Sample records for reflective window glass

  1. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  2. Dynamics of window glass fracture in explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beauchamp, E.K.; Matalucci, R.V.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exploratory study was conducted under the Architectural Surety Program to examine the possibility of modifying fracture of glass in the shock-wave environment associated with terrorist bombings. The intent was to explore strategies to reduce the number and severity of injuries resulting from those attacks. The study consisted of a series of three experiments at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology at Socorro, NM, in which annealed and tempered glass sheets were exposed to blast waves at several different levels of overpressure and specific impulse. A preliminary assessment of the response of tempered glass to the blast environment suggested that inducing early failure would result in lowering fragment velocity as well as reducing the loading from the window to the structure. To test that possibility, two different and novel procedures (indentation flaws and spot annealing) were used to reduce the failure strength of the tempered glass while maintaining its ability to fracture into small cube-shaped fragments. Each experiment involved a comparison of the performance of four sheets of glass with different treatments.

  3. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  4. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

  5. Effect of window reflections on photonic Doppler velocimetry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ao, T.; Dolan, D. H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) has rapidly become a standard diagnostic for measuring velocities in dynamic compression research. While free surface velocity measurements are fairly straightforward, complications occur when PDV is used to measure a dynamically loaded sample through a window. Fresnel reflections can severely affect the velocity and time resolution of PDV measurements, especially for low-velocity transients. Shock experiments of quartz compressed between two sapphire plates demonstrate how optical window reflections cause ringing in the extracted PDV velocity profile. Velocity ringing is significantly reduced by using either a wedge window or an antireflective coating.

  6. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Gerouki, Alexandra (Medford, MA); Liu, Te-Yang (Arlington, MA); Goldner, Mark A. (Cambridge, MA); Haas, Terry E. (Southborough, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

  7. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, R.B.; Gerouki, A.; Liu, T.Y.; Goldner, M.A.; Haas, T.E.

    2000-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 mum.

  8. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,transfer at the siding surface. Direct solar radiation tosiding, reflected solar radiation from nearby surfaces,

  9. High Reliability R-10 Windows Using Vacuum Insulating Glass Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, David

    2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this effort was for EverSealed Windows (“EverSealed” or “ESW”) to design, assemble, thermally and environmentally test and demonstrate a Vacuum Insulating Glass Unit (“VIGU” or “VIG”) that would enable a whole window to meet or exceed the an R-10 insulating value (U-factor ? 0.1). To produce a VIGU that could withstand any North American environment, ESW believed it needed to design, produce and use a flexible edge seal system. This is because a rigid edge seal, used by all other know VIG producers and developers, limits the size and/or thermal environment of the VIG to where the unit is not practical for typical IG sizes and cannot withstand severe outdoor environments. The rigid-sealed VIG’s use would be limited to mild climates where it would not have a reasonable economic payback when compared to traditional double-pane or triple-pane IGs. ESW’s goals, in addition to achieving a sufficiently high R-value to enable a whole window to achieve R-10, included creating a VIG design that could be produced for a cost equal to or lower than a traditional triple-pane IG (low-e, argon filled). ESW achieved these goals. EverSealed produced, tested and demonstrated a flexible edge-seal VIG that had an R-13 insulating value and the edge-seal system durability to operate reliably for at least 40 years in the harshest climates of North America.

  10. Window Spacers and Edge Seals in Insulating Glass Units: A State-of-the-Art

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in buildings is by increasing the thermal performance of their envelopes. Gustavsen Norwegian University of Science and Technology Windows and Envelope Materials Group Building), Windows & Envelope Materials Group, Berkeley, CA 94720- 8134, USA Abstract Insulating glass (IG) units

  11. Development of a design procedure for architectural laminated glass window units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dice, Jeffrey Aaron

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    defensible design procedure for architectural laminated glass The journal model for this thesis is the Journal of Struct 1 ~E ~ 1 1 ~ of th A 1 Society f Ei 11 E Oi erc. window units. The procedure is based on the controlling aspects of laminated glass...DEVELOPMENT OF A DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR ARCHITECTURAL LAMINATED GLASS WINDOW UNITS A Thesis by JEFFREY AARON DICE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  12. Sol-gel deposited electrochromic films for electrochromic smart window glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oezer, N. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science; Lampert, C.M. [Star Science (United States); Rubin, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic windows offer the ability to dynamically change the transmittance of a glazing. With the appropriate sensor and controls, this smart window can be used for energy regulation and glare control for a variety of glazing applications. The most promising are building and automotive applications. This work covers the use of sol-gel deposition processes to make active films for these windows. The sol-gel process offers a low-capital investment for the deposition of these active films. Sol-gel serves as an alternative to more expensive vacuum deposition processes. The sol-gel process utilizes solution coating followed by a hydrolysis and condensation. In this investigation the authors report on tungsten oxide and nickel oxide films made by the sol-gel process for electrochromic windows. The properties of the sol-gel films compare favorably to those of films made by other techniques. A typical laminated electrochromic window consists of two glass sheets coated with transparent conductors, which are coated with the active films. The two sheets are laminated together with an ionically conductive polymer. The range of visible transmission modulation of the tungsten oxide was 60% and for the nickel oxide was 20%. The authors used the device configuration of glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/W0{sub 3}/polymer/Li{sub Z}NiO{sub x}H{sub y}/SnO{sub 2}:F glass to test the films. The nickel oxide layer had a low level of lithiation and possibly contained a small amount of water. Lithiated oxymethylene-linked poly(ethylene oxide) was used as the laminating polymer. Commercially available SnO{sub 2}:F/glass (LOF-Tec glass) was used as the transparent conducting glass. The authors found reasonable device switching characteristics which could be used for devices.

  13. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. for residential buildings. To meet IECC's U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) requirements insulatingLBNL-5022E Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Authors: R. Hart*, C. Curcija of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would

  14. Energy conservation through interior shading of windows: an analysis, test, and evaluation of reflective venetian blinds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dyck, R L; Konen, T P

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows admit radiant and conducted heat energy as well as light and, for this reason, effective means for control is mandatory. Venetian blinds, providing continuous solar control, are ideal for energy efficient windows. They may be closed in the summer to block out undesirable solar radiation and opened in the winter to admit the valuable energy of the sun while providing year-round glare free illumination. Architects, engineers, and manufacturers have been reluctant to promote the use of venetian blinds as energy saving products because of remaining uncertainties in the technology. This cooperative program involving industry, government, and a university research team has developed predictive equations and has confirmed their ability to accurately predict shading coefficients through experiments in an environmental simulator with an artificial sun. Ten venetian blinds with a wide range of surface finishes, including gloss and Satin finish paints, polished aluminum, chrome deposition, and units with different colors on the upper and lower surfaces of the slats were included in the experimental work. The effect of solar incidence and slat angle on blind reflectance and shading coefficient was determined. The impact of varying incidence and slat angle on building energy load is discussed.

  15. Window Spacers and Edge Seals in Insulating Glass Units: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SINTEF Building and Infrastructure; Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU); Bergh, Sofie Van Den; Hart, Robert; Jelle, Bjrn Petter; Gustavsen, Arild

    2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Insulating glass (IG) units typically consist of multiple glass panes that are sealed and held together structurally along their perimeters. This report describes a study of edge seals in IG units. First, we summarize the components, requirements, and desired properties of edge construction in IG units, based on a survey of the available literature. Second, we review commercially available window edge seals and describe their properties, to provide an easily accessible reference for research and commercial purposes. Finally, based on the literature survey and review of current commercial edge seal systems, we identify research opportunities for future edge seal improvements and solutions.

  16. Window shopping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, D.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author addresses the energy efficiency of windows and describes changes and new products available in this consumer information article. Experiments currently being done by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Bonneville Power Authority and the Washington State Energy Office show that some of these superwindows collect more energy from the sun than they let escape from inside the home. One type of window in current production is the low-E (low-emissivity) and the IGUs (insulated glass units). Low-E techniques include glazing of the glass with various materials including polyester and metallic coatings. Other measures include filling the airspace in double pane windows with argon, aerogel or by creating a vacuum in the airspace. Another factor the author considers is ultraviolet light protection.

  17. Solar optical materials for innovative window design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New and innovative optical materials and coatings can greatly improve the efficiency of window energy systems. These potential materials and coatings increase energy efficiency by reducing radiative losses in the infrared, or reducing visible reflection losses or controlling overheating due to solar gain. Current progress in heat mirror coatings for glass and polymeric substrates is presented. Highly doped semiconducting oxides and metal/dielectric interference coatings are reviewed. Physical and optical properties are outlined for antireflection films and transparent aerogel insulation media. The potential for optical switching films as window elements includes discussions of electrochromic, photochromic and other physical switching processes.

  18. Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Smart Window with integrated sensors, control logic and a motorized shade between glass panes. Image: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2 of 3 Residential Smart Window...

  19. Laser sealed vacuum insulation window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  20. THE IMPACT OF A TANK 40H DECANT ON THE PROJECTED OPERATING WINDOWS FOR SB4 AND GLASS SELECTION STRATEGY IN SUPPORT OF THE VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) has requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assess the impact of a 100K gallon decant volume from Tank 40H on the existing sludge-only Sludge Batch 4 (SB4)-Frit 510 flowsheet and the coupled operations flowsheet (SB4 with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)). Another potential SB4 flowsheet modification of interest includes the addition of 3 wt% sodium (on a calcined oxide basis) to a decanted sludge-only or coupled operations flowsheet. These potential SB4 flowsheet modifications could result in significant compositional shifts to the SB4 system. This paper study provides an assessment of the impact of these compositional changes to the projected glass operating windows and to the variability study for the Frit 510-SB4 system. The influence of the compositional changes on melt rate was not assessed in this study nor was it requested. Nominal Stage paper study assessments were completed using the projected compositions for the various flowsheet options coupled with Frit 510 (i.e., variation was not applied to the sludge and frit compositions). In order to gain insight into the impacts of sludge variation and/or frit variation (due to the procurement specifications) on the projected operating windows, three versions of the Variation Stage assessment were performed: (1) the traditional Variation Stage assessment in which the nominal Frit 510 composition was coupled with the extreme vertices (EVs) of each sludge, (2) an assessment of the impact of possible frit variation (within the accepted frit specification tolerances) on each nominal SB4 option, and (3) an assessment of the impact of possible variation in the Frit 510 composition due to the vendor's acceptance specifications coupled with the EVs of each sludge case. The results of the Nominal Stage assessment indicate very little difference among the various flowsheet options. All of the flowsheets provide DWPF with the possibility of targeting waste loadings (WLs) from the low 30s to the low 40s with Frit 510. In general, the Tank 40H decant has a slight negative impact on the operating window, but DWPF still has the ability to target current WLs (34%) and higher WLs if needed. While the decant does not affect practical WL targets in DWPF, melt rate could be reduced due to the lower Na{sub 2}O content. If true, the addition of 3 wt% Na{sub 2}O to the glass system may regain melt rate, assuming that the source of alkali is independent of the impact on melt rate. Coupled operations with Frit 510 via the addition of ARP to the decanted SB4 flowsheet also appears to be viable based on the projected operating windows. The addition of both ARP and 3 wt% Na{sub 2}O to a decanted Tank 40H sludge may be problematic using Frit 510. Although the Nominal Stage assessments provide reasonable operating windows for the SB4 flowsheets being considered with Frit 510, introduction of potential sludge and/or frit compositional variation does have a negative impact. The magnitude of the impact on the projected operating windows is dependent on the specific flowsheet options as well as the applied variation. The results of the traditional Variation Stage assessments indicate that the three proposed Tank 40H decanted flowsheet options (Case No.2--100K gallon decant, Case No.3--100K gallon decant and 3 wt% Na{sub 2}O addition and Case No.4--100K gallon decant and ARP) demonstrate a relatively high degree of robustness to possible sludge variation over WLs of interest with Frit 510. However, the case where the addition of both ARP and 3 wt% Na{sub 2}O is considered was problematic during the traditional Variation Stage assessment. The impact of coupling the frit specifications with the nominal SB4 flowsheet options on the projected operating windows is highly dependent on whether the upper WLs are low viscosity or liquidus temperature limited in the Nominal Stage assessments. Systems that are liquidus temperature limited exhibit a high degree of robustness to the applied frit and sludge variation, while those that are low viscosity li

  1. Laser sealed vacuum insulating window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1985-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  2. Windows technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baron, J.J.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment estimates that energy loss through windows is approximately 15 percent of all the energy used for space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings in New York State. The rule of thumb for the nation as a whole is about 25 percent. The difference may reflect a traditional assumption of single-pane windows while this assessment analyzed installed window types in the region. Based on the often-quoted assumption, in the United States some 3.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy, costing some $20 billion, is annually consumed as a result of energy lost through windows. According to this assessment, in New York State, the energy lost due to heat loss through windows is approximately 80 trillion Btu at an annual cost of approximately $1 billion.

  3. Zero Energy Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.

  4. Window-closing safety system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only and inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window.

  5. Window-closing safety system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only an inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window. 5 figs.

  6. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled for2006). Advancement of Electrochromic Windows, CaliforniaSavings Potential of Electrochromic Windows in the U.S.

  7. An Alkali-Vapor Cell with Metal Coated Windows for Efficient Application of an Electric Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkisyan, D; Guena, J; Lintz, M; Bouchiat, M A; Sarkisyan, David; Gu\\'{e}na, Jocelyne; Lintz, Michel; Bouchiat, Marie-Anne

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the implementation of a cylindrical T-shaped alkali-vapor cell for laser spectroscopy in the presence of a longitudinal electric field. The two windows are used as two electrodes of the high-voltage assembly, which is made possible by a metallic coating which entirely covers the inner and outer sides of the windows except for a central area to let the laser beams in and out of the cell. This allows very efficient application of the electric field, up to 2 kV/cm in a rather dense superheated vapor, even when significant photoemission takes place at the windows during pulsed laser irradiation. The body of the cell is made of sapphire or alumina ceramic to prevent large currents resulting from surface conduction observed in cesiated glass cells. The technique used to attach the monocrystalline sapphire windows to the cell body causes minimal stress birefringence in the windows. In addition, reflection losses at the windows can be made very small. The vapor cell operates with no buffer gas and has no ...

  8. Electrochromic Windows: Process and Fabrication Improvements for Lower Total Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal with respect to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to achieve significant national energy savings through maximized penetration of EC windows into existing markets so that the largest cumulative energy reduction can be realized. The speed with which EC windows can be introduced and replace current IGU's (and current glazings) is clearly a strong function of cost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate possible improvements to the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazing products to facilitate both process and fabrication improvements resulting in lower overall costs. The project was split into four major areas dealing with improvements to the electrochromic layer, the capping layer, defect elimination and general product improvements. Significant advancements have been made in each of the four areas. These can be summarized as follows: (1) Plasma assisted deposition for the electrochromic layer was pursued, and several improvements made to the technology for producing a plasma beam were made. Functional EC devices were produced using the new technology, but there are still questions to be answered regarding the intrinsic properties of the electrochromic films produced by this method. (2) The capping layer work was successfully implemented into the existing SageGlass{reg_sign} product, thereby providing a higher level of transparency and somewhat lower reflectivity than the 'standard' product. (3) Defect elimination is an ongoing effort, but this project spurred some major defect reduction programs, which led to significant improvements in yield, with all the implicit benefits afforded. In particular, major advances were made in the development of a new bus bar application process aimed at reducing the numbers of 'shorts' developed in the finished product, as well as making dramatic improvements in the methods used for tempering the glass, which had previously been seen to produce a defect which appeared as a pinhole. (4) Improvements have also been made to the overall product to enhance the appearance and market acceptability. These include: (i) increasing the active electrochromic area to enable window manufacturers to install the SageGlass{reg_sign} IGU's into a variety of different framing systems, (ii) implementing a Pb free solder system for the electrical interconnections, (iii) development of a wire routing scheme to allow installation of SageGlass{reg_sign} units into a variety of different framing systems. This project has advanced the development of electrochromic glazing significantly, thereby advancing the introduction of the product and all the benefits of such a technology.

  9. Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of the Installed Base and User Behavior Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of the Installed Base...

  10. Windows Server Evaluation Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    Windows Server 2012 R2 Evaluation Guide #12;Copyright Information © 2013 Microsoft Corporation. All .......................................................................................................................1 Introduction to Windows Server 2012 R2 ..................................................................................................7 Windows Server: Architecture of the Evaluation Environment

  11. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Grove, CA. Zero Energy Windows Dariush Arasteh,No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Zero Energy Windows Dariush Arasteh,Advanced Windows for Zero-Energy Homes. ASHRAE - American

  12. Advancement of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows. LBNL-59950.Granqvist, C.G. 2000. "Electrochromic Tungsten Oxide Films:the performance of the electrochromic windows. Proceedings

  13. Windows XP - LPR Printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dbrown

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Printer Setup in Windows XP. To print to the math department printers in Windows XP, “Print Services for Unix” must be installed. To begin installation of “

  14. Beautify Your Windows and Glass Walls.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tompkins, Charlotte

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -utside? How do your dqkrie outside of your house? 2 IlnKY color affect , Coloor, De~kn and Tex When choosing draperies to har- monize with a room, consider the room, proportions, exposure, view, walls, floors, furnishings, accessories...

  15. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  16. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  17. Method of making an integral window hermetic fiber optic component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalton, R.D.; Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.; Waker, D.A.

    1996-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of igniters, actuators, detonators, and other pyrotechnic devices to be activated by a laser beam, an integral optical glass window is formed by placing a preform in the structural member of the device and then melting the glass and sealing it in place by heating at a temperature between the ceramming temperature of the glass and the melting point of the metal, followed by rapid furnace cooling to avoid devitrification. No other sealing material is needed to achieve hermeticity. A preferred embodiment of this type of device is fabricated by allowing the molten glass to flow further and form a plano-convex lens integral with and at the bottom of the window. The lens functions to decrease the beam divergence caused by refraction of the laser light passing through the window when the device is fired by means of a laser beam. 9 figs.

  18. Method of making an integral window hermetic fiber optic component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalton, Rick D. (Miamisburg, OH); Kramer, Daniel P. (Centerville, OH); Massey, Richard T. (Hamilton, OH); Waker, Damon A. (Bellbrook, OH)

    1996-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of igniters, actuators, detonators, and other pyrotechnic devices to be activated by a laser beam, an integral optical glass window is formed by placing a preform in the structural member of the device and then melting the glass and sealing it in place by heating at a temperature between the ceramming temperature of the glass and the melting point of the metal, followed by rapid furnace cooling to avoid devitrification. No other sealing material is needed to achieve hermeticity. A preferred embodiment of this type of device is fabricated by allowing the molten glass to flow further and form a plano-convex lens integral with and at the bottom of the window. The lens functions to decrease the beam divergence caused by refraction of the laser light passing through the window when the device is fired by means of a laser beam.

  19. Hot Cell Window Shielding Analysis Using MCNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad L. Pope; Wade W. Scates; J. Todd Taylor

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex nuclear facilities are undergoing a documented safety analysis upgrade. In conjunction with the upgrade effort, shielding analysis of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) hot cell windows has been conducted. This paper describes the shielding analysis methodology. Each 4-ft thick window uses nine glass slabs, an oil film between the slabs, numerous steel plates, and packed lead wool. Operations in the hot cell center on used nuclear fuel (UNF) processing. Prior to the shielding analysis, shield testing with a gamma ray source was conducted, and the windows were found to be very effective gamma shields. Despite these results, because the glass contained significant amounts of lead and little neutron absorbing material, some doubt lingered regarding the effectiveness of the windows in neutron shielding situations, such as during an accidental criticality. MCNP was selected as an analysis tool because it could model complicated geometry, and it could track gamma and neutron radiation. A bounding criticality source was developed based on the composition of the UNF. Additionally, a bounding gamma source was developed based on the fission product content of the UNF. Modeling the windows required field inspections and detailed examination of drawings and material specifications. Consistent with the shield testing results, MCNP results demonstrated that the shielding was very effective with respect to gamma radiation, and in addition, the analysis demonstrated that the shielding was also very effective during an accidental criticality.

  20. A true virtual window

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radikovic, Adrijan Silvester

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous research from environmental psychology shows that human well-being suffers in windowless environments in many ways and a window view of nature is psychologically and physiologically beneficial to humans. Current window substitutes, still...

  1. Using X Windows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    remote applications on your local computer screen. X-Windows follows the client-server architecture. Normally, the X server runs on the users desktoplaptop computer, while...

  2. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper definesinto the role of zero energy building components. Achievingthe vision of zero energy buildings. Windows can admit solar

  3. Glass Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shortland, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Late Bronze Age glasses. Journal of Archaeological Science781 - 789. Turner, W.E.S. 1954 Studies in ancient glassesand glass making processes. Part I: Crucibles and melting

  4. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  5. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  6. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Visual quality assessment of electrochromic and conventionalissues for large-area electrochromic windows in commercialOffice worker preferences of electrochromic windows: a pilot

  7. Close Window ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michigan, University of

    , in local time versus geomagnetic (dipole) latitude coordinates, shows the equivalent current contoursClose Window ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE Geomagnetic variations Variations in the natural magnetic field measured at the Earth's surface and elsewhere in the Earth's magnetosphere (for example

  8. CH7 Windows Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collette. Sébastien

    4 Server · Account lockout security ­ Protection contre les attaques sur les mots de passe Windows NT 4 Server · Account lockout security ­ Protection contre les attaques sur les mots de passe

  9. Advancement of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to control bright sky luminance that can cause discomfortluminance, and to operate in a reliable manner under representative sun and skysky equinox or solstice conditions, the EC window at Tv=0.05 maintained the luminance

  10. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Window Type Sales (Business as usual) Energy Star (Low-e)Total, quads Sales (Business as usual) Energy Star (Low-e)modest energy savings beyond the business-as usual case (0.3

  11. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  12. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  13. High Performance Window Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Hun, Diana E [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2 F h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  14. Glass balls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    There is a building with 100 floors in it, and glass balls, and an integer k with the following property. If one drops a glass ball from the floor number k or higher, ...

  15. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  16. Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2012-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form.

  17. Windows and lighting program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  18. Carbon smackdown: smart windows

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Delia Milliron

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  19. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Harry L. (Seaford, VA); Elliott, Thomas S. (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  20. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence (Seaford, VA); Elliott, Thomas S. (Yorktown, VA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  1. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy 1 .systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft²-°F Dynamic windows:for 1 quadrillion (10 15 ) Btu = 1.056 EJ. percent (Apte,

  2. The dynamic response of heated glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sewall, Roy Edward

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rates of strain. This research was prompted, in part, by NASA studies on ductile-type craters in glassy lunar rocks. The dynamic response of Apollo spacecraft windows, made of fused silica, also led to this research. The investigation consists... Response of Heated Glass. (December 1972) Roy Edward Sewall, B. S. , Texas AS? University Directed by: Dr. James L. Rand The purpose of this research is to investigate the dynamic behavior of fused silica glass subjected to high temperatures and high...

  3. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to recover to a bleached state upon exposure to heat and solar radiation while being cycled over time from the bleached to the dark state. Most likely the polymers are undergoing degradation reactions which are accelerated by heat and solar exposure while in either the reduced or oxidized states and the performance of the polymers is greatly reduced over time. For this technology to succeed in an exterior window application, there needs to be more work done to understand the degradation of the polymers under real-life application conditions such as elevated temperatures and solar exposure so that recommendations for improvements in to the overall system can be made. This will be the key to utilizing this type of technology in any future real-life applications.

  4. The Window Strategy with Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCorkle, Dean; Amosson, Stephen H.; Fausett, Marvin

    1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The window strategy is one of several marketing strategies using futures and options to establish a floor price and allow for upside price potential. It also reduces option premium costs. This publication discusses how the window strategy works...

  5. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performance Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz Ed, S.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ratio of 0.30. The electrochromic windows were controlled toProceedings. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performanceand economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows,"

  6. Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian; Mitchell, Robin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Marc LaFrance. 2006. “Zero Energy Windows. ” ProceedingsFuture Advanced Windows for Zero-Energy Homes. ” ASHRAEfor Residential Zero Energy Windows Dariush Arasteh, Howdy

  7. Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides - Building...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides - Building America Top Innovation Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides - Building America Top Innovation Effec...

  8. Visual and energy performance of switchable windows with antireflection coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this project was to investigate how the visual appearance and energy performance of switchable or smart windows can be improved by using antireflective coatings. For this study clear float glass, low-e glass and electrochromic glass were treated with antireflection (AR) coatings. Such a coating considerably increases the transmittance of solar radiation in general and the visible transmittance in particular. For switchable glazing based on absorptive electrochromic layers in their dark state it is necessary to use a low-emissivity coating on the inner pane of a double glazed window in order to reject the absorbed heat. In principle all surfaces can be coated with AR coatings, and it was shown that a thin AR coating on the low-e surface neither influences the thermal emissivity nor the U-value of the glazing. The study showed that the use of AR coatings in switchable glazing significantly increases the light transmittance in the transparent state. It is believed that this is important for a high level of user acceptance of such windows. (author)

  9. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  10. Spectral selectivity of electrochromic windows with color state for all-sky conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soule, D.E. [Western Illinois Univ., Macomb, IL (United States)] [Western Illinois Univ., Macomb, IL (United States); Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical performance of an electrochromic window is studied for the visible, ultraviolet, and near infrared spectral regions. The performance is found to deviate strongly with window color state and for clear or cloudy skies. A new spectral cloud model is applied to an electrochromic window recently developed at NREL. A spectral comparison is made between the electrochromic window and spectrally selective standard windows. Two series of double-glazed window sections, including the electrochromic window with color state and a series of low-E windows, were measured for transmittance and reflectance (300-2500nm), With these spectral data, a new near-infrared blocking (reflection + absorption) factor is developed for window application in warm climates for cooling load reduction. A chromaticity analysis is presented for both the daylight spectra and the transmitted electrochromic window spectra with color state, Computed daylight correlated color temperatures show a wide range, with values of 5660K for clear global irradiation, 6210K for clouds, and 13,250K for a zenith blue sky. Chromatic trajectories with color state for transmitted radiation extend further toward the blue to 8180K for the global and 28,990K for zenith sky irradiation.

  11. A review of electrochromic window performance factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Rubin, M.; Lee, E.S.; Sullivan, R.; Finlayson, E.; Hopkins, D.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance factors which will influence the market acceptance of electrochromic windows are reviewed. A set of data representing the optical properties of existing and foreseeable electrochromic window devices was generated. The issue of reflective versus absorbing electrochromics was explored. This data was used in the DOE 2.1 building energy model to calculate the expected energy savings compared to conventional glazings. The effects of several different control strategies were tested. Significant energy and peak electric demand benefits were obtained for some electrochromic types. Use of predictive control algorithms to optimize cooling control may result in greater energy savings. Initial economic results considering annual savings, cooling equipment cost savings, and electrochromic window costs are presented. Calculations of thermal and visual comfort show additional benefits from electrochromics but more work is needed to quantify their importance. The design freedom and aesthetic possibilities of these dynamic glazings should provide additional market benefits, but their impact is difficult to assess at this time. Ultimately, a full assessment of the market viability of electrochromics must consider the impacts of all of these issues.

  12. Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the performance of exterior and interior low-e storm panels with a controlled whole home experimental design using PNNL's Lab Homes. Summing the estimated annual average heating and cooling savings, the installation of low-e storm panels resulted in approximately 10% annual energy savings. The results of the experiment will be used to determine and validate performance of low-e storm windows over double pane clear glass windows in a whole home setting.

  13. Through a glass darkly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, James E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closeup Through a glass darklyThrough a glass darkly James E. Hall Keywords: AKAP2; AQP0;Medicine Closeup Through a glass darkly GLUT1 Glucose

  14. Test for Modeling Windows in DOE 2.1E for Comparing the Window Library with the Shading Coefficient Method for a Single-Family Residence in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, S.; Haberl, J. S.

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    . The window simulation tests are performed using single-pane, double-pane, and low-e glass on two standard DOE 2.1E single-family house models: 1) the model which has the R-value for wall, roof and floor according to 2000 IECC (Quick Wall), and 2) the model...

  15. A window on urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stigt, Rien van, E-mail: rien.vanstigt@hu.nl [Research Center for Technology and Innovation, Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 182, 3500 AD Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Spit, Tejo J.M., E-mail: T.J.M.Spit@uu.nl [Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  16. Checkpointing strategies with prediction windows Regular paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Checkpointing strategies with prediction windows Regular paper Guillaume Aupy1,3, Yves Robert1, a regular mode outside prediction windows, and a proactive mode inside prediction windows, whenever the size of these windows is large enough. We are able to compute the best period for any size of the prediction windows

  17. Establishment of a Rating Program for Pre- and Post-Fabricated Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Mapes, Terry S.; Shah, B.; Bloyd, Cary N.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document was prepared to support the Smart Buildings-Material Testing and Rating Centres (SB-2) activity of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Energy Smart Communities Initiative (ESCI). The ESCI was put forward by APEC Leaders at the 2010 meeting in Japan. APEC is the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. This document addresses the testing and certification of building products and equipment to support building energy codes, focusing specifically on energy-efficient factory-built windows. It sets forth a proposed structure for an APEC economy to establish a testing, rating, certification, and labeling program for efficient factory-built windows. In the context of this document, efficient windows would be windows made with insulating glass (IG) and an efficient frame assembly. The minimum efficiency metric (or thermal performance) for these windows is not quantified in this document and would generally be established by a governmental agency.

  18. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  19. Liquidus Temperature Data for DWPF Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GF Piepel; JD Vienna; JV Crum; M Mika; P Hrma

    1999-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides new liquidus temperature (TL) versus composition data that can be used to reduce uncertainty in TL calculation for DWPF glass. According to the test plan and test matrix design PNNL has measured TL for 53 glasses within and just outside of the current DWPF processing composition window. The TL database generated under this task will directly support developing and enhancing the current TL process-control model. Preliminary calculations have shown a high probability of increasing HLW loading in glass produced at the SRS and Hanford. This increase in waste loading will decrease the lifecycle tank cleanup costs by decreasing process time and the volume of waste glass produced.

  20. Stained glass : an investigation into the design potentials of an architectural material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ransom, Shirley Anne

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Colored glass is a building material usually associated with churches or days of bygone glory. Yet the material would apparently have much to offer in window openings, curtain walls, even as structural block in the creating ...

  1. Do You Have Windows That Need Replacing?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Do you have windows that need replacing, too? Do you have any plans to replace them with newer, more efficient windows?

  2. Applicability of Solar Airflow Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamed, M. S.; Friedrich, K.; Razaqpur, G.; Foo, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate prediction of the performance of Solar Air Windows (SAWs) operating in various climates under real conditions has not been investigated. This paper reports the results of numerical simulations of SAWs carried out using ANSYS-CFX considering...

  3. ITP Glass: Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis Final Report,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    industrialbandwidth.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Glass: Glass Industry of the Future: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Glass Industry; April, 2002 ITP Glass:...

  4. Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This field evaluation of highly insulating windows was undertaken in a matched pair of 'Lab Homes' located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus during the 2012 winter heating season. Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows has the potential to significantly improve the home's building envelope and overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high quality installation and/or window retrofit will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the window cavity and thus also contribute to reduced heat loss in the winter and cooling loss in the summer. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. Occupant comfort (non-quantifiable) can also be increased by minimizing or eliminating the cold 'draft' (temperature) many residents experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably lower temperature than the room air temperature. Lastly, although not measured in this experiment, highly insulating windows (triple-pane in this experiment) also have the potential to significantly reduce the noise transmittance through windows compared to standard double-pane windows. The metered data taken in the Lab Homes and data analysis presented here represent 70 days of data taken during the 2012 heating season. As such, the savings from highly insulating windows in the experimental home (Lab Home B) compared to the standard double-pane clear glass windows in the baseline home (Lab Home A) are only a portion of the energy savings expected from a year-long experiment that would include a cooling season. The cooling season experiment will take place in the homes in the summer of 2012, and results of that experiment will be reported in a subsequent report available to all stakeholders.

  5. Expert Meeting Report: Windows Options for New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojczyk, C.; Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership held an Expert Meeting on Windows Options for New and Existing Homes on November 14, 2011 at the Nolte Building on the campus of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, MN. Featured speakers included John Carmody and Pat Huelman of the University of Minnesota, Charlie Curcija of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Jim Larson of Cardinal Glass Industries, Peter Yost of Building Green, Peter Baker of Building Science Corporation, and Theresa Weston of Du Pont Innovations. Audience participation was actively encouraged during each presentation to uncover need and promote dialog among researchers and industry professionals.

  6. Thermal Performance Impacts of Center-of-Glass Deflections in Installed Insulating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5800E Thermal Performance Impacts of Center-of- Glass Deflections in Installed Insulating Laboratory Windows and Envelope Materials Group Building Technology and Urban Systems Department: temperature difference Thermal Performance Impacts of Center-of-Glass Deflections in Installed Insulating

  7. Extending the X Window System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenkosh, J.P.

    1993-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The X Window System was originally developed in 1984 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It provides client-server computing functionality and also facilitates the establishment of a distributed computing environment. Since its inception the X Window System has undergone many enhancements. Despite these enhancements there will always be a functionality desired in the standard released version of X that is not supported or commercially or academically available. The developers of the X Window System have designed it in such a way that it is possible to add functionality that is not included in the standard release. This is called an extension. Extensions are one method used to develop a customized version of the X Window System to support a specialized application. This report presents the mechanics of adding an extension and examines a particular extension that was developed at Sandia National Laboratories to support data compression in X Windows which was one aspect of the Desktop Video and Collaborative Engineering Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD).

  8. Figure 1. HomeWindow showing the energy usage of several monitors, displays, and computers with colored

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Saul

    Figure 1. HomeWindow showing the energy usage of several monitors, displays, and computers with colored auras. Red is high usage while green is low usage. HomeWindow: An Augmented Reality Domestic that reflects its current and historical energy use. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.5.2 [Information

  9. Dispositional reflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brummans, Boris H. J. M.

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis suggests that the studied scholars enact these games to understand a more or less common object of knowledge, but also to constitute a more or less identifiable position in this given social space. Reflection on the ontological complicity between...

  10. ITP Glass: Glass Industry of the Future: Energy and Environmental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    glass2002profile.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Glass: Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis Final Report, August 2007 ITP Glass: A Clear Vision for a Bright Future ITP Glass:...

  11. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  12. Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field study results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    2005-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Control system development and lighting energy monitoring of ceramic thin-film electrochromic (EC) windows were initiated at the new full-scale window systems test-bed facility at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. The new facility consists of three identically configured side-by-side private offices with large-area windows that face due south. In one room, an array of EC windows with a center-of-glass visible transmittance T_v range of 0.05-0.60 was installed. In the two other rooms, unshaded windows with a T_v = 0.50 or 0.15 were used as reference. The same dimmable fluorescent lighting system was used in all three rooms. This study explains the design and commissioning of an integrated EC window-lighting control system, and then illustrates its performance in the test-bed under clear, partly cloudy, and overcast sky conditions during the equinox period. The performance of an early prototype EC window controller is also analyzed. Lighting energy savings data are presented. Daily lighting energy savings were 44-59% compared to the reference window of T_v = 0.15 and 8-23% compared to the reference window of T_v = 0.50. The integrated window-lighting control system maintained interior illuminance levels to within +/- 10% of the setpoint range of 510-700 lx for 89-99% of the day. Further work is planned to refine the control algorithms and monitor cooling load, visual comfort, and human factor impacts of this emerging technology. (author)

  13. NEWS & VIEWS Glass dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    NEWS & VIEWS Glass dynamics Diverging views on glass transition Gregory B. mc.mckenna@ttu.edu T he glass transition is one of the most intriguing phenomena in the world of soft condensed matter. Despite decades of study, many aspects of the behaviour of glass-forming liquids remain elusive

  14. RUGGED CERAMIC WINDOW FOR RF APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MIKE NEUBAUER

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  15. Rolling, Rolling, Rolling: Roller Window Shades | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    anyway, even if our windows were of the highest efficiency. One of my colleagues in a solar energy group I belonged to was a distributor of a high R-value quilted roller window...

  16. AIR LEAKAGE OF NEWLY INSTALLED RESIDENTIAL WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidt, John

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tables 2.0.2a 2.0.2b PAGE Air Leakage Through Sash/FrameOperation Types . . . . . Air Leakage of Installed WindowsComparison of Window Types Air Leakage Performance of

  17. An analysis of residential window waterproofing systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, Austin, 1959-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The prevalence of vinyl nail-on windows in the North American new home construction market has prompted ASTM International to write ASTM E2112-01 "Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights". ...

  18. V-217: Microsoft Windows NAT Driver ICMP Packet Handling Denial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A vulnerability was reported in the Windows NAT Driver PLATFORM: Windows Server 2012 ABSTRACT: This security update resolves a vulnerability in the Windows NAT Driver in Microsoft...

  19. A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Office worker preferences of electrochromic windows: a pilotDetails for an Electrochromic Window Wall Attached arethe performance of the electrochromic windows. Proceedings

  20. High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a window air...

  1. Glass-silicon column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  2. Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian; Mitchell, Robin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy use data were collected for each city, to provide information regarding the predominant glass area

  3. Windows Server 2008 R2 Licensing Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Windows Server 2008 R2 Licensing Guide m Your Comprehensive Resource for Licensing and Pricing #12;2 Table of Contents Summary 3 Table of Windows Server 2008 R2 Core Product Offerings 3 License Terms ­ Windows Server 2008 R2 Product Line Updates 4 Edition Comparison by Server Role 5 New and Updated Features

  4. Rigid thin windows for vacuum applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Glenn Allyn (Danville, CA); Ciarlo, Dino R. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth Richard (Livermore, CA); Chen, Hao-Lin (Lafayette, CA); Wakalopulos, George (Pacific Palisades, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin window that stands off atmospheric pressure is fabricated using photolithographic and wet chemical etching techniques and comprises at least two layers: an etch stop layer and a protective barrier layer. The window structure also comprises a series of support ribs running the width of the window. The windows are typically made of boron-doped silicon and silicon nitride and are useful in instruments such as electron beam guns and x-ray detectors. In an electron beam gun, the window does not impede the electrons and has demonstrated outstanding gun performance and survivability during the gun tube manufacturing process.

  5. Window Types | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department ofPartnerships ToolkitWasteWho WillWind Programof EnergyWindow

  6. Glass Working, Use and Discard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Paul

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beck, Horace C. 1934 Glass before 1500 BC. Ancient Egypt7 - 21. Cooney, John 1960 Glass sculpture in ancient Egypt.Journal of Glass Studies 2, pp. 10 - 43. 1976 Glass.

  7. EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR FORMULATION OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HLW GLASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATYAS J; HUCKLEBERRY AR; VIENNA JD; RODRIGUEZ CA

    2012-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, high-level waste (HLW) glasses have been formulated with a low liquideus temperature (T{sub L}), or temperature at which the equilibrium fraction of spinel crystals in the melt is below 1 vol % (T{sub 0.01}), nominally below 1050 C. These constraints cannot prevent the accumulation of large spinel crystals in considerably cooler regions ({approx} 850 C) of the glass discharge riser during melter idling and significantly limit the waste loading, which is reflected in a high volume of waste glass, and would result in high capital, production, and disposal costs. A developed empirical model predicts crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass, and thereby provides guidance in formulating crystal-tolerant glasses that would allow high waste loadings by keeping the spinel crystals small and therefore suspended in the glass.

  8. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  9. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  10. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Sylvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  11. Technology Advancements to Lower Costs of Electrochromic Window Glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2008-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An Electrochromic (EC) Window is a solar control device that can electronically regulate the flow of sunlight and heat. In the case of the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC window, this property derives from a proprietary all-ceramic, intrinsically durable thin-film stack applied to an inner surface of a glass double-pane window. As solar irradiation and temperatures change, the window can be set to an appropriate level of tint to optimize the comfort and productivity of the occupants as well as to minimize building energy usage as a result of HVAC and lighting optimization. The primary goal of this project is to replace certain batch processes for EC thin film deposition resulting in a complete in-line vacuum process that will reduce future capital and labor coats, while increasing throughput and yields. This will require key technology developments to replace the offline processes. This project has enabled development of the next generation of electrochromic devices suitable for large-scale production. Specifically, the requirements to produce large area devices cost effectively require processes amenable to mass production, using a variety of different substrate materials, having minimal handling and capable of being run at high yield. The present SageGlass{reg_sign} production process consists of two vacuum steps separated by an atmospheric process. This means that the glass goes through several additional handling steps, including venting and pumping down to go from vacuum to atmosphere and back, which can only serve to introduce additional defects associated with such processes. The aim of this project therefore was to develop a process which would eliminate the need for the atmospheric process. The overall project was divided into several logical tasks which would result in a process ready to be implemented in the present SAGE facility. Tasks 2 and 3 were devoted to development and the optimization of a new thin film material process. These tasks are more complicated than would be expected, as it has been determined in the past that there are a number of interactions between the new material and the layers beneath, which have an important effect on the behavior of the device. The effects of these interactions needed to be understood in order for this task to be successful. Tasks 4 and 5 were devoted to production of devices using the novel technology developed in the previous tasks. In addition, characterization tests were required to ensure the devices would perform adequately as replacements for the existing technology. Each of these tasks has been achieved successfully. In task 2, a series of potential materials were surveyed, and ranked in order of desirability. Prototype device structures were produced and characterized in order to do this. This satisfied the requirements for Task 2. From the results of this relatively extensive survey, the number of candidate materials was reduced to one or two. Small devices were made in order to test the functionality of such samples, and a series of optimization experiments were carried out with encouraging results. Devices were fabricated, and some room temperature cycling carried out showing that there are no fundamental problems with this technology. This series of achievements satisfied the requirements for Tasks 3 and 4. The results obtained from Task 3 naturally led to scale-up of the process, so a large cathode was obtained and installed in a spare slot in the production coater, and a series of large devices fabricated. In particular, devices with dimensions of 60-inch x 34-inch were produced, using processes which are fully compatible with mass production. Testing followed, satisfying the requirements for Task 5. As can be seen from this discussion, all the requirements of the project have therefore been successfully achieved. The devices produced using the newly developed technology showed excellent optical properties, often exceeding the performance of the existing technology, equivalent durability results, and promise a significantly simplified manufacturing approach, the

  12. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions. [Rainier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10/sup 12/ calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 ..mu..m scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity.

  13. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Mounted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Key Issues High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedure for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Data Availability...

  14. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF INSULATING WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient Use of Energy, New York (1975). Glaser, V.H.J. , "Energy Transport Control in Window Systems", Report ETR-1277-2, Stony Brook, New York, (

  15. The Delivery Man Problem with Time Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    depot, while open time windows are considered at all other locations. ... nodes of G: earliest and latest times are described by parameters ei and li for nodes i ...

  16. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  17. Solar Window Technology for BIPV or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Solar Window Technology for BIPV or BAPV Energy Systems Problem this technology solves: Using of Solar energy considerably, photovoltaic or PV material is still a major $ cost/unit of energy produced a novel high efficiency concentrator design, this static "Solar Window" system is such that it allows

  18. Glass Inclusions in Mariana Arc Phenocrysts: A New Perspective on Magmatic Evolution in a Typical Intra-oceanic Arc1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, Robert J.

    Glass Inclusions in Mariana Arc Phenocrysts: A New Perspective on Magmatic Evolution in a Typical at Dallas, Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083-0688, USA A B S T R A C T Major element compositions of glass of these lavas reflects accumulation of plagioclase. Glass inclusions also show the common occurrence of felsic

  19. THERM 5 / WINDOW 5 NFRC simulation manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Carmody, John; Huizenga, Charlie; Curcija, Dragan

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document, the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual', discusses how to use the THERM and WINDOW programs to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with those programs. In order to learn how to use these programs, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in both the ''THERM User's Manual'' and the ''WINDOW User's Manual''. In general, this manual references the User's Manuals rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between either of the User Manual and this ''THERM 5/''WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'', the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'' takes precedence. In addition, if this manual is in conflict with any NFRC standards, the standards take precedence. For example, if samples in this manual do not follow the current taping and testing NFRC standards, the standards not the samples in this manual, take precedence.

  20. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not predictable using the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, but were acceptable compared to the EA glass when tested. These glasses fell outside of the lower 95% confidence band, which demonstrates conservatism in the model. A few of the glasses fell outside of the upper 95% confidence band; however, these particular glasses have normalized release values that were much lower than the values of EA and should be of no practical concern. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable to the SB7b sludge system with a range of Na{sub 2}O concentrations blended with Frits 418 or 702. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable by the current DWPF PCCS models and/or acceptable with respect to the EA benchmark glass regardless of thermal history or compositional view.

  1. Electrochromic window based on poly(aniline-N-butylsulfonate)s with a radiation-cured solid polymer electrolyte film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, E.; Lee, K.; Rhee, S.B. [Korea Research Inst. of Chemical Technology, Yusung, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of). Advanced Polymer Division

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic properties of poly(aniline N-butylsulfonate)s (PANBUS) coatings on indium-tin oxide (ITO) glasses exposed to an ion conducting polymer films were investigated. The ion conducting polymer films were prepared via photocross-linking reactions of methoxy polyethylene glycol-mono methacrylate with tri(propylene glycol) diacrylate in the presence of a photoinitiator and LiClO{sub 4}. Mechanical properties of the electrolyte film were enhanced by introducing styrene or butylmethacrylate into the polymer network. Color contrast and optical response of the PANBUS-based window were improved by adding Nafion into the electrolyte. The electrochromic (EC) window assembled with PANBUS, Nafion containing polymer electrolyte film, and tungsten trioxide coated ITO glass (type 2) required less energy for operation ({+-}1.5 V) compared to the EC window without tungsten trioxide film (type 1, {+-}2.0 V). By applying {+-}1.5 V, optical density of the type 2 window changed from zero to maximum of 1.2, corresponding transmission change of higher than 95%. Lifetime tests show that the type 2 window could support more than 2.3 {times} 10{sup 3} cycles, of 60 s duration.

  2. Mössbauer study of conductive oxide glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuda, Koken; Kubuki, Shiro [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nishida, Tetsuaki, E-mail: nishida@fuk.kindai.ac.jp [Kinki University, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat treatment of barium iron vanadate glass, BaO?Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}?V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, at temperatures higher than crystallization temperature causes a marked decrease in resistivity (?) from several M?cm to several ?cm. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of heat-treated vanadate glass shows a marked decrease in quadrupole splitting (?) of Fe{sup III}, reflecting a structural relaxation, i.e., an increased symmetry of 'distorted' FeO{sub 4} and VO{sub 4} tetrahedra which are connected to each other by sharing corner oxygen atoms. Structural relaxation of 3D-network of vanadate glass accompanies a decrease in the activation energy for the conduction, reflecting a decreased energy gap between the donor level and conduction band. A marked increase in the conductivity was observed in CuO- or Cu{sub 2}O-containing barium iron vanadate glass after heat treatment at 450 °C for 30 min or more. 'n-type semiconductor model combined with small polaron hopping theory' was proposed in order to explain the high conductivity.

  3. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lifetime prediction of electrochromic windows for buildingsenergy performance of electrochromic windows. ” Proceedingsin the Proceedings. Electrochromic Windows for Commercial

  4. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Luis

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled forenergy performance of electrochromic windows. Proceedingssignal for daylight (electrochromic window, no overhang).

  5. Diamond turning of glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  6. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    300-500°C. Doping rare earth phosphate glasses with Ce, andRare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Protonconductivity of alkaline-earth doped rare earth phosphate

  7. Observational Window Functions in Planet Transit Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaspar von Braun; David R. Ciardi

    2008-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Window functions describe, as a function of orbital period, the probability that an existing planetary transit is detectable in one's data for a given observing strategy. We show the dependence of this probability upon several strategy and astrophysical parameters, such as length of observing run, observing cadence, length of night, and transit duration. The ability to detect a transit is directly related to the intrinsic noise of the observations. In our simulations of the window function, we explicitly address non-correlated (gaussian or white) noise and correlated (red) noise and discuss how these two different noise components affect window functions in different manners.

  8. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Ray, Hannah L.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure and conductivity of cerium and lanthanum phosphate glasses and glass-ceramics were investigated. The effects of varying the metal to phosphate ratio in the glasses, doping LaP3O9 glasses with Ce, and recrystallization of CeP3O9 glasses, on the glasses' microstructure and total conductivity were investigated using XRD, SEM, and AC impedance techniques. Strong increases in conductivity occurred when the glasses were recrystallized: the conductivity of a cerium metaphosphate glass increased conductivity after recrystallization from 10-7.5 S/cm to 10-6 S/cm at 400oC.

  9. Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    office windows. This Building Technologies Office (BTO) Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap identifies priority windows and building envelope R&D areas of interest. Cost and...

  10. Window and Envelope Technologies Overview - 2014 BTO Peer Review...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Windows and Building Envelope Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating...

  11. June 1998Program Description Windows and Daylighting Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    June 1998Program Description THERM 2.0 Windows and Daylighting Group Building Technologies, and Dariush Arasteh Windows and Daylighting Group Building Technologies Department Environmental Energy

  12. Effects of Overhangs on the Performance of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavil, Aslihan; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    issues for large-area electrochromic windows in commercialenergy performance of electrochromic windows controlled forwindows.lbl.gov/comm_perf/Electrochromic/ Winkelmann, F.C. ,

  13. NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

  14. NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

  15. 700 MHz window R & D at LBNL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rimmer, R.A.; Koehler, G.; Saleh, T.; Weidenbach, R.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-47939 LAUR 01-2574 CBP tech230 700 MHz Window R&D at LBNL R. Rimmer, G. Koehler, T.describes the R&D activities at LBNL under contract # 06261-

  16. Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Strachan

    2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of a model for calculating the release rate for radionuclides and other key elements from high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glasses under exposure conditions relevant to the performance of the repository. Several glass compositions are planned for the repository, some of which have yet to be identified (i.e., glasses from Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). The mechanism for glass dissolution is the same for these glasses and the glasses yet to be developed for the disposal of DOE wastes. All of these glasses will be of a quality consistent with the glasses used to develop this report.

  17. Electrochromic sun control coverings for windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, D K; Tracy, C E

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2 billion square meters (m{sup 2}) of building windows in the United States cause a national energy drain almost as large as the energy supply of the Alaskan oil pipeline. Unlike the pipeline, the drain of energy through windows will continue well into the 21st century. A part of this energy drain is due to unwanted sun gain through windows. This is a problem throughout the country in commercial buildings because they generally require air conditioning even in cold climates. New commercial windows create an additional 1600 MW demand for peak electric power in the United States each year. Sun control films, widely used in new windows and as retrofits to old windows, help to mitigate this problem. However, conventional, static solar control films also block sunlight when it is wanted for warmth and daylighting. New electrochromic, switchable, sun-gain-control films now under development will provide more nearly optimal and automatic sun control for added comfort, decreased building operating expense, and greater energy saving. Switchable, electrochromic films can be deposited on polymers at high speeds by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in a process that may be suitable for roll coating. This paper describes the electrochromic coatings and the PECVD processes, and speculates about their adaptability to high-speed roll coating. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Department of Energy and model energy codes have madethe most commonly adopted model energy code in the U.S. for

  19. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vinyl- sunlight.html. Certainteed. 2005. “PVC Capstockon PVC Substrate. ” Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS Number:2010. “Overview of materials for PVC, Rigid Grade. ” http://

  20. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    irradiance on a vertical, solar tracking, surface in Golden,irradiance on a vertical solar tracking surface in Golden,

  1. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature International Energy Conservation Codeof the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), the

  2. Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A. University Department of Psychology, A8000 The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 (512) 232-2883 e-mail: glass@mail.utexas.edu EDUCATION 2006 ­ Cognitive include: Designing and constructing experiments, statistical #12;Glass, Brian 2 analysis, manuscript

  3. Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A. University Department of Psychology, A8000 The University Making, The University of Texas at Austin #12;Glass, Brian 2 Duties include: Designing and constructing, constructing, and running experiments, statistical analysis. JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS Glass, B. D., Chotibut, T

  4. Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A. University Department of Psychology, A8000 The University of Categorization and Decision Making, The University of Texas at Austin #12;Glass, Brian 2 Duties include: Programming, constructing, and running experiments, statistical analysis. JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS Glass, B. D

  5. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the redirected light spreading it within a small range of outgoing angles. This solution was found to reduce glare to imperceptible levels while retaining for the most part the illuminance levels achieved solely by the daylighting film.

  6. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  7. Microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

  8. Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Window Functions Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloyd Knox

    1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary results of most observations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy are estimates of the angular power spectrum averaged through some broad band, called band-powers. These estimates are in turn what are used to produce constraints on cosmological parameters due to all CMB observations. Essential to this estimation of cosmological parameters is the calculation of the expected band-power for a given experiment, given a theoretical power spectrum. Here we derive the "band power" window function which should be used for this calculation, and point out that it is not equivalent to the window function used to calculate the variance. This important distinction has been absent from much of the literature: the variance window function is often used as the band-power window function. We discuss the validity of this assumed equivalence, the role of window functions for experiments that constrain the power in {\\it multiple} bands, and summarize a prescription for reporting experimental results. The analysis methods detailed here are applied in a companion paper to three years of data from the Medium Scale Anisotropy Measurement.

  9. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, Sherman (Park Forest, IL); Volin, Kenneth J. (Fort Collins, CO)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  10. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, R.A.

    1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in kit'' form. 11 figs.

  11. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Robert A. (R.D. #1, Box 462-A, Voorheesville, NY 12186)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in "kit" form.

  12. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point that the test apparatus had to be disassembled to dislodge the plugs created in the system.

  13. Energy-Efficient Windows | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome |Cooking for WinterWindow TreatmentsWindows

  14. Making Smart Windows Smarter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketingSmart Windows Smarter Making Smart Windows

  15. Improved Performance of Energy Window Ratio Criteria Obtained Using Multiple Windows at Radiation Portal Monitoring Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weier, Dennis R.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Ely, James H.; Bates, Derrick J.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation portal monitors are being used to detect radioactive target materials in vehicles transporting cargo. As vehicles pass through the portal monitors, they generate count profiles over time that can be compared to the average panel background counts obtained just prior to the time the vehicle entered the area of the monitors. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in support of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and U.S. Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), has accumulated considerable data regarding such background radiation and vehicle profiles from portal installations. Energy window criteria have been shown to increase sensitivity to certain types of target radioactive sources while also controlling to a manageable level the rate of false or nuisance alarms. First generation equipment had only two-window capability, and while energy windowing for such systems was shown to be useful for detecting certain types of sources, it was subsequently found that improved performance could be obtained with more windows. Second generation equipment instead has more windows and can thus support additional energy window criteria which can be shown to be sensitive to a wider set of target sources. Detection likelihoods are generated for various sources and energy window criteria, as well as for gross count decision criteria, based on computer simulated injections of sources into archived vehicle profiles. (PIET-43741-TM-534)

  16. The Seduction of the Glass Box

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Visual, and Spatial Effects of Glass, New York: PrincetonBauten, Perspektiven (Glass Architects: Concepts, Buildings,Taking a Second Look: Glass Pavilion at Broadfield House in

  17. Glass blowing on a wafer level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eklund, E. Jesper; Shkel, Andrei M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. Shelby, Introduction to Glass Science and Technology. :Properties of Corning Glasses [Online]. Available: http://1981. [15] R. H. Doremus, Glass Science. New York: Wiley,

  18. Glass matrix armor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calkins, Noel C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

  19. The Current T2K Beam Window

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Downstream Helium velocity 5 m/s Heat transfer coefficient 150 W/m2K #12;Helium flow grooves He in He out at KEK (via Oak Ridge via PSI). #12;Assembled Window #12;Remote Handling #12;Remote handling Monitor Chamber (Canada) Target Station (Japan) #12;Remote installation #12;Stress analysis and upgrade potential

  20. Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katherine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    preventing energy waste during the red light mode is a moregreen lights was installed to help avoid energy waste, or inlight means that energy is being used to modify the temparature inside and therefore if I open my window it will waste energy.  

  1. INDEX OF REFRACTION OF SHOCK LOADED SODA-LIME GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, C. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM 87185 (United States)

    2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Soda-lime glass (SLG) is a potential low-cost VISAR window for use at moderate shock pressures (up to 2430 GPa) where the material remains transparent. In order for SLG to be practical as a VISAR window, the correction factor, which describes the frequency correction related to the strain dependence of the refractive index, and hence the index of refraction itself, must be characterized as a function of pressure. Characterization data are reported in this paper and compared to previous results. The present data show good agreement with those of Dandekar [J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6614 (1998)] and separate study results by Gibbons and Ahrens [J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5489 (1971)] up to 7 GPa. However, at stresses over 7 GPa, marked discrepancies are evident between the present data and that of Gibbons and Ahrens. Differences in test methods may explain these discrepancies.

  2. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan, Shawn M.; Baranova, Inessa; Poley, Joseph; Reis, Henrique

    2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North America. The second task dealt with a study of current lamination processes in the various laminate industries, and development of concepts for integrating RF lamination into new or existing processes. The third task explored the use of a non-destructive technique for analyzing laminate adhesion with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The fourth task focused on developing concepts for curved glass lamination using RF lamination. The fifth and sixth tasks together comprised an analysis of laminate product markets, ranking for applicability and commercialization potential, and the development of commercialization strategies for those products. In addition, throughout the project as new experimental data and conventional process data were obtained, the benefits analysis of RF lamination was refined. The goals of the project described above were achieved, positioning RF lamination for the next stage growth envisioned in the original Industrial Grand Challenge proposal. Working with Pilkington North America, lamination of flat autoglass with PVB was achieved, meeting all 16 stringent industry tests. In particular, PVB laminates made with RF lamination passed environmental tests including the high temperature, 120 ���°C bake test, without significant formation of bubbles (defects). The adhesion of PVB to glass was measured using the pummel method. Adhesion values ranging from 1 to 7 out of 10 were obtained. The significant process parameters affecting the environmental and adhesion performance were identified through a designed experiment. Pre-lamination process variables including PVB storage humidity and the de-airing process (vacuum or nip rolling) were significant, as well as the level of pressure applied to the laminate during the RF process. Analysis of manufacturing with RF lamination equipment, based on the processes developed indicated that 3 RF presses could replace a typical auto-industry autoclave to achieve equal or greater throughput with possibly less capital cost and smaller footprint. Concepts for curved lamination id

  3. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan, Shawn M.

    2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North America. The second task dealt with a study of current lamination processes in the various laminate industries, and development of concepts for integrating RF lamination into new or existing processes. The third task explored the use of a non-destructive technique for analyzing laminate adhesion with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The fourth task focused on developing concepts for curved glass lamination using RF lamination. The fifth and sixth tasks together comprised an analysis of laminate product markets, ranking for applicability and commercialization potential, and the development of commercialization strategies for those products. In addition, throughout the project as new experimental data and conventional process data were obtained, the benefits analysis of RF lamination was refined. The goals of the project described above were achieved, positioning RF lamination for the next stage growth envisioned in the original Industrial Grand Challenge proposal. Working with Pilkington North America, lamination of flat autoglass with PVB was achieved, meeting all 16 stringent industry tests. In particular, PVB laminates made with RF lamination passed environmental tests including the high temperature, 120 C bake test, without significant formation of bubbles (defects). The adhesion of PVB to glass was measured using the pummel method. Adhesion values ranging from 1 to 7 out of 10 were obtained. The significant process parameters affecting the environmental and adhesion performance were identified through a designed experiment. Pre-lamination process variables including PVB storage humidity and the de-airing process (vacuum or nip rolling) were significant, as well as the level of pressure applied to the laminate during the RF process. Analysis of manufacturing with RF lamination equipment, based on the processes developed indicated that 3 RF presses could replace a typical auto-industry autoclave to achieve equal or greater throughput with possibly less capital cost and smaller footprint. Concepts for curved lamination identifying castable molds for

  4. Method of manufacturing a glass parabolic-cylindrical solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deminet, C.

    1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The method includes the following steps: (1) a microsheet of glass is drawn from a glass melt; (2) a reflective layer, such as silver, is deposited on one surface of the microsheet; (3) a first flexible backing layer, such as fiberglass, is bonded to the reflective layer; (4) the combination of the microsheet with the reflective layer and the first backing layer is formed over a mandrel which is preferably in the form of a parabolic cylinder; and (5) a honeycombed layer, with a second fiberglass backing layer, is then bonded to the first backing layer. The product produced by the steps 1-5 is then cured so that it retains the desired configuration; i.e. parabolic-cylindrical, after it is removed from the mandrel.

  5. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  6. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  7. Glass | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartmentCounselGlass Coating Makes Solar Panels MoreGlass

  8. Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures Brent T Temperatures of Window Specimens: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith1 , Howdy and cold sides, respectively. Surface temperature maps were compiled using an infrared thermographic system

  9. Pennsylvania: Window Technology First of Its Kind for Commercial...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    manufacturer Traco, a division of Kawneer (an Alcoa company), to develop the OptiQ(tm) Ultra Thermal Window series (OptiQ(tm)) for the commercial buildings sector. These windows...

  10. Pennsylvania: New Series of Windows Has Potential to Save Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    increase in energy efficiency compared to existing commercially available double-pane low-emissivity windows. Prior to the introduction of the OptiQ(tm), R-5 windows were not...

  11. Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The windows will function autonomously and in a networked configuration. Project Impact LBNL is aiming toward a mature market cost increment of 12ft2 of window. LBNL will also...

  12. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming generated in crucible has been studied with a specific goal to understand the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-quartz crucible located in a quartz window furnace equipped with video recording. The present study showed that humidity in the furnace atmosphere destabilizes foam, while other gases have little effect on foam stability. This study suggests that the higher foaming in oxy-fired furnace compared to air-fired is caused by the effect of water on early sulfate decomposition, promoting more efficient refining gas generation from sulfate (known as “dilution effect”).

  13. The Impact of Overhang Design on the Performance of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavil, Aslihan; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Issues for Large-area Electrochromic Windows in CommercialAnalysis of Prototype Electrochromic Windows”, ASHRAEon the Performance of Electrochromic Windows Asilhan Tavil

  14. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the US commercial buildings sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alone Photovoltaic-Powered Electrochromic Smart Window.Subject responses to electrochromic windows. To be publishedAnalysis of Prototype Electrochromic Windows, ASHRAE

  15. End User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot Retrofit Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2006. Advancement of electrochromic windows: Final report.User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilotenergy performance of electrochromic windows controlled for

  16. Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS Items that could cut or puncture skin or trash- can without any treatment. Hazardous Glass and Plastic: Items that can puncture, cut or scratch if disposed of in normal trash containers. Pasteur pipettes Other pipettes and tips (glass or plastic) Slides and cover

  17. The Color Glass Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gelis; E. Iancu; J. Jalilian-Marian; R. Venugopalan

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a broad overview of the theoretical status and phenomenological applications of the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory describing universal properties of saturated gluons in hadron wavefunctions that are extracted from deeply inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron collision experiments at high energies.

  18. End User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6027E End User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot Retrofit Application E Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot Retrofit Application Eleanor S. Lee1 Abstract , Erin S. Claybaugh Building Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20585 USA Automated electrochromic (EC) windows, advanced thermally

  19. Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian; Mitchell, Robin

    2006-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper shows that the energy requirements for today's typical efficient window products (i.e. ENERGY STAR{trademark} products) are significant when compared to the needs of Zero Energy Homes (ZEHs). Through the use of whole house energy modeling, typical efficient products are evaluated in five US climates and compared against the requirements for ZEHs. Products which meet these needs are defined as a function of climate. In heating dominated climates, windows with U-factors of 0.10 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F (0.57 W/m{sup 2}-K) will become energy neutral. In mixed heating/cooling climates a low U-factor is not as significant as the ability to modulate from high SHGCs (heating season) to low SHGCs (cooling season).

  20. Energy performance analysis of prototype electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of three newly developed prototype electrochromic devices. The DOE-2.1 E energy simulation program was used to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electric energy use and peak demand as a function of window type and size. The authors simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated locations of Phoenix, AZ and Miami, FL. Heating energy use was also studied in the heating-dominated location of Madison, WI. Daylight illuminance was used to control electrochromic state-switching. Two types of window systems were analyzed; i.e., the outer pane electrochromic glazing was combined with either a conventional low-E or a spectrally selective inner pane. The properties of the electrochromic glazings are based on measured data of new prototypes developed as part of a cooperative DOE-industry program. The results show the largest difference in annual electric energy performance between the different window types occurs in Phoenix and is about 6.5 kWh/m{sup 2} floor area (0.60 kWh/ft{sup 2}) which can represent a cost of about $.52/m{sup 2} ($.05/ft{sup 2}) using electricity costing $.08/kWh. In heating-dominated locations, the electrochromic should be maintained in its bleached state during the heating season to take advantage of beneficial solar heat gain which would reduce the amount of required heating. This also means that the electrochromic window with the largest solar heat gain coefficient is best.

  1. Intensity-Value Corrections for Integrating Sphere Measurements of Solid Samples Measured behind Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate and calibrated directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra of solids are important for both in situ and remote sensing. Many solids are in the form of powders or granules and in order to measure their diffuse reflectance spectra in the laboratory, it is often necessary to place the samples behind a transparent medium such as glass for the UV, visible or near-infrared spectral regions. Using both experimental and theoretical methods we have found that the glass (fused quartz in our case) leads to artifacts in the reflectance values. We report for the first time that the measured reflectance intensity values, for both hemispherical and diffuse reflectance, are distorted by the additional reflectances arising at the air-quartz and sample-quartz interfaces. The values are dependent on the sample reflectance and are vertically shifted with intensity offsets in the hemispherical case leading to measured values up to ?6% too high for a 2% reflectance surface, ?3.8% too high for 10% reflecting materials, approximately correct for 40%- to 60%-diffuse reflecting surfaces, and ?1.5% too low for 99% reflecting Spectralon surfaces. For the case of diffuse-only reflectance, the measured values are uniformly too low due to the polished glass, with differences of nearly 6% for 99%-reflecting matte surfaces. The deviations arise from the added reflections from the quartz surfaces as verified by both theory and experiment, and have some dependence on sphere design. Empirical correction factors were implemented into post-processing software to redress the artifact for hemispherical and diffuse reflectance data across the 300 to 2300 nm range.

  2. Solar reflection panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diver, Jr., Richard B. (Albuquerque, NM); Grossman, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Reshetnik, Michael (Boulder, CO)

    2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front surface of the composite panel. The composite panel comprises a front sheet affixed to a surface of a core material, preferably a core material comprising a honeycomb structure, and a back sheet affixed to an opposite surface of the core material. The invention may further comprise a sealing strip, preferably comprising EPDM, positioned between the glass mirror and the front surface of the composite panel. The invention also is of methods of making such solar collectors.

  3. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  4. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  5. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled for Daylight and Visual Comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subject responses to electrochromic windows. Submitted toin a full-scale electrochromic window testbed. Technicaloptimization of electrochromic operations for occupant

  6. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Curcija, Charlie; Kohler, Christian

    2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    While window frames typically represent 20-30% of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows that incorporate very low-conductance glazing. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based on a literature review and an evaluation of current methods of modeling heat transfer through window frames, we conclude that current procedures specified in ISO standards are not sufficiently adequate for accurately evaluating heat transfer through the low-conductance frames. We conclude that the near-term priorities for improving the modeling of heat transfer through low-conductance frames are: (1) Add 2D view-factor radiation to standard modeling and examine the current practice of averaging surface emissivity based on area weighting and the process of making an equivalent rectangular frame cavity. (2) Asses 3D radiation effects in frame cavities and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. (3) Assess existing correlations for convection in vertical cavities using CFD. (4) Study 2D and 3D natural convection heat transfer in frame cavities for cavities that are proven to be deficient from item 3 above. Recommend improved correlations or full CFD modeling into ISO standards and design fenestration tools, if appropriate. (5) Study 3D hardware short-circuits and propose methods to ensure that these effects are incorporated into ratings. (6) Study the heat transfer effects of ventilated frame cavities and propose updated correlations.

  7. Accurate glass forming for high-temperature solar applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development work was undertaken to thermally form glass for solar concentrators. Sagging and pressing glass to parabolic shapes was investigated with goal of achieving slope errors less than 2.0 mr RMS and costs of $1.25/ft/sup 2/. In addition, a laminating process was investigated to overcome the problem of silvering of a curved surface and to reduce corrosion of the silver. Thermal sagging is a process in which glass is shaped by heating the glass until it is sufficiently soft to deform under its own weight and conform to a mold. For cylindrical parabolic shapes, a method for producing low cost high accuracy molds was developed using castable ceramics and a grinder. Thermal conditions were established for a commercial glass bending furnace to obtain good replication of the mold. The accuracy and cost goals were met for glass size up to 30 x 30 x 0.125 inches and for low iron and regular iron float and sheet glasses. Lamination of two curved pieces of glass using automotive technology was investigated. A silver film was placed between two layers of polyvinyl and butyral (PVB) and this was used to bond two sheets of glass. Economically, and technically, the process appears feasible. However, the non-uniform thickness of PBV cause distortion in the reflected image. More work is needed to assess accuracy of curved laminated composites. Thermal pressing of glass is accomplished by heating the glass until it is soft and mechanically stamping the shape. Equipment was built and operated to determine important parameters in pressing. Control of thermal stresses in the glass is critical to preventing cracks. No glass pieces were produced without cracks.

  8. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  9. Reflecting to learn mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachael Kenney

    2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    integrating reflective practice and writing to learn mathematics (WTLM) in order ... concern or interest as well as potential explanations for and solutions to ..... teacher, I know I need to be universally good in both language and numbers. ... The PSMTs' reflections also revealed that completing the prompts encouraged them to.

  10. List of Windows Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformation Other Alternative FuelEnergysourcesourceWindows

  11. Window Daylighting Demo | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters | Department ofoftoMay 8,Energy Wind Vision:Window

  12. X-Windows Acceleration via NX

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat isJoin theanniversaryI 1 0 3 P 0 dX-RayX-Windows

  13. Window Industry Technology Roadmap | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapers Home Kyoung's pictureWind PowerWindStromRoadmap Name Window

  14. INITIAL MAR ASSESSMENTS TO ACCESS THE IMPACT OF AL DISSOLUTION ON DWPF OPERATING WINDOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    SRNL was tasked to provide an assessment of the downstream impacts (or lack thereof) to DWPF of decisions regarding the implementation of Al-dissolution to support sludge mass reduction and processing. Based on future sludge batch compositional projections, assessments have been made with respect to the ability to maintain comparable projected operating windows for sludges with high temperature Al-dissolution and without Al-dissolution. In general, paper study assessments indicated that most of the future sludge batches (twelve with and fourteen without high temperature Al-dissolution) had multiple frits available that yielded relatively large operating windows. The projected operating windows were defined by the waste loading (WL) interval over which glasses were classified as acceptable based on current process control models and their related constraints. Although multiple frits were identified, using a 17-point width as a general guide for a reasonable operating window (e.g., 25-41% WL), there generally appeared to be more flexibility in frit selection for the without Al-dissolution flowsheets. This larger frit compositional platform could allow frit development efforts to make more significant adjustments to melt rate. However, based on the general observations of the paper study, there is essentially no clear distinction between the two options with which to drive a decision to implement Al-dissolution. That is, comparable operating windows can be achieved through the frit development and selection process for either process. One could interpret this general summary statement to indicate: given frit development efforts can compensate for the different pretreatment strategies yielding equivalent operating windows or maximum WL targets, the lower sludge mass as a result of Al-dissolution would obviously result in reducing the number of cans produced at DWPF. Although the basic mathematics is technically sound, other factors need to be considered including facility operating times or mission life for the Tank Farm, DWPF and Saltstone. To address some of these questions, candidate frit compositions have been selected to assess melt rate as a function of waste loading for the glass systems representing future sludge batches with and without Al dissolution. The frit selection process was driven by reviewing compositional trends that have historically influenced melt rate as well as identifying systems with relatively large operating windows. With respect to the identification of sludge batches to support the melt rate testing, average compositions representing with and without Al-dissolution 'clusters' were developed using a statistical grouping routine. Ultimately, five frits were identified for each average 'cluster' composition. Melt rate assessments will be performed as a function of waste loading for the five frits selected. The data obtained from the experimental melt rate program can be used in combination with actual DWPF processing data to provide valuable insight into the waste throughput potentials for both flowsheets.

  15. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Iron phosphate vanadate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Carroll, Kyler J [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kiggans Jr, James O [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses have been investigated for use as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. MP glass cathodes are similar in composition to theoretically promising crystalline polyanionic (CP) cathodes (e.g., lithium cobalt phosphate, lithium manganese silicate), but with proper polyanion substitution, they can be designed to overcome the key shortcomings of CP cathodes, such as poor electrical conductivity and irreversible phase changes. Iron phosphate/vanadate glasses were chosen as a first demonstration of the MP glass concept. Polyanion substitution with vanadate was shown to improve the intercalation capacity of an iron phosphate glass from almost zero to full theoretical capacity. In addition, the MP glass cathodes also exhibited an unexpected second high-capacity electrochemical reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) of cathodes from cells having different states of charge suggested that this second electrochemical reaction is a glass-state conversion reaction. With a first demonstration established, MP glass materials utilizing an intercalation and/or glass-state conversion reaction are promising candidates for future high-energy cathode research.

  16. Weihai Blue Star Glass Holding Co Ltd aka Shandong Lanxing Glass...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Weihai Blue Star Glass Holding Co Ltd aka Shandong Lanxing Glass Group Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Weihai Blue Star Glass Holding Co Ltd (aka Shandong Lanxing Glass...

  17. Glass Ceiling or Glass Elevator: Are Voters Biased in Favor of Women Candidates in California Elections?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abney, Ronni Marie; Peterson, Rolfe Daus

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10.2202/1944-4370.1103 Abney and Peterson: Glass Ceilingor Glass Elevator Table 7A. Positive Gender Bias ModelAbney and Peterson: Glass Ceiling or Glass Elevator Huddy,

  18. The GLASS CHAIR Edited by Manuel Heitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    The GLASS CHAIR Edited by Manuel Heitor IST Press, 2000 #12;Collaborative Design of... The GLASS the glass chair, but also for the numerous discussions on glass production processes. And last · Carmo Valente Chapter 4. GLASS: BEAUTY WITH STRENGTH Sushil Kumar Mendiratta Chapter 5. The IDEA

  19. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed.

  20. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, P.T.

    1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

  1. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Farooqi, Rahmatullah [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States), Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

  2. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transfer Design Tools Arild Gustavsen1,* , Dariush Arasteh2 , Bjørn Petter Jelle3,4 , Charlie Curcija5-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. 3. Assess existing correlations

  3. Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francois Gelis

    2010-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk, I review the Color Glass Condensate theory of gluon saturation, and its application to the early stages of heavy ion collisions.

  4. Poly(methylmethacrylate) adsorption onto flat substrates of glass and silica: Influence of water traces in solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berquier, J. [Laboratoire CNRS-Saint-Gobain (UMR 125) 39, Quai Lucien Lefranc, F-93303 Aubervilliers Cedex

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adsorbed amount of PMMA on flat glass and silica is measured by infrared external reflection. The effect on PMMA adsorption of water traces in solvent is emphasized: the adsorbed amount increases with the water concentration. Flat glass and silica are compared: on contrary of what is expected, adsorbed amount on glass is higher than on silica. This result is interpreted as due to the difference of behaviour between glass and silica with respect to water adsorption. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  6. Structural features of alkali and barium aluminofluorophosphate glasses studied by IR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urusovskaya, L.N.; Smirnova, E.V. [Research and Technological Institute of Optical Materials Science, State Scientific Center, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IR reflection spectra of the Al(PO{sub 3}){sub 3}-MeF{sub x} glasses (Me=Li, Na, K, Ba) with the maximum content of fluoride varied for each specific glass within certain concentration limits are considered. Analysis of the spectra for glasses obtained upon variation in the content of alkali metal fluoride introduced into these glasses has demonstrated that the increase in the MeF{sub x} content leads to breaking the chain groupings and forming the [PO{sub 3}F]{sup 2-} groups, whereas the rise in concentration of barium fluoride in the Al(PO{sub 3}){sub 3}-BaF{sub 2} glasses brings about the stabilization of the chain structures.

  7. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Crandall, R.S.; Deb, S.K.; Stone, J.L.

    1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired. 11 figures.

  8. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Crandall, Richard S. (Boulder, CO); Deb, Satyendra K. (Boulder, CO); Stone, Jack L. (Lakewood, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired.

  9. Toshiba recommends Windows 7 Satellite L750-12T

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Toshiba recommends Windows 7 Model: i Satellite L750-12T 2nd Generation Intel® CoreTM i3-2350M processor­ 2.3 GHz, Genuine Windows® 7 Home Premium, 15.6" HD LCD, 4GB DDR3, 640GB HDD S-ATA, DVD Super and Enhanced Intel® SpeedStep® Technology Operating System Genuine Windows® 7 Home Premium Key Features Toshiba

  10. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of magnitude, which can result in unique properties in areas such as hydrogen storage, gas transport, gas separations and purifications, sensors, global warming applications, new drug delivery systems and so on. One of the most interesting porous glass products that SRNL has developed and patented is Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs) that are being studied for many different applications. The European Patent Office (EPO) just recently notified SRS that the continuation-in-part patent application for the PW-HGMs has been accepted. The original patent, which was granted by the EPO on June 2, 2010, was validated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The microspheres produced are generally in the range of 2 to 100 microns, with a 1 to 2 micron wall. What makes the SRNL microspheres unique from all others is that the team in Figure 1 has found a way to induce and control porosity through the thin walls on a scale of 100 to 3000 {angstrom}. This is what makes the SRNL HW-HGMs one-of-a-kind, and is responsible for many of their unique properties and potential for various applications, including those in tritium storage, gas separations, H-storage for vehicles, and even a variety of new medical applications in the areas of drug delivery and MRI contrast agents. SRNL Hollow Glass Microspheres, and subsequent, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres are fabricated using a flame former apparatus. Figure 2 is a schematic of the apparatus.

  11. Windows and Building Envelope Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Envelope Technologies Overview - 2014 BTO Peer Review Emerging Technologies Program Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope...

  12. Robust Inventory Routing with Flexible Time Window Allocation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chengliang Zhang

    2015-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Jan 15, 2015 ... Abstract: This paper studies a robust maritime inventory routing problem with time windows and stochastic travel times. One of the novelties of ...

  13. "Explosive" atom movement is new window into growing metalnanostructu...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    movement is new window into growing metal nanostructures Michael Tringides, Materials Science and Engineering , 515-294-6439 Breehan Gerleman Lucchesi, Public Affairs,...

  14. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Mapes, Terry S.; Zalis, WJ

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program, conduced by PNNL for DOE-BTP, including a summary of outcomes and lessons learned.

  15. The robust vehicle routing problem with time windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agostinho Agra

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 2, 2012 ... Abstract: This paper addresses the robust vehicle routing problem with time windows. We are motivated by a problem that arises in maritime ...

  16. Efficient Breach Theory Through the Looking Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Barry E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass (Signet 1960).Theory Through the Looking Glass such an award a put by theTheory Through the Looking Glass Consider also the hoary

  17. Aspects of the mechanics of metallic glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henann, David Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic glasses are amorphous materials that possess unique mechanical properties, such as high tensile strengths and good fracture toughnesses. Also, since they are amorphous, metallic glasses exhibit a glass transition, ...

  18. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Xianghong (Pasadena, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  19. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  20. Evaluating CERES angular distribution models for snow using surface reflectance observations from the East Antarctic Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Stephen

    techniques. Data products produced by the CERES team include the observed broadband solar, window long- wave data processing algorithms, used to convert the observed upwelling radiance to an estimate of the upwelling hemispheric flux. We model top-of-atmosphere anisotropic reflectance factors using an atmospheric

  1. Refractory Glass Seals for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the critical challenges facing planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is the need for reliable sealing technology. Seals must exhibit long-term stability and mechanical integrity in the high temperature SOFC environment during normal and transient operation. Several different approaches for sealing SOFC stacks are under development, including glass or glass-ceramic seals, metallic brazes, and compressive seals. Among glass seals, rigid glass-ceramics, self-healing glass, and composite glass approaches have been investigated under the SECA Core Technology Program. The U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the refractory glass approach in light of the fact that higher sealing temperatures (e.g., 930-1000 degrees C) may enhance the ultimate in-service bulk strength and electrical conductivity of contact materials, as well as the bonding strength between contact materials and adjacent SOFC components, such as interconnect coatings and electrodes. This report summarizes the thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties of the refractory sealing glass.

  2. Method of determining glass durability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

  3. Method of determining glass durability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol Maryanne (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John Butler (Aiken, SC); Brown, Kevin George (Augusta, GA); Edwards, Thomas Barry (Aiken, SC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, .DELTA.G.sub.p, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, .DELTA.G.sub.a, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.WA, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.SB associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, .DELTA.G.sub.f. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log.sub.10 (N C.sub.i (g/L))=a.sub.i +b.sub.i .DELTA.G.sub.f. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained.

  4. Porting salinas to the windows platform.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reese, Garth M.; Wilson, Christopher Riley

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ASC program has enabled significant development of high end engineering applications on massively parallel machines. There is a great benefit in providing these applications on the desktop of the analysts and designers, at least insofar as the small models may be run on these platforms, thus providing a tool set that spans the application needs. This effort documents the work of porting Salinas to the WINDOWS{trademark} platform. Selection of the tools required to compile, link, test and run Salinas in this environment is discussed. Significant problems encountered along the way are listed along with an estimation of the overall cost of the port. This report may serve as a baseline for streamlining further porting activities with other ASC codes.

  5. Simulating Complex Window Systems using BSDF Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konstantoglou, Maria; Jonsson, Jacob; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays, virtual models are commonly used to evaluate the performance of conventional window systems. Complex fenestration systems can be difficult to simulate accurately not only because of their geometry but also because of their optical properties that scatter light in an unpredictable manner. Bi-directional Scattering Distribution Functions (BSDF) have recently been developed based on a mixture of measurements and modelling to characterize the optics of such systems. This paper describes the workflow needed to create then use these BSDF datasets in the Radiance lighting simulation software. Limited comparisons are made between visualizations produced using the standard ray-tracing method, the BSDF method, and that taken in a full-scale outdoor mockup.

  6. MAVIS III -- A Windows 95/NT Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardwick, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). GTS Engineering Dept.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MAVIS (Modeling and Analysis of Explosive Valve Interactions) is a computer program that simulates operation of explosively actuated valve. MAVIS was originally written in Fortran in the mid 1970`s and was primarily run on the Sandia Vax computers in use through the early 1990`s. During the mid to late 1980`s MAVIS was upgraded to include the effects of plastic deformation and it became MAVIS II. When the Vax computers were retired, the Gas Transfer System (GTS) Development Department ported the code to the Macintosh and PC platforms, where it ran as a simple console application. All graphical output was lost during these ports. GTS code developers recently completed an upgrade that provides a Windows 95/NT MAVIS application and restores all of the original graphical output. This upgrade is called MAVIS III version 1.0. This report serves both as a user`s manual for MAVIS III v 1.0 and as a general software development reference.

  7. Isocurvature forecast in the anthropic axion window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamann, J. [LAPTh, Université de Savoie, CNRS, BP 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Hannestad, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Raffelt, G.G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Wong, Y.Y.Y., E-mail: hamann@lapp.in2p3.fr, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk, E-mail: raffelt@mppmu.mpg.de, E-mail: yvonne.wong@cern.ch [Theory Division, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland)

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the cosmological sensitivity to the amplitude of isocurvature fluctuations that would be caused by axions in the ''anthropic window'' where the axion decay constant f{sub a} >> 10{sup 12} GeV and the initial misalignment angle ?{sub i} << 1. In a minimal ?CDM cosmology extended with subdominant scale-invariant isocurvature fluctuations, existing data constrain the isocurvature fraction to ? < 0.09 at 95% C.L. If no signal shows up, Planck can improve this constraint to 0.042 while an ultimate CMB probe limited only by cosmic variance in both temperature and E-polarisation can reach 0.017, about a factor of five better than the current limit. In the parameter space of f{sub a} and H{sub I} (Hubble parameter during inflation) we identify a small region where axion detection remains within the reach of realistic cosmological probes.

  8. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  9. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Ossining, NY); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  10. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Ossining, NY); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  11. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 7, Waste glass technology for Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the details of the waste glass tutorial session that was held to promote knowledge of waste glass technology and how this can be used at the Hanford Reservation. Topics discussed include: glass properties; statistical approach to glass development; processing properties of nuclear waste glass; glass composition and the effects of composition on durability; model comparisons of free energy of hydration; LLW glass structure; glass crystallization; amorphous phase separation; corrosion of refractories and electrodes in waste glass melters; and glass formulation for maximum waste loading.

  12. Lead phosphate glass compositions for optical components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sales, Brian C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lead phosphate glass to which has been added indium oxide or scandium oe to improve chemical durability and provide a lead phosphate glass with good optical properties.

  13. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  14. Database and Interim Glass Property Models for Hanford HLW Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Vienna, John D.; Cooley, Scott K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Russell, Renee L.

    2001-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to provide a methodology for an increase in the efficiency and a decrease in the cost of vitrifying high-level waste (HLW) by optimizing HLW glass formulation. This methodology consists in collecting and generating a database of glass properties that determine HLW glass processability and acceptability and relating these properties to glass composition. The report explains how the property-composition models are developed, fitted to data, used for glass formulation optimization, and continuously updated in response to changes in HLW composition estimates and changes in glass processing technology. Further, the report reviews the glass property-composition literature data and presents their preliminary critical evaluation and screening. Finally the report provides interim property-composition models for melt viscosity, for liquidus temperature (with spinel and zircon primary crystalline phases), and for the product consistency test normalized releases of B, Na, and Li. Models were fitted to a subset of the screened database deemed most relevant for the current HLW composition region.

  15. Benefits of Windows Small Business Server Code Name "Aurora"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    Benefits of Windows Small Business Server Code Name "Aurora" includes: Daily automatic backups Business Server Code Name "Aurora" provides an easy-to-use solution ideal for first server small businesses with up to 25 users, Windows Small Business Server Code Name "Aurora" provides a cost-effective and easy

  16. Validation of the Window Model of the Modelica Buildings Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5735E Validation of the Window Model of the Modelica Buildings Library Thierry Stephane MODEL OF THE MODELICA BUILDINGS LIBRARY Thierry Stephane Nouidui, Michael Wetter, and Wangda Zuo the validation of the window model of the free open-source Modelica Buildings library. This paper starts

  17. Boron nitride protective coating of beryllium window surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of beryllium windows on white synchrotron radiation beamlines is constrained by the fact that the downstream surfaces of these windows should not be exposed to ambient atmosphere. They should, rather, be protected by a tail-piece under vacuum or containing helium atmosphere. This tailpiece is typically capped by Kapton (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) or aluminum foil. The reason for such an arrangement is due to the health risk associated with contaminants (BeO) which from on the exposed beryllium window surfaces and due to possible loss of integrity of the windows. Such a tail-piece may, however, add unwanted complications to the beamline in the form of vacuum pumps or helium supplies and their related monitoring systems. The Kapton windows may burn through in the case of high intensity beams and lower energy radiation may be absorbed in the case of aluminum foil windows. A more ideal situation would be to provide a coating for the exposed beryllium window surface, sealing it off from the atmosphere, thus preventing contamination and/or degradation of the window, and eliminating the need for helium or vacuum equipment.

  18. Windowing Time in Digital Libraries Michael G. Christel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christel, Mike

    Windowing Time in Digital Libraries Michael G. Christel Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA, organization, and utility of time references identified in digital library materials, emphasizing how to treat to illustrate the concept of windowing such time in digital library interfaces. Categories and Subject

  19. Budget Windows, Sunsets and Fiscal Control Alan J. Auerbach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Budget Windows, Sunsets and Fiscal Control Alan J. Auerbach University of California, Berkeley have struggled to find the right method of controlling public spending and budget deficits. In recent years, the United States has evaluated policy changes using a ten-year budget window. The use of a multi

  20. Radiation-transparent windows, method for imaging fluid transfers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Wang, Jin (Burr Ridge, IL)

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 40 bar is presented. The window allows for x-ray access to such phenomena as fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions.

  1. A Topological Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Pierre Eckmann

    2007-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and study a model with glassy behavior. The state space of the model is given by all triangulations of a sphere with $n$ nodes, half of which are red and half are blue. Red nodes want to have 5 neighbors while blue ones want 7. Energies of nodes with different numbers of neighbors are supposed to be positive. The dynamics is that of flipping the diagonal of two adjacent triangles, with a temperature dependent probability. We show that this system has an approach to a steady state which is exponentially slow, and show that the stationary state is unordered. We also study the local energy landscape and show that it has the hierarchical structure known from spin glasses. Finally, we show that the evolution can be described as that of a rarefied gas with spontaneous generation of particles and annihilating collisions.

  2. Reducing residential cooling requirements through the use of electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows in a prototypical residential building under a variety of state switching control strategies. We used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling energy and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. A single-story ranch-style home located in the cooling-dominated locations of Miami, FL and Phoenix, AZ was simulated. Electrochromic control strategies analyzed were based on incident total solar radiation, space cooling load, and outside air temperature. Our results show that an electrochromic material with a high reflectance in the colored state provides the best performance for all control strategies. On the other hand, electrochromic switching using space cooling load provides the best performance for all the electrochromic materials. The performance of the incident total solar radiation control strategy varies as a function of the values of solar radiation which trigger the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic (setpoint range); i.e., required cooling decreases as the setpoint range decreases; also, performance differences among electrochromics increases. The setpoint range of outside air temperature control of electrochromics must relate to the ambient weather conditions prevalent in a particular location. If the setpoint range is too large, electrochromic cooling performance is very poor. Electrochromics compare favorably to conventional low-E clear glazings that have high solar heat gain coefficients that are used with overhangs. However, low-E tinted glazings with low solar heat gain coefficients can outperform certain electrochromics. Overhangs should be considered as a design option for electrochromics whose state properties do not change significantly between bleached and colored states.

  3. Migrate Roles and Features to Windows Server 2012 R2 or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    #12;Migrate Roles and Features to Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2012 Summary: This E-Book includes guidance to help you migrate server roles and features to Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2012. Also included is an installation and operations guide for Windows Server Migration Tools, a set

  4. To do list for laser maintenance 8.28-8.30 1. Clean the turning box and compressor chamber, remove all broken glass piece on bread board

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shvets, Gennady

    and compressor chamber, remove all broken glass piece on bread board and mirror mount all optics in turning box and compressor chamber, replace all optics with damage spots on it, measure the reflectivity of compressor. 4. Check focal spot

  5. Geochemical comparison of impact glasses from lunar meteorites ALHA81005 and MAC88105 and Apollo 16 regolith 64001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delano, J.W. (State Univ. of New York, Albany (United States))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most glasses that occur in lunar highland regolith are quenched droplets of impact melt. The chemical compositions of these glasses are equivalent, in the absence of volatile losses, to the original target materials. The compositional range of impact glasses in a regolith reflects the chemical diversity that existed throughout the region up to the time of system closure (e.g., breccia formation). Since these glasses are a product of widespread and random sampling, both in terms of space and time, they can be used for geochemical exploration of the Moon. The major-element compositions of impact glasses occurring in three samples of lunar feldspathic regolith (ALHA81005; MAC88105; Apollo 16 64001) have been determined by electron microprobe. The glass populations among these three unrelated samples are compositionally distinct. While most of the impact glasses within each of these three samples are compositionally similar to the regolith in which they are found, up to 40% of the impact glasses are different. Some of the compositionally exotic glasses were ballistically transported from other areas of the Moon and thereby provide information about the compositional range of regoliths that exist elsewhere. Since the geological setting of the Apollo 16 region is well known compared to the source areas of the lunar meteorites, the Apollo 16 glasses provide a ground truth for interpretations.

  6. Demographic Window, H. G. Muller et al. 1 Demographic Window to Aging in the Wild: Constructing Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Hans-Georg

    Demographic Window, H. G. M¨uller et al. 1 Demographic Window to Aging in the Wild: Constructing for wild populations. A demographic key identity is established that leads to a method whereby age identity is established for the continuous case where the survival schedule of the wild population

  7. Reinforced glass beamsReinforced glass beamsg Auteur Dr. Christian LOUTER 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinforced glass beamsReinforced glass beamsg EDCE Auteur Dr. Christian LOUTER 1 ENAC/EDCE 2011In contemporary architecture glass is increasinglyIn contemporary architecture glass is increasingly applied for structural components such as beamsapplied for structural components such as beams. However glass

  8. Crystallization during processing of nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glassmaking are reviewed.

  9. Experimental and Numerical Examination of the Thermal Transmittance of High Performance Window Frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen Ph.D., Arild

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    windows are often called passive -house wind ows, as windowse window frames, like passive-house windows. In this p aperare supposed to satisfy the Passive house requirements of

  10. Corrosion of Partially Crystallized Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.

    2002-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Using existing data on corrosion of partially crystallized, simulated, high-level waste glasses, coefficients were introduced to evaluate the cumulative influence of secondary effects, such as residual stresses or concentration gradients on product consistency test response. As compared to predictions based solely on residual glass composition effects, the results showed that cristobalite, eucryptite, and nepheline had a higher-than-predicted impact on glass corrosion, while the effects of baddeleyite, hematite, calcium-zirconium silicate, and zircon were close to those predicted. The effects of acmite and lithium silicate were opposite to those expected based on their compositions. The analysis revealed important limitations of the databases currently available. Better understanding of corrosion phenomena will require quantitative composition data, microscopic characterization of pristine and corroded surfaces, and long-term tests with glass coupons or monoliths.

  11. TESTING OF AIR-FLOW WINDOWS FOR EVALUATION AND APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boehm, R.F.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PRESSURE: TAPS RETURN** REFERENCE** Return-Air ConditioningMakeup-Air Conditioning Energy a.Through Glass Return-Air Conditioning Energy Makeuo-Air

  12. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  13. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input.

  14. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling.

  15. Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of the Installed Base and User Behavior

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prevQuickEnergyforDepartment ofEnergyResidential Windows

  16. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet (Seaford, VA); Dylla, III, Henry Frederick (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  17. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  18. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled for Daylight and Visual Comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows Controlled for Daylight and Visual Comfort Eleanorof means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare.was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was

  19. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through vacuum and electrochromic vacuum glazed windows,technologies, such as an electrochromic vacuum glazedof rebate depth on an electrochromic vacuum glazed window.

  20. Analytical Results of DWPF Glass Sample Taken During Pouring of Canister S01913

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) (Macrobatch 3) in December 2001 as part of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 208. Macrobatch 3 consists of the contents of Tank 40 and Tank 8 in approximately equal proportions. A glass sample was obtained while pouring Canister S01913 and was sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells for characterization. This report contains observations of the glass sample, results for the density, the chemical composition, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the radionuclide results needed for the Production Record for Canister S01913. The following conclusions are drawn from this work: (1) The glass sample taken during the filling of canister S01913 received at SRNL weighed 33.04 grams and was dark and reflective with no obvious inclusions indicating the glass was homogeneous. (2) The results of the composition for glass sample S01913 are in good agreement ({+-} 15%) with the DWPF SME results for Batch Number 254, the SME Batch that was being fed to the melter when the sample was collected. (3) The calculated WDF was 2.58. (4) Acid dissolution of the glass samples may not have completely dissolved the noble metals rhodium and ruthenium. (5) The PCT results for the glass (normalized boron release of 1.18 g/L) indicate that it is greater than seven standard deviations more durable than the EA glass; thus, the glass meets the waste acceptance criterion for durability. (6) The measured density of the glass was 2.56 {+-} 0.03 g/cm{sup 3}.

  1. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  2. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  3. Optical Deformations in Solar Glass Filters for High Precision Astrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sigismondi, Costantino; Boscardin, Sérgio Calderari; Penna, Jucira Lousada; Reis-Neto, Eugênio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring the solar diameter at all position angles gives the complete figure of the Sun. Their asphericities have implications in classical physics and general relativity, and the behavior of the optical systems used in the direct measurements is to be known accurately. A solar filter is a plane-parallel glass with given absorption, and here we study the departures from the parallelism of the faces of a crystal slab 5 mm thick, because of static deformations. These deformations are rescaled to the filter's dimensions. Related to the Solar Disk Sextant experiment and to the Reflecting Heliometer of Rio de Janeiro a simplified model of the influences of the inclination between the external and the internal surfaces of a glass solar filter, is discussed.

  4. Hydrogen Safety Project: Chemical analysis support task. Window ``E`` analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, T.E.; Campbell, J.A.; Hoppe, E.W.; Greenwood, L.R.; Gillespie, B.M.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Core samples taken from tank 101-SY at Hanford during ``window E`` were analyzed for organic and radiochemical constituents by staff of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Westinghouse Hanford company submitted these samples to the laboratory.

  5. Building America Expert Meeting: Windows Options for New and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership held an Expert Meeting on Windows Options for New and Existing Homes on November 14, 2011 at the Nolte Building on the campus of the...

  6. Switchable window based on electrochromic polymers Chunye Xu,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taya, Minoru

    Switchable window based on electrochromic polymers Chunye Xu,a) Lu Liu, Susan E. Legenski, Dai Ning March 2004) A large contrast ratio (> 60%) and rapid switching (0.3­1 s) electrochromic (EC) polymer

  7. Engineering adenylate cyclases regulated by near-infrared window light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Min-Hyung

    Bacteriophytochromes sense light in the near-infrared window, the spectral region where absorption by mammalian tissues is minimal, and their chromophore, biliverdin IX?, is naturally present in animal cells. These properties ...

  8. Multilayered Microelectronic Device Package With An Integral Window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectronic package with an integral window mounted in a recessed lip for housing a microelectronic device. The device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can be formed of a low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) or high temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayered material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined (e.g. co-fired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that a light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The result is a compact, low profile package, having an integral window mounted in a recessed lip, that can be hermetically sealed.

  9. NREL: Continuum Magazine - Energy Efficient Window Coatings that...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    even before coming to NREL, Satyen Deb conceived of making a window that incorporated tungsten oxide thin films that had adjustable properties. Once at NREL (then, the Solar Energy...

  10. A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Clear, Robert D.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph H.; Fernandes, Luis L.; Ward, GregJ.; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Yazdanian, Mehry

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Switchable variable-tint electrochromic (EC) windows preserve view out while modulating transmitted light, glare, and solar heat gains. Consumers will require objective information on the risks and benefits of this emerging technology as it enters the market in 2006. This guide provides such information and data derived from a wide variety of simulations, laboratory tests, and a 2.5-year field test of prototype large-area EC windows evaluated under outdoor sun and sky conditions. This design guide is provided to architects, engineers, building owners, and others interested in electrochromic windows. The design guide provides basic information about what is an electrochromic window, what it looks like, how fast does it switch, and what current product offerings are. The guide also provides information on performance benefits if more mature product offerings were available.

  11. Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic skylights during the months of May, June, July, August and 1.9 times higher than the thermochromic skylight during the months of March, April, September, October. Calculated illuminance levels were much more consistent as compared to the existing constant tint skylights installed at LinEl Signature. This allows for a more comfortable interior space in regard to glare discomfort and interior lighting control. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was contracted to characterize the performance of the thermochromic interlayer and thermochromic window systems. Thermochromic interlayer was characterized with spectrometer equipment. The thermochromic window systems were characterized using LBNL’s Advanced Window Test Facility. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. Iowa State University was contracted to compare thermochromic window technology to constant tint technology. Iowa State University conducted the testing at the Energy Resource Station (ERS). The ERS has the ability to simultaneously test side-by-side competing building technologies. The building is equipped with two identical air handling units, each with its own dedicated and identical chiller. One air handling unit supplies the four test rooms designated as the A rooms and the other unit serves the four test rooms designated as the B rooms. There is one A test room and one B test rooms arranged as pairs in a side-by-side design with each pair having a different exposure. There is a pair of test rooms that face the south, an east and west facing pair. Each of the test rooms is a mirror image of its match with identical construction. The rooms are unoccupied; however, the capability to impose false loads on the rooms exists. The false loads and room lighting can be scheduled to simulate various usage patterns. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. GARD Analytics was contracted to compare EnergyPlus building simulations to the data recorded at the Iowa ERS. The goal of this research was to validate the building simulation software developed by the US Department of Energy. EnergyPlus is

  12. Nano-structured self-cleaning superhydrophobic glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin Yeol

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5. Optically transparent glass with vertically alignedcomposition of biosoluble glass fiber” Korean ApplicationS. Jin, “Optically Transparent Glass with Vertically Aligned

  13. Micro-Continuum Modeling of Nuclear Waste Glass Corrosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steefel, Carl

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    21. Grambow, B. (2006). Nuclear waste glasses – How durable?Continuum Modeling of Nuclear Waste Glass Corrosion AugustContinuum Modeling of Nuclear Waste Glass Corrosion Prepared

  14. Performance Testing of Window Installation and Flashing Details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, T. A.; Herrin, J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and proposed installation practices incorporating new flashing materials. This paper focuses specifically on the installation practices relating to windows with mounting fins or flanges. REVIEW OF CURRENT PRACTICES AND ATTITUDES Interviews with builders... into two categories based on the how the flashing and the rough opening is treated. g167g32 2-Dimensional Methods: using flashing to extend protection around the perimeter of the window flanges on to the face of the sheathing, and g167g32 3...

  15. Frit Development Efforts for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4): Operating Window Assessments fo Scenarios Leading Up to the Selected Preparation Plan for SB4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peeler, D

    2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to document technical information that has been provided to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Closure Business Unit (CBU) personnel as part of the frit development support for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The information presented in this report includes projected operating windows (expressed in terms of waste loading) for various sludge blending and/or washing options coupled with candidate frits of interest. Although the Nominal Stage assessment serves as the primary tool for these evaluations, select systems were also evaluated using a Variation Stage assessment in which compositional variations were introduced. In addition, assessments of the impacts of nepheline formation potential and the SO{sub 4}{sup -} solubility limit on the projected operating windows are also provided. Although this information was used as part of the technical basis leading to CBU's development of the preferred SB4 preparation plan, none of the options presented in this report was selected as the preferred plan. Therefore, the information is presented without significant interpretation of the resulting operating windows, but the projected windows are provided so additional insight can be explored if desired. Detailed assessments of the projected operating windows (using both Nominal and Variation Stage assessments) of the preferred sludge preparation plan with candidate frits are to be documented elsewhere. The information provided in this report is focused solely on model-based projections of the operating windows for various SB4 blending strategies of interest. Although nepheline formation potential is monitored via model predictions as a part of this assessment, experimental work investigating the impact of nepheline on glass quality is also being addressed in a parallel study. The results of this paper study and the experimental assessments of melt rate, SO{sub 4} solubility, and/or nepheline formation potential are all critical components of the inputs into the frit selection process for SB4.

  16. Highly Insulating Windows with a U-value less than 0.6 W/m2K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendell Rhine; Ying Tang; Wenting Dong; Roxana Trifu; Reduane Begag

    2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. households rely primarily on three sources of energy: natural gas, electricity, and fuel oil. In the past several decades, electricity consumption by households has grown dramatically, and a significant portion of electricity used in homes is for lighting. Lighting includes both indoor and outdoor lighting and is found in virtually every household in the United States. In 2001, according to the US Energy Information Administration, lighting accounted for 101 billion kWh (8.8 percent) of U.S. household electricity use. Incandescent lamps, which are commonly found in households, are highly inefficient sources of light because about 90 percent of the energy used is lost as heat. For that reason, lighting has been one focus area to increase the efficiency of household electricity consumption. Windows have several functions, and one of the main functions is to provide a view to the outside. Daylighting is another one of windows main functions and determines the distribution of daylight to a space. Daylighting windows do not need to be transparent, and a translucent daylighting window is sufficient, and often desired, to diffuse the light and make the space more environmentally pleasing. In homes, skylights are one source of daylighting, but skylights are not very energy efficient and are inseparably linked to solar heat gain. In some climates, added solar heat gains from daylighting may be welcome; but in other climates, heat gain must be controlled. More energy efficient skylights and daylighting solutions, in general, are desired and can be designed by insulating them with aerogels. Aerogels are a highly insulating and transparent material in its pure form. The overall objective for this project was to prepare an economical, translucent, fiber-reinforced aerogel insulation material for daylighting applications that is durable for manufacturing purposes. This advanced insulation material will increase the thermal performance of daylighting windows, while satisfying constraints such as durability, cost, user acceptance, size limits, and environmental safety concerns. The energy efficient daylighting window will consist of a translucent and resilient aerogel panel sandwiched between glass panes in double glazed windows. Compared to the best windows available today, the double glazed translucent windows with 1/2-inch aerogel inserts will have a U-value of 1.2 W/m{sup 2} K (0.211 BTU/ft{sup 2} h F) without any coating or low conductivity fill gases. These windows will be more effective than the windows with an Energy Star rating of U-2 W/m{sup 2} K and could be made even more efficient by using low-e coated glass glazings and inert gas fills. This report summarizes the work accomplished on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41950. During this project, Aspen Aerogels made transparent and translucent aerogels from TMOS and TEOS. We characterized the transparency of the aerogels, reinforced the transparent aerogels with fibers and prepared large translucent aerogel panels and blankets. We also conducted an initial market study for energy efficient translucent windows. A lab-scale process was developed that could be scaled-up to manufacture blankets of these translucent aerogels. The large blankets prepared were used to fabricate prototype translucent windows and skylights. The primary goal of this project was to develop transparent, resilient, hydrophobic silica aerogels that have low thermal conductivities (R-10/inch) to be used to produce aerogel insulated double-glazing windows with a U value of 0.6 W/m{sup 2}K. To meet this objective we developed a process and equipment to produce blankets of translucent, hydrophobic aerogel. We focused on silica, organically-modified silica aerogels (Ormosils), and fiber reinforced silica aerogels due to the appreciable expertise in silica sol-gel processing available with the personnel at Aspen Aerogels, and also due to the quantity of knowledge available in the scientific literature. The project was conducted in three budget periods, herein called BP1, BP2 and BP3.

  17. Performance of a multifunctional PV/T hybrid solar window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidsson, Henrik; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Bjoern [Energy and Building Design, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A building-integrated multifunctional PV/T solar window has been developed and evaluated. It is constructed of PV cells laminated on solar absorbers placed in a window behind the glazing. To reduce the cost of the solar electricity, tiltable reflectors have been introduced in the construction to focus radiation onto the solar cells. The reflectors render the possibility of controlling the amount of radiation transmitted into the building. The insulated reflectors also reduce the thermal losses through the window. A model for simulation of the electric and hot water production was developed. The model can perform yearly energy simulations where different features such as shading of the cells or effects of the glazing can be included or excluded. The simulation can be run with the reflectors in an active, up right, position or in a passive, horizontal, position. The simulation program was calibrated against measurements on a prototype solar window placed in Lund in the south of Sweden and against a solar window built into a single family house, Solgaarden, in Aelvkarleoe in the central part of Sweden. The results from the simulation shows that the solar window annually produces about 35% more electric energy per unit cell area compared to a vertical flat PV module. (author)

  18. Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sbar, Neil L.

    2001-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

  19. Improving the thermal performance of the US residential window stock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Eto, J.H.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows have typically been the least efficient thermal component in the residential envelope, but technology advances over the past decade have helped to dramatically improve the energy efficiency of window products. While the thermal performance of these advanced technology windows can be easily characterized for a particular building application, few precise estimates exist of their aggregate impact on national or regional energy use. Policy-makers, utilities, researchers and the fenestration industry must better understand these products` ultimate conservation potential in order to determine the value of developing new products and initiating programs to accelerate their market acceptance. This paper presents a method to estimate the conservation potential of advanced window technologies, combining elements of two well-known modeling paradigms: supply curves of conserved energy and residential end-use forecasting. The unique features include: detailed descriptions of the housing stock by region and vintage, state-of-the-art thermal descriptions of window technologies, and incorporation of market effects to calculate achievable conservation potential and timing. We demonstrate the methodology by comparing, for all new houses built between 1990 and 2010, the conservation potential of very efficient, high R-value ``superwindows`` in the North Central federal region and spectrally-selective low-emissivity (moderate Revalue and solar transmittance) windows in California.

  20. HLW Glass Studies: Development of Crystal-Tolerant HLW Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lang, Jesse B.; Owen, Antionette T.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In our study, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed on designed glasses of different compositions to further investigate and simulate the effect of Cr, Ni, Fe, Al, Li, and RuO2 on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the HLW melter. The experimental data were used to expand the compositional region covered by an empirical model developed previously (Matyáš et al. 2010b), improving its predictive performance. We also investigated the mechanism for agglomeration of particles and impact of agglomerates on accumulation rate. In addition, the TL was measured as a function of temperature and composition.

  1. Glass and Glass Products (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartmentCounselGlass Coating Makes Solar Panels MoreGlass and

  2. Solar Reflectance Index Calculator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYouof Energy Projects to ReduceReflectance

  3. Completed April 30, 2004. LBNL-54966. The Energy-Savings Potential of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    " as the number one top priority. Smart windows include chromogenic glazings that can be reversibly switched from century [1]. Window industry executives identified a new generation of dynamic, responsive "Smart Windows and optical properties that can be dynamically controlled. "Smart windows" incorporating electrochromic

  4. Energy performance of a dual airflow window under different climates Jingshu Wei1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    -e windows was also calculated for com parison. The dual airflow window can reduce heating energy1 Energy performance of a dual airflow window under different climates Jingshu Wei1 , Jianing Zhao1. This paper reports our effort to use EnergyPlus to simulate the energy performance of a dual airflow window

  5. Glass Transition in Confined Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Lang; Vitalie Botan; Martin Oettel; David Hajnal; Thomas Franosch; Rolf Schilling

    2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Extending mode-coupling theory, we elaborate a microscopic theory for the glass transition of liquids confined between two parallel flat hard walls. The theory contains the standard MCT equations in bulk and in two dimensions as limiting cases and requires as input solely the equilibrium density profile and the structure factors of the fluid in confinement. We evaluate the phase diagram as a function of the distance of the plates for the case of a hard sphere fluid and obtain an oscillatory behavior of the glass transtion line as a result of the structural changes related to layering.

  6. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-81.05.K 1. Introduction Glass foams generated in glass-that the stability of E-glass foam decreased with increasing

  7. The Conservation of Seventeenth Century Archaeological Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arcak, Cory

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    is the only chance for the objects survival. Though glass is considered one of the most stable archaeological materials, noninvasive, reversible treatments are not always possible given the level of deterioration glass objects undergo within the archaeological...

  8. The Huge, Blue, Jesus Glass Statue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robbins, Joanna

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Later, I found a huge, blue, glass statue of Jesus stuffedOF CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE The Huge, Blue, Jesus Glass Statue Aeyes as RED And wrote down BLUE for your hair. I had to fix

  9. Structure glass technology : systems and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitch, Katherine K. (Katherine Kristen)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass cannot compete with steel in terms of strength or durability, but it is the only structural material that offers the highly sought after qualities of translucency and transparency. The use of glass has evolved from ...

  10. Crystallization in High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Dane R Spearing, Gary L Smith, SK Sundaram

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review outlines important aspects of crystallization in HLW glasses, such as equilibrium, nucleation, growth, and dissolution. The impact of crystallization on continuous melters and the chemical durability of high-level waste glass are briefly discussed.

  11. Glass Transition and the Coulomb Gap in Electron Glasses M. Muller and L. B. Ioffe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Markus

    Glass Transition and the Coulomb Gap in Electron Glasses M. Mu¨ller and L. B. Ioffe Department December 2004) We establish the connection between the presence of a glass phase and the appearance correlations in a systematic way, we show that in the case of strong disorder a continuous glass transition

  12. A first-generation prototype dynamic residential window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Christian; Goudey, Howdy; Arasteh, Dariush

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the concept for a ''smart'' highly efficient dynamic window that maximizes solar heat gain during the heating season and minimizes solar heat gain during the cooling season in residential buildings. We describe a prototype dynamic window that relies on an internal shade, which deploys automatically in response to solar radiation and temperature. This prototype was built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory from commercially available ''off-the-shelf'' components. It is a stand-alone, standard-size product, so it can be easily installed in place of standard window products. Our design shows promise for near-term commercialization. Improving thermal performance of this prototype by incorporating commercially available highly efficient glazing technologies could result in the first window that could be suitable for use in zero-energy homes. The unit's predictable deployment of shading could help capture energy savings that are not possible with manual shading. Installation of dynamically shaded windows in the field will allow researchers to better quantify the energy effects of shades, which could lead to increased efficiency in the sizing of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment for residences.

  13. Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Janet; Giovambattista, Nicolas [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Starr, Francis W. [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T “phase diagram” for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related, both being associated with the limit of kinetic stability of LDA (HDA)

  14. The corrosion behavior of DWPF glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors analyzed the corroded surfaces of reference glasses developed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to characterize their corrosion behavior. The corrosion mechanism of nuclear waste glasses must be known in order to provide source terms describing radionuclide release for performance assessment calculations. Different DWPF reference glasses were corroded under conditions that highlighted various aspects of the corrosion process and led to different extents of corrosion. The glasses corroded by similar mechanisms, and a phenomenological description of their corrosion behavior is presented here. The initial leaching of soluble glass components results in the formation of an amorphous gel layer on the glass surface. The gel layer is a transient phase that transforms into a layer of clay crystallites, which equilibrates with the solution as corrosion continues. The clay layer does not act as a barrier to either water penetration or glass dissolution, which continues beneath it, and may eventually separate from the glass. Solubility limits for glass components may be established by the eventual precipitation of secondary phases; thus, corrosion of the glass becomes controlled by the chemical equilibrium between the solution and the assemblage of secondary phases. In effect, the solution is an intermediate phase through which the glass transforms to an energetically more favorable assemblage of phases. Implications regarding the prediction of long-term glass corrosion behavior are discussed.

  15. High-Temperature Viscosity of Commercial Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Arrhenius models were developed for glass viscosity within the processing temperature of six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Both local models (for each of the six glass types) and a global model (for the composition region of commercial glasses, i.e., the six glass types taken together) are presented. The models are based on viscosity data previously obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900 C and 1550 C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa?s to 750 Pa?s. First-order models were applied to relate Arrhenius coefficients to the mass fractions of 15 components: SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, PbO, ZnO, Li2O, Na2O, K2O. The R2 is 0.98 for the global model and ranges from .097 to 0.99 for the six local models. The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100 C to 1550 C and viscosity range from 5 to 400 Pa?s.

  16. DURABLE GLASS FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.

    2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The durability of natural glasses on geological time scales and ancient glasses for thousands of years is well documented. The necessity to predict the durability of high level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses on extended time scales has led to various thermodynamic and kinetic approaches. Advances in the measurement of medium range order (MRO) in glasses has led to the understanding that the molecular structure of a glass, and thus the glass composition, controls the glass durability by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. During the early stages of glass dissolution, a 'gel' layer resembling a membrane forms through which ions exchange between the glass and the leachant. The hydrated gel layer exhibits acid/base properties which are manifested as the pH dependence of the thickness and nature of the gel layer. The gel layer ages into clay or zeolite minerals by Ostwald ripening. Zeolite mineral assemblages (higher pH and Al{sup 3+} rich glasses) may cause the dissolution rate to increase which is undesirable for long-term performance of glass in the environment. Thermodynamic and structural approaches to the prediction of glass durability are compared versus Ostwald ripening.

  17. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

  18. Developmental time windows for axon growth influence neuronal network topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sol

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Early brain connectivity development consists of multiple stages: birth of neurons, their migration and the subsequent growth of axons and dendrites. Each stage occurs within a certain period of time depending on types of neurons and cortical layers. Forming synapses between neurons either by growing axons starting at similar times for all neurons (much-overlapped time windows) or at different time points (less-overlapped) may affect the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks. Here, we explore the extreme cases of axon formation especially concerning short-distance connectivity during early development, either starting at the same time for all neurons (parallel, i.e. maximally-overlapped time windows) or occurring for each neuron separately one neuron after another (serial, i.e. no overlaps in time windows). For both cases, the number of potential and established synapses remained comparable. Topological and spatial properties, however, differed: neurons that started axon growth early on in s...

  19. Glass needs for a growing photovoltaics industry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burrows, Keith; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the projected growth in photovoltaics, the demand for glass for the solar industry will far exceed the current supply, and thousands of new float-glass plants will have to be built to meet its needs over the next 20 years. Such expansion will provide an opportunity for the solar industry to obtain products better suited to their needs, such as low-iron glass and borosilicate glass at the lowest possible price. While there are no significant technological hurdles that would prevent the flat glass industry from meeting the solar industry’s projected needs, to do so will require advance planning and substantialmore »investments.« less

  20. Glass needs for a growing photovoltaics industry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burrows, Keith [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Fthenakis, Vasilis [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the projected growth in photovoltaics, the demand for glass for the solar industry will far exceed the current supply, and thousands of new float-glass plants will have to be built to meet its needs over the next 20 years. Such expansion will provide an opportunity for the solar industry to obtain products better suited to their needs, such as low-iron glass and borosilicate glass at the lowest possible price. While there are no significant technological hurdles that would prevent the flat glass industry from meeting the solar industry’s projected needs, to do so will require advance planning and substantial investments.

  1. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, L.A.

    1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design. 9 figs.

  2. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows incommercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Projections of performance from small-area devices to large-area windows and enterprise marketing have created high expectations for electrochromic glazings. As a result, this paper seeks to precipitate an objective dialog between material scientists and building-application scientists to determine whether actual large-area electrochromic devices will result in significant performance benefits and what material improvements are needed, if any, to make electrochromics more practical for commercial building applications. Few in-situ tests have been conducted with large-area electrochromic windows applied in buildings. This study presents monitored results from a full-scale field test of large-area electrochromic windows to illustrate how this technology will perform in commercial buildings. The visible transmittance (Tv) of the installed electrochromic ranged from 0.11 to 0.38. The data are limited to the winter period for a south-east-facing window. The effect of actual device performance on lighting energy use, direct sun control, discomfort glare, and interior illumination is discussed. No mechanical system loads were monitored. These data demonstrate the use of electrochromics in a moderate climate and focus on the most restrictive visual task: computer use in offices. Through this small demonstration, we were able to determine that electrochromic windows can indeed provide unmitigated transparent views and a level of dynamic illumination control never before seen in architectural glazing materials. Daily lighting energy use was 6-24 percent less compared to the 11 percent-glazing, with improved interior brightness levels. Daily lighting energy use was 3 percent less to 13 percent more compared to the 38 percent-glazing, with improved window brightness control. The electrochromic window may not be able to fulfill both energy-efficiency and visual comfort objectives when low winter direct sun is present, particularly for computer tasks using cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays. However, window and architectural design as well as electrochromic control options are suggested as methods to broaden the applicability of electrochromics for commercial buildings. Without further modification, its applicability is expected to be limited during cold winter periods due to its slow switching speed.

  3. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Lee A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design.

  4. Experimental evaluation of the in-plane seismic behavior of store-front window systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eva, Charles Almond

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of architectural glass curtain walls under in-plane loadsracking tests of curtain wall glass elements with in-planethat causes glass fallout from curtain wall and store-front

  5. Correlation between medium-range order structure and glass-forming ability for Al-based metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, N. C. [College of Material and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yan, M. [Queensland Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacturing (AMPAM), School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Zuo, L. [College of Material and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Wang, J. Q., E-mail: jqwang@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    To clarify the correlation of medium-range order (MRO) structure with glass forming ability (GFA) of Al-based metallic glasses, Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 14-a}Y{sub a} (a?=?2?9 at.?%) metallic glasses were analyzed by x-ray diffraction in detail and further verified by synchrotron high-energy x-ray diffraction. The prepeak that reflects the MRO structural evolution was found to be much sensitive to alloy composition. We have proposed an icosahedral supercluster MRO structure model in Al-TM (transition metal)-RE (rare earth metal) system, which consists of 12 RE(TM)-centered clusters on the vertex of icosahedral supercluster, one RE(TM)-centered clusters in the center, and TM(RE) atoms located at RE(TM)-centered cluster tetrahedral interstices in the icosahedral supercluster. It was indicated that the MRO structural stability mainly depends on the interaction of efficient dense packing and electrochemical potential equalization principle. The Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 9}Y(La){sub 5} alloys present good GFA due to the combination of the two structural factors.

  6. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, T.C.

    1986-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

  7. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Thomas C. (Raleigh, NC)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

  8. Quantitative Total and Diffuse Reflectance Laboratory Measurements for Remote, Standoff, and Point Sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Forland, Brenda M.; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for making total and diffuse directional/hemispherical reflectance measurements in the shortwave to longwave infrared using an integrating sphere are described. The sphere is a commercial, off-the-shelf optical device with its sample port at the bottom, which is essential for examining powdered samples without using a cover glass. The reflectance spectra of recently-developed National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) infrared reflectance standards have been measured using the sphere. Reflectance spectra of other materials such as Spectralon and Infragold were also measured. The relative systematic error for the total reflectance measurements is estimated to be on the order of 3%, and random measurement error for multiple samples of each material is on the order of 0.5%.

  9. Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guerrero, Hector (Evans, GA); Bickford, Dennis (Folly Beach, SC)

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

  10. Effect of nanocrystallization on the electrical conductivity enhancement and Moessbauer hyperfine parameters of iron based glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Desoky, M.M., E-mail: mmdesoky@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Al-Arish 45511, North Sinaa (Egypt); Ibrahim, F.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Al-Arish 45511, North Sinaa (Egypt)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Al-Arish 45511, North Sinaa (Egypt); Mostafa, A.G.; Hassaan, M.Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected glasses of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-PbO{sub 2}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} system have been transformed into nanomaterials by annealing at temperature close to crystallization temperature (T{sub c}) for 1 h. The effects of the annealing of the present samples on its structural and electrical properties were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy, transmission electron micrograph (TEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and dc conductivity ({sigma}). Moessbauer spectroscopy was used in order to determine the states of iron and its hyperfine structure. The effect of nanocrystalization on the Moessbauer hyperfine parameters did not exhibit significant modifications in present glasses. However, in case of glass ceramic nanocrystals show a distinct decrease in the quadrupole splitting ({Delta}) is observed, reflecting an evident decrease in the distortion of structural units like FeO{sub 4} units. In general, the Moessbauer parameters of the nano-crystalline phase exhibit tendency to increase with PbO{sub 2} content. TEM of as-quenched glasses confirm the homogeneous and essentially featureless morphology. TEM of the corresponding glass ceramic nanocrystals indicates nanocrystals embedded in the glassy matrix with average particle size of about 32 nm. The crystallization temperature (T{sub c}) was observed to decrease with PbO{sub 2} content. The glass ceramic nanocrystals obtained by annealing at T{sub c} exhibit improvement of electrical conductivity up to four orders of magnitude than the starting glasses. This considerable improvement of electrical conductivity after nanocrystallization is attributed to formation of defective, well-conducting phases 'easy conduction paths' along the glass-crystallites interfaces.

  11. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, T.D.

    1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes. 3 figures.

  12. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Terrance D. (617 Chestnut Ct., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes.

  13. Glass Transition, Cooperativity and Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salez, Thomas; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the physical ideas of molecular crowding and resultant cooperative motion, and address the effects of free interfaces on dynamics. First, we obtain a simple scaling expression for the diverging number of particles taking part in bulk cooperative relaxation as the system approaches kinetic arrest, and in doing so provide a robust derivation of the Adam and Gibbs description of cooperative dynamics. Then, by including thermal expansivity of the material, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, we predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length $\\xi$ of bulk relaxation, and explore the influence of sample boundaries on the glassy dynamics when the system size becomes comparable to $\\xi$. The theory is in full agreement with measurements of the glass transition temperature of thin polystyrene films. This agreement comes with two adjustable parameters, the critical interparticle distance and the Vogel temperature. Alth...

  14. T-547: Microsoft Windows Human Interface Device (HID) Vulnerability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Microsoft Windows does not properly warn the user before enabling additional Human Interface Device (HID) functionality over USB, which allows user-assisted attackers to execute arbitrary programs via crafted USB data, as demonstrated by keyboard and mouse data sent by malware on a Smartphone that the user connected to the computer.

  15. The In uence of Windowing on Time Delay Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    'Ruanaidh Siemens Corporate Research 755 College Road East Princeton , NJ 08540 rvbalan,rosca,rickard,oruanaidh@scr.siemens of frequencies. Such a relation holds true when the Fourier transform is used to go into the frequency domain. However, in practice, one has to use the windowed Fourier transform to obtain the frequency domain

  16. The Influence of Windowing on Time Delay Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balan, Radu V.

    O'Ruanaidh Siemens Corporate Research 755 College Road East Princeton , NJ 08540 rvbalan,rosca,rickard,oruanaidh@scr.siemens of frequencies. Such a relation holds true when the Fourier transform is used to go into the frequency domain. However, in practice, one has to use the windowed Fourier transform to obtain the frequency domain

  17. Instruction-Window Power Reduction Using Data Dependence Metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

    power savings, and with an average performance loss of a very modest 1.9%. I. INTRODUCTION NewInstruction-Window Power Reduction Using Data Dependence Metric Ziad Youssfi and Michael Shanblatt Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 ziad

  18. OPERATING TEMPERATURE WINDOWS FOR FUSION REACTOR STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    OPERATING TEMPERATURE WINDOWS FOR FUSION REACTOR STRUCTURAL MATERIALS S.J. Zinkle1 and N.M. Ghoniem reactor structural materials: four reduced-activation structural materials (oxide-dispersion- strengthened operating temperature limit of structural materials is determined by one of four factors, all of which

  19. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  20. IRLstack 3.0: High-Performance Windows Sockets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuo, Yue

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    by bottlenecks inside the TCP/IP stack. Improvements have been made for Linux, but there is still limited work in Windows. To bridge this gap, we build a new generation of our network driver IRLstack and show that it can achieve 10 Gbps wire rate (i.e. 14.88 Mpps...

  1. Carbon Smackdown: Smart Windows (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milliron, Delia; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  2. Windows on Computer Science Department of Computer and Information Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Shiaofen

    1 CSCI 120 Windows on Computer Science Department of Computer and Information Science IUPUI What is Computer Science? Is Computer Science the study of computers (Building computers, and writing computer programs) ? Computer Science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes, or biology

  3. Energy Gaining Windows for Residential Buildings Jesper Kragh, Assistant Professor,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can profiles, solar gain, net energy gain, low energy houses SUMMARY: This paper presents some of the research buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating

  4. Covered Product Category: Residential Windows, Doors, and Skylights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential windows, doors, and skylights, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  5. Intermittent and sustained periodic windows in networked chaotic Rössler oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Zhiwei; Sun, Yong [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China) [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhan, Meng, E-mail: zhanmeng@wipm.ac.cn [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Route to chaos (or periodicity) in dynamical systems is one of fundamental problems. Here, dynamical behaviors of coupled chaotic Rössler oscillators on complex networks are investigated and two different types of periodic windows with the variation of coupling strength are found. Under a moderate coupling, the periodic window is intermittent, and the attractors within the window extremely sensitively depend on the initial conditions, coupling parameter, and topology of the network. Therefore, after adding or removing one edge of network, the periodic attractor can be destroyed and substituted by a chaotic one, or vice versa. In contrast, under an extremely weak coupling, another type of periodic window appears, which insensitively depends on the initial conditions, coupling parameter, and network. It is sustained and unchanged for different types of network structure. It is also found that the phase differences of the oscillators are almost discrete and randomly distributed except that directly linked oscillators more likely have different phases. These dynamical behaviors have also been generally observed in other networked chaotic oscillators.

  6. DO NOT INCLUDE: flatten cardboard staples, tape & envelope windows ok

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    / bottles Metal items other than cans/foil Napkins Paper towels Plastic bags Plastic films Plastic utensilsDO NOT INCLUDE: flatten cardboard staples, tape & envelope windows ok Aerosol cans Books Bottle, PDAs, inkjet cartridges, CFL bulbs (cushioned, sealed in plastic) computers, printers, printer

  7. EMC PERSPECTIVE: THE POWER OF WINDOWS SERVER 2012 AND EMC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    EMC PERSPECTIVE: THE POWER OF WINDOWS SERVER 2012 AND EMC INFRASTRUCTURE FOR MICROSOFT PRIVATE and storage optimization features of intelligent storage arrays, such as the EMC® Symmetrix® VMAX® storage family, the EMC® VNX® series, and the EMC® Isilon® scale-out NAS family. With new technologies

  8. Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gelis

    2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the Color Glass Condensate effective theory, that describes the gluon content of a high energy hadron or nucleus, in the saturation regime. The emphasis is put on applications to high energy heavy ion collisions. After describing initial state factorization, we discuss the Glasma phase, that precedes the formation of an equilibrated quark-gluon plasma. We end this review with a presentation of recent developments in the study of the isotropization and thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma.

  9. Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

  10. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI); Sitzman, Gary W. (Walled Lake, MI)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet.

  11. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, P.T.; Sitzman, G.W.

    1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet is disclosed including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet. 2 figs.

  12. Reorganization Energy of Electron Transfer in Viscous Solvents above the Glass Transition Pradip K. Ghorai and Dmitry V. Matyushov*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matyushov, Dmitry

    Reorganization Energy of Electron Transfer in Viscous Solvents above the Glass Transition Pradip K-Einstein relation. The change in the reorganization energy at the transition temperature reflects the dynamical reorganization energy of electron transfer in supercooled water. We observe a sharp decrease

  13. Analysis of Sludge Batch 3 (Macrobatch4) DWPF Pour Stream Glass Sample for Canister s02312

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3), Macrobatch 4 (MB4) in March 2004 as part of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 272. Sludge Batch 3 is a blend of the contents Tank 40 remaining from Sludge Batch 2 (SB2), the sludge that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51 and Canyon Np solution additions made directly to Tank 40. The sludge transferred from Tank 51 contained sludges from Tanks 7, 18 and 19 along with precipitated solutions of U, Pu/Gd and Am/Cm from the F and H Canyons. The blend of sludge from Tank 51, Tank 40, and the Canyon additions defines SB3 (or MB4). The sludge slurry is received into the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and is processed through the SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Tank and fed to the melter. During the processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample. This glass sample is taken to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program and complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Two glass samples were obtained while pouring Canisters S02312 and S02315 which were sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility. Sample S02312 was designated for analysis, while sample S02315 was designated for archival storage. This report contains the visual observations of the as-received glass sample, results for the density, chemical composition, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the calculated and measured radionuclide results needed for the Production Record for Canister S02312. The following conclusions were drawn from the examination of this DWPF pour stream glass sample: (1) The glass sample taken during the filling of DWPF Canister S02312 weighed 41.69 g and was generally dark and reflective. (2) Minor inclusions, on the order of 1 {micro}m in size, of noble metals were seen in the glass via contained scanning electron microscopy and confirmed from their x-ray fluorescence spectra. (3) The results for the composition of glass sample S02312, except for U, are in reasonable agreement (15% or better) with the DWPF SME Batch 319 results, the SME batch being fed to the melter when the sample was collected. (4) The calculated waste dilution factor (WDF) was 2.19. The measured values of the radionuclides and noble metals in the glass sample generally corresponded well with the calculated values determined using sludge slurry results from Reference 9 and the WDF. (5) The noble metal content of the glass indicates that the noble metals are largely swept from the melter with the glass based upon the noble metals analyzed in the glass and those predicted in the sludge from the WDF. (6) Comparison of the noble metal results for the two digestion methods (mixed acid and alkali fusion) indicates that the alkali fusion method is preferred for the determination of noble metals in glass. (7) The PCT results for the glass (normalized release of B: 1.09 g/L, Na: 1.03 g/L, and Li: 0.94 g/L) indicate that it meets the waste acceptance criterion for durability. (8) The normalized release rates for the measured radionuclides were less than those for the major soluble elements in the waste (B, Na, and Li) with the exception of Tc-99 which was released at a rate similar to that the soluble elements in the leachate. (9) The measured density of the glass was 2.58 {+-} 0.11 g/cm{sup 3}.

  14. Window Spacers and Edge Seals in Insulating Glass Units: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Perspectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergh, Sofie Van Den

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uvslokk, A. Gustavsen, Vacuum insulation panels for buildingThis excludes vacuum insulation panels (VIPs), which, whenmW/(mK) [50], and vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) with ? as

  15. ITP Glass: Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis Final Report, August 2007 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of Energy IRS Issuesof the U.S. Glass

  16. On the use of the exponential window method in the space domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Li

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    treatments. In this dissertation, an alternative is investigated based on the dynamic stiffness and the exponential window method in the space-wave number domain. Applying the exponential window in the space-wave number domain is equivalent to introducing...

  17. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in light green. 2.5 Window Frame E (PVC) Window frame Eis polyvinyl chloride (PVC). We performed calculations forspacer = 0.25?0.1 W/(mK) ? pvc = 0.9 W/(mK), ? eff. ,spacer

  18. Photo of the Week: The First Energy-Efficient Dual-Paned Windows...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photo of the Week: The First Energy-Efficient Dual-Paned Windows Photo of the Week: The First Energy-Efficient Dual-Paned Windows December 5, 2013 - 12:53pm Addthis Researchers at...

  19. Building America Webinar: Low-E Storms: The Next Big Thing in Window Retrofits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America webinar presented a new and improved low-e storm window that boasts a combination of curb appeal and energy efficiency, all for a fraction of the cost of window replacement, on Sept. 9, 2014.

  20. Design of an energy efficient and economical actuator for automobile windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durand, Keith (Keith V.)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the design and analysis of an efficient, yet low cost, drum driven window actuation system for an automotive power window. The design uses a novel approach that involves using cables to both actuate ...

  1. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for Improved Performance. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for...

  2. Print this article Close This Window EU OKs India joining ITER nuclear reactor project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Print this article Close This Window EU OKs India joining ITER nuclear reactor project Fri Dec 2 trademarks and trademarks of the Reuters group of companies around the world. Close This Window 12/2/05 4

  3. TIME-VARIABLEFILTERING OF MtTLTI[CHANNELSIGNALS USING MULTIPLE WINDOWS COHERENCEAND THE WEYL TRANSFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandsten, Maria

    TIME-VARIABLEFILTERING OF MtTLTI[CHANNELSIGNALS USING MULTIPLE WINDOWS COHERENCEAND THE WEYL between all channel pairs. Time-frequency coherence functions are estimated using the multiple window

  4. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential and Commercial Building Stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Heating Loads (Trillion BTU/yr) Total BuildingCooling Loads (Trillion BTU/yr) Non. Wind Infilt SHGC Wind.Energy Consumption (Trillion BTU/yr) Area, Window Window

  5. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  6. Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckwalter, C.Q. Jr.

    1980-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

  7. 68 Glass Technology Vol. 45 No. 2 April 2004 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 69 July 2003 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 69 July 2003 Glass Technol., 2004, 45, 6870

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    68 Glass Technology Vol. 45 No. 2 April 2004 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 6­9 July 2003 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 6­9 July 2003 Glass Technol., 2004, 45, 68­70 The behaviour of a simulant Magnox waste glass

  8. U-028: Microsoft Windows win32k.sys TrueType Font Parsing Vulnerability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vulnerability has been reported in Microsoft Windows, which can be exploited by malicious people to compromise a user's system.

  9. Radiation Characteristics of Glass Containing Gas Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent; Viskanta, Raymond

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B. L. Drolen, “Thermal radiation in particulate media withRadiation Characteristics of Glass Containing Gas Bubblesthermophysical properties and radiation characteristics of

  10. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Xu, Wei; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  11. High-Temperature Viscosity Of Commercial Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; See, Clem A.; Lam, Oanh P.; Minister, Kevin B.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscosity was measured for six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Viscosity data were obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900°C and 1550°C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa?s to 750 Pa?s. Arrhenius coefficients were calculated for individual glasses and linear models were applied to relate them to the mass fractions of 11 major components (SiO2, CaO, Na2O, Al2O3, B2O3, BaO, SrO, K2O, MgO, PbO, and ZrO2) and 12 minor components (Fe2O3, ZnO, Li2O, TiO2, CeO2, F, Sb2O3, Cr2O3, As2O3, MnO2, SO3, and Co3O4). The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100°C to 1550°C and viscosity range from 10 to 400 Pa?s.

  12. Waste Glass Corrosion: Some Open Questions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.; Yeager, John D.

    2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An equation for time evolution of glass corrosion in a closed system is proposed. Examples of fitting this equation to vapor-hydration test (VHT) and product consistency test data are shown. It is argued that the stage of accelerated corrosion of waste glass is a temporary spike caused by a transition to a different mechanism (not associated solely with high-alumina content in glass) and followed by slower steady corrosion. The effect of temperature and glass composition on the VHT rate of corrosion is evaluated. Results of different corrosion tests are compared. Progress towards a frame-indifferent rate equation is outlined.

  13. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working at ALS Beamline 8.3.2, researchers from Berkeley Lab and the Imperial College London have created bioactive glass scaffolds that mirror nature's efficient materials. The...

  14. Installation of Window Air Conditioners Page 1 of 2 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University No. 5705 Rev.: 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Installation of Window Air Conditioners Page 1 of 2 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State __________________________________________________________________________________ Subject: Installation of Window Air Conditioners........................................................................................................................................1 1. Purpose To define a policy for installation of window air conditioners that avoids exterior

  15. Draining our Glass: An Energy and Heat Characterization of Google Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    Draining our Glass: An Energy and Heat Characterization of Google Glass Robert LiKamWa, Zhen Wang, such as hands-free video chat and web search. However, its shape also hampers its potential: (1) battery size characterizing the Glass system. Others have documented technical specifica- tions [22], privacy, security

  16. Introduction and Motivation Structural Model for Laminated Glass Beams Conclusions and Outlook of Laminated Glass Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Components of Crystalline Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor crystalline solar cells encapsulant front glass Reference: Schulze, S.-H.; Pander, M.; Naumenko, K.; Altenbach, H and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin

  17. A First-Generation Prototype Dynamic Residential Window Christian Kohler, Howdy Goudey, and Dariush Arasteh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    October 26, 2004 Abstract We present the concept for a "smart" highly efficient dynamic window in residential buildings. We describe a prototype dynamic window that relies on an internal shade, which deploys technology have significantly reduced window-related energy use and peak demand in residential buildings

  18. Integrated self-cleaning window assembly for optical transmission in combustion environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kass, Michael D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated window design for optical transmission in combustion environments is described. The invention consists of an integrated optical window design that prevents and removes the accumulation of carbon-based particulate matter and gaseous hydrocarbons through a combination of heat and catalysis. These windows will enable established optical technologies to be applied to combustion environments and their exhaust systems.

  19. The Trouble with Sliding Windows and the Selective Pressure in BRCA1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Ziheng

    The Trouble with Sliding Windows and the Selective Pressure in BRCA1 Karl Schmid1 , Ziheng Yang2 is applied. Citation: Schmid K, Yang Z (2008) The Trouble with Sliding Windows and the Selective Pressure Abstract Sliding-window analysis has widely been used to uncover synonymous (silent, dS) and nonsynonymous

  20. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6152E Lighting energy savings potential of split- pane electrochromic windows controlled potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort L was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled

  1. A Sliding-Window Approach to Supporting On-Line Interactive Display for Continuous Media1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ye-In

    A Sliding-Window Approach to Supporting On-Line Interactive Display for Continuous Media1 Chien the overhead, in this paper, we will propose a sliding window approach to supporting interactive display subobjects for display in a sliding window. For the way of interactive display described above, in which

  2. Widening the Axion Window via Kinetic and Stückelberg Mixings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary Shiu; Wieland Staessens; Fang Ye

    2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We point out that kinetic and St\\"uckelberg mixings that are generically present in the low energy effective action of axions can significantly widen the window of axion decay constants. We show that an effective super-Planckian decay constant can be obtained even when the axion kinetic matrix has only sub-Planckian entries. Our minimal model involves only two axions, a St\\"uckelberg U(1) and a modest rank instanton generating non-Abelian group. Below the mass of the St\\"uckelberg U(1), there is only a single axion with a non-perturbatively generated potential. In contrast to previous approaches, the enhancement of the axion decay constant is not tied to the number of degrees of freedom introduced. We also discuss how kinetic mixings can lower the decay constant to the desired axion dark matter window. String theory embeddings of this scenario and their phenomenological features are briefly discussed.

  3. Ultrasonic flowmetering with reflected pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyle, David C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter was tested with two different reflected pulse trajectories in flowing air at ambient conditions against an orifice meter. The flowmeter was designed to be highly accurate, to require ...

  4. Performance prediction using geostatistics and window reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fontanilla, J.P.; Al-Khalawi, A.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Johnson, S.G.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the first window model study in the northern area of a large carbonate reservoir in Saudi Arabia. It describes window reservoir simulation with geostatistics to model uneven water encroachment in the southwest producing area of the northern portion of the reservoir. In addition, this paper describes performance predictions that investigate the sweep efficiency of the current peripheral waterflood. A 50 x 50 x 549 (240 m. x 260 m. x 0.15 m. average grid block size) geological model was constructed with geostatistics software. Conditional simulation was used to obtain spatial distributions of porosity and volume of dolomite. Core data transforms were used to obtain horizontal and vertical permeability distributions. Simple averaging techniques were used to convert the 549-layer geological model to a 50 x 50 x 10 (240 m. x 260 m. x 8 m. average grid block size) window reservoir simulation model. Flux injectors and flux producers were assigned to the outermost grid blocks. Historical boundary flux rates were obtained from a coarsely-ridded full-field model. Pressure distribution, water cuts, GORs, and recent flowmeter data were history matched. Permeability correction factors and numerous parameter adjustments were required to obtain the final history match. The permeability correction factors were based on pressure transient permeability-thickness analyses. The prediction phase of the study evaluated the effects of infill drilling, the use of artificial lifts, workovers, horizontal wells, producing rate constraints, and tight zone development to formulate depletion strategies for the development of this area. The window model will also be used to investigate day-to-day reservoir management problems in this area.

  5. Analysis of a Fabric/Desiccant Window Cavity Dehumidifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunn, B. D.; Grasso, M. M.; Vadlamani, V.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were conducted to a) determine a suitable fabric/desiccant combination for use in the window cavity dehumidifier, and b) to estimate the moisture absorption (regain) capacity of the candidate fabriddesiccant combinations. After examining... the properties of various solid desiccants. we determined that silica gel beads, encapsulated in a fabric pouch, would be the best approach. ?bus, we measured the moisture regain characteristics of several fabrics used to encapsulate silica gel beads...

  6. One trip window cutting tool method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jugens, R.; Krehl, D.

    1992-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a device for drilling a deflection hole or window from a drill hole in underground rock or geologic formations, it comprises: a deflection wedge unit mountable via a packer in the drill hole, and a pilot cutting tool mounted to the lower end of a drill string, the deflection wedge unit eventually guiding the tool and the drill string including one or more later cutting tools.

  7. Atmospheric Condensation Potential of Windows in Hot, Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Diasty, R.; Budaiwi, I.

    when a glass emittance of 0.82 was used. For a 9 mm air space. the heat transfer coefficient, h r , is about 3 WIm 2 K. In order to maintain a simple equidistant scheme for Ule spacing between thermal nodes, each pane is divided into two layers...

  8. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transport in a machinable glass-ceramic”, Journal of Non-in soda-lime-silicate glasses by reaction with hydrogen”,1971. [16] I. Fanderlik, Glass Science and Technology, Vol.

  9. Chapter 6 Simulations of Amorphous Polyethylene Glass Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    112 Chapter 6 Simulations of Amorphous Polyethylene Glass Transition 6.1 Introduction Amorphous and characterized. Although various macroscopic properties around and below the glass transition temperature have been extensively investigated experimentally, the phenomena of glass transition and relaxation

  10. Development of a cooled microwave window. CRADA final report for CRADA Number Y-1293-0200

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, G.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Leitch, R.M.; Berry, L.A. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holber, W.M. [Applied Science and Technology, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States)

    1995-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this Cooperative Research and Development project (CRADA) was to generate a new design for a microwave vacuum window to be used with ASTeX Corporation plasma processing equipment. This vacuum window allows transmission of microwave power from an input waveguide into a vacuum chamber for creation of plasma using the electron cyclotron resonance process. Requirements for the window design are: higher power capability, improved resistance to chemical attack, and physical compatibility with previous window models. In these applications, a significant portion of the input power is deposited in the window by plasma bombardment so the window must remove a great deal of heat to remain at a reliable operating temperature. A power level increase from 1.5 kW to 5 kW is desired by ASTeX for the new window which must have {approximately} 120 mm diameter and be compatible with existing hardware. New applications for these processing systems are being developed by ASTeX; these require the use of highly reactive fluorine plasmas which can rapidly etch some window materials. Therefore, the use of a fluorine compatible window ceramic is required. Two new window designs were investigated using advanced window-modeling techniques and low-power laboratory testing. It was determined that both concepts were capable of operating at significantly higher power levels than present commercial windows and would meet the CRADA design objectives. The compatibility of the window materials considered with fluorine plasmas are believed to be acceptable. ASTeX has a continuing interest in pursuing these window designs and will likely begin manufacturing design work of the improved design in the near future. There will also be a continuing effort to keep AlN ceramic manufacturers interested in improving the quality of large AlN disks. Additional window tests and development work could be performed by ORNL/MMES if a suitable funding source is available.

  11. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D. (Fairfield, CA); Theiss, Steven D. (Woodbury, MN); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Wickbold, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  12. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickboldt, Paul

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  13. SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

  14. The quantum Biroli-Mézard model: glass transition and superfluidity in a quantum lattice glass model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Foini; Guilhem Semerjian; Francesco Zamponi

    2011-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the quantum version of a lattice model whose classical counterpart captures the physics of structural glasses. We discuss the role of quantum fluctuations in such systems and in particular their interplay with the amorphous order developed in the glass phase. We show that quantum fluctuations might facilitate the formation of the glass at low enough temperature. We also show that the glass transition becomes a first-order transition between a superfluid and an insulating glass at very low temperature, and is therefore accompanied by phase coexistence between superfluid and glassy regions.

  15. Method for heating and forming a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration.

  16. Direct conversion of halogen-containing wastes to borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Rudolph, J.C.

    1996-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass has become a preferred waste form worldwide for radioactive wastes: however, there are limitations. Halogen-containing wastes can not be converted to glass because halogens form poor-quality waste glasses. Furthermore, halides in glass melters often form second phases that create operating problems. A new waste vitrification process, the Glass Material Oxidation and dissolution System (GMODS), removes these limitations by converting halogen-containing wastes into borosilicate glass and a secondary, clean, sodium-halide stream.

  17. Building America's Low-e Storm Window Adoption Program Plan (FY2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Low emissivity (low-e) storm windows/panels appear to hold promise for effectively reducing existing home heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) consumption. Due to the affordability of low-e storm windows and the large numbers of existing homes that have low-performing single-pane or double-pane clear windows, a tremendous opportunity exists to provide energy savings by transforming the low-e storm window market and increasing market adoption. This report outlines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America’s planned market transformation activities in support of low-e storm window adoption during fiscal year (FY) 2014.

  18. Viscous Glass Sealants for SOFC Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Misture

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Two series of silicate glasses that contain gallium as the primary critical component have been identified and optimized for viscous sealing of solid oxide fuel cells operating from 650 to 850°C. Both series of glass sealants crystallize partially upon heat treatment and yield multiphase microstructures that allow viscous flow at temperatures as low as 650°C. A fully amorphous sealant was also developed by isolating, synthesizing and testing a silicate glass of the same composition as the remnant glassy phase in one of the two glass series. Of ~40 glasses tested for longer than 500 hours, a set of 5 glasses has been further tested for up to 1000h in air, wet hydrogen, and against both yttria-stabilized zirconia and aluminized stainless steel. In some cases the testing times reached 2000h. The reactivity testing has provided new insight into the effects of Y, Zr, and Al on bulk and surface crystallization in boro-gallio-silicate glasses, and demonstrated that at least 5 of the newly-developed glasses are viable viscous sealants.

  19. Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Ray F. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method uses the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality.

  20. Radiation Induced Nanocrystal Formation in Metallic Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Jesse

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The irradiation of metallic glasses to induce nanocrystallization was studied in two metallic glass compositions, Cu50Zr45Ti5 and Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5. Atomic mobility was described using a model based on localized excess free volume due to displace...

  1. Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method are described for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method use the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality. 2 figures.

  2. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Watkins, Randall D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

  3. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

  4. Eyeglass lens made of glass (radiopaque)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fig. 9-1 Eyeglass lens made of glass (radiopaque) and frame made of metal (radiopaque). #12;Fig. 9-2 Eyeglass lens made of glass (radiopaque) and frame made of plastic (radiolucent). #12;Fig. 9-3 Metal frame of eyeglasses (radiopaque). The eyeglass lens is made of plastic (radiolucent). #12;Fig. 9-4 Cotton roll

  5. California: Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases Personal Comfort California: Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases Personal Comfort April 18, 2013 - 12:00am...

  6. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming And Mackie, 2007) Exploration Activity Details Location Glass...

  7. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to...

  8. Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations. Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations. Abstract:...

  9. Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in...

  10. China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra Photovoltaic Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Glass Solar (aka CG Solar, formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

  11. aluminum hlw glasses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 122 Glass Forming...

  12. andesitic glass comparison: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 59 Glass Forming...

  13. ajakirja stained glass: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 122 Glass Forming...

  14. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  15. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Phifer, Carol C. (Albuquerque, NM); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, TiO.sub.2 and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  16. A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

    1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

  17. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McConnell, Robert D. (Lakewood, CO); Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  18. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

    1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 2 figs.

  19. Heat capacity at the glass transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostya Trachenko; Vadim Brazhkin

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental problem of glass transition is to explain the jump of heat capacity at the glass transition temperature $T_g$ without asserting the existence of a distinct solid glass phase. This problem is also common to other disordered systems, including spin glasses. We propose that if $T_g$ is defined as the temperature at which the liquid stops relaxing at the experimental time scale, the jump of heat capacity at $T_g$ follows as a necessary consequence due to the change of system's elastic, vibrational and thermal properties. In this picture, we discuss time-dependent effects of glass transition, and identify three distinct regimes of relaxation. Our approach explains widely observed logarithmic increase of $T_g$ with the quench rate and the correlation of heat capacity jump with liquid fragility.

  20. The Impact Of The MCU Life Extension Solvent On Sludge Batch 8 Projected Operating Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.; Stone, M. E.

    2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and a new strip acid will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing or evaluations with the next generation solvent are required to determine the impact of these changes (if any) to Chemical Process Cell (CPC) activities, glass formulation strategies, and melter operations at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The introduction of the dilute (0.01M) boric acid stream into the DWPF flowsheet has a potential impact on glass formulation and frit development efforts since B2O3 is a major oxide in frits developed for DWPF. Prior knowledge of this stream can be accounted for during frit development efforts but that was not the case for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). Frit 803 has already been recommended and procured for SB8 processing; altering the frit to account for the incoming boron from the strip effluent (SE) is not an option for SB8. Therefore, the operational robustness of Frit 803 to the introduction of SE including its compositional tolerances (i.e., up to 0.0125M boric acid) is of interest and was the focus of this study. The primary question to be addressed in the current study was: What is the impact (if any) on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 – SB8 flowsheet to additions of B2O3 from the SE in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)? More specifically, will Frit 803 be robust to the potential compositional changes occurring in the SRAT due to sludge variation, varying additions of ARP and/or the introduction of SE by providing access to waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF? The Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) results indicate there is very little, if any, impact on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 – SB8 system regardless of the presence or absence of ARP and SE (up to 2 wt% B2O3 contained in the SRAT and up to 2000 gallons of ARP). It should be noted that 0.95 wt% B2O3 is the nominal projected concentration in the SRAT based on a 0.0125M boric acid flowsheet with 70,000 liters of SE being added to the SRAT. The impact on CPC processing of a 0.01M boric acid solution for elution of cesium during Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) processing has previously been evaluated by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Increasing the acid strength to 0.0125M boric acid to account for variations in the boric acid strength has been reviewed versus the previous evaluation. The amount of acid from the boric acid represented approximately 5% of the total acid during the previous evaluation. An increase from 0.01 to 0.0125M boric acid represents a change of approximately 1.3% which is well within the error of the acid calculation. Therefore, no significant changes to CPC processing (hydrogen generation, metal solubilities, rheological properties, REDOX control, etc.) are expected from an increase in allowable boric acid concentration from 0.01M to 0.0125M.

  1. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: reflected optical wave

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reflected optical wave New Sandia Mirror Isn't Shiny: Instead It Reflects Infrared Light Using a Metamaterial On December 12, 2014, in Capabilities, Materials Science, News, News &...

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  4. Glass for sealing lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leedecke, C.J.

    1981-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions resistant to corrosion by lithium cell electrolyte and having an expansion coefficient of 45 to 85 x 10/sup -70/C/sup -1/ have been made with SiO/sub 2/, 25 to 55% by weight; B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 5 to 12%; Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 12 to 35%; CaO, 5 to 15%; MgO, 5 to 15%; SrO, 0 to 10%; and La/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0 to 5%. Preferred compositions within that range contain 3 to 8% SrO and 0.5 to 2.5% La/sub 2/O/sub 3/.

  5. HGMS: Glasses and Nanocomposites for Hydrogen Storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipinska, Kris [PI] [PI; Hemmers, Oliver

    2013-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this project is to fabricate and investigate different glass systems and glass-derived nanocrystalline composite materials. These glass-based, two-phased materials will contain nanocrystals that can attract hydrogen and be of potential interest as hydrogen storage media. The glass materials with intrinsic void spaces that are able to precipitate functional nanocrystals capable to attract hydrogen are of particular interest. Proposed previously, but never practically implemented, one of promising concepts for storing hydrogen are micro-containers built of glass and shaped into hollow microspheres. The project expanded this concept to the exploration of glass-derived nanocrystalline composites as potential hydrogen storage media. It is known that the most desirable materials for hydrogen storage do not interact chemically with hydrogen and possess a high surface area to host substantial amounts of hydrogen. Glasses are built of disordered networks with ample void spaces that make them permeable to hydrogen even at room temperature. Glass-derived nanocrystalline composites (two-phased materials), combination of glasses (networks with ample voids) and functional nanocrystals (capable to attract hydrogen), appear to be promising candidates for hydrogen storage media. Key advantages of glass materials include simplicity of preparation, flexibility of composition, chemical durability, non-toxicity and mechanical strength, as well as low production costs and environmental friendliness. This project encompasses a fundamental research into physics and chemistry of glasses and nanocrystalline composite materials, derived from glass. Studies are aimed to answer questions essential for considering glass-based materials and composites as potential hydrogen storage media. Of particular interest are two-phased materials that combine glasses with intrinsic voids spaces for physisorption of hydrogen and nanocrystals capable of chemisorption. This project does not directly address any hydrogen storage technical barriers or targets in terms of numbers. Specifically, hydrogen sorption and desorption tests or kinetics measurements were not part of the project scope. However, the insights gained from these studies could help to answer fundamental questions necessary for considering glass-based materials as hydrogen storage media and could be applied indirectly towards the DOE hydrogen storage technical targets such as system weight and volume, system cost and energy density. Such questions are: Can specific macro-crystals, proven to attract hydrogen when in a macroscopic form (bulk), be nucleated in glass matrices as nanocrystals to create two-phased materials? What are suitable compositions that enable to synthetize glass-based, two-phase materials with nanocrystals that can attract hydrogen via surface or bulk interactions? What are the limits of controlling the microstructure of these materials, especially limits for nanocrystals density and size? Finally, from a technological point of view, the fabrication of glass-derived nanocomposites that we explore is a very simple, fast and inexpensive process that does not require costly or specialized equipment which is an important factor for practical applications.

  6. Glass ceramic-to-metal seals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass ceramic composition prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight, 65 to 80% SiO/sub 2/, 8 to 16% Li/sub 2/O, 2 to 8% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 1 to 8% K/sub 2/O, 1 to 5% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and 1.5 to 7% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, to the following processing steps of heating the glass composition to a temperature sufficient to crystallize lithium metasilicate therein, holding the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the lithium metasilicate therein thereby creating cristobalite nucleii, cooling the glass composition and maintaining the composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to recrystallize lithium metasilicate therein, and thermally treating the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to caus growth of cristobalite and further crystallization of lithium metasilicate producing a glass ceramic composition having a specific thermal expansion coefficient and products containing said composition.

  7. Energy implications of glass-container recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.L.; Mintz, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

  8. Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Report: Development of Advanced Window Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolton, Ladena A.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced fenestration technologies for light and thermal management in building applications are of great recent research interest for improvements in energy efficiency. Of these technologies, there is specific interest in advanced window coating technologies that have tailored control over the visible and infrared (IR) scattering into a room for both static and dynamic applications. Recently, PNNL has investigated novel subwavelength nanostructured coatings for both daylighting, and IR thermal management applications. Such coatings rese still in the early stages and additional research is needed in terms of scalable manufacturing. This project investigates aspects of a potential new methodology for low-cost scalable manufacture of said subwavelength coatings.

  9. Laser window with annular grooves for thermal isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Horton, J.A.; Alger, T.W.

    1983-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser window or other optical element which is thermally loaded, heats up and causes optical distortions because of temperature gradients between the center and the edge. A number of annular grooves, one to three or more, are formed in the element between a central portion and edge portion, producing a web portion which concentrates the thermal gradient and thermally isolates the central portion from the edge portion, producing a uniform temperature profile across the central portion and therefore reduce the optical distortions. The grooves are narrow and closely spaced with respect to the thickness of the element, and successive grooves are formed from alternate sides of the element.

  10. Energy Savings from Window Attachments | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010 SNFEnergy Policy ActEnergyContracts EnergyHVACfrom Window

  11. Energy-Efficient Window Treatments | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome |Cooking for WinterWindow Treatments

  12. Window, Door, and Skylight Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for|IdahotheWhat is the FOIA ? What isWhyofWindow,

  13. Expert Meeting Report: Windows Options for New and Existing Homes

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: Final EnvironmentalCounties,UnitedCommunication,1] Windows Options for New and Existing

  14. Windows and Building Envelope Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015Visiting Strong, Smart,DepartmentResearch &of Energy Windows

  15. Window, Door, and Skylight Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department ofPartnerships ToolkitWasteWho WillWind ProgramofWindow, Door, and

  16. Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah: Energy Resources Jump to:Vinyl Kraft Windows

  17. Nanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIRE BUILDS OFFNanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting

  18. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to transform windows and skylights from an energy liability to an energy source for the nation's building stock. Monitored results from a full-scale demonstration of large-area electrochromic windows are given. The test consisted of two side-by-side, 3.7x4.6-m, office-like rooms. In each room, five 62x173-cm lower electrochromic windows and five 62x43-cm upper electrochromic windows formed a large window wall. The window-to-exterior-wall ratio (WWR) was 0.40. The southeast-facing electrochromic windows had an overall visible transmittance (Tv) range of Tv=0.11-0.38 and were integrated with a dimmable electric lighting system to provide constant work plane illuminance and to control direct sun. Daily lighting use from the automated electrochromic window system decreased by 6 to 24% compared to energy use with static, low-transmission (Tv =0.11), unshaded windows in overcast to cle ar sky winter conditions in Oakland, California. Daily lighting energy use increased as much as 13% compared to lighting energy use with static windows that had Tv=0.38. Even when lighting energy savings were not obtainable, the visual environment produced by the electrochromic windows, indicated by well-controlled window and room luminance levels, was significantly improved for computer-type tasks throughout the day compared to the visual environment with unshaded 38%-glazing. Cooling loads were not measured, but previous building energy simulations indicate that additional savings could be achieved. To ensure visual and thermal comfort, electrochromics require occasional use of interior or exterior shading systems when direct sun is present. Other recommendations to improve electrochromic materials and controls are noted along with some architectural constraints.

  19. Novel lead-iron phosphate glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1989-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention described and claimed in the specification relates to the discovery that effective addition of Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] to a lead phosphate glass results in a glass having enhanced chemical durability and physical stability, and consists essentially of the glass resulting from melting a mixture consisting essentially of, in weight percent, 40--66 percent PbO, 30--55 percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and an effective concentration up to 12 percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3].

  20. Rheology of spinel sludge in molten glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mika, M (.); Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schweiger, M J. (.)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spinel sludge, which forms while vitrifying high-level waste, obstructs the flow of molten glass and damages the melter. The effectiveness of removing spinel sludge from a high-level waste glass melter depends on its rheological behavior. We prepared spinel sludge in a laboratory crucible by allowing spinel to settle from molten glass and measured the response of the sludge to shear using a rotating spindle viscometer. The shear stress increased nonlinearly with the velocity gradient (the shear rate) and with time at a constant velocity gradient, as is typical for a pseudoplastic rheopectic liquid. The apparent viscosity of the sludge substantially increased when RuO-2 needles were present.

  1. December2010 AboutReflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Jens-Dominik

    in the student-nominated category. In addition we focus on a range of innovations in teaching, learning of Reflections, the newsletter which focuses on teaching, learning and assessment in Queen's and more generally and this time focused on Increasing Students' Satisfaction in the context of the National Student Survey (NSS

  2. Multiple reflection solar energy absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, W.L.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting solar energy into heat energy thereby generating power is described comprising the steps: (a) focusing said solar energy by means of a primary concentrator, (b) concentrating said solar energy from said primary concentrator by means of a secondary concentrator located at the focal point of said primary concentrator, (c) slowing the flux of said solar energy from said secondary concentrator by means of a multiple reflection chamber attached to the rear aperture of the secondary concentrator, (d) circulating a working fluid by means of a working fluid delivery tube into said secondary concentrator and said multiple reflection chamber, (e) absorbing said solar energy into said working fluid by means of an ultra high concentration of said solar energy in said multiple reflection chamber, (f) insulating said working fluid by means of a surrounding thermal barrier, (g) exhausting the heat working fluid by means as of a nozzle joined to said multiple reflection chamber, (h) replacing said working fluid by means of a working fluid delivery tube, thereby completing a cycle for generating power.

  3. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samuels, W. D. (Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  4. Non-photorealistic Rendering of Images as Evolutionary Stained Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashlock, Dan

    Non-photorealistic Rendering of Images as Evolutionary Stained Glass Daniel Ashlock Mathematics glass. A collection of points that are the centers of weighted Voronoi tilings are evolved to minimize. A fractal model of stained glass is then run to create a stained glass texture with a similar average color

  5. Finding Glass Kenton McHenry, Jean Ponce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsyth, David

    Finding Glass Kenton McHenry, Jean Ponce Beckman Institute University of Illinois Urbana, IL 61801. This paper addresses the problem of finding glass ob- jects in images. Visual cues obtained by combining with the strong highlights typical of glass surfaces are used to train a hierarchy of classifiers, identify glass

  6. Film Formation Mechanism in Glass Lubrication by Polymer Latex Dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    coatings by tin dioxide resulting in glass bottle lubrication was investigated on flat glass. The anchoring contacts between glass bottles on production lines and transport affect both their mechanical strength and visual aspect. To improve their scratch resistance and prevent surface damage, glass bottles

  7. Nonhyperbolic reflection moveout for orthorhombic media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Dajani, A.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflection moveout in azimuthally anisotropic media is not only azimuthally dependent but it is also

  8. Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Rating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenifer Marchesi Redouane Begag; Je Kyun Lee; Danny Ou; Jong Ho Sonn; George Gould; Wendell Rhine

    2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the performance of contract DE-FC26-00-NT40998, entitled ''Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Value'', research was conducted at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. to develop new transparent aerogel materials suitable for window insulation applications. The project requirements were to develop a formulation or multiple formulations that have high transparency (85-90%) in the visible region, are hydrophobic (will not opacify with exposure to water vapor or liquid), and have at least 2% resiliency (interpreted as recoverable 2% strain and better than 5% strain to failure in compression). Results from an unrelated project showed that silica aerogels covalently bonded to organic polymers exhibit excellent mechanical properties. At the outset of this project, we believed that such a route is the best to improve mechanical properties. We have applied Design of Experiment (DOE) techniques to optimize formulations including both silica aerogels and organically modified silica aerogels (''Ormosils''). We used these DOE results to optimize formulations around the local/global optimization points. This report documents that we succeeded in developing a number of formulations that meet all of the stated criteria. We successfully developed formulations utilizing a two-step approach where the first step involves acid catalyzed hydrolysis and the second step involves base catalyzed condensation to make the gels. The gels were dried using supercritical CO{sub 2} and we were able to make 1 foot x 1 foot x 0.5 inch panels that met the criteria established.

  9. Tandem self-powered photovoltaic-electrochromic window coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, J.N.; Xu, Y.; Benson, D.K.; Branz, H.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Wide-gap, transparent amorphous silicon based photovoltaics can be integrated with electrochromic materials to produce a self-powered ``smart`` window coating. Existing electrochromic window designs external electrical connection, which may be economically unfeasible. This problem is solved by the tandem photovoltaic-electrochromic (PV/EC) device, in which a wide-gap amorphous silicon-based alloy (a-SiC:H) photovoltaic device is deposited together with an electrochromic optical transmittance modulator in a monolithic device on a single substrate. In this paper, the authors discuss their proposed monolithic photovoltaic-electrochromic device. They also present studies of transparent, wide-gap (Tauc gap of 1.8 to 2.2 eV) amorphous silicon-carbon thin films and p-i-n devices designed for use in the photovoltaic-electrochromic device. The photovoltaic cells in the PV-EC can operate at low current (<1 mA/cm{sup 2}) because a total injected charge of only 60 {micro}C/cm{sup 2} will darken the EC layer to a visible transmission of 5%, but they will need a high open-circuit voltage (>1.0 V) and high transparency ({approx}70%). They describe the progress toward these design targets.

  10. Utility and economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, J.L.; Reilly, M.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ander, G.D. [Southern California Edison Co., Rosemead, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows have very significant direct and indirect impacts on building energy consumption, load shape, and peak demand. Electrochromic switchable glazings can potentially provide substantial reductions in all aspects of cooling and lighting electricity usage. This study explores the potential benefits of electrochromics in comparison to other currently available and emerging glazing technologies. These effects are explored in office buildings in several climates as a function of window size, orientation, and building operating characteristics. The DOE-2 building energy simulation program was used to model the performances of these dynamic coatings, accounting for both thermal and daylighting impacts. Very substantial savings are demonstrated compared to conventional glazings, but specific impacts on component and total energy consumption, peak demand, and HVAC system sizing vary widely among the options analyzed. In a hot, sunny climate, simple payback periods of three to ten years were calculated. Electrochromic glazings appear to represent a very important future building design option that will allow architects and engineers a high degree of design freedom to meet occupant needs, while minimizing operating costs to building owners and providing a new and important electricity demand control option for utilities. Utility demand-side management programs can accelerate the market penetration of electrochromics by offering incentives to reduce net first cost and payback periods.

  11. Spectroscopic investigation of simulated low-level nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rong, Chaoying; Li, Hong; Hrma, P.R.; Cho, H.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Borosilicate glasses with high sodium concentrations, formulated to simulate vitrified Hanford low-level wastes (LLW), were investigated by {sup 31}P magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Phase separation, glass homogeneity changes during remelting, and the form of phosphate in glass following product consistency tests (PCT) were also examined by NMR. The results show that a distinct orthophosphate phase not part of the glass network is present in the glass. The effect of glass composition on phosphate chemical environments in the glass is discussed.

  12. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential andCommercial Building Stock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2006-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple spreadsheet-based tool for estimating window-related energy consumption in the United States. Using available data on the properties of the installed US window stock, we estimate that windows are responsible for 2.15 quadrillion Btu (Quads) of heating energy consumption and 1.48 Quads of cooling energy consumption annually. We develop estimates of average U-factor and SHGC for current window sales. We estimate that a complete replacement of the installed window stock with these products would result in energy savings of approximately 1.2 quads. We demonstrate that future window technologies offer energy savings potentials of up to 3.9 Quads.

  13. High Performance X-Ray Transmission Windows Based on Graphenic Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huebner, Sebastian; Kapser, Stefan; Pahlke, Andreas; Kreupl, Franz

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel x-ray transmission window based on graphenic carbon has been developed with superior performance compared to beryllium transmission windows that are currently used in the field. Graphenic carbon in combination with an integrated silicon frame allows for a window design which does not use a mechanical support grid or additional light blocking layers. Compared to beryllium, the novel x-ray transmission window exhibits an improved transmission in the low energy region ($0.1 hbox{keV}-3 hbox{keV}$ ) while demonstrating excellent mechanical stability, as well as light and vacuum tightness. Therefore, the newly established graphenic carbon window, can replace beryllium in x-ray transmission windows with a nontoxic and abundant material. Index terms: Beryllium, Carbon, Graphene, Thin films, X-ray applications, X-ray detectors

  14. Demonstration of chalcogenide glass racetrack microresonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimerling, Lionel C.

    We have demonstrated what we believe to be the first chalcogenide glass racetrack microresonator using a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible lift-off technique with thermally evaporated As[subscript 2]S[subscript ...

  15. Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy funded development of a methodology that could be used by glass producers to increase furnace efficiency, and that could serve as a model for other energy-intensive industries. Accordingly, a team comprising PPG Industries...

  16. Elimination of Glass Artifacts and Object Segmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katyal, Vini; Srivastava, Deepesh

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many images nowadays are captured from behind the glasses and may have certain stains discrepancy because of glass and must be processed to make differentiation between the glass and objects behind it. This research paper proposes an algorithm to remove the damaged or corrupted part of the image and make it consistent with other part of the image and to segment objects behind the glass. The damaged part is removed using total variation inpainting method and segmentation is done using kmeans clustering, anisotropic diffusion and watershed transformation. The final output is obtained by interpolation. This algorithm can be useful to applications in which some part of the images are corrupted due to data transmission or needs to segment objects from an image for further processing.

  17. Glass bead micromodel study of solute transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedirchuk, Paula Diane

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents the quantification of glass bead micromodel experiments through a combination of computational modeling and experimental analysis. The computational model simulates two-dimensional solute flow through porous media using a finite...

  18. Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If these glass microspheres' walls could talk…They would explain how their tiny pores allow the potential for handling, storing and transporting a variety of materials, including drugs that have...

  19. Measurement of DWPF glass viscosity - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J.R.

    2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the results of a scoping study funded by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for the measurement of melt viscosities for simulated glasses representative of Macrobatch 2 (Tank 42/51 feed).

  20. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattes, B.R.; McBranch, D.W.; Robinson, J.M.; Koskelo, A.C.; Love, S.P.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites is described. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C{sub 60} in silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these ``guests`` in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C{sub 60}. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C{sub 60} dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C{sub 60} in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  1. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Love, Steven P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C.sub.60 in silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these "guests" in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C.sub.60. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C.sub.60 dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C.sub.60 in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  2. Mechanism of sulfate segregation during glass melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2005-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate retention in glass during the vitrification process can be as low as 1/3 of the solubility limit, or can exceed the solubility limit if suspended in the glass in the form of droplets. This study is focused on the mechanism of incorporating and segregating sodium sulfate during the melting of an alkali-alumino-borosilicate glass batch. Batches were ramp heated at 4°C/min to temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1050°C and fractured for examination. Observation of the melts showed that as the batch temperature increases and the primary oxo-anionic, predominantly nitrate melt decomposes, the sulfate residue accumulates inside gas bubbles and is transported in them to the melt surface, where it remains segregated. The degree of sulfate incorporation into the final glass depends on the relative rates of sulfate dissolution in the borosilicate melt and sulfate lifting inside bubbles.

  3. Free energy of sheared colloidal glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. T. Dang; V. Chikkadi; R. Zargar; D. M. Miedema; D. Bonn; A. Zaccone; P. Schall

    2015-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a free energy framework to describe the response of glasses to applied stress. Unlike crystals, for which the free energy increases quadratically with strain due to affine displacements, for glasses, the nonequilibrium free energy decreases due to complex interplay of non-affine displacements and dissipation. We measure this free energy directly in strained colloidal glasses, and use mean-field theory to relate it to affine and nonaffine displacements. Nonaffine displacements grow with applied shear due to shear-induced loss of structural connectivity. Our mean-field model allows for the first time to disentangle the complex contributions of affine and nonaffine displacements and dissipation in the transient deformation of glasses.

  4. 218 Glass Technology Vol. 44 No. 6 December 2003 www.sgt.org Glass Technol., 2003, 44 (6), 21824

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    218 Glass Technology Vol. 44 No. 6 December 2003 www.sgt.org Glass Technol., 2003, 44 (6), 218 re- actions in a mixture of waste and powder metal fuel (PMF) to form a glass-like material without into durable glass-like waste forms. Since they do not require complex equip- ment or energy supplies, self

  5. Equivalence of Glass Transition and Colloidal Glass Transition in the Hard-Sphere Limit Thomas K. Haxton,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Equivalence of Glass Transition and Colloidal Glass Transition in the Hard-Sphere Limit Ning Xu,1 that the slowing of the dynamics in simulations of several model glass-forming liquids is equivalent to the hard-sphere glass transition in the low-pressure limit. In this limit, we find universal behavior of the relaxation

  6. ICG 2000 Amsterdam Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    ICG 2000 Amsterdam ­ Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate of the absorption spectrum of silicate glasses and determination of absolute concentrations of ferric, ferrous of silicate glass. 2. Experimental The same glass samples were used in this work as were described in [3, 4

  7. High expansion, lithium corrosion resistant sealing glasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Watkins, Randall D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO in various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with pin materials of 446 Stainless Steel and Alloy-52 rather than molybdenum, for use in harsh chemical environments, specifically in lithium batteries.

  8. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

  9. High expansion, lithium corrosion resistant sealing glasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.

    1991-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], B[sub 2]O[sub 3], SrO and BaO in various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with pin materials of 446 Stainless Steel and Alloy-52 rather than molybdenum, for use in harsh chemical environments, specifically in lithium batteries.

  10. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ostenak, C.A.; Mackay, H.A.

    1985-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  11. Evaluation of a modified quadruple energy window scatter subtraction algorithm for quantitative imaging with In-111 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadler,John J.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spatial resolution broadens the curve by giving false indication of where individual counts register. Another effect of having the dual-energy gamma rays &om In-111 in particular is that Compton scatter from the higher energy 246 keV gamma.... Attenuation and Scatter Correction with the Quadruple Energy Window Scatter Subtraction Method 1. 10. 1. The Original Quadruple Energy Window Scatter Subtraction Algorithm Scatter subtraction methods based on a dual-energy window image acquisition scheme...

  12. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Weite (Tainan, TW); Chu, Cha Y. (Garnerville, NY); Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Routbort, Jules L. (Darien, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor.

  13. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass composition for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na.sub.2 O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K.sub.2 O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B.sub.2 O.sub.3, has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210.times.10-7/.degree.C. and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2.times.10.sup.- 7 and 2.times.10.sup.-9 g/cm.sup.2 -min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  14. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.

    1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  15. Hysteretic Optimization For Spin Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Goncalves; S. Boettcher

    2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The recently proposed Hysteretic Optimization (HO) procedure is applied to the 1D Ising spin chain with long range interactions. To study its effectiveness, the quality of ground state energies found as a function of the distance dependence exponent, $\\sigma$, is assessed. It is found that the transition from an infinite-range to a long-range interaction at $\\sigma=0.5$ is accompanied by a sharp decrease in the performance . The transition is signaled by a change in the scaling behavior of the average avalanche size observed during the hysteresis process. This indicates that HO requires the system to be infinite-range, with a high degree of interconnectivity between variables leading to large avalanches, in order to function properly. An analysis of the way auto-correlations evolve during the optimization procedure confirm that the search of phase space is less efficient, with the system becoming effectively stuck in suboptimal configurations much earlier. These observations explain the poor performance that HO obtained for the Edwards-Anderson spin glass on finite-dimensional lattices, and suggest that its usefulness might be limited in many combinatorial optimization problems.

  16. U-225: Citrix Access Gateway Plug-in for Windows nsepacom ActiveX...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in Citrix Access Gateway Plug-in for Windows can be exploited by malicious people to compromise a user's system. reference LINKS: Citrix Knowledge Center Secunia...

  17. T-573: Windows Remote Desktop Client DLL Loading Error Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vulnerability was reported in Windows Remote Desktop Client. A remote user can cause arbitrary code to be executed on the target user's system.

  18. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows in commercial buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Handbook of inorganic electrochromic materials. 1995.R. Sullivan. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performancetime of large-scale electrochromic devices. In Large-Area

  19. The Use of Energy Windowing to Discriminate SNM from NORM in Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Schweppe, John E.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Strachan, Denis M.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy windowing is an alarm algorithm method that can be applied to plastic scintillator-based radiation portal monitors (RPMs) to reduce the alarm rates from naturally occurring radioactive material. Various implementations of energy windowing have been tested and documented by industry and at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and are available in commercial RPMs built by several manufacturers. Moreover, energy windowing is being used in deployed RPMs to reduce nuisance alarms during the screening of cargo. This paper describes energy windowing algorithms and demonstrates how these algorithms succeed when applied to “controlled” experimental measurements and “real world” vehicle-traffic data. (PIET-43741-TM-281)

  20. Apparatus for preventing particle deposition from process streams on optical access windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Ronald G. (Fredericksburg, VA); Grimm, Ulrich (Morgantown, WV)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrostatic precipitator is disposed inside and around the periphery of the window of a viewing port communicating with a housing through which a particle-laden gas stream is being passed. The precipitator includes a pair of electrodes around the periphery of the window, spaced apart and connected to a unidirectional voltage source. Application of high voltage from the source to the electrodes causes air molecules in the gas stream to become ionized, attaching to solid particles and causing them to be deposited on a collector electrode. This prevents the particles from being deposited on the window and keeps the window clean for viewing and making optical measurements.

  1. Building Scientific Workflows for Earth System Modelling with Windows Workflow Foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Building Scientific Workflows for Earth System Modelling with Windows Workflow Foundation Matthew J developed a framework for the composition, execution and management of integrated Earth system models

  2. Purged window apparatus. [On-line spectroscopic analysis of gas flow systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballard, E.O.

    1982-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A purged window apparatus is described which utilizes tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube thereby preventing backstreaming of flowing gases under investigation in a chamber to which a plurality of similar purged apparatus is attached with the consequent result that spectroscopic analyses can be undertaken for lengthy periods without the necessity of interrupting the flow for cleaning or replacing the windows due to contamination.

  3. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential and Commercial Building Stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2001). "Residential Energy Consumption Survey." 2006, fromCommercial Building Energy Consumption Survey." from http://Scale window-related energy consumption to account for new

  4. U< I 7 jjORNLCON-3S) EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A WINDOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    UAIR CONDITIONER OAK RIDGE WITH NATIONAL R-22. #12;ORNUCON-389 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A WINDOW AIR CONDITIONER WITH R-22 AND ZEOTROPIC MIXTURE OF R

  5. Photovoltaic Powering And Control System For Electrochromic Windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, Stephen C. (Tewksbury, MA); Michalski, Lech A. (Pennington, NJ); Volltrauer, Hermann N. (Englishtown, NJ); Van Dine, John E. (Faribault, MN)

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A sealed insulated glass unit is provided with an electrochromic device for modulating light passing through the unit. The electrochromic device is controlled from outside the unit by a remote control electrically unconnected to the device. Circuitry within the unit may be magnetically controlled from outside. The electrochromic device is powered by a photovoltaic cells. The photovoltaic cells may be positioned so that at least a part of the light incident on the cell passes through the electrochromic device, providing a form of feedback control. A variable resistance placed in parallel with the electrochromic element is used to control the response of the electrochromic element to changes in output of the photovoltaic cell.

  6. Natural glass analogues to alteration of nuclear waste glass: A review and recommendations for further study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenzie, W.F.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to review previous work on the weathering of natural glasses; and to make recommendations for further work with respect to studying the alteration of natural glasses as it relates quantifying rates of dissolution. the first task was greatly simplified by the published papers of Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) and Byers, Jercinovic, and Ewing (1987). The second task is obviously the more difficult of the two and the author makes no claim of completeness in this regard. Glasses weather in the natural environment by reacting with aqueous solutions producing a rind of secondary solid phases. It had been proposed by some workers that the thickness of this rind is a function of the age of the glass and thus could be used to estimate glass dissolution rates. However, Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) point out that in general the rind thickness does not correlate with the age of the glass owing to the differences in time of contact with the solution compared to the actual age of the sample. It should be noted that the rate of glass dissolution is also a function of the composition of both the glass and the solution, and the temperature. Quantification of the effects of these parameters (as well as time of contact with the aqueous phase and flow rates) would thus permit a prediction of the consequences of glass-fluid interactions under varying environmental conditions. Defense high- level nuclear waste (DHLW), consisting primarily of liquid and sludge, will be encapsulated by and dispersed in a borosilicate glass before permanent storage in a HLW repository. This glass containing the DHLW serves to dilute the radionuclides and to retard their dispersion into the environment. 318 refs.

  7. Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan to look more closely at Vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2-8(H2O)] and Siderite [FeCO3] in the next stage of the project.

  8. MiniBooNE "Windows on the Universe"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanski, Ray; /Fermilab

    2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in the last few decades has left neutrino physics with several vexing issues. Among them are the following questions: (1) Why are lepton mixing angles so different from those in the quark sector? (2) What is the most probable range of the reactor mixing angle? (3) Is the atmospheric mixing angle maximal? (4) What is the number of fermion generations? These are some of the issues that neutrino science hopes to study; this article will explore these questions as part of a more general scientific landscape, and will discuss the part MiniBooNE might play in this exploration. We discuss the current state of measurements taken by MiniBooNE, and emphasize the uniqueness of neutrino oscillations as an important probe into the 'Windows on the Universe.'

  9. Chromogenic switchable glazing: Towards the development of the smart window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The science and technology of chromogenic materials for switchable glazings in building applications is discussed. These glazings can be used for dynamic control of solar and visible energy. Currently many researchers and engineers are involved with the development of products in this field. A summary of activities in Japan, Europe, Australia, USA and Canada is made. The activities of the International Energy Agency are included. Both non-electrically activated and electrically activated glazings are discussed. Technologies covered in the first category are photochromics, and thermochromics and thermotropics. A discussion of electrically activated chromogenic glazings includes dispersed liquid crystals, dispersed particles and electrochromics. A selection of device structures and performance characteristics are compared. A discussion of transparent conductors is presented. Technical issues concerning large-area development of smart windows are discussed.

  10. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  11. Database and Interim Glass Property Models for Hanford HLW and LAW Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Kim, Dong-Sang (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2002-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses a methodology for increasing the efficiency and decreasing the cost of vitrifying nuclear waste by optimizing waste-glass formulation. This methodology involves collecting and generating a property-composition database (for glass properties that determine waste-glass processability and acceptability) and relating these properties to glass composition via property-composition models. The report explains how the property-composition models are developed, fitted to data and evaluated, validated using additional data, used for glass-formulation optimization, and continuously updated in response to changes in waste-composition estimates and processing technologies. Further, the report describes a waste-glass property-composition database compiled from literature sources and presents the results from a critical evaluation and screening of the data for applicability to Hanford waste glasses. Finally, the report provides interim property-composition models for melt viscosity, liquidus temperature (with spinel and zircon primary crystalline phases), and Product Consistency Test normalized releases of B, Na, and Li. Models were fitted to a subset of the database deemed most relevant for the anticipated Hanford waste-glass composition region.

  12. An Insulating Glass Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Doll; Gerald Hendrickson; Gerard Lagos; Russell Pylkki; Chris Christensen; Charlie Cureija

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report will discuss issues relevant to Insulating Glass (IG) durability performance by presenting the observations and developed conclusions in a logical sequential format. This concluding effort discusses Phase II activities and focuses on beginning to quantifying IG durability issues while continuing the approach presented in the Phase I activities (Appendix 1) which discuss a qualitative assessment of durability issues. Phase II developed a focus around two specific IG design classes previously presented in Phase I of this project. The typical box spacer and thermoplastic spacer design including their Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Fault Tree diagrams were chosen to address two currently used IG design options with varying components and failure modes. The system failures occur due to failures of components or their interfaces. Efforts to begin quantifying the durability issues focused on the development and delivery of an included computer based IG durability simulation program. The focus/effort to deliver the foundation for a comprehensive IG durability simulation tool is necessary to address advancements needed to meet current and future building envelope energy performance goals. This need is based upon the current lack of IG field failure data and the lengthy field observation time necessary for this data collection. Ultimately, the simulation program is intended to be used by designers throughout the current and future industry supply chain. Its use is intended to advance IG durability as expectations grow around energy conservation and with the growth of embedded technologies as required to meet energy needs. In addition the tool has the immediate benefit of providing insight for research and improvement prioritization. Included in the simulation model presentation are elements and/or methods to address IG materials, design, process, quality, induced stress (environmental and other factors), validation, etc. In addition, acquired data is presented in support of project and model assumptions. Finally, current and suggested testing protocol and procedure for future model validation and IG physical testing are discussed.

  13. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the UScommercial buildings sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected to significantly reduce the energy use of buildings nationwide. This study quantifies the potential impact of electrochromic windows on US primary energy use in the commercial building sector and also provides a broader database of energy use and peak demand savings for perimeter zones than that given in previous LBNL simulation studies. The DOE-2.1E building simulation program was used to predict the annual energy use of a three-story prototypical commercial office building located in five US climates and 16 California climate zones. The energy performance of an electrochromic window controlled to maintain daylight illuminance at a prescribed setpoint level is compared to conventional and the best available commercial windows as well as windows defined by the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 and California Title 24-2005 Prescriptive Standards. Perimeter zone energy use and peak demand savings data by orientation, window size, and climate are given for windows with interior shading, attached shading, and horizon obstructions (to simulate an urban environment). Perimeter zone primary energy use is reduced by 10-20% in east, south, and west zones in most climates if the commercial building has a large window-to-wall area ratio of 0.60 compared to a spectrally selective low-e window with daylighting controls and no interior or exterior shading. Peak demand for the same condition is reduced by 20-30%. The emerging electrochromic window with daylighting controls is projected to save approximately 91.5-97.3 10{sup 12} Btu in the year 2030 compared to a spectrally selective low-E window with manually-controlled interior shades and no daylighting controls if it reaches a 40% market penetration level in that year.

  14. An electrochromic window based on Li sub x WO sub 3 /(PEO) sub 8 LiCIO sub 4 /NiO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passerini, S.; Scosati, B. (Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita' di Roma La Sapienza, (IT)); Gorenstein, A. (DFA/IFWG, UNICAMP, CP 6165, Campinas, SP (BR)); Anderson, A.M; Granqvist, C.G. (Dept. of Physics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (SW))

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic materials are characterized by reversible but persistent changes of the optical properties when subjected to suitable electrochemical reactions. Electrochromism can be utilized in windows, most conveniently by exploiting all-solid-state multilayer coating backed by glass. The multilayer coating should comprise the following sequence of layers: a transparent and electrically conducting base layer, an electrochromic layer, and electrolyte, a conterelectrode, and a transparent conducting top layer. For window applications, the electrolyte should be transparent, and the conterelectrode must be either optically passive (colorless irrespective of its ionic content) or electrochromic in a sense that is complementary to the electrochromism of the electrochromic layer. The latter condition implies that if the electrochromic layer is cathodic (anodic), the counterelectrode must be anodic (cathodic). This paper reports preliminary data taken on samples with electrochromic layers based on tungsten oxide, WO{sub 3}, and nickel oxide, NiO, and an intermediate solid electrolyte of poly(ethylene oxide) doped with lithium perchlorate, (PEO){sub 8}LiClO{sub 4}, where 8 signifies the number of oxygen heteroatoms per lithium ion.

  15. Impact of HLW Glass Crystallinity on the PCT Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Brian J.; Rosario, Jose A.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2002-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimizing glass formulation for vitrifying waste is based on computing a glass composition that would meet processability and acceptability constraints imposed on glass properties and composition while maximizing system efficiency. The process currently employed allows for estimation of all limiting glass properties except for the normalized element releases (ri, where i = B, Na, or Li) by the product consistency test (PCT) from glasses subjected to canister centerline cooling (CCC). This report documents a suggested approach to include this key glass property in numerical glass optimization. It shows that acceptable predictions of rB and rNa from CCC glasses can be obtained provided that sufficiently accurate compositions and concentrations of the crystalline phases in CCC glass are known.

  16. Transport properties of lithium- lead-vanadium-telluride glass and glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathish, M., E-mail: sathishphy79@gmail.com [Department of Physics, GOVT first grade College, Doddaballapur-561203 (India); Eraiah, B., E-mail: eraiah@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560056, India (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Glasses with the chemical composition 35Li{sub 2}O-(45-x)V{sub 2}O{sub 5?}20PbO-xTeO{sub 2} (where x = 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 mol %) have prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The electrical conductivity of Li{sup +} ion conducting lead vanadium telluride glass samples has been carried out both as a function of temperature and frequency in the temperature range 503K-563K and over frequencies 40 Hz to 10 MHz. The electronic conduction has been observed in the present systems. When these samples annealed around 400°C for 2hour become the glass ceramic, which also shows increase tendency of conductivity. SEM confines glass and glass ceramic nature of the prepared samples.

  17. Exploration and Modeling of Structural changes in Waste Glass Under Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantano, Carlos; Ryan, Joseph; Strachan, Denis

    2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitrification is currently the world-wide treatment of choice for the disposition of high-level nuclear wastes. In glasses, radionuclides are atomistically bonded into the solid, resulting in a highly durable product, with borosilicate glasses exhibiting particularly excellent durability in water. Considering that waste glass is designed to retain the radionuclides within the waste form for long periods, it is important to understand the long-term stability of these materials when they react in the environment, especially in the presence of water. Based on a number of previous studies, there is general consensus regarding the mechanisms controlling the initial rate of nuclear waste glass dissolution. Agreement regarding the cause of the observed decrease in dissolution rate at extended times, however, has been elusive. Two general models have been proposed to explain this behavior, and it has been concluded that both concepts are valid and must be taken into account when considering the decrease in dissolution rate. Furthermore, other processes such as water diffusion, ion exchange, and precipitation of mineral phases onto the glass surface may occur in parallel with dissolution of the glass and can influence long-term performance. Our proposed research will address these issues through a combination of aqueous-phase dissolution/reaction experiments and probing of the resulting surface layers with state-of-the-art analytical methods. These methods include solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The resulting datasets will then be coupled with computational chemistry and reaction-rate modeling to address the most persistent uncertainties in the understanding of glass corrosion, which indeed have limited the performance of the best corrosion models to date. With an improved understanding of corrosion mechanisms, models can be developed and improved that, while still conservative, take advantage of the inherent durability of the waste form to enable secure repositories to be engineered with a much higher density of waste disposition. We propose the synthesis, corrosion, and characterization of two sets of glass samples— containing approximately 8 single-component oxides each—as models for corrosion studies of more complicated glass systems (which can contain in excess of 25 single-component ingredients). Powdered samples and millimeter- sized coupons of these simpler glasses will be corroded in solutions that begin at circumneutral pH, but are known to increase in alkalinity as corrosion proceeds and saturation in silica species is approached. Through carefully selected isotopic substitutions with nuclides that are readily detected with SSNMR and TOF-SIMS methods, we will be able to follow the diffusion of atoms into and out of the reacted surface layers of these glasses and provide new data for testing with existing reaction models. The models can then be further extended or updated to take our new data into account, allowing the existing long-term glass corrosion models to more accurately reflect the extraordinary durability of these systems. With improved models, a significant opportunity exists to better utilize the storage volume of any geologic repository.

  18. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Phifer, Carol C. (Albuquerque, NM); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La.sub.2 O.sub.3), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li.sub.2 O), sodium oxide (Na.sub.2 O), silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), or titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900.degree. C., and generally about 700.degree.-800.degree. C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  19. The Physics of the Colloidal Glass Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary L. Hunter; Eric R. Weeks

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    As one increases the concentration of a colloidal suspension, the system exhibits a dramatic increase in viscosity. Structurally, the system resembles a liquid, yet motions within the suspension are slow enough that it can be considered essentially frozen. This kinetic arrest is the colloidal glass transition. For several decades, colloids have served as a valuable model system for understanding the glass transition in molecular systems. The spatial and temporal scales involved allow these systems to be studied by a wide variety of experimental techniques. The focus of this review is the current state of understanding of the colloidal glass transition. A brief introduction is given to important experimental techniques used to study the glass transition in colloids. We describe features of colloidal systems near and in glassy states, including tremendous increases in viscosity and relaxation times, dynamical heterogeneity, and ageing, among others. We also compare and contrast the glass transition in colloids to that in molecular liquids. Other glassy systems are briefly discussed, as well as recently developed synthesis techniques that will keep these systems rich with interesting physics for years to come.

  20. Retention of Halogens in Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In spite of their potential roles as melting rate accelerators and foam breakers, halogens are generally viewed as troublesome components for glass processing. Of five halogens, F, Cl, Br, I, and At, all but At may occur in nuclear waste. A nuclear waste feed may contain up to 10 g of F, 4 g of Cl, and ?100 mg of Br and I per kg of glass. The main concern is halogen volatility, producing hazardous fumes and particulates, and the radioactive iodine 129 isotope of 1.7x10^7-year half life. Because F and Cl are soluble in oxide glasses and tend to precipitate on cooling, they can be retained in the waste glass in the form of dissolved constituents or as dispersed crystalline inclusions. This report compiles known halogen-retention data in both high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glasses. Because of its radioactivity, the main focus is on I. Available data on F and Cl were compiled for comparison. Though Br is present in nuclear wastes, it is usually ignored; no data on Br retention were found.

  1. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

    1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), sodium oxide (Na{sub 2}O), silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), or titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900 C, and generally about 700--800 C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 1 fig.

  2. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  3. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  4. Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: field study results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: field study results of this emerging technology. Keywords: Building energy-efficiency; Electrochromic windows; Daylighting; Control switched across their dynamic range and could be fully integrated into a complete daylight, glare

  5. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6496E Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight- redirecting window film in a full in Leukos, the journal of the IESNA. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight- redirecting window film Laboratory, Mailstop 90-3111, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Abstract Daylight redirecting systems

  6. Measuring sheet resistance of CIGS solar cell's window layer by spatially resolved electroluminescence imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1/12 Measuring sheet resistance of CIGS solar cell's window layer by spatially resolved model to simulate the behavior of CIGS solar cells based on the spread sheet resistance effect on the determination of the window layer sheet resistance in CIGS solar cells, but our approach could be transferred

  7. Energy performance analysis of electrochromic windows in New York commercial office buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy performance analysis of electrochromic windows in New York commercial office buildings E. S This work was supported by Sage Electrochromics, Inc. through the New York State Energy and Research Develop author. E-mail: ESLee@lbl.gov Energy performance analysis of electrochromic windows in New York

  8. Multilevel Windows on a Singlelevel Terminal+ M. D. McIlroy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McIlroy, Doug

    Multilevel Windows on a Single­level Terminal+ M. D. McIlroy J. A. Reeds AT&T Bell Laboratories, ``Multilevel security with fewer fetters,'' are ``intelligent'' terminals that contain a local operating system. A program in the host mediates between (multiple) shell sessions and the terminal. To run multilevel windows

  9. The ultra-thin solar cells that could generate power through windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    international companies are making thin-film solar cells, but they are typically less efficient at convertingThe ultra-thin solar cells that could generate power through windows By Claire Bates Last updated at 11:11 AM on 06th October 2008 Solar cells that are transparent enough to be used to tint windows

  10. Reflectance Function Approximation for Material Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Charles R.

    Reflectance Function Approximation for Material Classification Edward Wild CS 766 Final Project This report summarizes the results of a project to approximate reflectance functions and classify materials to classify materials. Classification algorithms are proposed to deal with unseen materials. Experimental

  11. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions called symbols. Generali* *zing this, we define Green functions associated to complex reflection

  12. Reflective equilibrium and the 'moral conservatism' objection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandler, James Robert

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflective equilibrium is widely accepted as a method of justifying ethical beliefs. Narrow reflective equilibrium justifies moral beliefs by achieving coherence between moral principles and moral judgments. However, this theory has been accused...

  13. Performance Analysis of Contention Window Cheating Misbehaviors in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalaiarasi, R; Pari, S Neelavathy; Sridharan, D

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of nodes that can be rapidly deployed as a multi-hop network without the aid of any centralized administration. Misbehavior is challenged by bandwidth and energy efficient medium access control and fair share of throughput. Node misbehavior plays an important role in MANET. In this survey, few of the contention window misbehavior is reviewed and compared. The contention window cheating either minimizes the active communication of the network or reduces bandwidth utilization of a particular node. The classification presented is in no case unique but summarizes the chief characteristics of many published proposals for contention window cheating. After getting insight into the different contention window misbehavior, few of the enhancements that can be done to improve the existing contention window are suggested. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the research efforts in combining the existing solutions to offer more efficient methods to reduce contention win...

  14. Mechanical Research and Development of monocrystalline silicon neutron beam window for CSNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou Liang; Qu Hua-Min

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The monocrystalline silicon neutron beam window is one of the key components of neutron spectrometers and thin circular plate.Monocrystalline silicon is a brittle material and its strength is not constant but is consistent with the Weibull distribution. The window is designed not simply through the average strength, but according to the survival rate. Bending deformation is the main form of the window, so dangerous parts of the neutron beam window is stress-linearized to the combination of membrane stress and bending stress. According to the Weibull distribution of bending strength of monocrystalline silicon based on a large number of experimental data, finally the optimized neutron beam window is 1.5mm thick. Its survival rate is 0.9994 and its transmittance is 0.98447; it meets both physical requirements and the mechanical strength.

  15. Method of fabricating a microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fabricating a microelectronic device package with an integral window for providing optical access through an aperture in the package. The package is made of a multilayered insulating material, e.g., a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC). The window is inserted in-between personalized layers of ceramic green tape during stackup and registration. Then, during baking and firing, the integral window is simultaneously bonded to the sintered ceramic layers of the densified package. Next, the microelectronic device is flip-chip bonded to cofired thick-film metallized traces on the package, where the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. Finally, a cover lid is attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, flip-chip bonded, hermetically-sealed package having an integral window.

  16. A test of multiple correlation temporal window characteristic of non-Markov processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arecchi, Tito; Megna, Nicola

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a sensitive test of memory effects in successive events. The test consists of a combination K of binary correlations at successive times. K decays monotonically from K = 1 for uncorrelated events as a Markov process; whereas memory effects provide a temporal window with K > 1. For a monotonic memory fading, K 1 temporal window in cognitive tasks consisting of the visual identification of the front face of the Necker cube after a previous presentation of the same. The K > 1 behaviour is maximal at an inter-measurement time {\\tau} around 2 sec with inter-subject differences. The K > 1 persists over a time window of 1 sec around {\\tau}; outside this window the K 1 window in pairs of successive perceptions suggests that, at variance with single visual stimuli eliciting a suitable response, a pair of stimuli shortly separated in time displays mutual correlations.

  17. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  18. April 22, 2010 Seismic Reflection VI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    4/21/2010 1 GG450 April 22, 2010 Seismic Reflection VI Data Interpretation II Today's material section Chrono- stratigraphic section Relations of strata to boundaries of a depositional sequence Seismic stratigraphic reflection terminations within an idealized seismic sequence Reflection configurations #12

  19. Glass/ceramic coatings for implants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomsia, Antoni P. (Pinole, CA); Saiz, Eduardo (Berkeley, CA); Gomez-Vega, Jose M. (Nagoya, JP); Marshall, Sally J. (Larkspur, CA); Marshall, Grayson W. (Larkspur, CA)

    2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass coatings on metals including Ti, Ti6A14V and CrCo were prepared for use as implants. The composition of the glasses was tailored to match the thermal expansion of the substrate metal. By controlling the firing atmosphere, time, and temperature, it was possible to control the reactivity between the glass and the alloy and to fabricate coatings (25-150 .mu.m thick) with excellent adhesion to the substrate. The optimum firing temperatures ranged between 800 and 840.degree. C. at times up to 1 min in air or 15 min in N.sub.2. The same basic technique was used to create multilayered coatings with concentration gradients of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and SiO.sub.2.

  20. Wetting of metals and glasses on Mo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo; Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Benhassine, Mehdi; de Coninck, Joel; Rauch, Nicole; Ruehle, Manfred

    2008-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The wetting of low melting point metals and Si-Ca-Al-Ti-O glasses on molybdenum has been investigated. The selected metals (Au, Cu, Ag) form a simple eutectic with Mo. Metal spreading occurs under nonreactive conditions without interdiffusion or ridge formation. The metals exhibit low (non-zero) contact angles on Mo but this requires temperatures higher than 1100 C in reducing atmospheres in order to eliminate a layer of adsorbed impurities on the molybdenum surface. By controlling the oxygen activity in the furnace, glass spreading can take place under reactive or nonreactive conditions. We have found that in the glass/Mo system the contact angle does not decrease under reactive conditions. In all cases, adsorption from the liquid seems to accelerate the diffusivity on the free molybdenum surface.