{sub 2} was being absorbed or not. The calcined alumina shell material by itself also proved to be a very good catalyst for the reaction as long as CO{sub 2} was being fully absorbed by the core material. However, neither the alumina nor a third formulation containing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were good catalysts for the reaction when CO{sub 2} was not absorbed by the core material. Furthermore, the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-containing catalyst was not as good as the other two catalysts when CO{sub 2} was being absorbed.

  5. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  6. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  7. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Zhiwen (Sandy Hook, CT); Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan (New Milford, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT)

    2008-10-07

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  8. Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV); Haynes, Daniel (Morgantown, WV); Smith, Mark (Morgantown, WV); Spivey, James J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2012-03-13

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  9. Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA) Jump to: navigation, search Statute Name Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA) Year 1987 Url...

  10. Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low Temperature Combustion of n-Heptane Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low Temperature Combustion of...

  11. A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation 2004 ...

  12. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter, concentrating solar dish was modified to accommodate the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer and the integrated system was installed at the Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals test site at McClellan, CA. Several test runs were conducted without catalyst during which the ceramic heat exchanger in the Sunexus Solar Reformer reached temperatures between 1,050 F (566 C) and 2,200 F (1,204 C) during the test period. A dry reforming mixture of CO2/CH{sub 4} (2.0/1.0 molar ratio) was chosen for all of the tests on the integrated solar dish/catalytic reformer during December 2010. Initial tests were carried out to determine heat transfer from the collimated solar beam to the catalytic reactor. The catalyst was operated successfully at a steady-state temperature of 1,125 F (607 C), which was sufficient to convert 35% of the 2/1 CO2/CH{sub 4} mixture to syngas. This conversion efficiency confirmed the results from laboratory testing of this catalyst which provided comparable syngas production efficiencies (40% at 1,200 F [650 C]) with a resulting syngas composition of 20% CO, 16% H{sub 2}, 39% CO2 and 25% CH{sub 4}. As based upon the laboratory results, it is predicted that 90% of the CO2 will be converted to syngas in the solar reformer at 1,440 F (782 C) resulting in a syngas composition of 50% CO: 43% H{sub 2}: 7% CO2: 0% CH{sub 4}. Laboratory tests show that the higher catalyst operating temperature of 1,440 F (782 C) for efficient conversion of CO2 can certainly be achieved by optimizing solar reactor heat transfer, which would result in the projected 90% CO2-to-syngas conversion efficiencies. Further testing will be carried out during 2011, through other funding support, to further optimize the solar dish CO2 reformer. Additional studies carried out in support of this project and described in this report include: (1) An Assessment of Potential Contaminants in Captured CO2 from Various Industrial Processes and Their Possible Effect on Sunexus CO2 Reforming Catalysts; (2) Recommended Measurement Methods for Assessing Contaminant Levels in Captured CO2 Streams; (3) An Assessment of Current Commercial Scale Fisher-Tropsch (F-T) Technologies for the Conversion of Syngas to Fuels; (4) An Overview of CO2 Capture Technologies from Various Industrial Sources; and (5) Lifecycle Analysis for the Capture and Conversion of CO2 to Synthetic Diesel Fuel. Commercial scale Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer plant designs, proposed in this report, should be able to utilize waste CO2 from a wide variety of industrial sources to produce a directly usable synthetic diesel fuel that replaces petroleum derived fuel, thus improving the United States energy security while also sequestering CO2. Our material balance model shows that every 5.0 lbs of CO2 is transformed using solar energy into 6.26 lbs (1.0 U.S. gallon) of diesel fuel and into by-products, which includes water. Details are provided in the mass and energy model in this report.

  13. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Misage, Robert (Manchester, CT); Scheffler, Glenn W. (Tolland, CT); Setzer, Herbert J. (Ellington, CT); Margiott, Paul R. (Manchester, CT); Parenti, Jr., Edmund K. (Manchester, CT)

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  14. Method for improving catalyst function in auto-thermal and partial oxidation reformer-based processors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Lee, Sheldon H.D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2014-08-26

    The invention provides a method for reforming fuel, the method comprising contacting the fuel to an oxidation catalyst so as to partially oxidize the fuel and generate heat; warming incoming fuel with the heat while simultaneously warming a reforming catalyst with the heat; and reacting the partially oxidized fuel with steam using the reforming catalyst.

  15. Anticipate-Affect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anticipate-Affect Anticipate-Affect Scientists are developing sophisticated modeling and research techniques to give them an advantage in their ability to anticipate and affect explosive-related threats or events. v Sophisticated modeling and research techniques to counter threats What conditions lead an individual or group toward committing political violence? Is it possible to accurately forecast who will become radicalized or even estimate when they might resort to violence? These and similar

  16. Understanding electricity market reforms and the case of Philippine deregulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santiago, Andrea; Roxas, Fernando

    2010-03-15

    The experience of the Philippines offers lessons that should be relevant to any country seeking to deregulate its power industry. Regardless of structure, consumers must face the real price of electricity production and delivery that is closer to marginal cost. Politically motivated prices merely shift the burden from ratepayers to taxpayers. And any reform should work within a reasonable timetable. (author)

  17. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  18. GUIDANCE ON APPLICATION OF FEDERAL VACANCIES REFORM ACT OF 1998 Page 1 of 13

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    APPLICATION OF FEDERAL VACANCIES REFORM ACT OF 1998 Page 1 of 13 GUIDANCE ON APPLICATION OF FEDERAL VACANCIES REFORM ACT OF 1998 This memorandum provides guidance on the application of the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of1998 to vacancies in Senate-confirmed offices within the executive branch. March 22, 1999 MEMORANDUM FOR AGENCY GENERAL COUNSELS On October 21, 1998, the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998 ("Vacancies Reform Act" or "Act") was signed into law. ( ) The

  19. Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

  20. Olefins from High Yield Autothermal Reforming Process - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Olefins from High Yield Autothermal Reforming Process DOE Grant Recipients University of Minnesota Contact University of Minnesota About This Technology <span id="Caption"><span id="ctl00_MainContentHolder_zoomimage_defaultCaption">Isobutylene is used to produce fuel additives.</span></span> Isobutylene is used to produce fuel additives. <span id="Caption"><span

  1. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team | Department of Energy Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team 2007 Annual and Merit Review Reports compiled for the

  2. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  3. Electrochemical cell apparatus having an integrated reformer-mixer nozzle-mixer diffuser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shockling, L.A.

    1991-09-10

    An electrochemical apparatus is made having a generator section containing electrochemical cells, a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet, a gaseous feed oxidant inlet, and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel, where the spent fuel recirculation channel, passes from the generator chamber to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet to form a reformable mixture, where a reforming chamber contains an outer portion containing reforming material, an inner portion preferably containing a mixer nozzle and a mixer-diffuser, and a middle portion for receiving spent fuel, where the mixer nozzle and mixer-diffuser are preferably both within the reforming chamber and substantially exterior to the main portion of the apparatus, where the reformable mixture flows up and then backward before contacting the reforming material, and the mixer nozzle can operate below 400 C. 1 figure.

  4. Electrochemical cell apparatus having an integrated reformer-mixer nozzle-mixer diffuser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1991-01-01

    An electrochemical apparatus (10) is made having a generator section (22) containing electrochemical cells (16), a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet (28), a gaseous feed oxidant inlet (30), and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel (46), where the spent fuel recirculation channel (46), passes from the generator chamber (22) to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet (28) to form a reformable mixture, where a reforming chamber (54) contains an outer portion containing reforming material (56), an inner portion preferably containing a mixer nozzle (50) and a mixer-diffuser (52), and a middle portion (64) for receiving spent fuel, where the mixer nozzle (50) and mixer-diffuser (52) are preferably both within the reforming chamber (54) and substantially exterior to the main portion of the apparatus, where the reformable mixture flows up and then backward before contacting the reforming material (56), and the mixer nozzle (50) can operate below 400.degree. C.

  5. A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Desulfation | Department of Energy A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference: ArvinMeritor PDF icon 2004_deer_crane.pdf More Documents & Publications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications Use of a Diesel Fuel Processor for Rapid and Efficient Regeneration

  6. Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bypass Regeneration | Department of Energy Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_midlam-mohler.pdf More Documents & Publications Eaton Aftertreatment System (EAS) for On-Highway Diesel Engines Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications

  7. Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dederer, J.T.; Hager, C.A.

    1998-03-31

    An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier. 10 figs.

  8. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets and example cost contributions for hydrogen production from biomass-derived liquid reforming.

  9. The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy...

  10. Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Carbohydrates via Aqueous-Phase Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Virent Energy Systems, Inc. at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  11. Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Mars, PA)

    1998-01-01

    An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier.

  12. Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

  13. Autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based fuel processor, method for improving catalyst function in autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based processors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Lee, Sheldon H. D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2013-01-08

    The invention provides a fuel processor comprising a linear flow structure having an upstream portion and a downstream portion; a first catalyst supported at the upstream portion; and a second catalyst supported at the downstream portion, wherein the first catalyst is in fluid communication with the second catalyst. Also provided is a method for reforming fuel, the method comprising contacting the fuel to an oxidation catalyst so as to partially oxidize the fuel and generate heat; warming incoming fuel with the heat while simultaneously warming a reforming catalyst with the heat; and reacting the partially oxidized fuel with steam using the reforming catalyst.

  14. SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer

    2003-12-01

    New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell industry is in the role of third party independent testing. In order for tests to be conducted, hardware must be purchased and delivered. The fuel cell industry is still in a pre-commercial state, however. Commercial products are defined as having a fixed set of specifications, fixed price, fixed delivery date, and a warrantee. Negotiations with fuel cell companies over these issues are often complex, and the results of these discussions often reveal much about the state of development of the technology. This work includes some of the results of these procurement experiments. Fuel cells may one day replace heat engines as the source of electrical power in remote areas. However, the results of this program to date indicate that currently available hardware is not developed sufficiently for these environments, and that significant time and resources will need to be committed for this to occur.

  15. Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Process: Catalytic Reforming Catalytic Cracking Catalytic Hydrocracking Delayed and Fluid Coking Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Process Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. 2,854 2,929 2,837 2,690 2,748 2,812 2010-2015 PADD 1 189 185 160 185 192 172 2010-2015 East Coast 173 169 144 171 176 155

  16. Application of a Diesel Fuel Reformer for Tier 2 Bin 5 Emissions |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_bonadies.pdf More Documents & Publications Application of a Diesel Fuel Reformer for Tier 2 Bin 5 Emissions Delphi On-board Ammonia Generation (OAG) On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel Reformer

  17. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  18. Integrated solar thermochemical reaction system for steam methane reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Feng; Diver, Rich; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Cameron, Richard J.; Humble, Paul H.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Dagle, Robert A.; Wegeng, Robert S.

    2015-06-05

    Solar-aided upgrade of the energy content of fossil fuels, such as natural gas, can provide a near-term transition path towards a future solar-fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel consumption. Both steam and dry reforming a methane-containing fuel stream have been studied with concentrated solar power as the energy input to drive the highly endothermic reactions but the concept has not been demonstrated at a commercial scale. Under a current project with the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL is developing an integrated solar thermochemical reaction system that combines solar concentrators with micro- and meso-channel reactors and heat exchangers to accomplish more than 20% solar augment of methane higher heating value. The objective of our three-year project is to develop and prepare for commercialization such solar reforming system with a high enough efficiency to serve as the frontend of a conventional natural gas (or biogas) combined cycle power plant, producing power with a levelized cost of electricity less than 6¢/kWh, without subsidies, by the year 2020. In this paper, we present results from the first year of our project that demonstrated a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency as high as 69% with a prototype reaction system.

  19. Integrated solar thermochemical reaction system for steam methane reforming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Feng; Diver, Rich; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Cameron, Richard J.; Humble, Paul H.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Dagle, Robert A.; Wegeng, Robert S.

    2015-06-05

    Solar-aided upgrade of the energy content of fossil fuels, such as natural gas, can provide a near-term transition path towards a future solar-fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel consumption. Both steam and dry reforming a methane-containing fuel stream have been studied with concentrated solar power as the energy input to drive the highly endothermic reactions but the concept has not been demonstrated at a commercial scale. Under a current project with the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL is developing an integrated solar thermochemical reaction system that combines solar concentrators with micro- and meso-channel reactors and heatmore » exchangers to accomplish more than 20% solar augment of methane higher heating value. The objective of our three-year project is to develop and prepare for commercialization such solar reforming system with a high enough efficiency to serve as the frontend of a conventional natural gas (or biogas) combined cycle power plant, producing power with a levelized cost of electricity less than 6¢/kWh, without subsidies, by the year 2020. In this paper, we present results from the first year of our project that demonstrated a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency as high as 69% with a prototype reaction system.« less

  20. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-13

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on ?-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  1. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the tenth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2006. This quarter saw progress in six areas. These areas are: (1) The effect of catalyst dimension on steam reforming, (2) Transient characteristics of autothermal reforming, (3) Rich and lean autothermal reformation startup, (4) Autothermal reformation degradation with coal derived methanol, (5) Reformate purification system, and (6) Fuel cell system integration. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  2. Hydrogen generation having CO.sub.2 removal with steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandaswamy, Duraiswamy; Chellappa, Anand S.; Knobbe, Mack

    2015-07-28

    A method for producing hydrogen using fuel cell off gases, the method feeding hydrocarbon fuel to a sulfur adsorbent to produce a desulfurized fuel and a spent sulfur adsorbent; feeding said desulfurized fuel and water to an adsorption enhanced reformer that comprises of a plurality of reforming chambers or compartments; reforming said desulfurized fuel in the presence of a one or more of a reforming catalyst and one or more of a CO.sub.2 adsorbent to produce hydrogen and a spent CO.sub.2 adsorbent; feeding said hydrogen to the anode side of the fuel cell; regenerating said spent CO.sub.2 adsorbents using the fuel cell cathode off-gases, producing a flow of hydrogen by cycling between said plurality of reforming chambers or compartments in a predetermined timing sequence; and, replacing the spent sulfur adsorbent with a fresh sulfur adsorbent at a predetermined time.

  3. Hydrogen generation having CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kandaswamy, Duraiswamy; Chellappa, Anand S.; Knobbe, Mack

    2015-07-28

    A method for producing hydrogen using fuel cell off gases, the method feeding hydrocarbon fuel to a sulfur adsorbent to produce a desulfurized fuel and a spent sulfur adsorbent; feeding said desulfurized fuel and water to an adsorption enhanced reformer that comprises of a plurality of reforming chambers or compartments; reforming said desulfurized fuel in the presence of a one or more of a reforming catalyst and one or more of a CO2 adsorbent to produce hydrogen and a spent CO2 adsorbent; feeding said hydrogen to the anode side of the fuel cell; regenerating said spent CO2 adsorbents using the fuel cell cathode off-gases, producing a flow of hydrogen by cycling between said plurality of reforming chambers or compartments in a predetermined timing sequence; and, replacing the spent sulfur adsorbent with a fresh sulfur adsorbent at a predetermined time.

  4. Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co/CeO2: The Effect of ZnO Promoter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2013-12-02

    A series of ZnO promoted Co/CeO2 catalysts were synthesized and characterized using XRD, TEM, H2-TPR, CO chemisorption, O2-TPO, IR-Py, and CO2-TPD. The effects of ZnO on the catalytic performances of Co/CeO2 were studied in ethanol steam reforming. It was found that the addition of ZnO facilitated the oxidation of Co0 via enhanced oxygen mobility of the CeO2 support which decreased the activity of Co/CeO2 in CC bond cleavage of ethanol. 3 wt% ZnO promoted Co/CeO2 exhibited minimum CO and CH4 selectivity and maximum CO2 selectivity. This resulted from the combined effects of the following factors with increasing ZnO loading: (1) enhanced oxygen mobility of CeO2 facilitated the oxidation of CHx and CO to form CO2; (2) increased ZnO coverage on CeO2 surface reduced the interaction between CHx/CO and Co/CeO2; and (3) suppressed CO adsorption on Co0 reduced CO oxidation rate to form CO2. In addition, the addition of ZnO also modified the surface acidity and basicity of CeO2, which consequently affected the C2C4 product distributions.

  5. Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven F. Rice; David P. Mann

    2007-04-13

    This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Sd-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO2 in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the burner allow for the direct participation of CO2 in the oxidation chemistry.

  6. Five Kilowatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Diesel Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Reducing fossil fuel consumption both for energy security and for reduction in global greenhouse emissions has been a major goal of energy research in the US for many years. Fuel cells have been proposed as a technology that can address both these issues--as devices that convert the energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy, they offer low emissions and high efficiencies. These advantages are of particular interest to remote power users, where grid connected power is unavailable, and most electrical power comes from diesel electric generators. Diesel fuel is the fuel of choice because it can be easily transported and stored in quantities large enough to supply energy for small communities for extended periods of time. This projected aimed to demonstrate the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on diesel fuel, and to measure the resulting efficiency. Results from this project have been somewhat encouraging, with a laboratory breadboard integration of a small scale diesel reformer and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell demonstrated in the first 18 months of the project. This initial demonstration was conducted at INEEL in the spring of 2005 using a small scale diesel reformer provided by SOFCo and a fuel cell provided by Acumentrics. However, attempts to integrate and automate the available technology have not proved successful as yet. This is due both to the lack of movement on the fuel processing side as well as the rather poor stack lifetimes exhibited by the fuel cells. Commercial product is still unavailable, and precommercial devices are both extremely expensive and require extensive field support.

  7. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Dan

    2009-04-16

    The US Congress funded the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project via annual appropriations to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) beginning in fiscal year 2000. Congress established the project because it recognized that while hatcheries have a necessary role to play in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmonids, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform. Most hatcheries were producing fish for harvest primarily to mitigate for past habitat loss (rather than for conservation of at-risk populations) and were not taking into account the effects of their programs on naturally spawning populations. With numerous species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), conservation of salmon in the Puget Sound area was a high priority. Genetic resources in the region were at risk and many hatchery programs as currently operated were contributing to those risks. Central to the project was the creation of a nine-member independent scientific review panel called the Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG). The HSRG was charged by Congress with reviewing all state, tribal and federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and Coastal Washington as part of a comprehensive hatchery reform effort to: conserve indigenous salmonid genetic resources; assist with the recovery of naturally spawning salmonid populations; provide sustainable fisheries; and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of hatchery programs. The HSRG worked closely with the state, tribal and federal managers of the hatchery system, with facilitation provided by the non-profit organization Long Live the Kings and the law firm Gordon, Thomas, Honeywell, to successfully complete reviews of over 200 hatchery programs at more than 100 hatcheries across western Washington. That phase of the project culminated in 2004 with the publication of reports containing the HSRG's principles for hatchery reform and recommendations for Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to better meet both conservation and harvest goals. For each Columbia River Basin Environmentally Significant Unit (ESU), Distinct Population Segment (MPG) or Major Population Group (MPG) reviewed, the HSRG presents its findings and recommendations in the form of an HSRG solution. This package of recommended changes to current hatchery and harvest program design and operation is intended to demonstrate how the programs could be managed to significantly increase the likelihood of meeting the managers goals for both harvest and conservation of the ESU/DPS/MPG. The 'HSRG solution' also highlights the biological principles that the HSRG believes must form the foundation for successful use of hatcheries and fisheries as management tools.

  8. Update on IT Reform at the Department of Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Update on IT Reform at the Department of Energy Update on IT Reform at the Department of Energy June 4, 2012 - 2:14pm Addthis The last 18 months have seen great improvements in the Department of Energy's (DOE) information technology and cybersecurity. A major factor in our success is our alignment with the 25 Point Implementation Plan To Reform Federal Information Technology Management to move to a "Cloud First" environment and maximize the use of shared services to reduce costs and

  9. Modeling of On-Cell Reforming Reaction for Planar SOFC Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Choongmo; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Hwang, Soon Cheol; Kim, Dohyung; Lai, Canhai; Koeppel, Brian J.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-05-30

    Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack is known to suffer thermal problem from high stack temperature during operation to generate high current. On-Cell Reforming (OCR) phenomenon is often used to reduce stack temperature by an endothermic reaction of steam-methane reforming process. RIST conducted single-cell experiment to validate modeling tool to simulate OCR performance including temperature measurement. 2D modeling is used to check reforming rate during OCR using temperature measurement data, and 3D modeling is used to check overall thermal performance including furnace boundary conditions.

  10. OXIDATION OF FUELS IN THE COOL FLAME REGIME FOR COMBUSTION AND REFORMING FOR FUEL CELLS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NAIDJA,A.; KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.; MAHAJAN,D.

    2002-08-01

    THE REVIEW INTEGRATES RECENT INVESTIGATIONS ON AUTO OXIDATION OF FUEL OILS AND THEIR REFORMING INTO HYDROGEN RICH GAS THAT COULD SERVE AS A FEED FOR FUEL CELLS AND COMBUSTION SYSTEMS.

  11. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Zhang, Gong (Murrysville, PA)

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  12. Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted ... Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Selective ...

  13. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Background Paper

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Paper by Arlene Anderson and Tracy Carole presented at the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group, with a focus on key drivers, purpose, and scope.

  14. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Technical paper on the development of a hydrogen reformer, vehicle refueling facility, and PEM fuel cell for Las Vegas, NV presented at the 2002 Annual Hydrogen Review held May 6-8, 2002 in Golden, CO.

  15. Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lean NOx Catalysis | Department of Energy NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PDF icon 2003_deer_aardahl.pdf More Documents & Publications Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with

  16. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER TREATABILITY STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BANNING DL

    2011-02-11

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluidized bed steam reformer. A determination of the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used in a bench scale tests. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the shipping requirements and for comparison to the bench scale reformer (BSR) test sample selection requirements.

  17. Methods of reforming hydrocarbon fuels using hexaaluminate catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Todd H. (Morgantown, WV); Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV)

    2012-03-27

    A metal substituted hexaaluminate catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas of the general formula AB.sub.yAl.sub.12-yO.sub.19-.delta., A being selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and lanthanide metals or mixtures thereof. A dopant or surface modifier selected from a transitions metal, a spinel of an oxygen-ion conductor is incorporated. The dopant may be Ca, Cs, K, La, Sr, Ba, Li, Mg, Ce, Co, Fe, Ir, Rh, Ni, Ru, Cu, Pe, Os, Pd, Cr, Mn, W, Re, Sn, Gd, V, Ti, Ag, Au, and mixtures thereof. The oxygen-ion conductor may be a perovskite selected from M'RhO.sub.3, M'PtO.sub.3, M'PdO.sub.3, M'IrO.sub.3, M'RuO.sub.3 wherein M'=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca; a spinel selected from MRh.sub.2O.sub.4, MPt.sub.2O.sub.4, MPd.sub.2O.sub.4, MIr.sub.2O.sub.4, MRu.sub.2O.sub.4 wherein M=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca and mixtures thereof; a florite is selected from M''O.sub.2.

  18. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  19. Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semelsberger, T. A.; Borup, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel of choice due its current limited availability, toxicity and corrosiveness. While methanol steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds has been extensively studied, the steam reforming of DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2CO{sub 2} + 6H{sub 2}, has had limited research effort. DME is the simplest ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) and is a gas at ambient conditions. DME has physical properties similar to those of LPG fuels (i.e. propane and butane), resulting in similar storage and handling considerations. DME is currently used as an aerosol propellant and has been considercd as a diesel substitute due to the reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions. DME is also being considered as a substitute for LPG fuels, which is used extensively in Asia as a fuel for heating and cooking, and naptha, which is used for power generation. The potential advantages of both methanol and DME include low reforming temperature, decreased fuel proccssor startup energy, environmentally benign, visible flame, high heating value, and ease of storage and transportation. In addition, DME has the added advantages of low toxicity and being non-corrosive. Consequently, DME may be an ideal candidate for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for both automotive and portable power applications. The steam reforming of DME has been demonstrated to occur through a pair of reactions in series, where the first reaction is DME hydration followed by MeOH steam reforming to produce a hydrogen rich stream.

  20. Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low Temperature Combustion of n-Heptane

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The effects of blends of base fuel (n-heptane) and fuel-reformed products on the low-temperature combustion process were investigated.

  1. An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer Pack

    2007-12-31

    This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the auto ignition potential. It is also important to note that to achieve uniform mixing within a short distance, some recirculation is necessary. Milestone 5 generated CFD and FEA results that could be used to optimize the preheating injector. CFD results confirmed the recirculation zones seen in test data and confirmed that the flow field would not change when attached to a reformer. The FEA predicted fuel wetted wall temperatures which led to several suggested improvements that could possibly improve nozzle efficiency. Milestone 6 (originally an optional task) took a different approach than the preheating pressure atomizer. It focused on creation and optimization of a piezoelectric injector which could perform at extremely low fuel pressures. The piezoelectric atomizer showed acceptable SMD results with fuel pressure less than 1.0 psig and air pressure less than 1.0 in H2O. These SMD values were enhanced when a few components were changed, and it is expected would improve further still at elevated air temperatures. It was demonstrated that the piezoelectric injector could accomplish the desired task. The addition of phase tracking and a burst mode to the frequency controller increased the usability of the piezoelectric injector. This injector is ready to move on to the next phase of development. Engine Components has met the required program milestones of this project. Some of the Milestones were adjusted to allow Milestone 6 to be completed in parallel with the other Milestones. Because of this, Task 3.10 and 3.13 were made optional instead of Milestone 6. Engine Components was extremely grateful for the support that was provided by NETL in support of this work.

  2. Durability Testing of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.; PAREIZS, JOHN M.; LORIER, TROY H.; MARRA, JAMES C.

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes but especially aqueous high sodium wastes at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The FBSR technology converts organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, converts nitrate/nitrite species to N{sub 2}, and produces a solid residue through reactions with superheated steam, the fluidizing media. If clay is added during processing a ''mineralized'' granular waste form can be produced. The mineral components of the waste form are primarily Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The cage and ring structured minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc{sup 99} and Cs{sup 137} and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals appear to stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Durability testing of the FBSR products was performed using ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The FBSR mineral products (bed and fines) evaluated in this study were found to be two orders of magnitude more durable than the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass requirement of 2 g/m{sup 2} release of Na{sup +}. The PCT responses for the FBSR samples tested were consistent with results from previous FBSR Hanford LAW product testing. Differences in the response can be explained by the minerals formed and their effects on PCT leachate chemistry.

  3. New Insights into Reaction Mechanisms of Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co-ZrO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The reaction pathway of ethanol steam reforming on Co-ZrO2 has been identified and the active sites associated with each step are proposed. Ethanol is converted to acetaldehyde and then to acetone, followed by acetone steam reforming. More than 90% carbon was found to follow this reaction pathway. N2-Sorption, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), in situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy, as well as theoretical Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been employed to identify the structure and functionality of the catalysts, which was further used to correlate their performance in ESR. It was found that metallic cobalt is mainly responsible for the acetone steam reforming reactions; while, CoO and basic sites on the support play a key role in converting ethanol to acetone via dehydrogenation and condensation/ketonization reaction pathways. The current work provides fundamental understanding of the ethanol steam reforming reaction mechanisms on Co-ZrO2 catalysts and sheds light on the rational design of selective and durable ethanol steam reforming catalysts.

  4. The potential role of a carbon tax in U.S. fiscal reform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKibbin, Warwick; Morris, Adele; Wilcoxen, Peter; Cai, Yiyong

    2012-07-24

    This paper examines fiscal reform options in the United States with an intertemporal computable general equilibrium model of the world economy called G-Cubed. Six policy scenarios explore two overarching issues: (1) the effects of a carbon tax under alternative assumptions about the use of the resulting revenue, and (2) the effects of alternative measures that could be used to reduce the budget deficit. We examine a simple excise tax on the carbon content of fossil fuels in the U.S. energy sector starting immediately at $15 per metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) and rising at 4 percent above inflation each year through 2050. We investigate policies that allow the revenue from the illustrative carbon tax to reduce the long run federal budget deficit or the marginal tax rates on labor and capital income. We also compare the carbon tax to other means of reducing the deficit by the same amount. We find that the carbon tax will raise considerable revenue: $80 billion at the outset, rising to $170 billion in 2030 and $310 billion by 2050. It also significantly reduces U.S. CO2 emissions by an amount that is largely independent of the use of the revenue. By 2050, annual CO2 emissions fall by 2.5 billion metric tons (BMT), or 34 percent, relative to baseline, and cumulative emissions fall by 40 BMT through 2050. The use of the revenue affects both broad economic impacts and the composition of GDP across consumption, investment and net exports. In most scenarios, the carbon tax lowers GDP slightly, reduces investment and exports, and increases imports. The effect on consumption varies across policies and can be positive if households receive the revenue as a lump sum transfer. Using the revenue for a capital tax cut, however, is significantly different than the other policies. In that case, investment booms, employment rises, consumption declines slightly, imports increase, and overall GDP rises significantly relative to baseline through about 2040. Thus, a tax reform that uses a carbon tax to reduce capital taxes would achieve two goals: reducing CO2 emissions significantly and expanding short-run employment and the economy. We examine three ways to reduce the deficit by an equal amount. We find that raising marginal tax rates on labor income has advantages over raising tax rates on capital income or establishing a carbon tax. A labor tax increase leaves GDP close to its baseline, reduces consumption very slightly and expands net exports slightly. Investment remains essentially unchanged. In contrast, a capital tax increase causes a significant and persistent drop in investment and much larger reductions in GDP. A carbon tax falls between the two: it lowers GDP more than a labor tax increase because it reduces investment. However, its effects on investment and GDP are more moderate than the capital tax increase, and it also significantly reduces CO2 emissions. A carbon tax thus offers a way to help reduce the deficit and improve the environment, and do so with minimal disturbance to overall economic activity.

  5. Steam Reforming Technology for Denitration and Immobilization of DOE Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, J. B.; McKibbin, J.; Ryan, K.; Schmoker, D.

    2003-02-26

    THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (THOR) is a joint venture formed in June 2002 by Studsvik, Inc. (Studsvik) and Westinghouse Government Environmental Services Company LLC to further develop, market, and deploy Studsvik's patented THORSM non-incineration, steam reforming waste treatment technology. This paper provides an overview of the THORSM steam reforming process as applied to the denitration and conversion of Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes to an immobilized mineral form. Using the THORSM steam reforming technology to treat nitrate containing tank wastes could significantly benefit the DOE by reducing capital and life-cycle costs, reducing processing and programmatic risks, and positioning the DOE to meet or exceed its stakeholder commitments for tank closure. Specifically, use of the THORSM technology can facilitate processing of up to 75% of tank wastes without the use of vitrification, yielding substantial life-cycle cost savings.

  6. Process and apparatus for the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sircar, Shivaji (Wescosville, PA); Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond (Fogelsville, PA); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA)

    2000-01-01

    In the steam reforming of hydrocarbon, particularly methane, under elevated temperature and pressure to produce hydrogen, a feed of steam and hydrocarbon is fed into a first reaction volume containing essentially only reforming catalyst to partially reform the feed. The balance of the feed and the reaction products of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are then fed into a second reaction volume containing a mixture of catalyst and adsorbent which removes the carbon dioxide from the reaction zone as it is formed. The process is conducted in a cycle which includes these reactions followed by countercurrent depressurization and purge of the adsorbent to regenerate it and repressurization of the reaction volumes preparatory to repeating the reaction-sorption phase of the cycle.

  7. Method for forming synthesis gas using a plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartvigsen, Joseph J; Elangovan, S; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

    2015-04-28

    A method of forming a synthesis gas utilizing a reformer is disclosed. The method utilizes a reformer that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding apparatus and system are also disclosed herein.

  8. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR THE BENCH STEAM REFORMER TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BANNING DL

    2010-08-03

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing. The type, quantity and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluid bed steam reformer (FBSR). A determination of the adequacy of the FBSR process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the FBSR process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used to test the FBSR process. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the testing criteria.

  9. IT Reform: Energy TechStat Examines Identity Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IT Reform: Energy TechStat Examines Identity Program IT Reform: Energy TechStat Examines Identity Program May 3, 2011 - 11:59am Addthis In an effort to improve the performance of one of the Department of Energy's (DOE) major IT investments, an agency TechStat review was held. The session focused on the Identity, Credential, and Access Management (ICAM) Program, a holistic approach for department-wide initiatives that support access to Federal IT systems and facilities. Fifteen DOE staff

  10. ,"Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input",16,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/2010" ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  11. Public Law 108-458-Dec. 17, 2004; Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    8-458-DEC. 17, 2004 INTELLIGENCE REFORM AND TERRORISM PREVENTION ACT OF 2004 VerDate 11-MAY-2000 13:50 Jan 28, 2005 Jkt 039139 PO 00458 Frm 00001 Fmt 6579 Sfmt 6579 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL458.108 APPS06 PsN: PUBL458 118 STAT. 3638 PUBLIC LAW 108-458-DEC. 17, 2004 Public Law 108-458 108th Congress An Act To reform the intelligence community and the intelligence and intelligence-related activities of the United States Government, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of

  12. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Kick-Off Meeting Proceedings Hilton Garden Inn-BWI,Baltimore, MD October 24, 2006

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Proceedings from the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  13. Notices Affected Public: Individuals and

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3 Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 23 / Thursday, February 3, 2011 / Notices Affected Public: Individuals and households; not-for-profit institutions; State, Local, or Tribal Government, State Educational Agencies or Local Educational Agencies. Total Estimated Number of Annual Responses: 22,760. Total Estimated Number of Annual Burden Hours: 8,725. Abstract: The study is being conducted as part of the National Assessment of Title I, mandated by Title I, Part E, Section 1501 of the Elementary and

  14. Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    September 2014 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy | September 2014 Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs | Page ii Acknowledgments This report was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) and drafted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The effort was directed and supported by DOE program manager Joseph Paladino. The lead authors are Marcus Young of ORNL and Alison Silverstein

  15. Steam reforming as a method to treat Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.E.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes a Sandia program that included partnerships with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Synthetica Technologies, Inc. to design and test a steam reforming system for treating Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes. The benefits of steam reforming the wastes include the resolution of tank safety issues and improved radionuclide separations. Steam reforming destroys organic materials by first gasifying, then reacting them with high temperature steam. Tests indicate that up to 99% of the organics could be removed from the UST wastes by steam exposure. In addition, it was shown that nitrates in the wastes could be destroyed by steam exposure if they were first distributed as a thin layer on a surface. High purity alumina and nickel alloys were shown to be good candidates for materials to be used in the severe environment associated with steam reforming the highly alkaline, high nitrate content wastes. Work was performed on designing, building, and demonstrating components of a 0.5 gallon per minute (gpm) system suitable for radioactive waste treatment. Scale-up of the unit to 20 gpm was also considered and is feasible. Finally, process demonstrations conducted on non-radioactive waste surrogates were carried out, including a successful demonstration of the technology at the 0.1 gpm scale.

  16. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting- November 2007

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group participated in a Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review on November 6, 2007. The meeting provided the opportunity for researchers to share their experiences in converting bio-derived liquids to hydrogen with members of the Department of Energy Hydrogen Production Technical Team.

  17. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING FOR TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HEWITT WM

    2011-04-08

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of fluidized bed steam reforming and its possible application to treat and immobilize Hanford low-activity waste.

  18. High Efficiency Solar-based Catalytic Structure for CO{sub 2} Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menkara, Hisham

    2013-09-30

    Throughout this project, we developed and optimized various photocatalyst structures for CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbon fuels and various commodity chemical products. We also built several closed-loop and continuous fixed-bed photocatalytic reactor system prototypes for a larger-scale demonstration of CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbons, mainly methane and formic acid. The results achieved have indicated that with each type of reactor and structure, high reforming yields can be obtained by refining the structural and operational conditions of the reactor, as well as by using various sacrificial agents (hole scavengers). We have also demonstrated, for the first time, that an aqueous solution containing acid whey (a common bio waste) is a highly effective hole scavenger for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor system and can help reform CO{sub 2} into several products at once. The optimization tasks performed throughout the project have resulted in efficiency increase in our conventional reactors from an initial 0.02% to about 0.25%, which is 10X higher than our original project goal. When acid whey was used as a sacrificial agent, the achieved energy efficiency for formic acid alone was ~0.4%, which is 16X that of our original project goal and higher than anything ever reported for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor. Therefore, by carefully selecting sacrificial agents, it should be possible to reach energy efficiency in the range of the photosynthetic efficiency of typical crop and biofuel plants (1-3%).

  19. Operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on biodiesel with a partial oxidation reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N, Shekhawat, D.; Gemmen, R.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratorys Office of Research & Development (NETL/ORD) has successfully demonstrated the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using reformed biodiesel. The biodiesel for the project was produced and characterized by West Virginia State University (WVSU). This project had two main aspects: 1) demonstrate a catalyst formulation on monolith for biodiesel fuel reforming; and 2) establish SOFC stack test stand capabilities. Both aspects have been completed successfully. For the first aspect, inhouse patented catalyst specifications were developed, fabricated and tested. Parametric reforming studies of biofuels provided data on fuel composition, catalyst degradation, syngas composition, and operating parameters required for successful reforming and integration with the SOFC test stand. For the second aspect, a stack test fixture (STF) for standardized testing, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the Solid Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program, was engineered and constructed at NETL. To facilitate the demonstration of the STF, NETL employed H.C. Starck Ceramics GmbH & Co. (Germany) anode supported solid oxide cells. In addition, anode supported cells, SS441 end plates, and cell frames were transferred from PNNL to NETL. The stack assembly and conditioning procedures, including stack welding and sealing, contact paste application, binder burn-out, seal-setting, hot standby, and other stack assembly and conditioning methods were transferred to NETL. In the future, fuel cell stacks provided by SECA or other developers could be tested at the STF to validate SOFC performance on various fuels. The STF operated on hydrogen for over 1000 hrs before switching over to reformed biodiesel for 100 hrs of operation. Combining these first two aspects led to demonstrating the biodiesel syngas in the STF. A reformer was built and used to convert 0.5 ml/min of biodiesel into mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas.) The syngas was fed to the STF and fuel cell stack. The results presented in this experimental report document one of the first times a SOFC has been operated on syngas from reformed biodiesel.

  20. Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.K.

    1995-08-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product.

  1. Statewide Power Problems May Affect SSRL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Statewide Power Problems May Affect SSRL The power crisis affecting California and the northwestern US may have some implication for SSRL users during the current run. As the...

  2. Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting the Deployment of Larger Wind Turbines: Summary of Results Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting ...

  3. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The radioactive Tank 48H DMR product was primarily made up of soluble carbonates. The three most abundant species were thermonatrite, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O], sodium carbonate, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}], and trona, [Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O] the same as the ESTD FBSR. (6) Insoluble solids analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) did not detect insoluble carbonate species. However, they still may be present at levels below 2 wt%, the sensitivity of the XRD methodology. Insoluble solids XRD characterization indicated that various Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn phases are present. These crystalline phases are associated with the insoluble sludge components of Tank 48H slurry and impurities in the Erwin coal ash. The percent insoluble solids, which mainly consist of un-burnt coal and coal ash, in the products were 4 to 11 wt% for the radioactive runs. (7) The Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sub total} REDOX measurements ranged from 0.58 to 1 for the three radioactive Bench-scale tests. REDOX measurements > 0.5 showed a reducing atmosphere was maintained in the DMR indicating that pyrolysis was occurring. (8) Greater than 90% of the radioactivity was captured in the product for all three runs. (9) The collective results from the FBSR simulant tests and the BSR simulant tests indicate that the same chemistry occurs in the two reactors. (10) The collective results from the BSR simulant runs and the BSR radioactive waste runs indicates that the same chemistry occurs in the simulant as in the real waste. The FBSR technology has been proven to destroy the organics and nitrates in the Tank 48H waste and form the anticipated solid carbonate phases as expected.

  4. Investigation of Reaction Networks and Active Sites In Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming Over Co-Based Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Paper by Umit S. Ozkan, Hua Song, and Lingzhi Zhang (Ohio State University) on the fundamental understanding of reaction networks, active sites of deactivation mechanisms of potential bio-ethanol steam reforming catalysts.

  5. Steam-reforming of fossil fuels and wastes to produce energy and chemicals without greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Worldwide concern has demanded a re-examination of the energy- and chemical-producing plants that use fossil fuel sources and release large quantities of greenhouse gases. Plant retrofits with steam-reformer/gasifiers will increase plant efficiencies, improve economics and avoid releasing troublesome amounts of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. In this paper, the authors describe and illustrate the several new steam-reforming/gasification plants that are processing waste streams and fossil fuels. These plants range in size from 1 ton/day to 2,000 tons/day. They are commercial and economically successful. These new concepts can be used to both upgrade fossil plants for improved economics while eliminating the release of greenhouse gases. By aggressively retrofitting old coal plants and sequestering CO{sub 2}, a 15% reduction in 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions can be met by the US by 2010.

  6. Making contracting work better and cost less: Report of the Contract Reform Team

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In June 1993, Secretary of Energy Hazel O`Leary formed a Contract Reform Team, chaired by Deputy Secretary Bill White, to evaluate the contracting practices of the Department of Energy and to formulate specific proposals for improving those practices. This report summarizes the results of the work of the Contract Reform Team. It recommends actions for implementation that will significantly improve the Department`s contracting practices and will enable the Department to help create a government that -- in the words of Vice President Gore -- {open_quotes}works better and costs less.{close_quotes} These actions and the deadlines for their implementation are listed. Among other things, they recommend replacing the Department`s standard Management and Operating Contract with a new Performance-Based Management Contract and strengthening the Department`s systems for selecting and managing contractors.

  7. On-board diesel autothermal reforming for PEM fuel cells: Simulation and optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzolino, Raffaello Tribioli, Laura

    2015-03-10

    Alternative power sources are nowadays the only option to provide a quick response to the current regulations on automotive pollutant emissions. Hydrogen fuel cell is one promising solution, but the nature of the gas is such that the in-vehicle conversion of other fuels into hydrogen is necessary. In this paper, autothermal reforming, for Diesel on-board conversion into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for PEM fuel cells, has investigated using the simulation tool Aspen Plus. A steady-state model has been developed to analyze the fuel processor and the overall system performance. The components of the fuel processor are: the fuel reforming reactor, two water gas shift reactors, a preferential oxidation reactor and H{sub 2} separation unit. The influence of various operating parameters such as oxygen to carbon ratio, steam to carbon ratio, and temperature on the process components has been analyzed in-depth and results are presented.

  8. Can CO-tolerant Anodes be Economically Viable for PEMFC Applications with Reformates?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, P.; Zhang, Y.; Ye., S.; Wang, J. X.

    2014-10-05

    Several years ago, the answer to this question was negative based on the criteria for an anode with <0.1 mg cm-2 of platinum group metals to perform similarly without and with 50 ppm CO in hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Now, with the amount of CO impurities reduced to 10 ppm in reformates, a <1% performance loss with a 1.5% air-bleed has become a reasonable target. The CO-tolerant catalyst also needs to be dissolution resistant up to 0.93 V, viz., the potential experienced at the anode during startup and shutdown of the fuel cells. We recently demonstrated our ability to simultaneously enhance activity and stability by using single crystalline Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts. Here, we report that the performance target with reformates was met using bilayer-thick Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts with 0.047 mg cm-2 Pt and 0.024 mg cm-2 Ru loading, supporting a positive prognosis for the economically viable use of reformates in PEMFC applications.

  9. Can CO-tolerant Anodes be Economically Viable for PEMFC Applications with Reformates?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, P.; Zhang, Y.; Ye., S.; Wang, J. X.

    2014-10-05

    Several years ago, the answer to this question was negative based on the criteria for an anode with <0.1 mg cm-2 of platinum group metals to perform similarly without and with 50 ppm CO in hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Now, with the amount of CO impurities reduced to 10 ppm in reformates, a <1% performance loss with a 1.5% air-bleed has become a reasonable target. The CO-tolerant catalyst also needs to be dissolution resistant up to 0.93 V, viz., the potential experienced at the anode during startup and shutdown of the fuel cells. We recently demonstrated ourmore » ability to simultaneously enhance activity and stability by using single crystalline Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts. Here, we report that the performance target with reformates was met using bilayer-thick Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts with 0.047 mg cm-2 Pt and 0.024 mg cm-2 Ru loading, supporting a positive prognosis for the economically viable use of reformates in PEMFC applications.« less

  10. Comparative Investigation of Benzene Steam Reforming over Spinel Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Rousseau, Roger J.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Albrecht, Karl O.; Kovarik, Libor; Flake, Matthew D.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2013-06-01

    In a combined experimental and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) study, benzene steam reforming (BSR) over MgAl2O4 supported Rh and Ir catalysts was investigated. Experimentally, it has been found that both highly dispersed Rh and Ir clusters (1-2 nm) on the MgAl2O4 spinel support are stable during the BSR in the temperature range of 700-850?C. Compared to the Ir/MgAl2O4 catalyst, the Rh/MgAl2O4 catalyst is more active with higher benzene turnover frequency and conversion. At typical steam conditions with the steam-to-carbon ratio > 12, the benzene conversion is only a weak function of the H2O concentration in the feed. This suggests that the initial benzene decomposition step rather than the benzene adsorption is most likely the rate-determined step in BSR over supported Rh and Ir catalysts. In order to understand the differences between the two catalysts, we followed with a comparative DFT study of initial benzene decomposition pathways over two representative model systems for each supported metal (Rh and Ir) catalysts. A periodic terrace (111) surface and an amorphous 50-atom metal cluster with a diameter of 1.0 nm were used to represent the two supported model catalysts under low and high dispersion conditions. Our DFT results show that the decreasing catalyst particle size enhances the benzene decomposition on supported Rh catalysts by lowering both C-C and C-H bond scission. The activation barriers of the C-C and the C-H bond scission decrease from 1.60 and 1.61 eV on the Rh(111) surface to 1.34 and 1.26 eV on the Rh50 cluster. For supported Ir catalysts, the decreasing particle size only affects the C-C scission. The activation barrier of the C-C scission of benzene decreases from 1.60 eV on the Ir(111) surface to 1.35 eV on the Ir50 cluster while the barriers of the C-H scission are practically the same. The experimentally measured higher BSR activity on the supported highly dispersed Rh catalyst can be rationalized by the thermodynamic limitation for the very first C-C bond scission of benzene on the small Ir50 catalyst. The C-C bond scission of benzene on the small Ir50 catalyst is highly endothermic although the barrier is competitive with the barriers of both the C-C and the C-H bond-breakings on the small Rh50 catalyst. The calculations also imply that, for the supported Rh catalysts the C-C and C-H bond scissions are competitive, independently of the Rh cluster sizes. After the initial dissociation step via either the C-C or the C-H bond scission, the C-H bond breaking seems to be more favorable rather than the C-C bond breaking on the larger Rh terrace surface. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energys Office of Biomass Programs. Computing time was granted by a user project at the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  11. Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A significant feature of the program is the reduction and partial elimination of trips required (usually by diesel-powered trucks) to refuel andor repair remotely located pumping ...

  12. DOE Energy Star Testing Reveals Inefficient ASKO Dishwasher ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Star program has revealed that an ASKO dishwasher (model D5122XXLB), which the company had claimed was Energy Star compliant, consumes more energy than permitted by the...

  13. AB INITIO STUDIES OF COKE FORMATION ON NI CATALYSTS DURING METHANE REFORMING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David S. Sholl

    2003-09-25

    The atomic-scale processes that control the formation of carbon deposits on Ni catalysts in reforming applications are poorly understood. Ab initio Density Functional Theory calculations have been used to examine several key elementary steps in the complex network of chemical reactions that precedes carbon formation on practical catalysts. Attention has been focused on the disproportionation of CO. A comparative study of this reaction on flat and stepped crystal planes of Ni has provided the first direct evidence that surface carbon formation is driven by elementary reactions occurring at defect sites on Ni catalysts.

  14. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  15. Application of a Diesel Fuel Reformer for Tier 2 Bin 5 Emissions |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_bonadies.pdf More Documents & Publications Application of a Diesel Fuel Reformer for Tier 2 Bin 5 Emissions Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System Under Transient and Steady State Conditions LNT + SCR Aftertreatment for Medium-Heavy Duty Applications: A

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming, catalyzed interconnect for use therewith, and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia; Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2010-06-08

    A catalyzed interconnect for an SOFC electrically connects an anode and an anodic current collector and comprises a metallic substrate, which provides space between the anode and anodic current collector for fuel gas flow over at least a portion of the anode, and a catalytic coating on the metallic substrate comprising a catalyst for catalyzing hydrocarbon fuel in the fuel gas to hydrogen rich reformate. An SOFC including the catalyzed anodic inter-connect, a method for operating an SOFC, and a method for making a catalyzed anodic interconnect are also disclosed.

  17. Hanford Site Beryllium Questionnaire Affected Worker Questionnaire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beryllium Questionnaire Affected Worker Questionnaire Page 1 of 15 Hanford Site Beryllium Interview Questionnaire Affected Worker Interview Date (MM/YYYY) Name (Last, First, MI) HID# DOB (MM/YYYY) Contractor/Employer Home Address City State Zip Code Home Phone Number ( ) - Alternate Phone Number ( ) - Hanford Site Beryllium Questionnaire Affected Worker Questionnaire Page 2 of 15 Hanford Work History Timeline Original Hire Date for the Hanford Site: (MM/YYYY) Contractor: Job Title: Bargaining

  18. STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS ON ACTUAL DOE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE 9138

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burket, P

    2009-02-24

    This paper describes the design of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR); a processing unit for demonstrating steam reforming technology on actual radioactive waste [1]. It describes the operating conditions of the unit used for processing a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 48H waste. Finally, it compares the results from processing the actual waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in a large pilot scale unit, the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR), operated at Hazen Research Inc. in Golden, CO. The purpose of this work was to prove that the actual waste reacted in the same manner as the simulant waste in order to validate the work performed in the pilot scale unit which could only use simulant waste.

  19. CHARM COST-EFFECTIVE HIGH-EFFICIENCY ADVANCED REFORMING MODULE FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollica, Darryl; Cross, James C; Sharma, Atul; Shi, Yanlong; Clawson, Lawrence; O'Brien, Chris; Gilhooly, Kara; Kim, Changsik; Quet, Pierre-Francois

    2009-09-02

    Background Creation of a hydrogen infrastructure is an important prerequisite of widespread fuel cell commercialization, especially for the automotive market. Hydrogen is an attractive fuel since it offers an opportunity to replace petroleum-based fuels, but hydrogen occurs naturally only in chemical compounds like water or hydrocarbons that must be chemically converted to produce it. While an ultimate goal is to produce hydrogen through renewable energy sources, steam methane reforming (SMR) of natural gas is currently the most economical solution to initiate the transition to a hydrogen economy. Centralized hydrogen generation using large industrial SMR plants is already in place to serve customers. Yet, because of the weight and size of cylinders needed to contain hydrogen gas or liquid, transportation of hydrogen may only be economical for short distances. Consequently, distributed natural gas reforming, which trades off the economies of scale of large plants for simplified delivery logistics, is an attractive alternative that could address immediate problems with the lack of hydrogen infrastructure.

  20. Interim report:feasibility of microscale glucose reforming for renewable hydrogen.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, Kirsten (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM)

    2007-03-01

    Micro-scale aqueous steam reforming of glucose is suggested as a novel method of H{sub 2} production for micro fuel cells. Compact fuel cell systems are a viable alternative to batteries as a portable electrical power source. Compared with conventional lithium polymer batteries, hydrocarbon powered fuel cells are smaller, weigh less, and have a much higher energy density. The goal of this project is to develop a hydrocarbon powered microfuel processor capable of driving an existing microfuel cell, and this interim report provides a summary of the engineering information for microscale reforming of carbohydrates and the summarizes the work completed as of September 2006. Work on this program will continue. Gas analysis of the gas evolved from glucose breakdown using a quadrupole mass spectrometer is now possible due do significant modifications to the vacuum chamber and to the mass spectrometer electronics. Effective adhesion of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to 316SS microstructured catalyst plates is still under investigation. Electrophoretic and dip coat methods of catalyst deposition have produced coatings with poor adhesion and limited available Pt surface area.

  1. Process Options Description for Steam Reforming Flowsheet Model of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, D.D.; Barnes, C.M.; Nichols, T.T.

    2002-05-21

    Technical information is provided herein that is required for development of a steady-state process simulation of a baseline steam reforming treatment train for Tank Farm waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This document supercedes INEEL/EXT-2001-173, produced in FY2001 to support simulation of the direct vitrification treatment train which was the previous process baseline. A process block flow diagram for steam reforming is provided, together with a list of unit operations which constitute the process. A detailed description of each unit operation is given which includes its purpose, principal phenomena present, expected pressure and temperature ranges, key chemical species in the inlet steam, and the proposed manner in which the unit operation is to be modeled in the steady state process simulation. Models for the unit operations may be mechanistic (based on first principles), empirical (based solely on pilot test data without extrapolation) , or by correlations (based on extrapolative or statistical schemes applied to pilot test data). Composition data for the expected process feed streams is provided.

  2. Reformer assisted lean NO.sub.x catalyst aftertreatment system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalyanaraman, Mohan (Media, PA); Park, Paul W. (Peoria, IL); Ragle, Christie S. (Havana, IL)

    2010-06-29

    A method and apparatus for catalytically processing a gas stream passing therethrough to reduce the presence of NO.sub.x therein, wherein the apparatus includes a first catalyst composed of a silver-containing alumina that is adapted for catalytically processing the gas stream at a first temperature range, a second catalyst composed of a copper-containing zeolite located downstream from the first catalyst, wherein the second catalyst is adapted for catalytically processing the gas stream at a lower second temperature range relative to the first temperature range, a hydrocarbon compound for injection into the gas stream upstream of the first catalyst to provide a reductant, and a reformer for reforming a portion of the hydrocarbon compound into H.sub.2 and/or oxygenated hydrocarbon for injection into the gas stream upstream of the first catalyst. The second catalyst is adapted to facilitate the reaction of reducing NOx into N.sub.2, whereby the intermediates are produced via the first catalyst reacting with NOx and hydrocarbons.

  3. Chemical reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.L.

    1987-01-13

    This patent describes the process of producing liquid oils from organic waste materials, which comprises: mixing an oil-based carrier with organic waste material selected from the group consisting of organic garbage, raw sewage, sewage sludge and waste paper. The waste material contains at least about 10 weight percent water. The amount of oil-based carrier present is sufficient to permit the mixture to be a more readily flowable material that the corresponding waste material free of oil carrier. The flowable material is pyrolyzed at elevated temperature and pressure to produce the liquid oils. 17. The process of producing liquid oils from organic waste materials selected from the group consisting of organic garbage, raw sewage, sewage sludge, and waste paper, which comprises: mixing an oil-based carrier with organic waste material, the waste material containing at least about 10 weight percent water, the amount of oil-based carrier present being sufficient to permit the mixture to be more readily flowable material than the corresponding waste material free of oil carrier, pyrolysing the flowable material at a temperature of 700/sup 0/ to 950/sup 0/F. and a pressure of 700 to 2,500 p.s.i. to produce the liquid oils, and thereafter passing the heated, substantially continuous stream through heat exchange means to recover heat and to transfer it to an upstream portion of the substantially continuous stream.

  4. Role of metal-support interactions on the activity of Pt and Rh catalysts for reforming methane and butane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossignol, C.; Krause, T.; Krumpelt, M.

    2002-01-11

    For residential fuel cell systems, reforming of natural gas is one option being considered for providing the H{sub 2} necessary for the fuel cell to operate. Industrially, natural gas is reformed using Ni-based catalysts supported on an alumina substrate, which has been modified to inhibit coke formation. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have developed a new family of catalysts derived from solid oxide fuel cell technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H{sub 2}. These catalysts consist of a transition metal supported on an oxide-ion-conducting substrate, such as ceria, that has been doped with a small amount of a non-reducible element, such as gadolinium, samarium, or zirconium. Unlike alumina, the oxide-ion-conducting substrate has been shown to induce strong metal-support interactions. Metal-support interactions are known to play an important role in influencing the catalytic activity of many metals supported on oxide supports. Based on results from temperature-programmed reduction/oxidation and kinetic reaction studies, this paper discusses the role of the metal and the substrate in the metal-support interactions, and how these interactions influence the activity and the selectivity of the catalyst in reforming methane and butane to hydrogen for use in fuel cell power systems.

  5. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  6. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of INEEL SBW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arlin L. Olson; Nicholas R. Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-12-01

    Sodium bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Offices (NE-ID) and State of Idahos top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many studies have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. DOE desired further experimental data, with regard to steam reforming technology, to make informed decisions concerning selection of treatment technology for SBW. Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was performed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel September 27 through October 1, 2004. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, and located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Personnel from Science Applications International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, operated the pilot plant. The pilot scale test was terminated as planned after achieving a total of 100 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation. About 230 kg of SBW surrogate were processed that resulted in about 88 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 62%. The process achieved about a 90% turnover of the starting bed. Samples of mineralized solid product materials were analyzed for chemical/physical properties. Results of product performance testing conducted by SRNL will be reported separately by SRNL.

  7. FEEDSTOCK-FLEXIBLE REFORMER SYSTEM (FFRS) FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL (SOFC)- QUALITY SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly Jezierski; Andrew Tadd; Johannes Schwank; Roland Kibler; David McLean; Mahesh Samineni; Ryan Smith; Sameer Parvathikar; Joe Mayne; Tom Westrich; Jerry Mader; F. Michael Faubert

    2010-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory funded this research collaboration effort between NextEnergy and the University of Michigan, who successfully designed, built, and tested a reformer system, which produced highquality syngas for use in SOFC and other applications, and a novel reactor system, which allowed for facile illumination of photocatalysts. Carbon and raw biomass gasification, sulfur tolerance of non-Platinum Group Metals (PGM) based (Ni/CeZrO2) reforming catalysts, photocatalysis reactions based on TiO2, and mild pyrolysis of biomass in ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at low and medium temperatures (primarily 450 to 850 C) in an attempt to retain some structural value of the starting biomass. Despite a wide range of processes and feedstock composition, a literature survey showed that, gasifier products had narrow variation in composition, a restriction used to develop operating schemes for syngas cleanup. Three distinct reaction conditions were investigated: equilibrium, autothermal reforming of hydrocarbons, and the addition of O2 and steam to match the final (C/H/O) composition. Initial results showed rapid and significant deactivation of Ni/CeZrO2 catalysts upon introduction of thiophene, but both stable and unstable performance in the presence of sulfur were obtained. The key linkage appeared to be the hydrodesulfurization activity of the Ni reforming catalysts. For feed stoichiometries where high H2 production was thermodynamically favored, stable, albeit lower, H2 and CO production were obtained; but lower thermodynamic H2 concentrations resulted in continued catalyst deactivation and eventual poisoning. High H2 levels resulted in thiophene converting to H2S and S surface desorption, leading to stable performance; low H2 levels resulted in unconverted S and loss in H2 and CO production, as well as loss in thiophene conversion. Bimetallic catalysts did not outperform Ni-only catalysts, and small Ni particles were found to have lower activities under S-free conditions, but did show less effect of S on performance, in this study. Imidazolium-based ILs, choline chloride compounds and low-melting eutectics of metal nitrates were evaluated, and it was found that, ILs have some capacity to dissolve cellulose and show thermal stability to temperatures where pyrolysis begins, have no vapor pressure, (simplifying product recoveries), and can dissolve ionic metal salts, allowing for the potential of catalytic reactions on breakdown intermediates. Clear evidence of photoactive commercial TiO2 was obtained, but in-house synthesis of photoactive TiO2 proved difficult, as did fixed-bed gasification, primarily due to the challenge of removing the condensable products from the reaction zone quickly enough to prevent additional reaction. Further investigation into additional non-PGM catalysts and ILs is recommended as a follow-up to this work.

  8. AB INITIO STUDIES OF COKE FORMATION ON NI CATALYSTS DURING METHANE REFORMING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David S. Sholl

    2004-09-25

    The atomic-scale processes that control the formation of carbon deposits on Ni catalysts in reforming applications are poorly understood. Ab initio Density Functional Theory calculations have been used to examine several key elementary steps in the complex network of chemical reactions that precedes carbon formation on practical catalysts. Attention has been focused on the disproportionation of CO. A comparative study of this reaction on flat and stepped crystal planes of Ni has provided the first direct evidence that surface carbon formation is driven by elementary reactions occurring at defect sites on Ni catalysts. The adsorption and diffusion of atomic H on several flat and stepped Ni surfaces has also been characterized experimentally.

  9. Ab Initio Studies of Coke Formation on Ni Catalysts During Methane Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David S. Sholl

    2006-03-05

    The atomic-scale processes that control the formation of carbon deposits on Ni catalysts in reforming applications are poorly understood. Ab initio Density Functional Theory calculations have been used to examine several key elementary steps in the complex network of chemical reactions that precedes carbon formation on practical catalysts. Attention has been focused on the disproportionation of CO. A comparative study of this reaction on flat and stepped crystal planes of Ni has provided the first direct evidence that surface carbon formation is driven by elementary reactions occurring at defect sites on Ni catalysts. The adsorption and diffusion of atomic H on several flat and stepped Ni surfaces has also been characterized experimentally.

  10. Steam Reforming, 6-in. Bench-Scale Design and Testing Project -- Technical and Functional Requirements Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Losinski, Sylvester John; Marshall, Douglas William

    2002-08-01

    Feasibility studies and technology development work are currently being performed on several processes to treat radioactive liquids and solids currently stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), located within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies and development work will be used to select a treatment process for treatment of the radioactive liquids and solids to meet treatment milestones of the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One process under consideration for treating the radioactive liquids and solids, specifically Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) and tank heel solids, is fluid bed steam reforming (FBSR). To support both feasibility and development studies a bench-scale FBSR is being designed and constructed. This report presents the technical and functional requirements, experimental objectives, process flow sheets, and equipment specifications for the bench-scale FBSR.

  11. Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate architecture for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Todd H.

    2015-09-15

    Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate lattices, of a spinel block type, and which are resistant to carbon deposition and metal sulfide formation are provided. The catalysts are designed for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas. The hexametallate lattices are doped with noble metals (Au, Pt, Rh, Ru) which are atomically dispersed as isolated sites throughout the lattice and take the place of hexametallate metal ions such as Cr, Ga, In, and/or Nb. Mirror cations in the crystal lattice are selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and the lanthanide metals, so as to reduce the acidity of the catalyst crystal lattice and enhance the desorption of carbon deposit forming moieties such as aromatics. The catalysts can be used at temperatures as high as 1000.degree. C. and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. A method for producing these catalysts and applications of their use also is provided.

  12. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) With Hanford Low Activity Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Burket, P. R.; Bannochie, C. J.; Daniel, W. G.; Nash, C. A.; Cozzi, A. D.; Herman, C. C.

    2012-10-22

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750?C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

  13. Electro-catalytic oxidation device for removing carbon from a fuel reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

    2010-02-23

    An electro-catalytic oxidation device (ECOD) for the removal of contaminates, preferably carbonaceous materials, from an influent comprising an ECOD anode, an ECOD cathode, and an ECOD electrolyte. The ECOD anode is at a temperature whereby the contaminate collects on the surface of the ECOD anode as a buildup. The ECOD anode is electrically connected to the ECOD cathode, which consumes the buildup producing electricity and carbon dioxide. The ECOD anode is porous and chemically active to the electro-catalytic oxidation of the contaminate. The ECOD cathode is exposed to oxygen, and made of a material which promotes the electro-chemical reduction of oxygen to oxidized ions. The ECOD electrolyte is non-permeable to gas, electrically insulating and a conductor to oxidized. The ECOD anode is connected to the fuel reformer and the fuel cell. The ECOD electrolyte is between and in ionic contact with the ECOD anode and the ECOD cathode.

  14. Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.A. Semelsberger

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

  15. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  16. Modeling of Pressurized Electrochemistry and Steam-Methane Reforming in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and the Effects on Thermal and Electrical Stack Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-03-01

    Summarizes work done to extend the electrochemical performance and methane reforming submodels to include the effects of pressurization and to demonstrate this new modeling capability by simulating large stacks operating on methane-rich fuel under pressurized and non-pressurized conditions. Pressurized operation boosts electrochemical performance, alters the kinetics of methane reforming, and effects the equilibrium composition of methane fuels. This work developed constitutive submodels that couple the electrochemistry, reforming, and pressurization to yield an increased capability of the modeling tool for prediction of SOFC stack performance.

  17. 97e Intermediate Temperature Catalytic Reforming of Bio-Oil for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marda, J. R.; Dean, A. M.; Czernik, S.; Evans, R. J.; French, R.; Ratcliff, M.

    2008-01-01

    With the world's energy demands rapidly increasing, it is necessary to look to sources other than fossil fuels, preferably those that minimize greenhouse emissions. One such renewable source of energy is biomass, which has the added advantage of being a near-term source of hydrogen. While there are several potential routes to produce hydrogen from biomass thermally, given the near-term technical barriers to hydrogen storage and delivery, distributed technologies such that hydrogen is produced at or near the point of use are attractive. One such route is to first produce bio-oil via fast pyrolysis of biomass close to its source to create a higher energy-density product, then ship this bio-oil to its point of use where it can be reformed to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This route is especially well suited for smaller-scale reforming plants located at hydrogen distribution sites such as filling stations. There is also the potential for automated operation of the conversion system. A system has been developed for volatilizing bio-oil with manageable carbon deposits using ultrasonic atomization and by modifying bio-oil properties, such as viscosity, by blending or reacting bio-oil with methanol. Non-catalytic partial oxidation of bio-oil is then used to achieve significant conversion to CO with minimal aromatic hydrocarbon formation by keeping the temperature at 650 C or less and oxygen levels low. The non-catalytic reactions occur primarily in the gas phase. However, some nonvolatile components of bio-oil present as aerosols may react heterogeneously. The product gas is passed over a packed bed of precious metal catalyst where further reforming as well as water gas shift reactions are accomplished completing the conversion to hydrogen. The approach described above requires significantly lower catalyst loadings than conventional catalytic steam reforming due to the significant conversion in the non-catalytic step. The goal is to reform and selectively oxidize the bio-oil and catalyze the water gas shift reaction without catalyzing methanation or oxidation of CO and H{sub 2}, thus attaining equilibrium levels of H{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2} at the exit of the catalyst bed. Experimental Bio-oil (mixed with varied amounts of methanol to reduce the viscosity and homogenize the bio-oil) or selected bio-oil components are introduced at a measured flow rate through the top of a vertical quartz reactor which is heated using a five zone furnace. The ultrasonic nozzle used to feed the reactants allows the bio-oil to flow down the center of the reactor at a low, steady flow rate. Additionally, the fine mist created by the nozzle allows for intimate mixing with oxygen and efficient heat transfer, providing optimal conditions to achieve high conversion at relatively low temperatures in the non-catalytic step thus reducing the required catalyst loading. Generation of the fine mist is especially important for providing good contact between non-volatile bio-oil components and oxygen. Oxygen and helium are also delivered at the top of the reactor via mass flow meters with the amount of oxygen being varied to maximize the yields of H{sub 2} and CO and the amount of helium being adjusted such that the gas phase residence time in the hot zone is {approx}0.3 and {approx}0.45 s for bio-oil and methanol experiments, respectively. A catalyst bed can be located at the bottom of the reactor tube. To date, catalyst screening experiments have used Engelhard noble metal catalysts. The catalysts used for these experiments were 0.5 % rhodium, ruthenium, platinum, and palladium (all supported on alumina). Experiments were performed using pure alumina as well. Both the catalyst type and the effect of oxygen and steam on the residual hydrocarbons and accumulated carbon containing particulates were investigated. The residence time before the catalyst is varied to determine the importance of the non-catalytic step and its potential effect on the required catalyst loading. Non-catalytic experiments (primarily homogeneous cracking) use a bed of quartz placed to capture any deposits that are formed in the volatilization and cracking zones. The inner reactor effluent is quenched by a flow of 10 SLPM He which serves to sweep the products quickly ({approx}0.03 s) to a triple quadrupole molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) for analysis. The MBMS serves as a universal detector and allows for real time data collection. The study of pyrolysis by MBMS has been described previously. The dilution of the reactor effluent reduces the potential problems caused by matrix effects associated with the MBMS analysis. Argon is used as an internal standard in the quantitative analysis of all the major products (CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and benzene) as well as any residual carbon, which is determined by subsequent oxidation of carbon (monitored as CO{sub 2}) after shutting off the feed and maintaining the oxygen/helium flow.

  18. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean C. Emerson; Timothy D. Davis; A. Peles; Ying She; Joshua Sheffel; Rhonda R. Willigan; Thomas H. Vanderspurt; Tianli Zhu

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood to hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide was repeatedly demonstrated in batch reactors varying in size from 50 mL to 7.6 L. The different wood sources (e.g., swamp maple, poplar, and commercial wood flour) were converted in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst and base at relatively low temperatures (e.g., 310 ???????°C) at sub-critical pressures sufficient to maintain the liquid phase. Both precious metal and base metal catalysts were found to be active for the liquid phase hydrolysis and reforming of wood. Pt-based catalysts, particularly Pt-Re, were shown to be more selective toward breaking C-C bonds, resulting in a higher selectivity to hydrogen versus methane. Ni-based catalysts were found to prefer breaking C-O bonds, favoring the production of methane. The project showed that increasing the concentration of base (base to wood ratio) in the presence of Raney Ni catalysts resulted in greater selectivity toward hydrogen but at the expense of increasing the production of undesirable organic acids from the wood, lowering the amount of wood converted to gas. It was shown that by modifying Ni-based catalysts with dopants, it was possible to reduce the base concentration while maintaining the selectivity toward hydrogen and increasing wood conversion to gas versus organic acids. The final stage of the project was the construction and testing of a demonstration unit for H2 production. This continuous flow demonstration unit consisted of wood slurry and potassium carbonate feed pump systems, two reactors for hydrolysis and reforming, and a gas-liquid separation system. The technical challenges associated with unreacted wood fines and Raney Ni catalyst retention limited the demonstration unit to using a fixed bed Raney Ni catalyst form. The lower activity of the larger particle Raney Ni in turn limited the residence time and thus the wood mass flow feed rate to 50 g min-1 for a 1 wt% wood slurry. The project demonstrated continuous H2 yields with unmodified, fixed bed Raney Ni, from 63% to 100% with correspond

  19. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  20. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

    1999-09-08

    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  1. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of Hanford LAW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Arlin L.; Nicholas R Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a highly efficient cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 25, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.7 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved essentially complete bed turnover within approximately 40 hours. Samples of mineralized solid product materials were analyzed for chemical/physical properties. SRNL will report separately the results of product performance testing that were accomplished.

  2. Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) Na-Al-Si (NAS) Waste Form Qualification

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) Na-Al-Si (NAS) Waste Form Qualification C.M. Jantzen and E.M. Pierce November 18, 2010 2 Participating Organizations 3 Incentive and Objectives FBSR sodium-aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form has been identified as a promising supplemental treatment technology for Hanford LAW Objectives: Reduce the risk associated with implementing the FBSR NAS waste form as a supplemental treatment technology for Hanford LAW Conduct test with actual tank

  3. Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-10-01

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. This goal of this campaign was study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the mineral product encapsulated in a monolith to meet compressive strength requirements. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory.

  4. Promotion effect of cobalt-based catalyst with rare earth for the ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiou, Josh Y. Z.; Chen, Ya-Ping; Yu, Shen-Wei; Wang, Chen-Bin

    2013-12-16

    Catalytic performance of ethanol steam reforming (ESR) was investigated on praseodymium (Pr) modified ceria-supported cobalt oxide catalyst. The ceria-supported cobalt oxide (Ce-Co) catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation-oxidation (CPO) method, and the doped Pr (5 and 10 wt% loading) catalysts (Pr{sub 5}?Ce?Co and Pr{sub 10}?Ce?Co) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The reduction pretreatment under 250 and 400 C (H250 and H400) was also studied. All samples were characterized by XRD, TPR and TEM. Catalytic performance of ESR was tested from 250 to 500 C in a fixed-bed reactor. The doping of Pr into the ceria lattice has significantly promoted the activity and reduced the coke formation. The products distribution also can be influenced by the different reduction pretreatment. The Pr{sub 10}?Ce?Co?H400 sample is a preferential ESR catalyst, where the hydrogen distribution approaches 73% at 475 C with less amounts (< 2%) of CO and CH{sub 4}.

  5. Radionuclide and contaminant immobilization in the fluidized bed steam reforming waste products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brown, Christopher F.; Jantzen, Carol; Pierce, Eric M.

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process and resulting waste form. The first section of the chapter gives an overview of the potential need for FBSR processing in nuclear waste remediation followed by an overview of the engineering involved in the process itself. This is followed by a description of waste form production at a chemical level followed by a section describing different process streams that have undergone the FBSR process. The third section describes the resulting mineral product in terms of phases that are present and the ability of the waste form to encapsulate hazardous and radioactive wastes from several sources. Following this description is a presentation of the physical properties of the granular and monolith waste form product including and contaminant release mechanisms. The last section gives a brief summary of this chapter and includes a section on the strengths associated with this waste form and the needs for additional data and remaining questions yet to be answered. The reader is directed elsewhere for more information on other waste forms such as Cast Stone (Lockrem, 2005), Ceramicrete (Singh et al., 1997, Wagh et al., 1999) and geopolymers (Kyritsis et al., 2009; Russell et al., 2006).

  6. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  7. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery ...

  8. A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Affecting Diesel NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Affecting Diesel NOx Adsorber Catalyst Performance A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Affecting Diesel NOx Adsorber Catalyst...

  9. Kenya-Affecting Electricity Policy through a Community Micro...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Affecting Electricity Policy through a Community Micro Hydro Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Kenya-Affecting Electricity Policy through a Community Micro Hydro Project...

  10. Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry 2004 ...

  11. EO 13211: Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EO 13211: Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use EO 13211: Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I am...

  12. SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB

    2010-08-19

    This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford tank farms contain approximately 57 million gallons of wastes, most of which originated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel to produce plutonium for defense purposes. DOE intends to pre-treat the tank waste to separate the waste into a high level fraction, that will be vitrified and disposed of in a national repository as high-level waste (HLW), and a low-activity waste (LAW) fraction that will be immobilized for on-site disposal at Hanford. The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the focal point for the treatment of Hanford tank waste. However, the WTP lacks the capacity to process all of the LAW within the regulatory required timeframe. Consequently, a supplemental LAW immobilization process will be required to immobilize the remainder of the LAW. One promising supplemental technology is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) to produce a sodium-alumino-silicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is primarily composed of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Nas[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Semivolatile anions such as pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) and volatiles such as iodine as iodide (I{sup -}) are expected to be entrapped within the mineral structures, thereby immobilizing them (Janzen 2008). Results from preliminary performance tests using surrogates, suggests that the release of semivolatile radionuclides {sup 99}Tc and volatile {sup 129}I from granular NAS waste form is limited by Nosean solubility. The predicted release of {sup 99}Tc from the NAS waste form at a 100 meters down gradient well from the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) was found to be comparable to immobilized low-activity waste glass waste form in the initial supplemental LAW treatment technology risk assessment (Mann 2003). To confirm this hypothesis, DOE is funding a treatability study where three actual Hanford tank waste samples (containing both {sup 99}Tc and {sup 125}I) will be processed in Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) to form the mineral product, similar to the granular NAS waste form, that will then be subject to a number of waste form qualification tests. In previous tests, SRNL have demonstrated that the BSR product is chemically and physically equivalent to the FBSR product (Janzen 2005). The objective of this paper is to describe the sample selection, sample preparation, and environmental and regulatory considerations for treatability studies of the FBSR process using Hanford tank waste samples at the SNRL. The SNRL will process samples in its BSR. These samples will be decontaminated in the 222-S Laboratory to remove undissolved solids and selected radioisotopes to comply with Department of Transportation (DOT) shipping regulations and to ensure worker safety by limiting radiation exposure to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). These decontamination levels will also meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) definition of low activity waste (LAW). After the SNRL has processed the tank samples to a granular mineral form, SRNL and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will conduct waste form testing on both the granular material and monoliths prepared from the granular material. The tests being performed are outlined in Appendix A.

  13. Low-temperature aqueous-phase reforming of ethanol on bimetallic PdZn catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Haifeng; DelaRiva, Andrew; Wang, Yong; Dayte, Abhaya

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic PdZn catalysts supported on carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were found to be selective for CO-free H-2 production from ethanol at low temperature (250 degrees C). On Pd, the H-2 yield was low (similar to 0.3 mol H-2/mol ethanol reacted) and the CH4/CO2 ratio was high (similar to 1.7). Addition of Zn to Pd formed the intermetallic PdZn beta phase (atomic ratio of Zn to Pd is 1) with increased H-2 yield (similar to 1.9 mol H-2/mol ethanol reacted) and CH4/CO2 ratio of <1. The higher H-2 yield and low CH4 formation was related to the improved dehydrogenation activity of the L1(0) PdZn beta phase. The TOF increased with particle size and the CNTs provided the most active and selective catalysts, which may be ascribed to pore-confinement effects. Furthermore, no significant changes in either the supports or the PdZn beta particles was found after aqueous-phase reforming (APR) indicating that the metal nanoparticles and the carbon support are hydrothermally stable in the aqueous phase at elevated temperatures and pressures (>200 degrees C, 65 bar). No CO was detected for all the catalysts performed in aqueous-phase reaction, indicating that both monometallic Pd and bimetallic PdZn catalysts have high water-gas shift activity during APR. However, the yield of H-2 is considerably lower than the theoretical value of 6 H-2 per mole ethanol which is due to the presence of oxygenated products and methane on the PdZn catalysts.

  14. Confined partial filament eruption and its reformation within a stable magnetic flux rope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Kayshap, Pradeep; Uddin, Wahab; Srivastava, Abhishek K.; Dwivedi, B. N.; Filippov, Boris; Chandra, Ramesh; Choudhary, Debi Prasad E-mail: njoshi98@gmail.com

    2014-05-20

    We present observations of a confined partial eruption of a filament on 2012 August 4, which restores its initial shape within ?2 hr after eruption. From the Global Oscillation Network Group H? observations, we find that the filament plasma turns into dynamic motion at around 11:20 UT from the middle part of the filament toward the northwest direction with an average speed of ?105 km s{sup 1}. A little brightening underneath the filament possibly shows the signature of low-altitude reconnection below the filament eruptive part. In Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 images, we observe an activation of right-handed helically twisted magnetic flux rope that contains the filament material and confines it during its dynamical motion. The motion of cool filament plasma stops after traveling a distance of ?215 Mm toward the northwest from the point of eruption. The plasma moves partly toward the right foot point of the flux rope, while most of the plasma returns after 12:20 UT toward the left foot point with an average speed of ?60 km s{sup 1} to reform the filament within the same stable magnetic structure. On the basis of the filament internal fine structure and its position relative to the photospheric magnetic fields, we find filament chirality to be sinistral, while the activated enveloping flux rope shows a clear right-handed twist. Thus, this dynamic event is an apparent example of one-to-one correspondence between the filament chirality (sinistral) and the enveloping flux rope helicity (positive). From the coronal magnetic field decay index, n, calculation near the flux rope axis, it is evident that the whole filament axis lies within the domain of stability (i.e., n < 1), which provides the filament stability despite strong disturbances at its eastern foot point.

  15. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2006-12-06

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  16. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2007-03-31

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO4, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  17. CO2 Reduction by Dry Methane Reforming Over Hexaluminates: A Promising Technology for Decreasing Global Warming in a Cost Effective Manner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar-Villalpando, M.D.; Gardner, T.H.

    2008-03-01

    Efficient utilization of CO2 can help to decrease global warming. Methane reforming using carbon dioxide has been of interest for many years, but recently that interest has experienced a rapid increase for both environmental and commercial reasons. The use of CO2 provides a source of clean oxygen, which eliminates the need for costly oxygen separation plants. The product of dry reforming is useful syn-gas, which can be used to generate electrical power in a SOFC or in the production of synthetic fuels (hydrocarbons and alcohols). Hexaaluminate catalysts prepared at NETL may represent a product that can be utilized for the conversion of CO2 to syn-gas. In this work, transition metals dispersed in barium hexaaluminate have shown to be promising new catalysts for dry methane reforming. In this investigation, a series of BaNixAl12-yO19-? catalysts with varying Ni content were prepared by co-precipitation followed by calcination at 1400C. CO2 reduction by dry methane reforming was carried out to determine catalyst performance as a function of temperature and carbon formation was also quantified after the reforming tests. Results of catalysts characterization, dispersion and surface area, were correlated to catalytic performance.

  18. Experimental investigation into the effect of reformer gas addition on flame speed and flame front propagation in premixed, homogeneous charge gasoline engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conte, Enrico; Boulouchos, Konstantinos

    2006-07-15

    The effect of reformer gas addition to gasoline in internal combustion engines is assessed based on in-cylinder measurement techniques. These include ion sensors, an optical spark plug and heat release analysis from the cylinder pressure. A detailed analysis of these measurements is presented, giving insight into the combustion process and into the energy release. The flame front shape and propagation in the combustion chamber are reconstructed and the flame speed is estimated. The laminar flame speed has been observed to increase linearly with the energy fraction of reformer gas in the fuel blend. From pure gasoline to pure reformer gas the laminar flame speed increases by a factor of 4.4. The relative increase in the turbulent flame speed is lower. These results confirm what can be observed from the heat release analysis, that reformer gas addition mainly shortens the first phase of the combustion process. Different reformer gas compositions were tested, varying the ratio of hydrogen to inert species. Finally, flame propagation and flame speed at EGR-burn limit and at lean-burn limit are investigated. (author)

  19. Hydrogen production via reforming of biogas over nanostructured Ni/Y catalyst: Effect of ultrasound irradiation and Ni-content on catalyst properties and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharifi, Mahdi; Haghighi, Mohammad; Abdollahifar, Mozaffar

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Synthesis of nanostructured Ni/Y catalyst by sonochemical and impregnation methods. Enhancement of size distribution and active phase dispersion by employing sonochemical method. Evaluation of biogas reforming over Ni/Y catalyst with different Ni-loadings. Preparation of highly active and stable catalyst with low Ni content for biogas reforming. Getting H{sub 2}/CO very close to equilibrium ratio by employing sonochemical method. - Abstract: The effect of ultrasound irradiation and various Ni-loadings on dispersion of active phase over zeolite Y were evaluated in biogas reforming for hydrogen production. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, BrunauerEmmettTeller, Fourier transform infrared analysis and TEM analysis were employed to observe the characteristics of nanostructured catalysts. The characterizations implied that utilization of ultrasound irradiation enhanced catalyst physicochemical properties including high dispersion of Ni on support, smallest particles size and high catalyst surface area. The reforming reactions were carried out at GHSV = 24 l/g.h, P = 1 atm, CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} = 1 and temperature range of 550850 C. Activity test displayed that ultrasound irradiated Ni(5 wt.%)/Y had the best performance and the activity remained stable during 600 min. Furthermore, the proposed reaction mechanism showed that there are three major reaction channels in biogas reforming.

  20. Various factors affect coiled tubing limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-01-15

    Safety and reliability remain the primary concerns in coiled tubing operations. Factors affecting safety and reliability include corrosion, flexural bending, internal (or external) pressure and tension (or compression), and mechanical damage due to improper use. Such limits as coiled tubing fatigue, collapse, and buckling need to be understood to avoid disaster. With increased use of coiled tubing, operators will gain more experience. But at the same time, with further research and development of coiled tubing, the manufacturing quality will be improved and fatigue, collapse, and buckling models will become more mature, and eventually standard specifications will be available. This paper reviews the uses of coiled tubing and current research on mechanical behavior of said tubing. It also discusses several models used to help predict fatigue and failure levels.

  1. Cylinder surface, temperature may affect LPG odorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of possible odorant fade in propane by the Arthur D. Little Co. (Boston) has indicated that oxidation of interior surfaces of LPG containers may cause the odorant, ethyl mercaptan, to fade. The oxidation, ferous oxide, is a black, easily oxidizable powder that is the monoxide of iron. The study, contracted for by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), is part of that agency's study of residential LP-gas systems. Another study is currently underway by an NLPGA task force headed by Bob Reid of Petrolane (Long Beach, Calif.). It may not be finished until the end of next year. Recently, the Propane Gas Association of Canada completed a study of odorant fade with the conclusion that much more study is needed on the subject. In addition to the cylinder surface problem, the CPSC study indicated that ambient temperatures might also affect the presence of odorant in product. This article reviews some of the results.

  2. Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Funding Opportunity | Department of Energy Technical Assistance » Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT) Funding Opportunity Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT) Funding Opportunity The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides project assistance through the AFFECT funding opportunity. AFFECT provides grants for the development of capital projects to increase the energy efficiency and renewable energy

  3. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2009-04-08

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia river basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: Adult and jack Chinook salmon males were stocked into four replicate spawning channels at a constant density (N = 16 per breeding group), but different ratios, and were left to spawn naturally with a fixed number of females (N = 6 per breeding group). Adult males obtained primary access to females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Spawning participation by jack and adult males is consistent with a negative frequency dependent selection model, which means that selection during spawning favors the rarer life history form. Results of DNA parentage assignments will be analyzed to estimate adult-to-fry fitness of each male. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. The results suggest that sockeye salmon are capable of imprinting to homing cues during the developmental periods that correspond to several of current release strategies employed as part of the Captive Broodstock program (specifically, planting eyed eggs, fall and smolt releases into the lake) appear to be appropriate for successful homing of sockeye in Redfish Lake. Also, our findings indicated that sockeye salmon were capable of olfactory imprinting at multiple life stages and over varying exposure durations. Fish exposed to odors just prior to smolting showed the strongest attraction to the imprinting odor arginine and this period corresponds to the period of highest plasma thyroxine levels and increased BAAR receptor mRNA in juveniles. Objective 3: Spring Chinook salmon were exposed to three different photoperiods and three feed rations at the button-up stage of development. Both photoperiod at emergence and ration post-ponding affected the number of males maturing at age one. Nearly 70% of the males in the early emergence and satiation fed group matured after the first year of rearing, while none of the fish reared on late emergence photoperiod (equivalent to emergence on May 1) matured during this time irrespective of ration treatment. Within the early emergence groups, reducing growth using ration (low or high) appeared to reduce the number of males maturing at age one from 70% to 40-50%. Maturation rates of fish that emerged in a photoperiod equivalent to mid-February (middle emergence) ranged from 10-25%. Together these data indicate that the seasonal timing of fry emergence and growth after ponding can alter life history patterns in spring Chinook salmon. The results imply that hatchery rearing practices that alter seasonal timing of fry emergence can have drastic effects on life history patterns in juvenile Chinook salmon. All three objectives are on-going and will result in recommendations (at the end of the FY 2009 performance period) to advance hatchery reforms in conventional and captive broodstock programs.

  4. NiW and NiRu Bimetallic Catalysts for Ethylene Steam Reforming: Alternative Mechanisms for Sulfur Resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangan, M.; Yung, M. M.; Medlin, J. W.

    2012-06-01

    Previous investigations of Ni-based catalysts for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons have indicated that the addition of a second metal can reduce the effects of sulfur poisoning. Two systems that have previously shown promise for such applications, NiW and NiRu, are considered here for the steam reforming of ethylene, a key component of biomass derived tars. Monometallic and bimetallic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Ni and W catalysts were employed for ethylene steam reforming in the presence and absence of sulfur. The NiW catalysts were less active than Ni in the absence of sulfur, but were more active in the presence of 50 ppm H{sub 2}S. The mechanism for the W-induced improvements in sulfur resistance appears to be different from that for Ru in NiRu. To probe reasons for the sulfur resistance of NiRu, the adsorption of S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} on several bimetallic NiRu alloy surfaces ranging from 11 to 33 % Ru was studied using density functional theory (DFT). The DFT studies reveal that sulfur adsorption is generally favored on hollow sites containing Ru. Ethylene preferentially adsorbs atop the Ru atom in all the NiRu (111) alloys investigated. By comparing trends across the various bimetallic models considered, sulfur adsorption was observed to be correlated with the density of occupied states near the Fermi level while C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption was correlated with the number of unoccupied states in the d-band. The diverging mechanisms for S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption allow for bimetallic surfaces such as NiRu that enhance ethylene binding without accompanying increases in sulfur binding energy. In contrast, bimetallics such as NiSn and NiW appear to decrease the affinity of the surface for both the reagent and the poison.

  5. Direct Internal Reformation and Mass Transport in the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode: A Pore-Scale Lattice Boltzmann Study with Detailed Reaction Kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Joshi, Abhijit S.; Chiu, W. K. S.

    2010-11-30

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) allows the conversion of chemical energy that is stored in a given fuel, including light hydrocarbons, to electrical power. Hydrocarbon fuels, such as methane, are logistically favourable and provide high energy densities. However, the use of these fuels often results in a decreased efficiency and life. An improved understanding of the reactive flow in the SOFC anode can help address these issues. In this study, the transport and heterogeneous internal reformation of a methane based fuel is addressed. The effect of the SOFC anode's complex structure on transport and reactions is shown to exhibit a complicated interplay between the local molar concentrations and the anode structure. Strong coupling between the phenomenological microstructures and local reformation reaction rates are recognised in this study, suggesting the extension to actual microstructures may provide new insights into the reformation processes.

  6. Preparation and initial characterization of fluidized bed steam reforming pure-phase standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Missimer, D. M.; Rutherford, R. L.

    2013-03-21

    Hanford is investigating the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process for their Low Activity Waste. The FBSR process offers a low-temperature continuous method by which liquid waste can be processed with the addition of clay into a sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is mainly comprised of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Anions such as perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup -}), pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}), and iodine (I{sup -}) are expected to replace sulfate in the nosean structure and/or chloride in the sodalite mineral structure (atomically bonded inside the aluminosilicate cages that these mineral structures possess). In the FBSR waste form, each of these phases can exist in a variety of solid solutions that differ from the idealized forms observed in single crystals in nature. The lack of understanding of the durability of these stoichiometric or idealized mineral phases complicates the ability to deconvolute the durability of the mixed phase FBSR product since it is a combination of different NAS phases. To better understand the behavior, fabrication and testing of the individual phases of the FBSR product is required. Analytical Development (AD) of the Science and Technology directorate of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to prepare the series of phase-pure standards, consisting of nepheline, nosean, and Cl, Re, and I sodalite. Once prepared, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to confirm the products were phase pure. These standards are being used for subsequent characterization studies consisting of the following: single-pass flow-through (SPFT) testing, development of thermodynamic data, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) calibration curves. In addition to the above mentioned phase-pure standards, AD was tasked with fabricating a mixed Tc-Re sodalite.

  7. Effect Of Preparation Methods On The Performance Of Co/Al2O3 Catalysts For Dry Reforming Of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewbank, Jessica L.; Kovarik, Libor; Kenvin, Christian C.; Sievers, Carsten

    2014-01-06

    Two methods, dry impregnation (DI) and controlled adsorption (CA), are used for the preparation of Co/ Al2O3 catalysts for methane dry reforming reactions. Point of zero charge (PZC) measurements, pH-precipitation studies, and adsorption isotherms are used to develop a synthesis procedure in which deposition of Co2+ takes place in a more controlled manner than metal deposition during drying in synthesis by dry impregnation. The possible adsorption phenomena that occur during preparation of Co/Al2O3 catalysts by controlled adsorption are discussed. H2 chemisorption and TEM show that catalysts prepared by CA have smaller average particle sizes and higher dispersions. TPR studies show that for the sample prepared by CA a higher amount of cobalt is reduced to its metallic state and that more CoAl2O4 spinel species are present relative to DI samples. The catalyst prepared by CA shows higher activity and slower deactivation for methane dry reforming than the catalyst prepared by DI. XPS and C, H, N analysis on spent catalysts confirm two types of carbonaceous deposits are formed depending on the preparation method.

  8. Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

    2012-05-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

  9. THE EMPLOYEE'S GUIDE TO BENEFITS FOR THOSE AFFECTED BY REDUCTION...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    THE EMPLOYEE'S GUIDE TO BENEFITS FOR THOSE AFFECTED BY REDUCTION IN FORCE THE EMPLOYEE'S GUIDE TO BENEFITS FOR THOSE AFFECTED BY REDUCTION IN FORCE PDF icon THE EMPLOYEE'S GUIDE TO...

  10. Study of Factors Affecting Shrub Establishment on the Monticello, Utah,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Disposal Cell Cover | Department of Energy Study of Factors Affecting Shrub Establishment on the Monticello, Utah, Disposal Cell Cover Study of Factors Affecting Shrub Establishment on the Monticello, Utah, Disposal Cell Cover Study of Factors Affecting Shrub Establishment on the Monticello, Utah, Disposal Cell Cover PDF icon Study of Factors Affecting Shrub Establishment on the Monticello, Utah, Disposal Cell Cover More Documents & Publications Changes in Vegetation at the Monticello,

  11. FEMP Releases AFFECT Funding Opportunity Announcement | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy AFFECT Funding Opportunity Announcement FEMP Releases AFFECT Funding Opportunity Announcement November 5, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis On November 5, 2013, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) on the EERE Exchange titled "Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT)." The AFFECT FOA (DE-FOA-0000901) will provide direct funding to U.S. Federal agencies for the development of combined heat and

  12. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2009-08-18

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia River Basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: The ratio of jack to adult male Chinook salmon were varied in experimental breeding populations to test the hypothesis that reproductive success of the two male phenotypes would vary with their relative frequency in the population. Adult Chinook salmon males nearly always obtained primary access to nesting females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Observed participation in spawning events and adult-to-fry reproductive success of jack and adult males was consistent with a negative frequency-dependent selection model. Overall, jack males sired an average of 21% of the offspring produced across a range of jack male frequencies. Implications of these and additional findings on Chinook salmon hatchery broodstock management will be presented in the FY 2009 Annual Report. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. Expression levels of basic amino acid receptor (BAAR) mRNA in the olfactory epithelium increased dramatically during final maturation in both Stanley Basin and Okanogan River sockeye. These increases appeared to be independent of odor exposure history, rising significantly in both arginine-naive and arginine-exposed fish. However, sockeye exposed to arginine during smolting demonstrated a larger increase in BAAR mRNA than arginine-naive fish. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that odorant receptors sensitive to home stream waters may be upregulated at the time of the homing migration and may afford opportunities to exploit this system to experimentally characterize imprinting success and ultimately identify hatchery practices that will minimize straying of artificially produced salmonids. Additional analysis of Sockeye salmon imprinting and further implications of these findings will be presented in the FY 2009 Annual Report. Objective 3: Photoperiod at emergence and ration after ponding were varied in Yakima River spring Chinook salmon to test the hypothesis that seasonal timing of emergence and growth during early stages of development alter seasonal timing of smoltification and age of male maturation. Fish reared under conditions to advance fry emergence and accelerate growth had the greatest variation in seasonal timing of smolting (fall, spring and summer) and highest rates of early male maturation with most males maturing at age 1 (35-40%). In contrast, fish with delayed emergence and slow growth had the least variation in phenotypes with most fish smolting as yearlings in the spring and no age-1 male maturation. Growth (not emergence timing) altered rates of age-2 male maturation. Results of this study demonstrate that altering fry development, as is often done in hatcheries, can profoundly affect later life history transitions and the range of phenotypes within a spring Chinook salmon population. Additional work in the next funding period will determine if these rearing regimes affected other aspects of smolt quality, which may affect ultimate survival upon ocean entry.

  13. Plasma reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel vapor to produce synthesis gas and/or hydrogen gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2003-08-19

    Methods and systems for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  14. Enhanced Dry Reforming of Methane on Ni and Ni-Pt Catalysts Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gould, Troy D.; Montemore, Matthew M.; Lubers, Alia M.; Ellis, Lucas D.; Weimer, Alan; Falconer, John L.; Medlin, James W.

    2015-02-25

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to deposit Ni and Pt on alumina supports to form monometallic and bimetallic catalysts with initial particle sizes of 12.4 nm. The ALD catalysts were more active (per mass of metal) than catalysts prepared by incipient wetness (IW) for dry reforming of methane (DRM), and they did not form carbon whiskers during reaction due to their sufficiently small size. Catalysts modified by Pt ALD had higher rates of reaction per mass of metal and inhibited coking, whereas NiPt catalysts synthesized by IW still formed carbon whiskers. Temperature-programmed reduction of Ni catalysts modified by Pt ALD indicated the presence of bimetallic interaction. Density functional theory calculations suggested that under reaction conditions, the NiPt surfaces form Ni-terminated surfaces that are associated with higher DRM rates (due to their C and O adsorption energies, as well as the CO formation and CH4 dissociation energies).

  15. Plasma Reforming And Partial Oxidation Of Hydrocarbon Fuel Vapor To Produce Synthesis Gas And/Or Hydrogen Gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2004-10-19

    Methods and systems are disclosed for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  16. Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy | Department of Energy Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy Summarizes latest findings on impact of specific parameters affecting ash-related diesel particulate filter performance degradation and information useful to enhance performance and extend service life PDF icon deer11_sappok.pdf More Documents & Publications Characteristics and

  17. Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) The Department of Energy investigated the major cost factors that affected PMU installation costs for the synchrophasor projects funded through the Recovery Act Smart Grid Programs. The data was compiled through interviews with the nine projects that deployed production grade synchrophasor systems. The study found that while the costs associated with PMUs as stand-alone

  18. The microbe-mediated mechanisms affecting topsoil carbon stock...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    affecting topsoil carbon stock in Tibetan grasslands Warming has been shown to cause soil carbon (C) loss in northern grasslands owing to accelerated microbial decomposition...

  19. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Michael Vanden Berg; Paul Anderson; Janae Wallace;...

  20. One in five online scholarly articles affected by 'reference...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    One in five online scholarly articles affected by 'reference rot' Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 all issues All...

  1. Ecosystem carbon storage capacity as affected by disturbance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and tausub 1 is the residence time of the carbon pool affected by disturbances (biomass pool in this study). The disturbance regime is characterized by the mean disturbance...

  2. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101/102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-06-08

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-10-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FB SR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-S.2.1-20 1 0-00 1, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, 'Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.'

  3. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-04-21

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.

  4. Tax reform and energy in the Philippines economy: A general equilibrium computation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, R.G.; Doroodian, K.; Udomvaech, P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper examines how energy tax cuts, offset with income tax increases, affect production, consumption, and total welfare in the Philippines economy. Our results show that energy tax cuts expand the energy and nonmetal mining sectors, but decrease output in the manufacturing, agricultural, and metal mining sectors. Consumption of all goods and services combined increases as the amount of energy tax reduction increases. Our welfare results, however, are mixed. While the welfare of the mid- and high-income levels increases, that of the lowest income level decreases. These results are robust with respect to changes in the elasticity of substitution in energy production as well as the elasticity of substitution in consumer demand. From the standpoint of economic efficiency, a policy such as this would enhance growth and aggregate income. From an equity standpoint, however, this policy is highly regressive in spite of the fact that the richest households pay proportionately more to finance the energy tax reduction. 18 refs., 10 tabs.

  5. Superior performance of Ni-W-Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernandez-Garica, Marcos; et al

    2014-11-26

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was studied over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (moreThe Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.less

  6. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  7. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test ResultsTHOR Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product in a Geopolymer Matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pires, Richard P.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-07-14

    Screening tests are being conducted to evaluate waste forms for immobilizing secondary liquid wastes from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Plans are underway to add a stabilization treatment unit to the Effluent Treatment Facility to provide the needed capacity for treating these wastes from WTP. The current baseline is to use a Cast Stone cementitious waste form to solidify the wastes. Through a literature survey, DuraLith alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer, fluidized-bed steam reformation (FBSR) granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix, and a Ceramicrete phosphate-bonded ceramic were identified both as candidate waste forms and alternatives to the baseline. These waste forms have been shown to meet waste disposal acceptance criteria, including compressive strength and universal treatment standards for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (as measured by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP]). Thus, these non-cementitious waste forms should also be acceptable for land disposal. Information is needed on all four waste forms with respect to their capability to minimize the release of technetium. Technetium is a radionuclide predicted to be in the secondary liquid wastes in small quantities, but the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) risk assessment analyses show that technetium, even at low mass, produces the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater.

  8. Enhanced Oil Recovery Affects the Future Energy Mix | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Oil Recovery Affects the Future Energy Mix Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new...

  9. How the Koontz Decision May Affect Climate Change Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Please join us for a Sept. 10 webinar to discuss the Supreme Court's controversial decision in Koontz v. St. Johns River Water Management District and explore how the decision may affect the...

  10. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water-relat...

  11. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water-re...

  12. Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation Print Wednesday, 30 June 2010 00:00 Understanding charge-transfer processes at the atomic level of nanoscale systems is of the utmost importance for designing nanodevices based on quantum-dot structures, nanotubes, or two-dimensional graphene sheets. Researchers from Western Michigan University, Berkeley Lab, and other international research

  13. A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Affecting Diesel NOx Adsorber

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst Performance | Department of Energy A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Affecting Diesel NOx Adsorber Catalyst Performance A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Affecting Diesel NOx Adsorber Catalyst Performance 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Dephi Corporation PDF icon 2002_deer_dou.pdf More Documents & Publications Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Use of a Diesel Fuel Processor for Rapid and Efficient Regeneration of Single Leg NOx Adsorber Systems

  14. Identification and Control of Factors that Affect EGR Cooler Fouling |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Control of Factors that Affect EGR Cooler Fouling Identification and Control of Factors that Affect EGR Cooler Fouling Key factors that cause exhaust gas recirculation cooler fouling were identified through extensive literature search and controlled experiment was devised to study the impact of a few key factors on deposition. PDF icon deer08_styles.pdf More Documents & Publications Factors Impacting EGR Cooler Fouling - Main Effects and Interactions The Impact of PM

  15. One in five online scholarly articles affected by 'reference rot'

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scholarly articles affected by 'reference rot' One in five online scholarly articles affected by 'reference rot' Los Alamos authors focus on reference rot, the combination of link rot and content drift to which references to web resources included in STM articles are subject. January 26, 2015 From left, Los Alamos National Laboratory authors Lyudmila Balakireva, Herbert Van De Sompel and Harihar Shankar, and Martin Klein and Robert Sanderson (on computer screens). Their work was published in the

  16. Characterization of microstructural strengthening in the heat-affected zone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a blast-resistant naval steel | Energy Frontier Research Centers microstructural strengthening in the heat-affected zone of a blast-resistant naval steel Home Author: X. Yu, J. Caron, S. S. Babu, J. C. Lippold, D. Isheim, D. N. Seidman Year: 2010 Abstract: The influence of simulated heat-affected zone thermal cycles on the microstructural evolution in a blast-resistant naval steel was investigated by dilatometry, microhardness testing, optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction

  17. Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dual-Stage Chemistry | Department of Energy Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Sandia National Laboratories PDF icon 2004_deer_dec.pdf More Documents & Publications Microsoft PowerPoint - DEER03-P.ppt HCCI and Stratified-Charge CI Engine Combustion Research Improving Efficiency and

  18. TSPA Model Development and Sensitivity Analysis of Processes Affecting

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Performance of a Salt Repository for Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste | Department of Energy TSPA Model Development and Sensitivity Analysis of Processes Affecting Performance of a Salt Repository for Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste TSPA Model Development and Sensitivity Analysis of Processes Affecting Performance of a Salt Repository for Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste The document describes the initial work on designing and developing requirements for a total

  19. 2009 PILOT SCALE FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TESTING USING THE THOR (THERMAL ORGANIC REDUCTION) PROCESS: ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR TANK 48H ORGANIC DESTRUCTION - 10408

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.; Jantzen, C.; Burket, P.; Crawford, C.; Daniel, G.; Aponte, C.; Johnson, C.

    2009-12-28

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) must empty the contents of Tank 48H, a 1.3 million gallon Type IIIA HLW storage tank, to return this tank to service. The tank contains organic compounds, mainly potassium tetraphenylborate that cannot be processed downstream until the organic components are destroyed. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) technology, herein after referred to as steam reforming, has been demonstrated to be a viable process to remove greater than 99.9% of the organics from Tank 48H during various bench scale and pilot scale tests. These demonstrations were supported by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and the Department of Energy (DOE) has concurred with the SRR recommendation to proceed with the deployment of the FBSR technology to treat the contents of Tank 48H. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and proved the concept with non-radioactive simulants for SRR beginning in 2003. By 2008, several pilot scale campaigns had been completed and extensive crucible testing and bench scale testing were performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells using Tank 48H radioactive sample. SRNL developed a Tank 48H non-radioactive simulant complete with organic compounds, salt, and metals characteristic of those measured in a sample of the radioactive contents of Tank 48H. FBSR Pilot Scaled Testing with the Tank 48H simulant has demonstrated the ability to remove greater than 98% of the nitrites and greater than 99.5% of the nitrates from the Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily alkali carbonate. The alkali carbonate is soluble and, thus, amenable to pumping as a liquid to downstream facilities for processing. The FBSR technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) pilot scale steam reformer at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. Additional ESTD tests were completed in 2008 and in 2009 that further demonstrated the TTT steam reforming process ability to destroy organics in the Tank 48 simulant and produce a soluble carbonate waste form. The ESTD was operated at varying feed rates and Denitration and Mineralization Reformer (DMR) temperatures, and at a constant Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) temperature of 950 C. The process produced a dissolvable carbonate product suitable for processing downstream. ESTD testing was performed in 2009 at the Hazen facility to demonstrate the long term operability of an integrated FBSR processing system with carbonate product and carbonate slurry handling capability. The final testing demonstrated the integrated TTT FBSR capability to process the Tank 48 simulant from a slurry feed into a greater than 99.9% organic free and primarily dissolved carbonate FBSR product slurry. This paper will discuss the SRNL analytical results of samples analyzed from the 2008 and 2009 THOR{reg_sign} steam reforming ESTD performed with Tank 48H simulant at HRI in Golden, Colorado. The final analytical results will be compared to prior analytical results from samples in terms of organic, nitrite, and nitrate destruction.

  20. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of I-125/129 and Tc-99 to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Ninety six grams of radioactive product were made for testing. The second campaign commenced using SRS LAW chemically trimmed to look like Hanford's LAW. Six hundred grams of radioactive product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  1. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Mineralization for High Organic and Nitrate Waste Streams for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Williams, M.R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NOx in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 deg. C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 deg. C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {>=}1000 deg. C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NOx. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O. (authors)

  2. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-11

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

  3. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING WITH ACUTAL HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTES VERIFYING FBSR AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Bannochie, C.; Daniel, G.; Nash, C.; Cozzi, A.; Herman, C.

    2012-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the cleanup mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is one of the supplementary treatments being considered. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and other secondary wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates/nitrites, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, and/or radio-nuclides like I-129 and Tc-99. Radioactive testing of Savannah River LAW (Tank 50) shimmed to resemble Hanford LAW and actual Hanford LAW (SX-105 and AN-103) have produced a ceramic (mineral) waste form which is the same as the non-radioactive waste simulants tested at the engineering scale. The radioactive testing demonstrated that the FBSR process can retain the volatile radioactive components that cannot be contained at vitrification temperatures. The radioactive and nonradioactive mineral waste forms that were produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process are shown to be as durable as LAW glass.

  4. DOE Requires Air-Con International to Cease Sales of Inefficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proposed Civil Penalty to Air-Con, International, requiring Air-Con to cease the sale of certain air-conditioning systems in the United States and proposing a civil penalty of ...

  5. Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Navy's overall energy strategy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - retrofitting rooftop air-conditioning units with an advanced rooftop control system - was identified as a promising source for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  6. Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality Print Wednesday, 30 April 2014 00:00 Vitamin D deficiency is a widespread medical condition that plays a major role in human bone health. Scientists know that a lack of vitamin D can cause bone diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia. Now a team of researchers working at the ALS has also found that vitamin D deficiency plays a significant role in the bone-aging process. Low levels

  7. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE (WTP-SW) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2014-08-21

    The U.S. Department of Energys Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanfords tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanfords WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular products (both simulant and radioactive) were tested and a subset of the granular material (both simulant and radioactive) were stabilized in a geopolymer matrix. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following: ? ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) testing of granular and monolith; ? ASTM C1308 accelerated leach testing of the radioactive monolith; ? ASTM C192 compression testing of monoliths; and ? EPA Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The significant findings of the testing completed on simulant and radioactive WTP-SW are given below: ? Data indicates {sup 99}Tc, Re, Cs, and I

  8. MINERALIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR): COMPARISONS TO VITREOUS WASTE FORMS, AND PERTINENT DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C

    2008-12-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to generate a document for the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that would cover the following topics: (1) A description of the mineral structures produced by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) of Hanford type Low Activity Waste (LAW including LAWR which is LAW melter recycle waste) waste, especially the cage structured minerals and how they are formed. (2) How the cage structured minerals contain some contaminants, while others become part of the mineral structure (Note that all contaminants become part of the mineral structure and this will be described in the subsequent sections of this report). (3) Possible contaminant release mechanisms from the mineral structures. (4) Appropriate analyses to evaluate these release mechanisms. (5) Why the appropriate analyses are comparable to the existing Hanford glass dataset. In order to discuss the mineral structures and how they bond contaminants a brief description of the structures of both mineral (ceramic) and vitreous waste forms will be given to show their similarities. By demonstrating the similarities of mineral and vitreous waste forms on atomic level, the contaminant release mechanisms of the crystalline (mineral) and amorphous (glass) waste forms can be compared. This will then logically lead to the discussion of why many of the analyses used to evaluate vitreous waste forms and glass-ceramics (also known as glass composite materials) are appropriate for determining the release mechanisms of LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms and how the durability data on LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms relate to the durability data for LAW/LAWR glasses. The text will discuss the LAW mineral waste form made by FBSR. The nanoscale mechanism by which the minerals form will be also be described in the text. The appropriate analyses to evaluate contaminant release mechanisms will be discussed, as will the FBSR test results to date and how they compare to testing performed on LAW glasses. Other details about vitreous waste form durability and impacts of REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) on durability are given in Appendix A. Details about the FBSR process, various pilot scale demonstrations, and applications are given in Appendix B. Details describing all the different leach tests that need to be used jointly to determine the leaching mechanisms of a waste form are given in Appendix C. Cautions regarding the way in which the waste form surface area is measured and in the choice of leachant buffers (if used) are given in Appendix D.

  9. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  10. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  11. Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation Print Understanding charge-transfer processes at the atomic level of nanoscale systems is of the utmost importance for designing nanodevices based on quantum-dot structures, nanotubes, or two-dimensional graphene sheets. Researchers from Western Michigan University, Berkeley Lab, and other international research facilities investigated charge-transfer processes and subsequent ion fragmentation dynamics in nanoclusters

  12. Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation Print Understanding charge-transfer processes at the atomic level of nanoscale systems is of the utmost importance for designing nanodevices based on quantum-dot structures, nanotubes, or two-dimensional graphene sheets. Researchers from Western Michigan University, Berkeley Lab, and other international research facilities investigated charge-transfer processes and subsequent ion fragmentation dynamics in nanoclusters

  13. Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation Print Understanding charge-transfer processes at the atomic level of nanoscale systems is of the utmost importance for designing nanodevices based on quantum-dot structures, nanotubes, or two-dimensional graphene sheets. Researchers from Western Michigan University, Berkeley Lab, and other international research facilities investigated charge-transfer processes and subsequent ion fragmentation dynamics in nanoclusters

  14. Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation Print Understanding charge-transfer processes at the atomic level of nanoscale systems is of the utmost importance for designing nanodevices based on quantum-dot structures, nanotubes, or two-dimensional graphene sheets. Researchers from Western Michigan University, Berkeley Lab, and other international research facilities investigated charge-transfer processes and subsequent ion fragmentation dynamics in nanoclusters

  15. Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation Print Understanding charge-transfer processes at the atomic level of nanoscale systems is of the utmost importance for designing nanodevices based on quantum-dot structures, nanotubes, or two-dimensional graphene sheets. Researchers from Western Michigan University, Berkeley Lab, and other international research facilities investigated charge-transfer processes and subsequent ion fragmentation dynamics in nanoclusters

  16. Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation Print Understanding charge-transfer processes at the atomic level of nanoscale systems is of the utmost importance for designing nanodevices based on quantum-dot structures, nanotubes, or two-dimensional graphene sheets. Researchers from Western Michigan University, Berkeley Lab, and other international research facilities investigated charge-transfer processes and subsequent ion fragmentation dynamics in nanoclusters

  17. Assessing How Renewables Affect Water Used for Thermoelectric Cooling |

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Assessing How Renewables Affect Water Used for Thermoelectric Cooling Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000

  18. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Issues Affecting Renewable Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integration Issues Affecting Renewable Energy Integration NREL is investigating issues related to the integration of renewable energy sources into the transmission system. Developing solutions to these challenges will enable higher penetrations of renewable generation sources on the electric power system and the future growth of renewable energy. The integration of large quantities of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power will require changes in how our transmission system

  19. Model Captures How Nitrogen Limitation Affects Hydrological Processes |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Model Captures How Nitrogen Limitation Affects Hydrological Processes Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000

  20. Superior performance of Ni-W-Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernandez-Garica, Marcos; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2014-11-26

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was studied over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Ni under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.

  1. Bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts with low amounts of Rh for the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane for fuel-cell applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrandon, M.; Kropf, A. J.; Krause, T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-05-15

    Mono-metallic nickel and rhodium catalysts and bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeZrO{sub 2} and CeMgOx were prepared and evaluated for catalyzing the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane. The binary Ni-Rh supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with low weight loading of rhodium exhibited higher H{sub 2} yields than Ni or Rh alone. The Ni-Rh/CeZrO{sub 2} catalyst exhibited higher performance and no coke formation, compared to the same metals on other supports. A NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase was obtained on all Ni and Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The presence of rhodium stabilized the spinel phase as well as NiOx species upon reforming while Ni alone was mostly reduced into metallic species. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis showed evidence of Ni-Rh alloy during preparation and even further after an accelerated aging at 900C in a H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O atmosphere.

  2. Superior performance of NiWCe mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernndez-Garca, Marcos; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Rodriguez, Jos A.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was examined over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Ni under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.

  3. Superior performance of Ni–W–Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernández-García, Marcos; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; et al

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was examined over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO₂ lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Nimore » under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.« less

  4. Steam reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramarz, Kurt W. (Murrysville, PA); Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Wilkenhoener, Rolf (Oakbrook Terrace, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel. A vapor of the hydrocarbon fuel and steam is brought in contact with a two-part catalyst having a dehydrogenation powder portion and an oxide-ion conducting powder portion at a temperature not less than about 770.degree.C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich. The H.sub.2 content of the hydrogen gas is greater than about 70 percent by volume. The dehydrogenation portion of the catalyst includes a group VIII metal, and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide from the group crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure and mixtures thereof. The oxide-ion conducting portion of the catalyst is a ceramic powder of one or more of ZrO.sub.2, CeO.sub.2, Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, (BiVO).sub.4, and LaGaO.sub.3.

  5. NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... in consultation with the Office of Chief Financial Officer. ...racting@spok.eh.doe.gov). 2 U.S. Department of Energy, ... has been characterized by "crisis" management: NEPA ...

  6. Process for selectively treating a subterranean formation using coiled tubing without affecting or being affected by the two adjacent zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vercaemer, C.; Lemanczyk, R.; Piot, B.

    1989-06-27

    A process is described for selectively treating a subterranean formation without affecting adjacent zones above and below the formation characterized by: injecting a treatment fluid into a wellbore annulus adjacent the formation to be treated and simultaneously injecting two protection fluids, immiscible with the treatment fluid, into the annulus adjacent the zones wherein the treatment fluid and protection fluids are separated with the wellbore annulus solely by a fluid interface between the treatment fluid and each of the immiscible protection fluids.

  7. Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality Print Vitamin D deficiency is a widespread medical condition that plays a major role in human bone health. Scientists know that a lack of vitamin D can cause bone diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia. Now a team of researchers working at the ALS has also found that vitamin D deficiency plays a significant role in the bone-aging process. Low levels of vitamin D, the "sunshine vitamin," have been previously linked to the

  8. Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality Print Vitamin D deficiency is a widespread medical condition that plays a major role in human bone health. Scientists know that a lack of vitamin D can cause bone diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia. Now a team of researchers working at the ALS has also found that vitamin D deficiency plays a significant role in the bone-aging process. Low levels of vitamin D, the "sunshine vitamin," have been previously linked to the

  9. Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality Print Vitamin D deficiency is a widespread medical condition that plays a major role in human bone health. Scientists know that a lack of vitamin D can cause bone diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia. Now a team of researchers working at the ALS has also found that vitamin D deficiency plays a significant role in the bone-aging process. Low levels of vitamin D, the "sunshine vitamin," have been previously linked to the

  10. Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality Print Vitamin D deficiency is a widespread medical condition that plays a major role in human bone health. Scientists know that a lack of vitamin D can cause bone diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia. Now a team of researchers working at the ALS has also found that vitamin D deficiency plays a significant role in the bone-aging process. Low levels of vitamin D, the "sunshine vitamin," have been previously linked to the

  11. Legal and regulatory issues affecting aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-10-01

    This document updates and expands the report with a similar title issued in October 1980. This document examines a number of legal and regulatory issues that potentially can affect implementation of the aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) concept. This concept involves the storage of thermal energy in an underground aquifer until a later date when it can be effectively utilized. Either heat energy or chill can be stored. Potential end uses of the energy include district space heating and cooling, industrial process applications, and use in agriculture or aquaculture. Issues are examined in four categories: regulatory requirements, property rights, potential liability, and issues related to heat or chill delivery.

  12. How Has Saving Energy Affected Your Health? | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    We don't often speak of it in these terms, but saving energy can sometimes have a positive influence on your health. Maybe you're getting more exercise because you bike to work instead of drive, or you're getting more fresh air while jogging outside instead of on the treadmill (not to mention vitamin D!). Maybe you're eating more raw fruits and vegetables instead of turning on the oven to bake a pizza or driving for fast food. Tell us your story. How has saving energy affected your health? Each

  13. Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality Print Vitamin D deficiency is a widespread medical condition that plays a major role in human bone health. Scientists know that a lack of vitamin D can cause bone diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia. Now a team of researchers working at the ALS has also found that vitamin D deficiency plays a significant role in the bone-aging process. Low levels of vitamin D, the "sunshine vitamin," have been previously linked to the

  14. Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality Print Vitamin D deficiency is a widespread medical condition that plays a major role in human bone health. Scientists know that a lack of vitamin D can cause bone diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia. Now a team of researchers working at the ALS has also found that vitamin D deficiency plays a significant role in the bone-aging process. Low levels of vitamin D, the "sunshine vitamin," have been previously linked to the

  15. Factors Affecting Power Output by Photovoltaic Cells Lesson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Suzanne McClung Unit Title: Option C: Energy Subject: Chemistry Lesson Title: Factors Affecting Power Output by Photovoltaic Cells Grade Level(s): IB 2 (Senior - 3 rd year of chemistry) Lesson Length: 2-90 minute blocks with 30 minutes for wrap up in a 3 rd class period Date(s): * Learning Goals o Students will make observations of voltage and current in a solar panel system o Students will calculate power of a solar panel system o Students will determine the effect of a factor on the power

  16. Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of Supported Noble Metal Catalysts in Steam Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Song, Chunshan

    2012-04-18

    This work was conducted to clarify the influence of the type of metal and support on the sulfur tolerance and carbon resistance of supported noble metal catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. Al2O3-supported noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalysts on different supports (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, and MgO), and Pt catalyst supported on CeO2 and Al2O3, were examined for steam reforming of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (Norpar13 from Exxon Mobil) at 800 C for 55 h. The results indicate that (1) Rh/Al2O3 shows higher sulfur tolerance than the Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts on the same support; (2) both Al2O3 and CeO2 are promising supports for Rh catalyst to process sulfur-containing hydrocarbons; and (3) Pt/CeO2 exhibits better catalytic performance than Pt/Al2O3 in the reaction with sulfur. TEM results demonstrate that the metal particles in Rh/Al2O3 were better dispersed (mostly in 1-3 nm) compared with the other catalysts after reforming the sulfur-containing feed. As revealed by XPS, the binding energy of Rh 3d for Rh/Al2O3 is notably higher than that for Rh/CeO2, implying the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles in the former. The strong sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 may be related to the formation of well-dispersed electron-deficient Rh particles on the Al2O3 support. Sulfur K-edge XANES illustrates the preferential formation of sulfonate and sulfate on Rh/Al2O3, which is believed to be beneficial for improving its sulfur tolerance as their oxygen-shielded sulfur structure may hinder direct Rh-S interaction. Due to its strong sulfur tolerance, the carbon deposition on Rh/Al2O3 was significantly lower than that on the Al2O3-supported Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts after the reaction with sulfur. The superior catalytic performance of CeO2-supported Rh and Pt catalysts in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed mainly to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, leading to much lower carbon deposition compared with the Rh/Al2O3, Rh/MgO, Rh/SiO2 and Pt/Al2O3 catalysts.

  17. Microbial Carbon Cycling in Permafrost-Affected Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vishnivetskaya, T.; Liebner, Susanne; Wilhelm, Ronald; Wagner, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic plays a key role in Earth s climate system as global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high latitudes and because one third of the global carbon pool is stored in ecosystems of the northern latitudes. In order to improve our understanding of the present and future carbon dynamics in climate sensitive permafrost ecosystems, present studies concentrate on investigations of microbial controls of greenhouse gas fluxes, on the activity and structure of the involved microbial communities, and on their response to changing environmental conditions. Permafrost-affected soils can function as both a source and a sink for carbon dioxide and methane. Under anaerobic conditions, caused by flooding of the active layer and the effect of backwater above the permafrost table, the mineralization of organic matter can only be realized stepwise by specialized microorganisms. Important intermediates of the organic matter decomposition are hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate, which can be further reduced to methane by methanogenic archaea. Evolution of methane fluxes across the subsurface/atmosphere boundary will thereby strongly depend on the activity of anaerobic methanogenic archaea and obligately aerobic methane oxidizing proteobacteria, which are known to be abundant and to significantly reduce methane emissions in permafrost-affected soils. Therefore current studies on methane-cycling microorganisms are the object of particular attention in permafrost studies, because of their key role in the Arctic methane cycle and consequently of their significance for the global methane budget.

  18. Factors that affect electric-utility stranded commitments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.

    1996-07-01

    Estimates of stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned utilities range widely, with many falling in the range of $100 to $200 billion. These potential losses exist because some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts and fuel-supply contracts, regulatory assets, and expenses for public-policy programs have book values that exceed their expected market values under full competition. This report quantifies the sensitivity of stranded- commitment estimates to the various factors that lead to these above- market-value estimates. The purpose of these sensitivity analyses is to improve understanding on the part of state and federal regulators, utilities, customers, and other electric-industry participants about the relative importance of the factors that affect stranded- commitment amounts.

  19. Microscale Confinement features in microfluidic devices can affect biofilm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Aloke; Karig, David K; Neethirajan, Suresh; Acharya, Rajesh K; Mukherjee, Partha P; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are aggregations of microbes that are encased by extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and adhere to surfaces and interfaces. Biofilm development on abiotic surfaces is a dynamic process, which typically proceeds through an initial phase of adhesion of plankntonic microbes to the substrate, followed by events such as growth, maturation and EPS secretion. However, the coupling of hydrodynamics, microbial adhesion and biofilm growth remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effect of semiconfined features on biofilm formation. Using a microfluidic device and fluorescent time-lapse microscopy, we establish that confinement features can significantly affect biofilm formation. Biofilm dynamics change not only as a function of confinement features, but also of the total fluid flow rate, and our combination of experimental results and numerical simulations reveal insights into the link between hydrodynamics and biofilm formation.

  20. Fermentation and Hydrogen Metabolism Affect Uranium Reduction by Clostridia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Weimin; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it has been shown that not only is uranium reduction under fermentation condition common among clostridia species, but also the strains differed in the extent of their capability and the pH of the culture significantly affected uranium(VI) reduction. In this study, using HPLC and GC techniques, metabolic properties of those clostridial strains active in uranium reduction under fermentation conditions have been characterized and their effects on capability variance of uranium reduction discussed. Then, the relationship between hydrogen metabolism and uranium reduction has been further explored and the important role played by hydrogenase in uranium(VI) and iron(III) reduction bymore » clostridia demonstrated. When hydrogen was provided as the headspace gas, uranium(VI) reduction occurred in the presence of whole cells of clostridia. This is in contrast to that of nitrogen as the headspace gas. Without clostridia cells, hydrogen alone could not result in uranium(VI) reduction. In alignment with this observation, it was also found that either copper(II) addition or iron depletion in the medium could compromise uranium reduction by clostridia. In the end, a comprehensive model was proposed to explain uranium reduction by clostridia and its relationship to the overall metabolism especially hydrogen (H 2 ) production.« less

  1. EPA Furlough Day on May 24 Will Affect EIS Filing | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Furlough Day on May 24 Will Affect EIS Filing EPA Furlough Day on May 24 Will Affect EIS Filing April 26, 2013 - 11:38am Addthis EISs must be filed with EPA by Thursday, May 23rd...

  2. Highly Active and Stable MgAl2O4 Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts for Methane Steam Reforming: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Kovarik, Libor; Wan, Haiying; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gerber, Mark A.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2014-07-01

    In this work we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of stable MgAl2O4 spinel-supported Rh and Ir catalysts for the steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction. Firstly, catalytic performance for a series of noble metal catalysts supported on MgAl2O4 spinel was evaluated for SMR at 600-850C. Turnover rate at 850C follows the order: Pd > Pt > Ir > Rh > Ru > Ni. However, Rh and Ir were found to have the best combination of activity and stability for methane steam reforming in the presence of simulated biomass-derived syngas. It was found that highly dispersed ~2 nm Rh and ~1 nm Ir clusters were formed on the MgAl2O4 spinel support. Scanning Transition Electron Microscopy (STEM) images show that excellent dispersion was maintained even under challenging high temperature conditions (e.g. at 850C in the presence of steam) while Ir and Rh catalysts supported on Al2O3 were observed to sinter at increased rates under the same conditions. These observations were further confirmed by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations which find that ~1 nm Rh and Ir particles (50-atom cluster) bind strongly to the MgAl2O4 surfaces via a redox process leading to a strong metal-support interaction, thus helping anchor the metal clusters and reduce the tendency to sinter. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that these supported smaller Rh and Ir particles have a lower work function than larger more bulk-like ones, which enables them to activate both water and methane more effectively than larger particles, yet have a minimal influence on the relative stability of coke precursors. In addition, theoretical mechanistic studies were used to probe the relationship between structure and reactivity. Consistent with the experimental observations, our theoretical modeling results also suggest that the small spinel-supported Ir particle catalyst is more active than the counterpart of Rh catalyst for SMR. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. Computing time was granted by a user proposal at the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) located at PNNL. Part of the computational time was provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  3. THE EMPLOYEE'S GUIDE TO BENEFITS FOR THOSE AFFECTED BY REDUCTION IN FORCE

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    EMPLOYEE'S THE EMPLOYEE'S THE EMPLOYEE'S THE EMPLOYEE'S GUIDE TO BENEFITS GUIDE TO BENEFITS GUIDE TO BENEFITS GUIDE TO BENEFITS FOR THOSE FOR THOSE FOR THOSE FOR THOSE AFFECTED BY AFFECTED BY AFFECTED BY AFFECTED BY REDUCTION IN REDUCTION IN REDUCTION IN REDUCTION IN FORCE FORCE FORCE FORCE U.S. OFFICE OF U.S. OFFICE OF U.S. OFFICE OF U.S. OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT WORKFORCE WORKFORCE WORKFORCE WORKFORCE RESTRUCTURING OFFICE

  4. The influence of nano-architectured CeOx supports in RhPd/CeO? for the catalytic ethanol steam reforming reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Divins, N. J.; Senanayake, S. D.; Casanovas, A.; Xu, W.; Trovarelli, A.; Llorca, J.

    2015-01-19

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction has been tested over RhPd supported on polycrystalline ceria in comparison to structured supports composed of nanoshaped CeO? cubes and CeO? rods tailored towards the production of hydrogen. At 650-700 K the hydrogen yield follows the trend RhPd/CeO?-cubes > RhPd/CeO? -rods > RhPd/CeO?- polycrystalline, whereas at temperatures higher than 800 K the catalytic performance of all samples is similar and close to the thermodynamic equilibrium. The improved performance of RhPd/CeO?-cubes and RhPd/CeO? -rods for ESR at low temperature is mainly ascribed to higher water-gas shift activity and a strong interaction between the bimetallic - oxide support interaction. STEM analysis shows the existence of RhPd alloyed nanoparticles in all samples, with no apparent relationship between ESR performance and RhPd particle size. X-ray diffraction under operating conditions shows metal reorganization on {100} and {110} ceria crystallographic planes during catalyst activation and ESR, but not on {111} ceria crystallographic planes. The RhPd reconstructing and tuned activation over ceria nanocubes and nanorods is considered the main reason for better catalytic activity with respect to conventional catalysts based on polycrystalline ceria

  5. Mechanistic Insights of Ethanol Steam Reforming over NiCeO x (111): The Importance of Hydroxyl Groups for Suppressing Coke Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Ducho?, Tom; Wang, Huanru; Peterson, Erik W.; Zhou, Yinghui; Luo, Si; Zhou, Jing; Matoln, Vladimir; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Rodriguez, Jos A.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2015-07-30

    We have studied the reaction of ethanol and water over NiCeO2-x(111) model surfaces to elucidate the mechanistic steps associated with the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. Our results provide insights about the importance of hydroxyl groups to the ESR reaction over Ni-based catalysts. Systematically, we have investigated the reaction of ethanol on NiCeO2-x(111) at varying Ce? concentrations (CeO1.82.0) with absence/presence of water using a combination of soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (sXPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Consistent with previous reports, upon annealing, metallic Ni formed on reduced ceria while NiO was the main component on fully oxidized ceria. Ni? is the active phase leading to both the CC and CH cleavage of ethanol but is also responsible for carbon accumulation or coking. We have identified a Ni?C phase that formed prior to the formation of coke. At temperatures above 600K, the lattice oxygen from ceria and the hydroxyl groups from water interact cooperatively in the removal of coke, likely through a strong metalsupport interaction between nickel and ceria that facilitates oxygen transfer.

  6. Effect of Metal-Support Interactions in Ni/Al2O3 Catalysts with Low Metal Loading for Methane Dry Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewbank, Jessica L.; Kovarik, Libor; Diallo, Fatoumata Z.; Sievers, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Types of nickel sites as a function of preparation method have received much attention in the literature. In this work, two preparation methods, controlled adsorption and dry impregnation, are implemented to explore the effect of preparation method on catalytic nickel centers. For controlled adsorption, optimal synthesis conditions are identified using point of zero charge measurements, pH-precipitation experiments, and adsorption isotherms to prepare a catalyst with a high dispersion and strong metal support interactions. Metal support interactions influence the types of nickel sites formed. Thus, comparison of catalysts that differ primarily in metal support interactions, strong metal support interaction (controlled adsorption) and weak metal support interactions (dry impregnation), is of great interest. It is confirmed through characterization techniques; N2 physisorption, H2 chemisorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) that the types of nickel sites formed are indeed strongly dependent on preparation method. Methane dry reforming reactivity studies are used to demonstrate the successful application of these catalysts and further probe the types of active centers present. Combustion analysis and XPS of spent catalysts reveal different amounts and nature of carbonaceous deposits as a function of the synthesis method.

  7. Mechanistic insights of ethanol steam reforming over Ni-CeOx(111): The importance of hydroxyl groups for suppressing coke formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Duchon, Tomas; Wang, Huanru; Peterson, Erik W.; Zhou, Yinghui; Luo, Si; Zhou, Jing; Matolin, Vladimir; Stacchiola, Dario J.; et al

    2015-07-10

    We have studied the reaction of ethanol and water over NiCeO2-x(111) model surfaces to elucidate the mechanistic steps associated with the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. Our results provide insights about the importance of hydroxyl groups to the ESR reaction over Ni-based catalysts. Systematically, we have investigated the reaction of ethanol on NiCeO2-x(111) at varying Ce? concentrations (CeO1.82.0) with absence/presence of water using a combination of soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (sXPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Consistent with previous reports, upon annealing, metallic Ni formed on reduced ceria while NiO was the main component on fully oxidized ceria. Ni? is themoreactive phase leading to both the CC and CH cleavage of ethanol but is also responsible for carbon accumulation or coking. We have identified a Ni?C phase that formed prior to the formation of coke. At temperatures above 600K, the lattice oxygen from ceria and the hydroxyl groups from water interact cooperatively in the removal of coke, likely through a strong metalsupport interaction between nickel and ceria that facilitates oxygen transfer.less

  8. The influence of nano-architectured CeOx supports in RhPd/CeO₂ for the catalytic ethanol steam reforming reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Divins, N. J.; Senanayake, S. D.; Casanovas, A.; Xu, W.; Trovarelli, A.; Llorca, J.

    2015-01-19

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction has been tested over RhPd supported on polycrystalline ceria in comparison to structured supports composed of nanoshaped CeO₂ cubes and CeO₂ rods tailored towards the production of hydrogen. At 650-700 K the hydrogen yield follows the trend RhPd/CeO₂-cubes > RhPd/CeO₂ -rods > RhPd/CeO₂- polycrystalline, whereas at temperatures higher than 800 K the catalytic performance of all samples is similar and close to the thermodynamic equilibrium. The improved performance of RhPd/CeO₂-cubes and RhPd/CeO₂ -rods for ESR at low temperature is mainly ascribed to higher water-gas shift activity and a strong interaction between the bimetallic -more » oxide support interaction. STEM analysis shows the existence of RhPd alloyed nanoparticles in all samples, with no apparent relationship between ESR performance and RhPd particle size. X-ray diffraction under operating conditions shows metal reorganization on {100} and {110} ceria crystallographic planes during catalyst activation and ESR, but not on {111} ceria crystallographic planes. The RhPd reconstructing and tuned activation over ceria nanocubes and nanorods is considered the main reason for better catalytic activity with respect to conventional catalysts based on polycrystalline ceria« less

  9. Mechanistic Insights of Ethanol Steam Reforming over Ni–CeO x (111): The Importance of Hydroxyl Groups for Suppressing Coke Formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Duchoň, Tomáš; Wang, Huanru; Peterson, Erik W.; Zhou, Yinghui; Luo, Si; Zhou, Jing; Matolín, Vladimir; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Rodriguez, José A.; et al

    2015-07-30

    We have studied the reaction of ethanol and water over Ni–CeO2-x(111) model surfaces to elucidate the mechanistic steps associated with the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. Our results provide insights about the importance of hydroxyl groups to the ESR reaction over Ni-based catalysts. Systematically, we have investigated the reaction of ethanol on Ni–CeO2-x(111) at varying Ce³⁺ concentrations (CeO1.8–2.0) with absence/presence of water using a combination of soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (sXPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Consistent with previous reports, upon annealing, metallic Ni formed on reduced ceria while NiO was the main component on fully oxidized ceria. Ni⁰ is themore » active phase leading to both the C–C and C–H cleavage of ethanol but is also responsible for carbon accumulation or coking. We have identified a Ni₃C phase that formed prior to the formation of coke. At temperatures above 600K, the lattice oxygen from ceria and the hydroxyl groups from water interact cooperatively in the removal of coke, likely through a strong metal–support interaction between nickel and ceria that facilitates oxygen transfer.« less

  10. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank SX-105 And AN-103) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, Carol; Herman, Connie; Crawford, Charles; Bannochie, Christopher; Burket, Paul; Daniel, Gene; Cozzi, Alex; Nash, Charles; Miller, Donald; Missimer, David

    2014-01-10

    One of the immobilization technologies under consideration as a Supplemental Treatment for Hanford’s Low Activity Waste (LAW) is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). The FBSR technology forms a mineral waste form at moderate processing temperatures thus retaining and atomically bonding the halides, sulfates, and technetium in the mineral phases (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite). Additions of kaolin clay are used instead of glass formers and the minerals formed by the FBSR technology offers (1) atomic bonding of the radionuclides and constituents of concern (COC) comparable to glass, (2) short and long term durability comparable to glass, (3) disposal volumes comparable to glass, and (4) higher Na2O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings than glass. The higher FBSR Na{sub 2}O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings contribute to the low disposal volumes but also provide for more rapid processing of the LAW. Recent FBSR processing and testing of Hanford radioactive LAW (Tank SX-105 and AN-103) waste is reported and compared to previous radioactive and non-radioactive LAW processing and testing.

  11. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Refinery Output - Dataset | Department of Energy 0: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output - Dataset Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output File fotw#890_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008 - Dataset LCC

  12. 30 TAC, part 1, chapter 39, rule 39.605 Notice to Affected Agencies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgenciesLegal Abstract This rule explains the notice to affected agencies requirement for air quality permit applications in Texas. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1999...

  13. AFFECT Notice of Intent June 27, 2013 CO and Legal Comments July 3, 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document details the Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT) Notice of Intent on June 27, 2013 and the legal comments on July 3, 2013.

  14. AFFECTED DOCUMENT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ADMIN RCD _ COMM REF _ RESPONSE TRACKING INFORMAnON I lOWED BY: (ORG) I TARGET DATE I I I CLOSING CCN COMPL. DATE I I CLOSING REF I I lOWED BY: (ORG) I I I I I TARGET DATE I CLOSING CCN COMPL DATE CLOSING REF TECHNICAL SERVICES DIVISION (TSD) BACKFIT (Documents dated prior to 1 November 1988) FUSRAP COMMUNICATIONS DISTRIBUTION DOEIORO TECHNICAL SERVICES DIVISION (CE-53) BECHTEL NATIONAl.. INC. - JOB 14501 AI$Wl E.e... COMM DATE b~5i=-'/T-'-I'''' ADDR CODE I I I I CLOSES CCN WBS 1/~ .. :2 O~

  15. AFFECTED DOCUMENT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    rr-osams ADMIN RCD _ RESPONSE TRACKING INFORMATION I 'OWED BY: (ORG) I TARGET DATE { I CLOSING CCN COMPL. DATE { CLOSING REF I I lOWED BY: (ORG) { { I { { TARGET DATE I CLOSING CCN COMPL DATE CLOSING REF TECHNICAL SERVICES DIVISION (TSD) BACKFIT (Documents dated prior to 1 November 1988) FUSRAP COMMUNICATIONS DISTRIBUTION DOEIORO TECHNICAL SERVICES DIVISION (CE*53) BECHTEL NATIONAL, INC. -JOB 14501 _-....Iome....:.-R..%.JI&~S::....:::S.::...- TO_---.,!5~Z~IJ~u..~ COMM DATE &6 tlJ t.e

  16. Fact #859 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most Recent Event to Affect

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil Prices - Dataset | Department of Energy 59 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most Recent Event to Affect Crude Oil Prices - Dataset Fact #859 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most Recent Event to Affect Crude Oil Prices - Dataset Excel file with dataset for Excess Supply is the Most Recent Event to Affect Crude Oil Prices File fotw#859_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #860 February 16, 2015 Relationship of Vehicle Miles of Travel and the Price of Gasoline -

  17. Long-term management of AAR-affected structures - An international perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charlwood, R.G.; Solymar, Z.V.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the paper is to review international practice and comment on progress made in the long-term management of existing AAR-affected dams and hydroelectric plants. A updated detailed worldwide listing which now includes 104 AAR-affected structures constructed since 1900 will be presented. The listing gives summary data on the year of construction, the year that significant problems were noted, aggregate and cement types, measured expansion rates, test data, time to initial deterioration, duration of reaction, damage to the structures and effects on equipment, and repairs or replacement. A comprehensive bibliography will also be given. Analysis of the database and significant case histories will be used to identify issues affecting dam safety, plant operations, remedial measures and long-term performance of AAR-affected structures. The presentation will be illustrated by several case histories where remedial measures have been implemented.

  18. State Air Emission Regulations That Affect Electric Power Producers (Update) (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted air emission regulations that will affect the electricity generation sector. The regulations govern emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2, and mercury from power plants.

  19. 33 CFR 322: Permits for Structures or Work in or Affecting Navigable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    33 CFR 322: Permits for Structures or Work in or Affecting Navigable Waters of the United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  20. DOE Offers Relief to Importers Affected by West Coast Port Closures |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Offers Relief to Importers Affected by West Coast Port Closures DOE Offers Relief to Importers Affected by West Coast Port Closures February 27, 2015 - 5:28pm Addthis Closures at 29 West Coast marine ports in February 2015 due to a labor dispute have resulted in significant delays for certain goods entering the United States through those ports. DOE issued an enforcement policy not to seek civil penalties for violations of the energy and water conservation standards

  1. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    community energy systems. Final report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems. Final report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems. Final report A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the

  2. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    community energy systems. Final report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems. Final report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems. Final report × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  3. FE-Funded Study Released on Key Factors Affecting China Shale Gas

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Development | Department of Energy FE-Funded Study Released on Key Factors Affecting China Shale Gas Development FE-Funded Study Released on Key Factors Affecting China Shale Gas Development September 12, 2014 - 7:14am Addthis As many people know, over the past decade the United States has experienced a shale gas revolution that has beneficially transformed its energy landscape. In witnessing this transformation, other nations with significant shale resources are understandably interested in

  4. How the Recovery Act is Affecting Small Business Innovation | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy the Recovery Act is Affecting Small Business Innovation How the Recovery Act is Affecting Small Business Innovation August 2, 2010 - 5:20pm Addthis Dr. Kristina Johnson Dr. Kristina Johnson Founder & CEO, Cube Hydro Partners We invest in our country's small businesses because small businesses invest back in our economy. With small businesses creating nearly two out of every three net new jobs, you probably have a friend, neighbor or family member who makes their livelihood by

  5. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-08-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is amorphous, macro-encapsulates the granules, and the monoliths pass ANSI/ANS 16.1 and ASTM C1308 durability testing with Re achieving a Leach Index (LI) of 9 (the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, IDF, criteria for Tc-99) after a few days and Na achieving an LI of >6 (the Hanford IDF criteria for Na) in the first few hours. The granular and monolithic waste forms also pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for all Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) components at the Universal Treatment Standards (UTS). Two identical Benchscale Steam Reformers (BSR) were designed and constructed at SRNL, one to treat non-radioactive simulants and the other to treat actual radioactive wastes. The results from the non-radioactive BSR were used to determine the parameters needed to operate the radioactive BSR in order to confirm the findings of non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale and engineering scale tests and to qualify an FBSR LAW waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced using SRS LAW from Tank 50 chemically trimmed to look like Hanford’s blended LAW known as the Rassat simulant as this simulant composition had been tested in the non-radioactive BSR, the non-radioactive pilot scale FBSR at the Science Applications International Corporation-Science and Technology Applications Research (SAIC-STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID and in the TTT Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD) at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) in Denver, CO. This provided a “tie back” between radioactive BSR testing and non-radioactive BSR, pilot scale, and engineering scale testing. Approximately six hundred grams of non-radioactive and radioactive BSR product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests performed in 2004 at SAIC-STAR and the engineering scale test performed in 2008 at HRI with the Rassat simulant. The same mineral phases and off-gas species were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular ESTD and BSR products (radioactive and non-radioactive) were analyzed for total constituents and durability tested as a granular waste form. A subset of the granular material was stabilized in a clay based geopolymer matrix at 42% and 65% FBSR loadings and durability tested as a monolith waste form. The 65 wt% FBSR loaded monolith made with clay (radioactive) was more durable than the 67-68 wt% FBSR loaded monoliths made from fly ash (non-radioactive) based on short term PCT testing. Long term, 90 to 107 day, ASTM C1308 testing (similar to ANSI/ANS 16.1 testing) was only performed on two fly ash geopolymer monoliths at 67-68 wt% FBSR loading and three clay geopolymer monoliths at 42 wt% FBSR loading. More clay geopolymers need to be made and tested at longer times at higher FBSR loadings for comparison to the fly ash monoliths. Monoliths made with metakaolin (heat treated) clay are of a more constant composition and are very reactive as the heat treated clay is amorphous and alkali activated. The monoliths made with fly ash are subject to the inherent compositional variation found in fly ash as it is a waste product from burning coal and it contains unreactive components such as mullite. However, both the fly ash and the clay based monoliths perform well in long term ASTM C1308 testing. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) tests: ASTM C1285 testing (Product Consistency Test) of granular and monolithic waste forms; Comparison of granular BSR radioactive to ESTD and pilot scale granular non-radioactive waste form made from the Rassat simulant  Comparison of granular radioactive to granular non-radioactive waste form made from the Rassat simulant made using the SRNL BSR; Comparison of monolithic BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR and ESTD non-radioactive waste forms made of fly ash; Comparison of granular BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR non-radioactive waste forms made of fly ash; Comparison of granular BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR non-radioactive waste forms made of clay; ASTM C1308 Accelerated Leach Test for Diffusive Releases from Solidified Waste and a Computer Program to Model Diffusive, Fractional Leaching from Cylindrical Waste Forms; Comparison of BSR non-radioactive waste forms to monolithic ESTD non-radioactive waste forms made from fly ash; Testing of BSR non-radioactive monoliths made from clay for comparison to non-radioactive monoliths made from fly ash; ASTM C39 Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens; Comparison of monolithic BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR and ESTD non-radioactive waste forms; EPA Manual SW-846 Method 1311, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP); Comparison of granular BSR radioactive to ESTD and pilot scale granular non-radioactive waste form made from the Rassat simulant; Comparison of granular radioactive to granular non-radioactive waste form made from the Rassat simulant made using the SRNL BSR; Comparison of monolithic BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR non-radioactive waste forms.

  6. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refinery Output | Department of Energy 0: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week Most of the nation has enjoyed average gasoline prices below $3.00 per gallon since the beginning of 2015. California and the rest of the West Coast, however, have experienced higher gasoline prices than the rest of the nation. Although gasoline price

  7. Update on State Air Emission Regulations That Affect Electric Power Producers (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted air emission regulations that will affect the electricity generation sector. The regulations are intended to improve air quality in the states and assist them in complying with the revised 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone and fine particulates. The affected states include Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, and Washington. The regulations govern emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2, and mercury from power plants.

  8. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Saline water disposal is one of the most pressing issues

  9. Fact #859 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most Recent Event to Affect

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Crude Oil Prices | Department of Energy 59 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most Recent Event to Affect Crude Oil Prices Fact #859 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most Recent Event to Affect Crude Oil Prices Crude oil prices have been extremely volatile over the past few decades. World events can disrupt the flow of oil to the market or cause uncertainty about future supply or demand for oil, leading to volatility in prices. Supply disruption caused by political events, such as

  10. How Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? How Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? September 23, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis On Monday, Chris told you about his new ceiling fan and how it's changed the way he cools his home. In warm weather, ceiling fans cool people (not rooms) by producing a wind-chill effect-which is why you should turn off fans when you leave the room. A ceiling fan allows you to raise the thermostat setting

  11. Dynamic Response of Large Wind Power Plant Affected by Diverse Conditions at Individual Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang; Wang, Shaobu

    2014-07-31

    Diverse operating conditions at individual wind turbine generators (WTG) within wind power plants (WPPs) can affect the WPP dynamic response to system faults. For example, individual WTGs can experience diverse terminal voltage and power output caused by different wind direction and speed, affecting the response of protection and control limiters. In this paper, we present a study to investigate the dynamic response of a detailed WPP model under diverse power outputs of its individual WTGs. Wake effect is considered as the reason for diverse power outputs. The diverse WTG power output is evaluated in a test system where a large 168-machine test WPP is connected to the IEEE-39-bus system. The power output from each WTG is derived from a wake effect model that uses realistic statistical data for incoming wind speed and direction. The results show that diverse WTG output due to wake effect can affect the WPP dynamic response activating specialized control in some turbines. In addition, transient stability is affected by exhibiting uncertainty in critical clearing time calculation.

  12. Overview of U.S. Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the legislative and regulatory regime that affects natural gas and oil exploration and production in offshore regions of the United States. It discusses the role and importance of these areas as well as the competing interests surrounding ownership, production, exploration and conservation.

  13. Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting the Deployment of Larger Wind Turbines: Summary of Results

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting the Deployment of Larger Wind Turbines: Summary of Results J. Cotrell, T. Stehly, J. Johnson, J. O. Roberts, Z. Parker, G. Scott, and D. Heimiller Technical Report NREL/TP-5000-61063 January 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy

  14. Los Alamos using NIH grant to study how social behaviors affect spread of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    disease Can social media messaging impact epidemics? Los Alamos using NIH grant to study how social behaviors affect spread of disease Connecting social media and epidemiological research will attempt to predict the future, i.e. people's social behavior during an epidemic, using Twitter. August 15, 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from

  15. Buildings Energy Data Book: 4.4 Legislation Affecting Energy Consumption of Federal Buildings and Facilities

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Energy Policy Act of 2005, Provisions Affecting Energy Consumption in Federal Buildings Source(s): Energy Management Requirements - Amended reduction goals set by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act, and requires increasing percentage reductions in energy consumption through FY 2015, with a final energy consumption reduction goal of 20 percent savings in FY 2015, as compared to the baseline energy consumption of Federal buildings in FY 2003. (These goals were superseded by Section 431

  16. Buildings Energy Data Book: 4.4 Legislation Affecting Energy Consumption of Federal Buildings and Facilities

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Executive Order 13423, Provisions Affecting Energy Consumption in Federal Buildings Source(s): -- Requires Federal agencies to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by either 3 percent annual reductions through FY 2015, or by 30 percent by 2015, as compared to FY 2003. -- Requires Federal agencies to obtain at least half of required renewable energy from new renewable sources. Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation

  17. Buildings Energy Data Book: 4.4 Legislation Affecting Energy Consumption of Federal Buildings and Facilities

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Provisions Affecting Energy Consumption in Federal Buildings Source(s): Standard Relating to Solar Hot Water - Requires new Federal buildings, or Federal buildings undergoing major renovations, to meet at least 30 percent of hot water demand through the use of solar hot water heaters, if cost-effective. [Section 523] Federally-Procured Appliances with Standby Power - Requires all Federal agencies to procure appliances with standby power consumption

  18. EO 13211: Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    5 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 99 / Tuesday, May 22, 2001 / Presidential Documents Executive Order 13211 of May 18, 2001 Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect En- ergy Supply, Distribution, or Use By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to appropriately weigh and consider the effects of the Federal Government's regulations on the supply, distribution, and use of energy, it is hereby ordered as

  19. affects on the transport of airborne emissions. This information is needed durin

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    affects on the transport of airborne emissions. This information is needed during the period of repository operation and closure to "estimate the potential effects on the transport of airborne emissions." 1.3.3 Environmental Quality Further federal regulations 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 include the need for information on existing air quality and trends in order to estimate potential impacts on public health and welfare and on environmental quality. 1.3.4 National Ambient Air Quality Standards

  20. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank SX-105, Tank AN-103, And AZ-101/102) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-09-18

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is a robust technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes. Applications have been tested at the pilot scale for the high sodium, sulfate, halide, organic and nitrate wastes at the Hanford site, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Due to the moderate processing temperatures, halides, sulfates, and technetium are retained in mineral phases of the feldspathoid family (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite, etc). The feldspathoid minerals bind the contaminants such as Tc-99 in cage (sodalite, nosean) or ring (nepheline) structures to surrounding aluminosilicate tetrahedra in the feldspathoid structures. The granular FBSR mineral waste form that is produced has a comparable durability to LAW glass based on the short term PCT testing in this study, the INL studies, SPFT and PUF testing from previous studies as given in the columns in Table 1-3 that represent the various durability tests. Monolithing of the granular product was shown to be feasible in a separate study. Macro-encapsulating the granular product provides a decrease in leaching compared to the FBSR granular product when the geopolymer is correctly formulated.

  1. Field-To-Fleet Webinar: How Does Feedstock Type Affect Biofuels Conversion?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    You are invited to join a webinar about BETO's Field-to-Fleet project and its outcomes to date. In honor of Earth Week, the Field-to-Fleet webinar will be held on Wednesday, April 20, from 1-2 p.m. Eastern Time. The Field-to-Fleet project is part of the larger Thermochemical Feedstock Interface Project and is a joint Idaho National Lab, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project designed to determine how feedstock type affects various thermochemical biofuels conversion processes. The multi-year project has quantified the impacts that feedstock type has on hydrotreating of pyrolysis oil, and is now ready to apply the methodology to other thermochemical conversion pathways. Join us to learn about the Field-to-Fleet project outcomes, impacts, and opportunities for partnership. We'll hear from laboratory project leads BETO's Conversion Technologies team. Register to attend the Field-to-Fleet webinar

  2. Factors affecting the concentration of outdoor particles indoors (COPI): Identification of data needs and existing data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Fisk, William J.; Sohn, Michael D.; Delp, Woody W.; Riley, William J.; Sextro, Richard G.

    2001-12-01

    The process of characterizing human exposure to particulate matter requires information on both particle concentrations in microenvironments and the time-specific activity budgets of individuals among these microenvironments. Because the average amount of time spent indoors by individuals in the US is estimated to be greater than 75%, accurate characterization of particle concentrations indoors is critical to exposure assessments for the US population. In addition, it is estimated that indoor particle concentrations depend strongly on outdoor concentrations. The spatial and temporal variations of indoor particle concentrations as well as the factors that affect these variations are important to health scientists. For them, knowledge of the factors that control the relationship of indoor particle concentrations to outdoor levels is particularly important. In this report, we identify and evaluate sources of data for those factors that affect the transport to and concentration of outdoor particles in the indoor environment. Concentrations of particles indoors depend upon the fraction of outdoor particles that penetrate through the building shell or are transported via the air handling (HVAC) system, the generation of particles by indoor sources, and the loss mechanisms that occur indoors, such as deposition. To address these issues, we (i) identify and assemble relevant information including the behavior of particles during air leakage, HVAC operations, and particle filtration; (ii) review and evaluate the assembled information to distinguish data that are directly relevant to specific estimates of particle transport from those that are only indirectly useful and (iii) provide a synthesis of the currently available information on building air-leakage parameters and their effect on indoor particle matter concentrations.

  3. Heat-affected zone liquation crack on resistance spot welded TWIP steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, Dulal Chandra [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, InSung [Automotive Production Development Division, Hyundai Motor Company (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Do, E-mail: ypark@deu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the heat affected zone (HAZ) liquation crack and segregation behavior of the resistance spot welded twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel have been reported. Cracks appeared in the post-welded joints that originated at the partially melted zone (PMZ) and propagated from the PMZ through the heat affected zone (HAZ) to the base metal (BM). The crack length and crack opening widths were observed increasing with heat input; and the welding current was identified to be the most influencing parameter for crack formation. Cracks appeared at the PMZ when nugget diameter reached at 4.50 mm or above; and the liquation cracks were found to occur along two sides of the notch tip in the sheet direction rather than in the electrode direction. Cracks were backfilled with the liquid films which has lamellar structure and supposed to be the eutectic constituent. Co-segregation of alloy elements such as, C and Mn were detected on the liquid films by electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) line scanning and element map which suggests that the liquid film was enrich of Mn and C. The eutectic constituent was identified by analyzing the calculated phase diagram along with thermal temperature history of finite element simulation. Preliminary experimental results showed that cracks have less/no significant effect on the static cross-tensile strength (CTS) and the tensile-shear strength (TSS). In addition, possible ways to avoid cracking were discussed. - Highlights: The HAZ liquation crack during resistance spot welding of TWIP steel was examined. Cracks were completely backfilled and healed with divorced eutectic secondary phase. Co-segregation of C and Mn was detected in the cracked zone. Heat input was the most influencing factor to initiate liquation crack. Cracks have less/no significant effect on static tensile properties.

  4. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-03-25

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution.

  5. CONTINUOSLY STIRRED TANK REACTOR PARAMETERS THAT AFFECT SLUDGE BATCH 6 SIMULANT PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, J.; Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Fernandez, A.

    2010-05-28

    The High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Sludge in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks was produced over a period of over 60 years by neutralizing the acidic waste produced in the F and H Separations Canyons with sodium hydroxide. The HLW slurries have been stored at free hydroxide concentrations above 1 M to minimize the corrosion of the carbon steel waste tanks. Sodium nitrite is periodically added as a corrosion inhibitor. The resulting waste has been subjected to supernate evaporation to minimize the volume of the stored waste. In addition, some of the waste tanks experienced high temperatures so some of the waste has been at elevated temperatures. Because the waste is radioactive, the waste is transforming through the decay of shorter lived radioactive species and the radiation damage that the decay releases. The goal of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) simulant development program is to develop a method to produce a sludge simulant that matches both the chemical and physical characteristics of the HLW without the time, temperature profile, chemical or radiation exposure of that of the real waste. Several different approaches have been taken historically toward preparing simulated waste slurries. All of the approaches used in the past dozen years involve some precipitation of the species using similar chemistry to that which formed the radioactive waste solids in the tank farm. All of the approaches add certain chemical species as commercially available insoluble solid compounds. The number of species introduced in this manner, however, has varied widely. All of the simulant preparation approaches make the simulated aqueous phase by adding the appropriate ratios of various sodium salts. The simulant preparation sequence generally starts with an acidic pH and ends up with a caustic pH (typically in the 10-12 range). The current method for making sludge simulant involves the use of a temperature controlled continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Precipitated MnO{sub 2} is combined with metal nitrates and fed into the CSTR. The metals are precipitated by a caustic NaOH stream. The rates at which these streams are added allows for pH adjustment of the mixture. A graphical representation of this process is given in Figure 1. In using the CSTR method for developing simulant, there are various parameters that can be adjusted in order to effectuate a physical change in the resulting simulant: pH, temperature, mixing speed, and flow rate. How will changing these parameters affect the physical properties of the sludge simulant? The ability to determine which parameter affects a particular property could allow one to develop a simulant that would better match the physical characteristics of HLW sludge.

  6. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  7. Statistical model selection for better prediction and discovering science mechanisms that affect reliability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Morzinski, Jerome; Blecker, Kenneth D.

    2015-08-19

    Understanding the impact of production, environmental exposure and age characteristics on the reliability of a population is frequently based on underlying science and empirical assessment. When there is incomplete science to prescribe which inputs should be included in a model of reliability to predict future trends, statistical model/variable selection techniques can be leveraged on a stockpile or population of units to improve reliability predictions as well as suggest new mechanisms affecting reliability to explore. We describe a five-step process for exploring relationships between available summaries of age, usage and environmental exposure and reliability. The process involves first identifying potential candidatemore » inputs, then second organizing data for the analysis. Third, a variety of models with different combinations of the inputs are estimated, and fourth, flexible metrics are used to compare them. As a result, plots of the predicted relationships are examined to distill leading model contenders into a prioritized list for subject matter experts to understand and compare. The complexity of the model, quality of prediction and cost of future data collection are all factors to be considered by the subject matter experts when selecting a final model.« less

  8. Statistical model selection for better prediction and discovering science mechanisms that affect reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Morzinski, Jerome; Blecker, Kenneth D.

    2015-08-19

    Understanding the impact of production, environmental exposure and age characteristics on the reliability of a population is frequently based on underlying science and empirical assessment. When there is incomplete science to prescribe which inputs should be included in a model of reliability to predict future trends, statistical model/variable selection techniques can be leveraged on a stockpile or population of units to improve reliability predictions as well as suggest new mechanisms affecting reliability to explore. We describe a five-step process for exploring relationships between available summaries of age, usage and environmental exposure and reliability. The process involves first identifying potential candidate inputs, then second organizing data for the analysis. Third, a variety of models with different combinations of the inputs are estimated, and fourth, flexible metrics are used to compare them. As a result, plots of the predicted relationships are examined to distill leading model contenders into a prioritized list for subject matter experts to understand and compare. The complexity of the model, quality of prediction and cost of future data collection are all factors to be considered by the subject matter experts when selecting a final model.

  9. Factors affecting degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) during pre-flotation conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caparanga, Alvin R. Basilia, Blessie A.; Dagbay, Kevin B.; Salvacion, Jonathan W.L.

    2009-09-15

    In general, plastics are exposed to different degrading agents in every procedure involved in their recovery from waste mixture and from subsequent recycling. In this study, two methods of pre-flotation conditioning were used to determine how these methods affect the general properties of the pre-conditioned PET particles to be recovered from the PET-PVC mixture. The first method comprised the conditioning of PET samples using an alkaline solution of nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) based on the patent by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. The second method, developed in this study, was a conditioning process which used an alkali-less solution of the same nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) used in the first method. The following analytical methods were used to characterize properties of the pre-conditioned PET samples that were correlated to relative degradation of the samples: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for thermal behavior of the samples; FT-IR spectroscopy, for functional groups present in the samples; and, Pohl's method, for carboxyl end-group concentration count. Results show that in addition to water the presence of NaOH in the conditioning solution contributes to the further degradation of the polymer.

  10. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  11. A model for heat-affected zone hardness profiles in Al-Li-X alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rading, G.O.; Berry, J.T.

    1998-09-01

    A model based on reaction kinetics and elemental diffusion is proposed to account for the presence of double inflection in the hardness profiles of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) in weldments of Al-Li-X alloys tested without postweld heat treatment (PWHT). Such profiles are particularly evident when (1) the base metal is in the peak-aged (T8 or T6) temper condition prior to welding; (2) the welding process is a high-heat input process, i.e., gas tungsten arc (GTA), gas metal arc (GMA) or plasma arc (PA) welding; and (3) a filler alloy deficient in lithium (i.e., AA 2319) is used. In the first part of this paper, the theoretical mechanisms are presented. It is proposed that the double inflection appears due to complete or partial reversion of the semi-coherent, plate-like precipitates (i.e., {theta}{prime}, T{sub 1} or S{prime}); coarsening of the plate-like precipitates at constant volume fraction; precipitation of {delta}{prime} as a result of natural aging; and diffusion of lithium from the HAZ into the weld pool due to the concentration gradient between the weld pool and the base metal. In the second part (to be published in next month`s Welding Journal), experimental validation of the model is provided using weldments of the Al-Li-Cu Alloy 2095.

  12. Parameters affecting nitrogen oxides in a Coal-Fired Flow Facility system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaoliang

    1996-03-01

    The unusually high temperature in the primary combustor of the Coal-Fired Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation system causes much higher nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) to be produced than in a conventional coal fired generation system. In order to lower the NO{sub x} concentration to an acceptable level, it is important to know how parameters of the MM power generation system affect the NO{sub x} concentration. This thesis investigates those effects in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute under the contract of US Department Of Energy (DOE). With thermodynamic and kinetic computer codes, the theoretical studies were carried out on the parameters of the CFFF system. The results gathered from the computer codes were analyzed and compared with the experimental data collected during the LMF5J test. The thermodynamic and kinetic codes together modeled the NO.{sub x} behavior with reasonable accuracy while some inconsistencies happened at the secondary combustor inlet.

  13. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length inmore » a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.« less

  14. Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

    2011-11-18

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

  15. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muenster, M.; Meibom, P.

    2010-12-15

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO{sub 2} quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO{sub 2} quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected.

  16. Long-term Differences in Tillage and Land Use Affect Intra-aggregate Pore Heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Wang, A.N.W.; Smucker, A.J.M.; Rivers, M.L.

    2012-10-25

    Recent advances in computed tomography provide measurement tools to study internal structures of soil aggregates at micrometer resolutions and to improve our understanding of specific mechanisms of various soil processes. Fractal analysis is one of the data analysis tools that can be helpful in evaluating heterogeneity of the intra-aggregate internal structures. The goal of this study was to examine how long-term tillage and land use differences affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. The specific objectives were: (i) to develop an approach to enhance utility of box-counting fractal dimension in characterizing intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity; (ii) to examine intra-aggregate pores in macro-aggregates (4-6 mm in size) using the computed tomography scanning and fractal analysis, and (iii) to compare heterogeneity of intra-aggregate pore space in aggregates from loamy Alfisol soil subjected to 20 yr of contrasting management practices, namely, conventional tillage (chisel plow) (CT), no-till (NT), and native succession vegetation (NS). Three-dimensional images of the intact aggregates were obtained with a resolution of 14.6 {micro}m at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Proposed box-counting fractal dimension normalization was successfully implemented to estimate heterogeneity of pore voxel distributions without bias associated with different porosities in soil aggregates. The aggregates from all three studied treatments had higher porosity associated with large (>100 {micro}m) pores present in their centers than in their exteriors. Pores 15 to 60 {micro}m were equally abundant throughout entire aggregates but their distributions were more heterogeneous in aggregate interiors. The CT aggregates had greater numbers of pores 15 to 60 {micro}m than NT and NS. Distribution of pore voxels belonging to large pores was most heterogeneous in the aggregates from NS, followed by NT and by CT. This result was consistent with presence of very large pores associated with former root channels in NT and NS aggregates. Our findings indicate that mechanisms of macro-aggregate formation might differ in their importance in different land use and management practices.

  17. THE HUNT FOR GREEN EVERY APRIL: FACTORS AFFECTING FITNESS IN SWITCHGRASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarath, Gautam

    2014-12-10

    This grant funded work was undertaken to develop fundamental biological knowledge of the factors affecting the complex plant trait fitness in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a plant being developed as a biomass crop. Using a diverse range of latitudinally-adapted switchgrass plants, genomic, molecular and physiological studies were performed to track a number of different aspects of plant genetics and physiology over the course of the growing season. Work was performed on both genetically unrelated and genetically related plants. Plants were established in the field from seedlings raised in a greenhouse, or from clones present in other field nurseries. Field grown plants were used as the source of all tissues. The three objectives of this proposal were:(1) Transcript Profiling, Metabolomics, and C and N Partitioning and Recycling in Crowns and Rhizomes of Switchgrass over two growing seasons; (2) Gene Profiling During Regreening and Dormancy of Bulked Segregants; (3) Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Populations for Adaptation and Fitness Traits Being Developed for Central and Northern USA, that Show Significant Heterosis. Objective 1 results: Plants were labeled using 13CO2 (a stable isotope) using an acrylic chamber constructed specifically for this purpose. Plants became labeled with 13C and label decayed in aerial tissues over the course of the growing season. Varying amounts of 13C were recovered in the rhizomes. These data are being analyzed. Plants were also labeled with 15N-urea. Plants absorbed significant amounts of label that was remobilized to the growing shoots. N-dynamics would suggest that a portion of the 15N absorbed into the crowns and rhizomes is sequestered below ground. Variable amounts of 15N were translocated from the shoots to the roots over the course of the growing season. Polar metabolites extracted from a diverse array of rhizomes were analyzed using GCMS. Data indicated that there was a significant shift in metabolite pools over the course of the growing season, and differences in the levels of specific metabolites could be linked to the progression of dormancy. Several metabolites that accumulate in dormant rhizomes were identified. Some of these metabolites could be potentially linked to winter-survival of switchgrass. Extensive high-throughput sequencing was conducted on crown and rhizome samples collected from field grown plants. Initial work was performed on a Roche 454 system. All later work was performed on an Illumina sequencing-by-synthesis system. Some of these datasets have been published as peer-reviewed papers, other data are currently being analyzed and being readied for publication. Objective 2 results: Genetically related but phenotypically divergent plants from an octaploid switchgrass population were grown in a replicated field nursery. Rhizomes were harvested at four different times over the course of the growing season from plants with high winter survival and those with lower winter survival. RNA-Seq was performed on harvested materials. Initial analysis suggests that plants with lowered winter survival experience a greater level of cellular stress in dormant tissues. This aspect of plant function is being probed in greater depth. Objective 3 results: A total of 592 individual clones with three clonal replications in a randomized complete block design from each of five populations used in Objective 1 studies were rated for heading date in 2012 and 2014, green-up day of year in 2013, anthesis date in 2012, and yield in 2012, they were also subjected to NIR spectroscopy to derive cell wall composition estimates based on prior NIR calibrations. Plants were genotyped via a genotyping by sequencing (GBS) approach from reduced representation libraries constructed with adaptors that identified each individual. Libraries generated with the restriction enzyme PstI and called SNPs using Samtools after alignment to version 1.1 of the switchgrass genome sequence. A total of approximately 40,000 SNPs were found. These were then further filtered to eliminate markers with a m

  18. OPERATIONAL AND COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ARP/MCU SALTSTONE GROUT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.; Edwards, T.; Pickenheim, B.

    2012-02-15

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives low level waste (LLW) salt solution from Tank 50H for treatment and disposal. Tank 50H receives transfers from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), the H-Canyon General Purpose Evaporator, and the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSS-HT). At the SPF, the LLW is mixed with premix (a cementitious mixture of portland cement (PC), blast furnace slag (BFS) and Class F fly ash (FA)) in a Readco mixer to produce fresh (uncured) saltstone that is transferred to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. The saltstone formulation (mix design) must produce a grout waste form that meets both placement and performance properties. In previous simulated saltstone studies, multiple compositional factors were identified that drive the performance properties of saltstone made from the projected ARP/MCU salt solution. This composition was selected as salt solution simulant since ARP/MCU is the primary influent into Tank 50H. The primary performance property investigated was hydraulic conductivity since it is a variable input property to the saltstone Performance Assessment (PA) transport model. In addition, the porosity, also referred to as void structure, is another variable that impacts the PA response. In addition, Young's modulus and cured density are other performance properties analyzed in this report; however they are indicators of the performance of saltstone and not direct inputs into the PA. The data from previous studies showed that the largest impact on the performance properties of saltstone was due to curing temperature, followed by aluminate concentration in the salt solution, water to premix ratio and premix composition. However, due to the scope of the previous studies, only a few mixes were cured and analyzed at higher temperatures. The samples cured at 60 C had an increased hydraulic conductivity of approximately 600 times that of the sample cured at room temperature. The hydration reactions initiated during the mixing of the premix and salt solution continue during the curing period in the vaults to produce the hardened waste form product. The heat generated from exothermic hydration reactions results in a temperature increase in the vaults that depends on the composition of the decontaminated salt solution being dispositioned, the grout formulation (mix design) and the pour frequency and volume. This heat generation is a contributing factor to the temperature increase in the vaults that leads to an increased cure temperature for the grout. This report will further investigate the impact of curing temperature on saltstone performance properties (hydraulic conductivity, Young's modulus, porosity, etc.) over a range of aluminate concentration, water to premix (w/p) ratio and weight percent fly ash in the premix processed at the SPF. The three curing temperatures selected for this study were chosen to provide data at fixed cure temperatures that represent measured temperatures in the SDF vaults. This does not represent the conditions in the vault where the temperature of the saltstone is continually changing with time. For example, it may take several days for the saltstone to reach 60 C at a given elevation. Previous results demonstrated that the rates at which a selected curing temperature is reached affect the performance properties. The approach taken in this task, a rapid increase to the curing temperature, may be conservative with respect to decreased performance. Nevertheless, the data will provide a basis from which to determine the impact of curing temperature on saltstone performance as a function of key variables. A statistical evaluation of the results for these mixes will be performed to provide the range, and associated uncertainties, of hydraulic conductivity and other properties over this factor space.

  19. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earths surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nations domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earths crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earths crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and/or injected fluids is critical to predict important chemical behaviors affecting fluid flow, such as mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions. We successfully achieved the project goal and objectives by demonstrating the ability of our modeling technology to correctly predict the complex pH dependent solution chemistry of the Al3+ cation and its hydrolysis species: Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)30, and Al(OH)4- as well as the solubility of common aluminum hydroxide and aluminosilicate minerals in aqueous brines containing components (Na, K, Cl) commonly dominating hydrothermal fluids. In the sodium chloride system, where experimental data for model parameterization are most plentiful, the model extends to 300C. Determining the stability fields of aluminum species that control the solubility of aluminum-containing minerals as a function of temperature and composition has been a major objective of research in hydrothermal chemistry.

  20. Notice of Intent to Issue Funding Opportunity Announcement "Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT) 2016"

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intends to issue, on behalf of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), a funding opportunity announcement (FOA) titled "Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT) 2016" this April or May.

  1. Reforming natural gas markets: the antitrust alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, J.D.; Gilfoyle, N.P.

    1983-05-12

    Key provisions of legislative proposals directed at the natural gas industry and currently being considered in Congress are intended to promote increased competition in the marketing of gas. All are consistent with fundamental tenets of antitrust law. This article review relevant antitrust principles as they relate to the natural-gas industry to place the remedial features of the proposed legislation in a proper context.

  2. Environmental fiscal reform (EFR) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    also an area that may not have received enough attention in the past, from both fiscal or environmental experts and their associated institutions."1 "To use market forces to drive...

  3. Post-reform continuation of social goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graniere, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Public utility regulators are currently wrestling with the issue of how and to what extent the social goals that have grown up around traditional regulation might be continued in a restructured electric power industry. This report critically examines six mechanisms that could be used for this purpose in the wake of the introduction of competition in the generation segment. Their pros and cons are thoroughly appraised in economic terms.

  4. NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance (December 1996)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    defining early what contractors should accomplish < establishing contracts ahead of time < minimizing cost while maintaining quality by * maximizing competition and use of incentives * using past performance information in awarding work * managing the NEPA process as a project This guidance provides: < model statements of work < information on contract types and incentives < direction on effective NEPA contract management by the NEPA Document Manager < a system for measuring

  5. NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance (DOE, 1996)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This guidance provides: model statements of work, information on contract types and incentives, direction on effective NEPA contract management by the NEPA Document Manager, a system for measuring...

  6. Energy in Europe and Central Asia: A sector strategy for the World Bank Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    Many countries in the Europe and Central Asia region have had an excess production capacity, lower quality supply, decreasing demand, and inefficient consumption in the energy sector since the late 1980s. This report outlines the four main objectives that form the World Bank Group`s strategy for reform: assisting governments to protect the public interest, supporting economic transition, facilitating private investments, and promoting regional initiatives to increase energy trade.

  7. TH-C-18A-09: Exam and Patient Parameters Affecting the DNA Damage Response Following CT Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgart, S; Adibi, A; Bostani, M; Ruehm, S; Enzmann, D; McNitt-Gray, M; Iwamoto, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To identify exam and patient parameters affecting the biological response to CT studies using in vivo and ex vivo blood samples. Methods: Blood samples were collected under IRB approval from 16 patients undergoing clinically-indicated CT exams. Blood was procured prior to, immediately after and 30minutes following irradiation. A sample of preexam blood was placed on the patient within the exam region for ex vivo analysis. Whole blood samples were fixed immediately following collection and stained for ?H2AX to assess DNA damage response (DDR). Median fluorescence of treated samples was compared to non-irradiated control samples for each patient. Patients were characterized by observed biological kinetic response: (a) fast phosphorylation increased by 2minutes and fell by 30minutes, (b) slow phosphorylation continued to increase to 30minutes and (c) none little change was observed or irradiated samples fell below controls. Total dose values were normalized to exam time for an averaged dose-rate in dose/sec for each exam. Relationships between patient biological responses and patient and exam parameters were investigated. Results: A clearer dose response at 30minutes is observed for young patients (<61yoa; R2>0.5) compared to old patients (>61yoa; R{sup 2}<0.11). Fast responding patients were significantly younger than slow responding patients (p<0.05). Unlike in vivo samples, age did not significantly affect the patient response ex vivo. Additionally, fast responding patients received exams with significantly smaller dose-rate than slow responding patients (p<0.05). Conclusion: Age is a significant factor in the biological response suggesting that DDR may be more rapid in a younger population and slower as the population ages. Lack of an agerelated response ex vivo suggests a systemic response to radiation not present when irradiated outside the body. Dose-rate affects the biological response suggesting that patient response may be related to scan timing and dose delivery within an exam protocol. All authors receive(d) funding from a Master Research Agreement from Siemens Healthcare with UCLA Radiological Sciences.

  8. Communication: Microsecond dynamics of the protein and water affect electron transfer in a bacterial bc{sub 1} complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2015-04-28

    Cross-membrane electron transport between cofactors localized in proteins of mitochondrial respiration and bacterial photosynthesis is the source of all biological energy. The statistics and dynamics of nuclear fluctuations in these protein/membrane/water heterogeneous systems are critical for their energetic efficiency. The results of 13 ?s of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the membrane-bound bc{sub 1} bacterial complex are analyzed here. The reaction is affected by a broad spectrum of nuclear modes, with the slowest dynamics in the range of time-scales ?0.1-1.6 ?s contributing half of the reaction reorganization energy. Two reorganization energies are required to describe protein electron transfer due to dynamical arrest of protein conformations on the observation window. This mechanistic distinction allows significant lowering of activation barriers for reactions in proteins.

  9. Mutations that affect structure and assembly of light-harvesting proteins in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain 6701

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, L.K.; Rayner, M.C.; Eiserling, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain 6701 was mutagenized with UV irradiation and screened for pigment changes that indicated genetic lesions involving the light-harvesting proteins of the phycobilisome. A previous examination of the pigment mutant UV16 showed an assembly defect in the phycocyanin component of the phycobilisome. Mutagenesis of UV16 produced an additional double mutant, UV16-40, with decreased phycoerythrin content. Phycocyanin and phycoerythrin were isolated from UV16-40 and compared with normal biliproteins. The results suggested that the UV16 mutation affected the alpha subunit of phycocyanin, while the phycoerythrin beta subunit from UV16-40 had lost one of its three chromophores. Characterization of the unassembled phycobilisome components in these mutants suggests that these strains will be useful for probing in vivo the regulated expression and assembly of phycobilisomes.

  10. Key regulatory drivers affecting shipments of mixed transuranic waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumann, P.B.; Bacigalupa, G.A.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Sinkule, B.J.

    1997-02-01

    A number of key regulatory drivers affect the nature, scope, and timing of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) plans for mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which are planned to commence as soon as possible following WIPP`s currently anticipated November, 1997 opening date. This paper provides an overview of some of the key drivers at LANL, particularly emphasizing those associated with the hazardous waste component of LANL`s MTRU waste (MTRU, like any mixed waste, contains both a radioactive and a hazardous waste component). The key drivers discussed here derive from the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its amendments, including the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAU), and from the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (NMHWA). These statutory provisions are enforced through three major mechanisms: facility RCRA permits; the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, set forth in the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 4, Part 1: and compliance orders issued to enforce these requirements. General requirements in all three categories will apply to MTRU waste management and characterization activities at both WIPP and LANL. In addition, LANL is subject to facility-specific requirements in its RCRA hazardous waste facility permit, permit conditions as currently proposed in RCRA Part B permit applications presently being reviewed by the New Mexico Environment Department (NNED), and facility-specific compliance orders related to MTRU waste management. Likewise, permitting and compliance-related requirements specific to WIPP indirectly affect LANL`s characterization, packaging, record-keeping, and transportation requirements for MTRU waste. LANL must comply with this evolving set of regulatory requirements to begin shipments of MTRU waste to WIPP in a timely fashion.

  11. Factors affecting route selection and survival of steelhead kelts at Snake River dams in 2012 and 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison H. A.; Li, Xinya; Fu, Tao; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Green, Ethan D.

    2015-03-31

    In 2012 and 2013, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a study that summarized the passage route proportions and route-specific survival rates of steelhead kelts that passed through Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) dams. To accomplish this, a total of 811 steelhead kelts were tagged with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitters. Acoustic receivers, both autonomous and cabled, were deployed throughout the FCRPS to monitor the downstream movements of tagged kelts. Kelts were also tagged with passive integrated transponder tags to monitor passage through juvenile bypass systems (JBS) and detect returning fish. The current study evaluated data collected in 2012 and 2013 to identify environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that were related to forebay residence time, route of passage, and survival of steelhead kelts at FCRPS dams on the Snake River. Multiple approaches, including 3-D tracking, bivariate and multivariable regression modeling, and decision tree analyses were used to identify the environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that had the greatest effect on forebay residence time, route of passage, and route-specific and overall dam passage survival probabilities for tagged kelts at Lower Granite (LGR), Little Goose (LGS), and Lower Monumental (LMN) dams. In general, kelt behavior and discharge appeared to work independently to affect forebay residence times. Kelt behavior, primarily approach location, migration depth, and “searching” activities in the forebay, was found to have the greatest influence on their route of passage. The condition of kelts was the single most important factor affecting their survival. The information gathered in this study may be used by dam operators and fisheries managers to identify potential management actions to improve in-river survival of kelts or collection methods for kelt reconditioning programs to aid the recovery of Snake River steelhead populations.

  12. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992). Summary of comments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-03-25

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution.

  13. Regional Algal Biofuel Production Potential in the Coterminous United States as Affected by Resource Availability Trade-offs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-15

    The warm sunny climate and unoccupied arid lands in the American southwest are favorable factors for algae cultivation. However, additional resources affect the overall viability of specific sites and regions. We investigated the tradeoffs between growth rate, water, and CO2 availability and costs for two strains: N. salina and Chlorella sp. We conducted site selection exercises (~88,000 US sites) to produce 21 billion gallons yr-1 (BGY) of renewable diesel (RD). Experimental trials from the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-Products (NAABB) team informed the growth model of our Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT). We simulated RD production by both lipid extraction and hydrothermal liquefaction. Sites were prioritized by the net value of biofuel minus water and flue gas costs. Water cost models for N. salina were based on seawater and high salinity groundwater and for Chlorella, fresh and brackish groundwater. CO2 costs were based on a flue gas delivery model. Selections constrained by production and water were concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic coasts due to high growth rates and low water costs. Adding flue gas constraints increased the spatial distribution, but the majority of sites remained in the southeast. The 21 BGY target required ~3.8 million hectares of mainly forest (41.3%) and pasture (35.7%). Exclusion in favor of barren and scrub lands forced most production to the southwestern US, but with increased water consumption (5.7 times) and decreased economic efficiency (-38%).

  14. Comparing bacterial community composition of healthy and dark spot-affected Siderastrea siderea in Florida and the Caribbean

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gray, Michael A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2014-10-07

    Coral disease is one of the major causes of reef degradation. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) was described in the early 1990's as brown or purple amorphous areas of tissue on a coral and has since become one of the most prevalent diseases reported on Caribbean reefs. It has been identified in a number of coral species, but there is debate as to whether it is in fact the same disease in different corals. Further, it is questioned whether these macroscopic signs are in fact diagnostic of an infectious disease at all. The most commonly affected species in the Caribbean ismore » the massive starlet coral Siderastrea siderea. We sampled this species in two locations, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park. Tissue biopsies were collected from both healthy colonies and those with dark spot lesions. Microbial-community DNA was extracted from coral samples (mucus, tissue, and skeleton), amplified using bacterial-specific primers, and applied to PhyloChip G3 microarrays to examine the bacterial diversity associated with this coral. Samples were also screened for the presence of a fungal ribotype that has recently been implicated as a causative agent of DSS in another coral species, but the amplifications were unsuccessful. S. siderea samples did not cluster consistently based on health state (i.e., normal versus dark spot). Various bacteria, including Cyanobacteria and Vibrios, were observed to have increased relative abundance in the discolored tissue, but the patterns were not consistent across all DSS samples. Overall, our findings do not support the hypothesis that DSS in S. siderea is linked to a bacterial pathogen or pathogens. This dataset provides the most comprehensive overview to date of the bacterial community associated with the scleractinian coral S. siderea.« less

  15. The affect of erbium hydride on the conversion efficience to accelerated protons from ultra-shsort pulse laser irradiated foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Offermann, D

    2008-09-04

    This thesis work explores, experimentally, the potential gains in the conversion efficiency from ultra-intense laser light to proton beams using erbium hydride coatings. For years, it has been known that contaminants at the rear surface of an ultra-intense laser irradiated thin foil will be accelerated to multi-MeV. Inertial Confinement Fusion fast ignition using proton beams as the igniter source requires of about 10{sup 16} protons with an average energy of about 3MeV. This is far more than the 10{sup 12} protons available in the contaminant layer. Target designs must include some form of a hydrogen rich coating that can be made thick enough to support the beam requirements of fast ignition. Work with computer simulations of thin foils suggest the atomic mass of the non-hydrogen atoms in the surface layer has a strong affect on the conversion efficiency to protons. For example, the 167amu erbium atoms will take less energy away from the proton beam than a coating using carbon with a mass of 12amu. A pure hydrogen coating would be ideal, but technologically is not feasible at this time. In the experiments performed for my thesis, ErH{sub 3} coatings on 5 {micro}m gold foils are compared with typical contaminants which are approximately equivalent to CH{sub 1.7}. It will be shown that there was a factor of 1.25 {+-} 0.19 improvement in the conversion efficiency for protons above 3MeV using erbium hydride using the Callisto laser. Callisto is a 10J per pulse, 800nm wavelength laser with a pulse duration of 200fs and can be focused to a peak intensity of about 5 x 10{sup 19}W/cm{sup 2}. The total number of protons from either target type was on the order of 10{sup 10}. Furthermore, the same experiment was performed on the Titan laser, which has a 500fs pulse duration, 150J of energy and can be focused to about 3 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. In this experiment 10{sup 12} protons were seen from both erbium hydride and contaminants on 14 {micro} m gold foils. Significant improvements were also observed but possibly because of the depletion of hydrogen in the contaminant layer case.

  16. Thymidylate Synthase Gene Polymorphism Affects the Response to Preoperative 5-Fluorouracil Chemoradiation Therapy in Patients With Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, Hyuk; Kang, Jeonghyun; Kim, Nam Kyu; Min, Byung Soh; Lee, Kang Young; Shin, Sang Joon; Keum, Ki Chang; Choi, Junjeong; Kim, Hoguen; Choi, Sung Ho; Lee, Mi-Young

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: This study aims to correlate thymidylate synthase (TS) gene polymorphisms with the tumor response to preoperative 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in patients with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-four patients with rectal cancer treated with 5-FU-based preoperative CRT were prospectively enrolled in this study. Thymidylate synthase expression and TS gene polymorphisms were evaluated in tumor obtained before preoperative CRT and were correlated with the pathologic response, as assessed by histopathologic staging (pTNM) and tumor regression grade. Results: Patients exhibited 2R/3R and 3R/3R tandem repeat polymorphisms in the TS gene. With regard to TS expression in these genotypes, 2R/3RC and 3RC/3RC were defined as the low-expression group and 2R/3RG, 3RC/3RG, and 3RG/3RG as the high-expression group. There was no significant correlation between TS expression and tumor response. There was no significant difference in the tumor response between patients homozygous for 3R/3R and patients heterozygous for 2R/3R. However, 13 of 14 patients in the low-expression group with a G>C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (2R/3RC [n = 5] or 3RC/3RC [n = 9]) exhibited a significantly greater tumor downstaging rate, as compared with only 12 of 30 patients in the high-expression group without the SNP (2R/3RG [n = 10], 3RC/3RG [n = 9], or 3RG/3RG [n = 11]) (p = 0.001). The nodal downstaging rate was also significantly greater in this low-expression group, as compared with the high-expression group (12 of 14 vs. 14 of 30, p = 0.014). However, there was no significant difference in the tumor regression grade between these groups. Conclusions: This study suggests that SNPs within the TS enhancer region affect the tumor response to preoperative 5-FU-based CRT in rectal cancer.

  17. Factors Affecting Route Selection and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at Snake River Dams in 2012 and 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Li, Xinya; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2014-12-15

    In 2012 and 2013, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a study that summarized the passage proportions and route-specific survival rates of steelhead kelts that passed through Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) dams. To accomplish this, a total of 811 steelhead kelts were tagged with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitters. Acoustic receivers, both autonomous and cabled, were deployed throughout the FCRPS to monitor the downstream movements of tagged-kelts. Kelts were also tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder tags to monitor passage through juvenile bypass systems and detect returning fish. The current study evaluated data collected in 2012 and 2013 to identify individual, behavioral, environmental and dam operation variables that were related to passage and survival of steelhead kelts that passed through FCRPS dams. Bayesian model averaging of multivariable logistic regression models was used to identify the environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that had the highest probability of influencing the route of passage and the route-specific survival probabilities for kelts that passed Lower Granite (LGR), Little Goose (LGS), and Lower Monumental (LMN) dams in 2012 and 2013. The posterior probabilities of the best models for predicting route of passage ranged from 0.106 for traditional spill at LMN to 0.720 for turbine passage at LGS. Generally, the behavior (depth and near-dam searching activity) of kelts in the forebay appeared to have the greatest influence on their route of passage. Shallower-migrating kelts had a higher probability of passing via the weir and deeper-migrating kelts had a higher probability of passing via the JBS and turbines than other routes. Kelts that displayed a higher level of near-dam searching activity had a higher probability of passing via the spillway weir and those that did less near-dam searching had a higher probability of passing via the JBS and turbines. The side of the river in which kelts approached the dam and dam operations also affected route of passage. Dam operations and the size and condition of kelts were found to have the greatest effect on route-specific survival probabilities for fish that passed via the spillway at LGS. That is, longer kelts and those in fair condition had a lower probability of survival for fish that passed via the spillway weir. The survival of spillway weir- and deep-spill passed kelts was positively correlated with the percent of the total discharge that passed through turbine unit 4. Too few kelts passed through the traditional spill, JBS, and turbine units to evaluate survival through these routes. The information gathered in this study describes Snake River steelhead kelt passage behavior, rates, and distributions through the FCRPS as well as provide information to biologists and engineers about the dam operations and abiotic conditions that are related to passage and survival of steelhead kelts.

  18. Notice of Intent to Issue Funding Opportunity Announcement “Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT) 2016,” DE-FOA-0001574

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document announces the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy intention to issue, on behalf of the Federal Energy Management Program, a funding opportunity announcement titled "Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT) 2016."

  19. Beyond Renewable Portfolio Standards: An Assessment of Regional Supply and Demand Conditions Affecting the Future of Renewable Energy in the West

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (This page intentionally left blank) National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, CO 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Beyond Renewable Portfolio Standards: An Assessment of Regional Supply and Demand Conditions Affecting the Future of Renewable Energy in the West David J. Hurlbut, Joyce McLaren, and Rachel Gelman National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. AROE.2000 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy

  20. Beyond Renewable Portfolio Standards: An Assessment of Regional Supply and Demand Conditions Affecting the Future of Renewable Energy in the West; Executive Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, CO 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Beyond Renewable Portfolio Standards: An Assessment of Regional Supply and Demand Conditions Affecting the Future of Renewable Energy in the West Executive Summary David J. Hurlbut, Joyce McLaren, and Rachel Gelman National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. AROE.2000 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency &

  1. ITP Chemicals: Chemical Bandwidth Study- Energy Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Identifying Process Inefficiencies in the U.S. Chemical Industry, Industrial Technologies Program, DRAFT Summary Report, December 2006

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensed summary of a much larger work, and does not contain the comprehensive data sets generated in that effort

  2. Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

    1993-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

  3. Identification and preliminary characterization of global water resource issues which may be affected by CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, J.M.; Cohen, M.L.; Currie, J.W.

    1984-04-01

    The objectives were to: (1) identify, characterize, and define existing or projected regional and global water resource management issues which may be affected by CO/sub 2/-induced climate changes; and (2) develop research priorities for acquiring additional information about the potential effects of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on the availability and allocation of freshwater supplies. The research was broken into four work elements: (1) identification of water resource management issues on a global and regional basis; (2) identification of a subset of generic CO/sub 2/-related water resource management issues believed to have the highest probability of being affected, beneficially or adversely, by a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change; (3) selection of specific sites for examining the potential effect of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on these issues; and (4) conducting detailed case studies at these sites, the results from which will be used to identify future research and data needs in the area of water resources. This report summarizes the research related to the first three work elements. 6 figures, 9 tables.

  4. Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & EC Spatial Imaging via X-ray Micro-tomography Computed Tomography Changes in Pore Structure Moisture Distribution XMT-CT Scan Void Space (Black), Particles (White), Water...

  5. Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WASHINGTON- On Thursday, January 15, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz will give a speech at ... Following his speech, Secretary Moniz will participate in a moderated discussion. In ...

  6. GUIDANCE ON APPLICATION OF FEDERAL VACANCIES REFORM ACT OF 1998...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... S12,823 (daily ed. Oct. 21, 1998) (statement of Sen. Thompson); id. at S 12,824 (statement ... See e.g., Section 610 of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act, 1999, ...

  7. Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CyclesMeets Off-Road Final Tier 4 and HD On-road Emission Standards PDF icon deer09mccarthy.pdf More Documents & Publications Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a...

  8. One Step Biomass Gas Reforming-Shift Separation Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Michael J.; Souleimanova, Razima

    2012-12-28

    GTI developed a plan where efforts were concentrated in 4 major areas: membrane material development, membrane module development, membrane process development, and membrane gasifier scale-up. GTI assembled a team of researchers to work in each area. Task 1.1 Ceramic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by Arizona State University (ASU), Task 1.2 Metallic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by the U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Task 1.3 was conducted by SCHOTT, and GTI was to test all membranes that showed potential. The initial focus of the project was concentrated on membrane material development. Metallic and glass-based membranes were identified as hydrogen selective membranes under the conditions of the biomass gasification, temperatures above 700C and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. Membranes were synthesized by arc-rolling for metallic type membranes and incorporating Pd into a glass matrix for glass membranes. Testing for hydrogen permeability properties were completed and the effects of hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide were investigated for perspective membranes. The initial candidate membrane of Pd80Cu20 chosen in 2008 was selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. Although the H2A analysis results indicated a $1.96 cost per gge H2 based on a 5A (micron) thick PdCu membrane, there was not long-term operation at the required flux to satisfy the go/no go decision. Since the future PSA case yielded a $2.00/gge H2, DOE decided that there was insufficient savings compared with the already proven PSA technology to further pursue the membrane reactor design. All ceramic membranes synthesized by ASU during the project showed low hydrogen flux as compared with metallic membranes. The best ceramic membrane showed hydrogen permeation flux of 0.03 SCFH/ft2 at the required process conditions while the metallic membrane, Pd80Cu20 showed a flux of 47.2 SCFH/ft2 (3 orders of magnitude difference). Results from NETL showed Pd80Cu20 with the highest flux, therefore it was chosen as the initial and eventually, final candidate membrane. The criteria for choice were high hydrogen flux, long-term stability, and H2S tolerance. Results from SCHOTT using glass membranes showed a maximum of 0.25 SCFH/ft2, that is an order of magnitude better than the ceramic membrane but still two orders of magnitude lower than the metallic membrane. A membrane module was designed to be tested with an actual biomass gasifier. Some parts of the module were ordered but the work was stopped when a no go decision was made by the DOE.

  9. Reforming Pyrolysis Aqueous Waste Streams to Process Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Experiment: MBMS: real-time deactivation of the catalysts GCMS: Identify and quantify products TGA analysis: coking extent XRDNMR Investigate dealumination ...

  10. Secretary Moniz's Remarks on Project Management Reform at the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... If you look at our major mission, it's pretty clear. In the 1970s, when DOE was stood up ... Addthis Related Articles Press Roundtable with U.S. Energy Secretary Bodman & U.S. ...

  11. Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Resource assessment, Background analysis Resource Type Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:recoftc.orgsitefilead Country Vietnam UN...

  12. Reforming Power Markets in Developing Countries | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Topics: Policiesdeployment programs Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learnedbest practices Website: siteresources.worldbank.orgINTENERGYResources...

  13. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    liquidstoh2reformingtargets.pdf More Documents & Publications BILIWG: Consistent "Figures of Merit" (Presentation) Distributed Hydrogen Fueling Station Based on GEGR SCPO...

  14. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Select Toxins and Agents Develop a tiered list and associated requirements, as has been documented by the American Society of Microbiology. Hazardous Materials CFATS: wherever ...

  15. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ProgramLab R&D Review, May 6-10, 2002, Golden, Colorado. Process Analysis Work for the DOE Hydrogen Program - 2001 Overview of DOE - DOT December 2009 CNG and Hydrogen Fuels

  16. Reforming The Government Hiring Process | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Rita R. Franklin Rita R. Franklin Director, Office of the Ombudsman What does this mean for me? In the video, Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman highlights the Department's "Time-to-Hire Tracking and Reporting System." The Department reduced the end-to-end time-to-hire from 174 calendar days for Fiscal Year FY 2009 to 100 days for FY 2010. Wednesday, Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman and I met with leaders from across the Federal government to share our progress in the our Department's

  17. One Step Hydrogen Generation Through Sorption Enhanced Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mays, Aerojet Rocketdyne U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Program Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 28-29, 2015 Does not contain any ITAR or EAR technical information This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective  Develop compact, hydrogen production technology for large-scale applications  Reduces cost of hydrogen by 15-20% vs. current technology  Reduces cost of carbon dioxide capture  Mature

  18. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deputy Assistant Secretary Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Subject: Green Building Practices in the Federal Building Sector PDF icon 7-21-10FinalTestimony(...

  19. National Development and Reform Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    agency and regulator, formulates and implements strategies of national economic and social development. 1 see also: Energy Research Institute Deputy Director Xie Zhenhua Gao...

  20. One Step Hydrogen Generation Through Sorption Enhanced Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective Develop compact, hydrogen production technology for large-scale applications Reduces cost of hydrogen by...

  1. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

  2. National Environmenal Policy Act Contracting Reform Guidance: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The NEPA Contracting Quality Improvement Team identified several contracting improvements to reduce the cost and time for the NEPA process. The team`s February 1995 report recommended a series of steps to achieve the improvements, including issuance of contracting guidance. The guidance will be issued in three phases. This Phase I guidance implements the team`s short-term recommendations. It provides model statements of work and a sample schedule of contractor deliverables, establishes a pilot program for evaluating performance of NEPA support contractors, and describes information resources available on the DOE NEPA Web.

  3. IT Reform at the Department of Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to bring together internal IT resources, National Laboratories and strategic partners ... Department's consolidated investment to implement a HSPD-12 identity management system. ...

  4. On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel Reformer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  5. Reforming The Government Hiring Process | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Daniel Poneman highlights the Department's "Time-to-Hire Tracking and Reporting System." ... In particular, the Deputy highlighted the Department's "Time-to-Hire Tracking and ...

  6. Ghana-REDD Readiness Requires Radical Reform | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Background analysis Resource Type Maps, Guidemanual, Training materials Website http:environment.yale.edutf Country Ghana UN Region Western Africa References Ghana-REDD...

  7. Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Subject: Management of DOE Capital Asset Projects By: John MacWilliams, Senior Advisor to the Secretary

  8. Factors Affecting the Risk of Brain Metastasis in Small Cell Lung Cancer With Surgery: Is Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Necessary for Stage I-III Disease?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong Linlin; Wang, Q.I.; Zhao Lujun; Yuan Zhiyong; Li Ruijian; Wang Ping

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with surgical resection has not been fully identified. This study undertook to assess the factors affecting the risk of brain metastases in patients with stage I-III SCLC after surgical resection. The implications of PCI treatment for these patients are discussed. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty-six patients treated with surgical resection for stage I-III SCLC from January 1998-December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the risk factors of brain metastases. Log-rank test and Cox regression model were used to determine the risk factors of brain metastases. Results: The median survival time for this patient population was 34 months, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 34.9%. For the whole group, 23.0% (29/126) of the patients had evidence of metastases to brain. Pathologic stage not only correlated with overall survival but also significantly affected the risk of brain metastases. The 5-year survival rates for patients with pathologic stages I, II, and III were 54.8%, 35.6%, and 14.1%, respectively (P=.001). The frequency of brain metastases in patients with pathologic stages I, II, and III were 6.25% (2/32), 28.2% (11/39), and 29.1% (16/55) (P=.026), respectively. A significant difference in brain metastases between patients with complete resection and incomplete resection was also observed (20.5% vs 42.9%, P=.028). The frequency of brain metastases was not found to be correlated with age, sex, pathologic type, induction chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, or adjuvant radiation therapy. Conclusions: Stage I SCLC patients with complete resection had a low incidence of brain metastases and a favorable survival rate. Stage II-III disease had a higher incidence of brain metastases. Thus, PCI might have a role for stage II-III disease but not for stage I disease.

  9. Prediction and characterization of heat-affected zone formation in tin-bismuth alloys due to nickel-aluminum multilayer foil reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hooper, R. J.; Davis, C. G.; Johns, P. M.; Adams, D. P.; Hirschfeld, D.; Nino, J. C.; Manuel, M. V.

    2015-06-26

    Reactive multilayer foils have the potential to be used as local high intensity heat sources for a variety of applications. In this study, most of the past research effort concerning these materials have focused on understanding the structure-property relationships of the foils that govern the energy released during a reaction. To improve the ability of researchers to more rapidly develop technologies based on reactive multilayer foils, a deeper and more predictive understanding of the relationship between the heat released from the foil and microstructural evolution in the neighboring materials is needed. This work describes the development of a numerical modelmore » for the purpose of predicting heat affected zone size in substrate materials. The model is experimentally validated using a commercially available Ni-Al multilayer foils and alloys from the Sn-Bi binary system. To accomplish this, phenomenological models for predicting the variation of physical properties (i.e., thermal conductivity, density, and heat capacity) with temperature and composition in the Sn-Bi system were utilized using literature data.« less

  10. Detection of three nonsense mutations and one missense mutation in the interleukin-2 receptor [gamma] chain gene in SCIDX1 that differently affect the mRNA processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markiewicz, S.; Fischer, A.; Saint Basile, G. de ); Subtil, A.; Dautry-Varsat, A. )

    1994-05-01

    The interleukin-2 receptor [gamma] (IL-2R[gamma]) chain gene encodes a 64-kDa protein that not only composes the high-affinity form of the IL-2 binding receptor in association with the 2R [alpha] and [beta] chains, but also participates in at least the IL-4 and IL-7 receptor complexes. Mutations in this gene have recently been shown to cause X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCIDX1). This disease of the immune system results from an early block of T lymphocyte and natural killer (NK) cell differentiation, which leads to a severe cellular and humoral immune defect that is lethal unless treated by bone marrow transplantation. Analysis of the IL-2R[gamma] gene in SCIDX1 patients has revealed the presence of heterogeneous mutations principally located in the extracellular domain of the molecule. We report here three intraexonic mutations and one deletion in the IL-2R[gamma] gene in four SCIDX1 patients. These mutations appear to differentially affect RNA processing, either by decreasing IL-2R[gamma] mRNA level or by the skipping of a constitutive exon. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Mapping Phase Transformations in the Heat-Affected-Zone of Carbon Manganese Steel Welds using Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmer, J W; Wong, J; Ressler, T; Palmer, T A

    2002-02-12

    Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (SRXRD) was used to investigate phase transformations that occur in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds in AISI 1005 carbon-manganese steel. In situ SRXRD experiments performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) probed the phases present in the HAZ during welding, and these real-time observations of the HAZ phases were used to construct a map of the phase transformations occurring in the HAZ. This map identified 5 principal phase regions between the liquid weld pool and the unaffected base metal. Regions of annealing, recrystallization, partial transformation and complete transformation to {alpha}-Fe, {gamma}-Fe, and {delta}-Fe phases were identified using SRXRD, and the experimental results were combined with a heat flow model of the weld and thermodynamic calculations to compare these results with the important phase transformation isotherms. From the resulting phase transformation map, the kinetics of phase transformations that occur under the highly non-isothermal heating and cooling cycles produced during welding of steels can be better understood and modeled.

  12. Mapping Phase Transformations in the Heat-Affected-Zone of Carbon Manganese Steel Welds using Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmer, J W; Wong, J; Ressler, T; Palmer, T A

    2001-12-04

    Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (SRXRD) was used to investigate phase transformations that occur in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds in AISI 1005 carbon-manganese steel. In situ SRXRD experiments performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) probed the phases present in the HAZ during welding, and these real-time observations of the HAZ phases were used to construct a map of the phase transformations occurring in the HAZ. This map identified 5 principal phase regions between the liquid weld pool and the unaffected base metal for the carbon-manganese steel studied in this investigation. Regions of annealing, recrystallization, partial transformation and complete transformation to {alpha}-Fe, {gamma}-Fe, and {delta}-Fe phases were identified using SRXRD, and the experimental results were combined with a heat flow model of the weld to investigate transformation kinetics under both positive and negative temperature gradients in the HAZ. From the resulting phase transformation map, the kinetics of phase transformations that occur under the highly non-isothermal heating and cooling cycles produced during welding of steels can now be better understood and modeled.

  13. Shift in the Equilibrium between On and Off States of the Allosteric Switch in Ras-GppNHp Affected by Small Molecules and Bulk Solvent Composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holzapfel, Genevieve; Buhrman, Greg; Mattos, Carla

    2012-08-31

    Ras GTPase cycles between its active GTP-bound form promoted by GEFs and its inactive GDP-bound form promoted by GAPs to affect the control of various cellular functions. It is becoming increasingly apparent that subtle regulation of the GTP-bound active state may occur through promotion of substates mediated by an allosteric switch mechanism that induces a disorder to order transition in switch II upon ligand binding at an allosteric site. We show with high-resolution structures that calcium acetate and either dithioerythritol (DTE) or dithiothreitol (DTT) soaked into H-Ras-GppNHp crystals in the presence of a moderate amount of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) can selectively shift the equilibrium to the 'on' state, where the active site appears to be poised for catalysis (calcium acetate), or to what we call the 'ordered off' state, which is associated with an anticatalytic conformation (DTE or DTT). We also show that the equilibrium is reversible in our crystals and dependent on the nature of the small molecule present. Calcium acetate binding in the allosteric site stabilizes the conformation observed in the H-Ras-GppNHp/NOR1A complex, and PEG, DTE, and DTT stabilize the anticatalytic conformation observed in the complex between the Ras homologue Ran and Importin-{beta}. The small molecules are therefore selecting biologically relevant conformations in the crystal that are sampled by the disordered switch II in the uncomplexed GTP-bound form of H-Ras. In the presence of a large amount of PEG, the ordered off conformation predominates, whereas in solution, in the absence of PEG, switch regions appear to remain disordered in what we call the off state, unable to bind DTE.

  14. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trzcinski, Antoine P.; Stuckey, David C.

    2011-07-15

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

  15. Experimental and computational results on exciton/free-carrier ratio, hot/thermalized carrier diffusion, and linear/nonlinear rate constants affecting scintillator proportionality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Richard; Grim, Joel; Li, Qi; Ucer, K. B.; Bizarri, G. A.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gao, Fei; Bhattacharya, Pijush; Tupitsyn, Eugene; Rowe, Emmanuel; Buliga, Vladimir M.; Burger, Arnold

    2013-10-01

    Models of nonproportional response in scintillators have highlighted the importance of parameters such as branching ratios, carrier thermalization times, diffusion, kinetic order of quenching, associated rate constants, and radius of the electron track. For example, the fraction ?eh of excitations that are free carriers versus excitons was shown by Payne and coworkers to have strong correlation with the shape of electron energy response curves from Compton-coincidence studies. Rate constants for nonlinear quenching are implicit in almost all models of nonproportionality, and some assumption about track radius must invariably be made if one is to relate linear energy deposition dE/dx to volume-based excitation density n (eh/cm3) in terms of which the rates are defined. Diffusion, affecting time-dependent track radius and thus density of excitations, has been implicated as an important factor in nonlinear light yield. Several groups have recently highlighted diffusion of hot electrons in addition to thermalized carriers and excitons in scintillators. However, experimental determination of many of these parameters in the insulating crystals used as scintillators has seemed difficult. Subpicosecond laser techniques including interband z scan light yield, fluence-dependent decay time, and transient optical absorption are now yielding experimental values for some of the missing rates and ratios needed for modeling scintillator response. First principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations can fill in additional parameters still unavailable from experiment. As a result, quantitative modeling of scintillator electron energy response from independently determined material parameters is becoming possible on an increasingly firmer data base. This paper describes recent laser experiments, calculations, and numerical modeling of scintillator response.

  16. Comparing bacterial community composition of healthy and dark spot-affected Siderastrea siderea in Florida and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gray, Michael A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2014-10-07

    Coral disease is one of the major causes of reef degradation. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) was described in the early 1990's as brown or purple amorphous areas of tissue on a coral and has since become one of the most prevalent diseases reported on Caribbean reefs. It has been identified in a number of coral species, but there is debate as to whether it is in fact the same disease in different corals. Further, it is questioned whether these macroscopic signs are in fact diagnostic of an infectious disease at all. The most commonly affected species in the Caribbean is the massive starlet coral Siderastrea siderea. We sampled this species in two locations, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park. Tissue biopsies were collected from both healthy colonies and those with dark spot lesions. Microbial-community DNA was extracted from coral samples (mucus, tissue, and skeleton), amplified using bacterial-specific primers, and applied to PhyloChip G3 microarrays to examine the bacterial diversity associated with this coral. Samples were also screened for the presence of a fungal ribotype that has recently been implicated as a causative agent of DSS in another coral species, but the amplifications were unsuccessful. S. siderea samples did not cluster consistently based on health state (i.e., normal versus dark spot). Various bacteria, including Cyanobacteria and Vibrios, were observed to have increased relative abundance in the discolored tissue, but the patterns were not consistent across all DSS samples. Overall, our findings do not support the hypothesis that DSS in S. siderea is linked to a bacterial pathogen or pathogens. This dataset provides the most comprehensive overview to date of the bacterial community associated with the scleractinian coral S. siderea.

  17. Revegetation Plan for Areas of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve Affected by Decommissioning of Buildings and Infrastructure and Debris Clean-up Actions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downs, Janelle L.; Durham, Robin E.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office is working to remove a number of facilities on the Fitzner Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Decommissioning and removal of buildings and debris on ALE will leave bare soils and excavated areas that need to be revegetated to prevent erosion and weed invasion. Four main areas within ALE are affected by these activities (DOE 2009;DOE/EA-1660F): 1) facilities along the ridgeline of Rattlesnake Mountain, 2) the former Nike missile base and ALE HQ laboratory buildings, 3) the aquatic research laboratory at Rattlesnake Springs area, and 4) a number of small sites across ALE where various types of debris remain from previous uses. This revegetation plan addresses the revegetation and restoration of those land areas disturbed by decommissioning and removal of buildings, facilities and associated infrastructure or debris removal. The primary objective of the revegetation efforts on ALE is to establish native vegetation at each of the sites that will enhance and accelerate the recovery of the native plant community that naturally persists at that location. Revegetation is intended to meet the direction specified by the Environmental Assessment (DOE 2009; DOE/EA-1660F) and by Stipulation C.7 of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Rattlesnake Mountain Combined Community Communication Facility and InfrastructureCleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland Washington(DOE 2009; Appendix B). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CPRC) and in consultation with the tribes and DOE-RL developed a site-specific strategy for each of the revegetation units identified within this document. The strategy and implementation approach for each revegetation unit identifies an appropriate native species mix and outlines the necessary site preparation activities and specific methods for seeding and planting at each area. evegetation work is scheduled to commence during the first quarter of FY 2011 to minimize the amount of time that sites are unvegetated and more susceptible to invasion by non-native weedy annual species.

  18. Chapter 8: Advancing Clean Transportation and Vehicle Systems and Technologies | Lightweight Automotive Materials Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lightweight Automotive Materials Chapter 8: Technology Assessments Introduction to the Technology/System Overview of vehicle lightweighting Reducing vehicle weight affects transportation energy consumption by improving efficiency. Upwards of 85% of the energy in fuel is lost to thermal and mechanical inefficiency in the drivetrain 1 while the remaining 12-15% is used to overcome the tractive forces that resist forward motion. 2 Of these tractive forces, vehicle weight most significantly affects

  19. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in the United States. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    This report is a summary of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United states and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). A brief summary of public utility regulatory programs, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority is presented in this report to identify how such programs and authority may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. Subsequent reports will (1) describe public utility rate regulatory procedures and practices as they might affect an ICES, (2) analyze each of the aforementioned regulatory programs to identify impediments to the development of ICES, and (3) recommend potential changes in legislation and regulatory practices and procedures to overcome such impediments.

  20. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-02-01

    Report on the specific factors driving wind-power-related economic development and on the impact of specific economic development variables on new wind project economic benefits.

  1. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-07-01

    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  2. SGP CART Site Affected by Ice Storm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Gulf of Mexico. A cold, shallow air mass already over Oklahoma and Kansas set up a temperature inversion in the atmosphere, with warmer air temperatures aloft than at ground...

  3. How loads affect coiled tubing life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, E.J. Inc., AK )

    1992-01-01

    Fatigue testing was performed on 1-3/4-in OD, 0.125 in. wall thickness (WT) coiled tubing using a standard coiled tubing unit (CTU) as shown in this paper. Testing was conducted under Prudhoe Bay, Alaska oil well, conditions to determine the effects of axial load, internal pressure and bending stress on the longevity, or usable running footage, that can be expected with larger diameter tubing. The CTU was rigged up in a standard configuration with injector head 50 ft off the ground, the worst case for bending on most currently available North Slope units. Internal pressure was supplied by a small triplex pump and the end of tubing was closed off with a fishing neck and bull plug. Weight, for the first four tests, was suspended from the coiled tubing by a special clamp. The tubing was cycled up and over the guide arch until a loss of internal coiled tubing pressure (CTP) occurred, or until the tubing became stuck in the stripper brass.

  4. Relicensing and Environmental Issues Affecting Hydropower

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the hydropower industry and summarizes two recent events that have greatly influenced relicensing and environmental issues.

  5. Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Technologies that enable larger wind turbines on taller towers create opportunities for ... of "no hazard" from the FAA for installations of turbines slightly taller than 500 ft. ...

  6. How temperature and pressure affect clear brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, J.T.

    1984-04-01

    The correct application of the expansivity and compressibility of brine fluids under the influence of temperature and pressure is needed to calculate the actual hydrostatic pressure in a well. Well operations can benefit by reducing unintentional overbalance, lessening fluid losses, and lowering recommended fluid densities, hence reducing fluid costs. Since the early 1970s, the effects of temperature and pressure on the density of clear brine fluids have been questioned. As early as 1973, studies were started to define density loss with increased temperature in zinc bromide brines. This article describes a continuing study, begun in 1978, which has characterized the expansivity and compressibility of single salt brine solutions, such as are used in workover and completion fluids.

  7. How Changing Energy Markets Affect Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    The market for natural gas has been changing for quite some time. As part of natural gas restructuring, gas pipelines were opened to multiple users. Manufacturers or their representatives could go directly to the wellhead to purchase their natural gas, arrange the transportation, and have the natural gas delivered either by the local distribution company or directly through a connecting pipeline.

  8. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  9. Before the House Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform of the Committee on Overshigh and Government Reform

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Subject: The Government Accountability Office's Report on Potentially Duplicative IT Investments By: Michael Locatis

  10. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karman, Bethany N., E-mail: bklement@illinois.edu; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbshivapur@gmail.com; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2012-05-15

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 ?M) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 34 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ?TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ?Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ?TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  11. Subtle Changes in Peptide Conformation Profoundly Affect Recognition of the Non-Classical MHC Class I Molecule HLA-E by the CD94?NKG2 Natural Killer Cell Receptors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoare, Hilary L.; Sullivan, Lucy C.; Clements, Craig S.; Ely, Lauren K.; Beddoe, Travis; Henderson, Kate N.; Lin, Jie; Reid, Hugh H.; Brooks, Andrew G.; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2008-03-31

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I molecule that binds peptides derived from the leader sequences of other HLA class I molecules. Natural killer cell recognition of these HLA-E molecules, via the CD94-NKG2 natural killer family, represents a central innate mechanism for monitoring major histocompatibility complex expression levels within a cell. The leader sequence-derived peptides bound to HLA-E exhibit very limited polymorphism, yet subtle differences affect the recognition of HLA-E by the CD94-NKG2 receptors. To better understand the basis for this peptide-specific recognition, we determined the structure of HLA-E in complex with two leader peptides, namely, HLA-Cw*07 (VMAPRALLL), which is poorly recognised by CD94-NKG2 receptors, and HLA-G*01 (VMAPRTLFL), a high-affinity ligand of CD94-NKG2 receptors. A comparison of these structures, both of which were determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution, revealed that allotypic variations in the bound leader sequences do not result in conformational changes in the HLA-E heavy chain, although subtle changes in the conformation of the peptide within the binding groove of HLA-E were evident. Accordingly, our data indicate that the CD94-NKG2 receptors interact with HLA-E in a manner that maximises the ability of the receptors to discriminate between subtle changes in both the sequence and conformation of peptides bound to HLA-E.

  12. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in North Carolina. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    Under the Public Utilities Act of 1965, utilities in North Carolina are regulated by the State's Utility Commission. The Commission consists of seven members who are appointed by the governor, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly sitting in joint session. The Commissioners serve eight year terms and the governor designates one of the commissioners as chairman. The Commission has an office of the executive director, who is appointed to a six year term by the governor subject to confirmaion by the General Assembly. The executive director heads the Commission's public staff. The public staff's duties include reviewing, investigating, and making recommendations on utility rates and services and intervention on behalf of the public in proceedings affecting consumer rates and generating plant certification. The Commission has the same power to regulate the operation of privately-owned public utilities within municipalities as it has to control those ouside. The only power over privately-owned utilities reserved to the municipalities is the power to grant franchises. A municipality may maintain its own utility systems, and such systems are not subject to the control and jurisdiction of the Commission. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  13. Direct Observations of the (Alpha to Gamma) Transformation at Different Input Powers in the Heat Affected Zone of 1045 C-Mn Steel Arc Welds Observed by Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, T A; Elmer, J W

    2005-03-16

    Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (SRXRD) experiments have been performed during Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welding of AISI 1045 C-Mn steel at input powers ranging from 1000 W to 3750 W. In situ diffraction patterns taken at discreet locations across the width of the heat affected zone (HAZ) near the peak of the heating cycle in each weld show regions containing austenite ({gamma}), ferrite and austenite ({alpha}+{gamma}), and ferrite ({alpha}). Changes in input power have a demonstrated effect on the resulting sizes of these regions. The largest effect is on the {gamma} phase region, which nearly triples in width with increasing input power, while the width of the surrounding two phase {alpha}+{gamma} region remains relatively constant. An analysis of the diffraction patterns obtained across this range of locations allows the formation of austenite from the base metal microstructure to be monitored. After the completion of the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} transformation, a splitting of the austenite peaks is observed at temperatures between approximately 860 C and 1290 C. This splitting in the austenite peaks results from the dissolution of cementite laths originally present in the base metal pearlite, which remain after the completion of the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} transformation, and represents the formation of a second more highly alloyed austenite constituent. With increasing temperatures, carbon, originally present in the cementite laths, diffuses from the second newly formed austenite constituent to the original austenite constituent. Eventually, a homogeneous austenitic microstructure is produced at temperatures of approximately 1300 C and above, depending on the weld input power.

  14. Repeated in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure affects male gonads in offspring, leading to sex ratio changes in F{sub 2} progeny

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, Masahiko [University of Shizuoka, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, 52-1, Yada, Shizuoka, 422 8526 (Japan) and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Kawaguchi, 332-0012 (Japan)]. E-mail: ikedam@ys2.u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp; Tamura, Masashi [University of Shizuoka, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, 52-1, Yada, Shizuoka, 422 8526 (Japan); Yamashita, Junko [University of Shizuoka, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, 52-1, Yada, Shizuoka, 422 8526 (Japan); Suzuki, Chinatsu [University of Shizuoka, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, 52-1, Yada, Shizuoka, 422 8526 (Japan); Tomita, Takako [University of Shizuoka, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, 52-1, Yada, Shizuoka, 422 8526 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Kawaguchi, 332-0012 (Japan)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the reproductive system of male rat offspring (F{sub 1}) and the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F{sub 2}) were examined. Female Holtzman rats were gavaged with an initial loading dose of 400 ng/kg TCDD prior to mating, followed by weekly maintenance doses of 80 ng/kg during mating, pregnancy, and the lactation period. Maternal exposure to TCDD had no significant effects on fetus/pup (F{sub 1}) mortality, litter size, or sex ratio on gestation day (GD) 20 or postnatal day (PND) 2. The TCDD concentration in maternal livers and adipose tissue on GD20 was 1.21 and 1.81 ng/kg, respectively, and decreased at weaning to 0.72 in the liver and 0.84 in the adipose tissue. In contrast, the TCDD concentration in pup livers was 1.32 ng/kg on PND2 and increased to 1.80 ng/kg at weaning. Ventral prostate weight of male offspring was significantly decreased by TCDD exposure on PND28 and 120 compared with that of controls. Weight of the testes, cauda epididymides, and seminal vesicle, and sperm number in the cauda epididymis were not changed by TCDD exposure at PND120. TCDD- or vehicle-exposed male offspring were mated with unexposed females. The sex ratio (percentage of male pups) of F{sub 2} offspring was significantly reduced in the TCDD-exposed group compared with controls. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposures affect the development of male gonads in offspring (F{sub 1}), leading to changes in the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F{sub 2})

  15. The Public Utility Holding Company Act: Is reform or repeal in the public interest?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penn, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    One of the dangers in policy debates, especially those involving many complex and interrelated subjects, is that the debate will plunge into the depths of details to the exclusion of firmly establishing overarching logic and principles. Sometimes this is because it is extremely difficult for the human brain simultaneously to think of many things at many levels. Sometimes it is because that central logic is forgotten along the way or, worse, never in place to begin with. The policy debate on electricity industry restructuring is no exception. This danger of concentrating on the details and obscuring the central principles permeates the wide-ranging restructuring debates, and certainly has contaminated questions about the subissue of the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA).

  16. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  17. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  18. Planar solid oxide fuel cell with staged indirect-internal air and fuel preheating and reformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2003-10-21

    A solid oxide fuel cell arrangement and method of use that provides internal preheating of both fuel and air in order to maintain the optimum operating temperature for the production of energy. The internal preheat passes are created by the addition of two plates, one on either side of the bipolar plate, such that these plates create additional passes through the fuel cell. This internal preheat fuel cell configuration and method reduce the requirements for external heat exchanger units and air compressors. Air or fuel may be added to the fuel cell as required to maintain the optimum operating temperature through a cathode control valve or an anode control valve, respectively. A control loop comprises a temperature sensing means within the preheat air and fuel passes, a means to compare the measured temperature to a set point temperature and a determination based on the comparison as to whether the control valves should allow additional air or fuel into the preheat or bypass manifolds of the fuel cell.

  19. Hydrogen manufacturing using plasma reformers. [Annual progress report], May 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohn, D.R.; Bromberg, L.; Hochgreb, S.; O`Brien, C.; Rabinovich, A.

    1995-12-31

    Manufacturing of hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels is needed for a variety of applications. These applications include fuel cells used in stationary electric power production and in vehicular propulsion. Hydrogen can also be used for various combustion engine systems. There is a wide range of requirements on the capacity of the hydrogen manufacturing system, the purity of the hydrogen fuel, and capability for rapid response. The overall objectives of a hydrogen manufacturing facility are to operate with high availability at the lowest possible cost and to have minimal adverse environmental impact. Plasma technology has potential to significantly alleviate shortcomings of conventional means of manufacturing hydrogen. These shortcomings include cost and deterioration of catalysts; limitations on hydrogen production from heavy hydrocarbons; limitations on rapid response; and size and weight requirements. In addition, use of plasma technology could provide for a greater variety of operating modes in particular the possibility of virtual elimination Of C0{sub 2} production by pyrolytic operation. This mode of hydrogen production may be of increasing importance due to recent additional evidence of global warming.

  20. Before the House Subcommittee on Energy Policy, Health Care & Entitlements- Committee on Oversight and Government Reform

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Subject: DOE Program Regulating Liquefied Natural Gas Exports By: Christopher Smith, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary, Office of Fossil Energy

  1. Process And Apparatus To Accomplish Autothermal Or Steam Reforming Via A Reciprocating Compression Device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, K. David (Morgantown, WV); James, Robert (Fairmont, WV); Berry, David A. (Mt. Morris, PA); Gardner, Todd (Morgantown, WV)

    2004-09-21

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas from a variety of hydrocarbons. The apparatus (device) consists of a semi-batch, non-constant volume reactor to generate a synthesis gas. While the apparatus feeds mixtures of air, steam, and hydrocarbons into a cylinder where work is performed on the fluid by a piston to adiabatically raise its temperature without heat transfer from an external source.

  2. Status of Power Sector Reform in Africa: Impact on the Poor ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource Type: Publications User Interface: Website Website: www.sciencedirect.comsciencearticlepiiS0301421502000484 Cost: Free UN Region: Eastern Africa, Southern Africa...

  3. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward F. Kiczek

    2007-08-31

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has teamed with Plug Power, Inc. of Latham, NY, and the City of Las Vegas, NV, to develop, design, procure, install and operate an on-site hydrogen generation system, an alternative vehicle refueling system, and a stationary hydrogen fuel cell power plant, located in Las Vegas. The facility will become the benchmark for validating new natural gas-based hydrogen systems, PEM fuel cell power generation systems, and numerous new technologies for the safe and reliable delivery of hydrogen as a fuel to vehicles. Most important, this facility will serve as a demonstration of hydrogen as a safe and clean energy alternative. Las Vegas provides an excellent real-world performance and durability testing environment.

  4. Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection Data Package—Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Strachan, Denis M.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pires, Richard P.

    2011-09-12

    The Hanford Site in southeast Washington State has 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes stored in 177 underground tanks (ORP 2010). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), through its contractors, is constructing the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to convert the radioactive and hazardous wastes into stable glass waste forms for disposal. Within the WTP, the pretreatment facility will receive the retrieved waste from the tank farms and separate it into two treated process streams. These waste streams will be vitrified, and the resulting waste canisters will be sent to offsite (high-level waste [HLW]) and onsite (immobilized low-activity waste [ILAW]) repositories. As part of the pretreatment and ILAW processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed of in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has initiated secondary waste form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is developing data packages to support that down-selection. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilizing and solidifying the liquid secondary wastes. At the Hanford Site, the FBSR process is being evaluated as a supplemental technology for treating and immobilizing Hanford LAW radioactive tank waste and for treating secondary wastes from the WTP pretreatment and LAW vitrification processes.

  5. SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROBBINS RA

    2011-02-11

    This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  6. Secretary Moniz's Remarks on Project Management Reform at the National Academy of Public Administration-- As Delivered

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary Moniz's remarks, as delivered, on Project Management at the National Academy of Public Administration in Washington, DC on January 15, 2015.

  7. Electricity Regulatory Reforms to Encourage Energy Efficiency: What Air Regulators and Energy Officials Need to Know

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation by Chris James and Doug Hurley of Synapse Energy Economics, Inc., was part of the July 2008 Webcast sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative that was titled Role of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Improving Air Quality and Addressing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals on High Electric Demand Days.

  8. Fact #571: May 18, 2009 Light Truck CAFE Standards – 2006 Reformation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2006 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) established new requirements for the light truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. In the new rule, there are...

  9. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Subject: Green Building Practices in the Federal Building Sector By: Kathleen Hogan, Deputy Assistant Secretary Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  10. Benzo[a]pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway leading to decreased IL-2 secretion and redirecting glutamine metabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Rockstroh, Maxie; Wagner, Juliane; Baumann, Sven; Schorsch, Katrin; Trump, Saskia; Lehmann, Irina; Bergen, Martin von; Tomm, Janina M.

    2013-06-15

    There is a clear evidence that environmental pollutants, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), can have detrimental effects on the immune system, whereas the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Jurkat T cells share many properties with native T lymphocytes and therefore are an appropriate model to analyze the effects of environmental pollutants on T cells and their activation. Since environmental compounds frequently occur at low, not acute toxic concentrations, we analyzed the effects of two subtoxic concentrations, 50 nM and 5 ?M, on non- and activated cells. B[a]P interferes directly with the stimulation process as proven by an altered IL-2 secretion. Furthermore, B[a]P exposure results in significant proteomic changes as shown by DIGE analysis. Pathway analysis revealed an involvement of the AhR independent Nrf2 pathway in the altered processes observed in unstimulated and stimulated cells. A participation of the Nrf2 pathway in the change of IL-2 secretion was confirmed by exposing cells to the Nrf2 activator tBHQ. tBHQ and 5 ?M B[a]P caused similar alterations of IL-2 secretion and glutamine/glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response, which was proven by western blotting. Additionally, there is a strong evidence for alterations in metabolic pathways caused by B[a]P exposure in stimulated cells. Especially the glutamine/glutamate metabolism was indicated by proteome pathway analysis and validated by metabolite measurements. The detrimental effects were slightly enhanced in stimulated cells, suggesting that stimulated cells are more vulnerable to the environmental pollutant model compound B[a]P. - Highlights: B[a]P affects the proteome of Jurkat T cells also at low concentrations. Exposure to B[a]P (50 nM, 5 ?M) did not change Jurkat T cell viability. Both B[a]P concentrations altered the IL-2 secretion of stimulated cells. 608 different protein spots of Jurkat T cells were quantified using 2-DE-DIGE. Pathway analysis identified Nrf2 and AhR pathway as regulated.

  11. Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-Use Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark; Francisco Posada; Clinton Bedick; John Pratapas; Aleksandr Kozlov; Martin Linck; Dmitri Boulanov

    2009-03-30

    The key to overcome Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations in reciprocating engines is based on proper control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The studied alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this report that the secondary fuel can be produced using exhaust heat and Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR). TCR for reciprocating engines is a system that employs high efficiency recovery of sensible heat from engine exhaust gas and uses this energy to transform fuel composition. The recuperated sensible heat is returned to the engine as chemical energy. Chemical conversions are accomplished through catalytic and endothermic reactions in a specially designed reforming reactor. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures. Laboratory results, at a steam/heptane mole ratio less than 2:1, confirm that low temperature reforming reactions, in the range of 550 K to 650 K, can produce 10-30% hydrogen (by volume, wet) in the product stream. Also, the effect of trading low mean effective pressure for displacement to achieve power output and energy efficiency has been explored by WVU. A zerodimensional model of LTC using heptane as fuel and a diesel Compression Ignition (CI) combustion model were employed to estimate pressure, temperature and total heat release as inputs for a mechanical and thermal loss model. The model results show that the total cooling burden on an LTC engine with lower power density and higher displacement was 14.3% lower than the diesel engine for the same amount of energy addition in the case of high load (43.57mg fuel/cycle). These preliminary modeling and experimental results suggest that the LTC-TCR combination may offer a high efficiency solution to engine operation. A single zone model using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism was implemented in CHEMKIN and to study the effects of base fuel and steam-fuel reforming products on the ignition timing and heat release characteristics. The study was performed considering the reformed fuel species composition for total n-heptane conversion (ideal case) and also at the composition corresponding to a specific set of operational reforming temperatures (real case). The computational model confirmed that the reformed products have a strong influence on the low temperature heat release (LTHR) region, affecting the onset of the high temperature heat release (HTHR). The ignition timing was proportionally delayed with respect to the baseline fuel case when higher concentrations of reformed gas were used. For stoichiometric concentration of RG, it was found that by increasing the proportion of reformed fuel to total fuel (RG), from 0% to 30%, the amount of energy released during the LTHR regime, or HR{sub L}, was reduced by 48% and the ignition timing was delayed 10.4 CA degrees with respect to the baseline fuel case. For RG composition corresponding to certain operational reforming temperatures, it was found that the most significant effects on the HCCI combustion, regarding HR{sub L} reduction and CA50 delay, was obtained by RG produced at a reforming temperature range of 675 K-725 K.

  12. I/O Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I/O Resources I/O Resources Motivation Many users must run jobs that read datasets that are too large to transfer to the /scratch directory. When large numbers of these jobs run simultaneously, it can have an adverse affect on the performance of the disks serving the data causing your jobs to run very inefficiently. We have configured a resource in the batch system that should help manage the amount of concurrent access. These are called IO resources, and they depend on the bandwidth available

  13. Environmental management during economic transition: Ukraine--A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempen van, T.H.; Demydenko, A.O.

    1995-12-01

    After dissolution of Soviet Union, each new States had to confront the legacy of an unsustainable, and ultimately failed, economic and political system. Enormous environmental problems resulted from centrally planned economics, which promoted rapid growth through exploitation of the former Soviet Union`s (FSU) vast natural resources. Unconstrained by scarcity-based pricing, extractive and heavy industry ministries created huge, inefficient, and heavily polluting enterprises. The region also experienced extensive forest-cutting, steady deterioration of soils, and contaminated runoff and infiltration from over-excessive application of agrichemicals. The fate of the environment will depend largely on successful transition to a market-based economy. Funds for environmental protection will remain scarce, and poor technology combined with a degraded and overworked infrastructure will slow cleanup of contaminated regions. With failed economies, policy-makers and legislators will be forced to overlook sustainable development as they exploit natural resources in an effort to produce food and obtain hard currency. Ukraine, the second-most populous republic of the FSU, experienced possibly the world`s greatest single environment disaster--the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe. Today, heavy industry, with its resource-intensive and highly polluting technologies, contributes 61% of Ukraine`s GNP, in comparison with 34% in the European Union. Energy production is grossly inefficient. Environmental agencies in Ukraine are new, with limited legal or economic tools, financial resources, or technical skills. Yet the country has commenced environmental management initiatives that, when combined with economic reforms, will start to improve environmental conditions. This paper presents an overview of Ukraine`s environmental and economic conditions, steps already undertaken to manage the environment, and additional measures needed to improve the situation.

  14. Identification and Control of Factors that Affect EGR Cooler...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cause exhaust gas recirculation cooler fouling were identified through extensive literature search and controlled experiment was devised to study the impact of a few key...

  15. Reheating dynamics affects non-perturbative decay of spectator fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enqvist, Kari; Lerner, Rose N.; Rusak, Stanislav E-mail: rose.lerner@helsinki.fi

    2013-11-01

    The behaviour of oscillating scalar spectator fields after inflation depends on the thermal background produced by inflaton decay. Resonant decay of the spectator is often blocked by large induced thermal masses. We account for the finite decay width of the inflaton and the protracted build-up of the thermal bath to determine the early evolution of a homogeneous spectator field ? coupled to the Higgs Boson ? through the term g{sup 2}?{sup 2}?{sup 2}, the only renormalisable coupling of a new scalar to the Standard Model. We find that for very large higgs-spectator coupling g?>10{sup ?3}, the resonance is not always blocked as was previously suggested. As a consequence, the oscillating spectator can decay quickly. For other parameter values, we find that although qualitative features of the thermal blocking still hold, the dynamics are altered compared to the instant decay case. These findings are important for curvaton models, where the oscillating field must be relatively long lived in order to produce the curvature perturbation. They are also relevant for other spectator fields, which must decay sufficiently early to avoid spoiling the predictions of baryogenesis and nucleosynthesis.

  16. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3.517 3.566 4.072 4.208 May 26, 2014 3.796 3.807 3.712 3.708 3.512 3.563 4.061 4.184 Jun 02, 2014 3.793 3.800 3.695 3.771 3.517 3.563 4.062 4.176 Jun 09, 2014 3.792 3.798 3.674...

  17. Factors affecting coking pressures in tall coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimley, J.J.; Radley, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    The detrimental effects of excessive coking pressures, resulting in the permanent deformation of coke oven walls, have been recognized for many years. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide in attempts to define the limits within which a plant may safely operate and to quantify the factors which influence these pressures. Few full scale techniques are available for assessing the potential of a coal blend for causing wall damage. Inference of dangerous swelling pressures may be made however by the measurement of the peak gas pressure which is generated as the plastic layers meet and coalesce at the center of the oven. This pressure is referred to in this report as the carbonizing pressure. At the Dawes Lane cokemaking plant of British Steel`s Scunthorpe Works, a large database has been compiled over several years from the regulator measurement of this pressure. This data has been statistically analyzed to provide a mathematical model for predicting the carbonizing pressure from the properties of the component coals, the results of this analysis are presented in this report.

  18. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the size of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.

  19. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the sizemore » of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.« less

  20. Mercury control challenge for industrial boiler MACT affected facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-15

    An industrial coal-fired boiler facility conducted a test program to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbent injection on mercury removal ahead of a fabric filter with an inlet flue gas temperature of 375{sup o}F. The results of the sorbent injection testing are essentially inconclusive relative to providing the facility with enough data upon which to base the design and implementation of permanent sorbent injection system(s). The mercury removal performance of the sorbents was significantly less than expected. The data suggests that 50 percent mercury removal across a baghouse with flue gas temperatures at or above 375{sup o}F and containing moderate levels of SO{sub 3} may be very difficult to achieve with activated carbon sorbent injection alone. The challenge many coal-fired industrial facilities may face is the implementation of additional measures beyond sorbent injection to achieve high levels of mercury removal that will likely be required by the upcoming new Industrial Boiler MACT rule. To counter the negative effects of high flue gas temperature on mercury removal with sorbents, it may be necessary to retrofit additional boiler heat transfer surface or spray cooling of the flue gas upstream of the baghouse. Furthermore, to counter the negative effect of moderate or high SO{sub 3} levels in the flue gas on mercury removal, it may be necessary to also inject sorbents, such as trona or hydrated lime, to reduce the SO{sub 3} concentrations in the flue gas. 2 refs., 1 tab.