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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Water-Moderated and -Reflected Slabs of Uranium Oxyfluoride  

SciTech Connect

A series of ten experiments were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiment Facility in December 1955, and January 1956, in an attempt to determine critical conditions for a slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). These experiments were recorded in an Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Logbook and results were published in a journal of the American Nuclear Society, Nuclear Science and Engineering, by J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and J. H. Marable (Reference 1). The purpose of these experiments was to obtain the minimum critical thickness of an effectively infinite slab of UO2F2 solution by extrapolation of experimental data. To do this the slab thickness was varied and critical solution and water-reflector heights were measured using two different fuel solutions. Of the ten conducted experiments eight of the experiments reached critical conditions but the results of only six of the experiments were published in Reference 1. All ten experiments were evaluated from which five critical configurations were judged as acceptable criticality safety benchmarks. The total uncertainty in the acceptable benchmarks is between 0.25 and 0.33 % ?k/keff. UO2F2 fuel is also evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-043, HEU-SOL-THERM-011, and HEU-SOL-THERM-012, but these those evaluation reports are for large reflected and unreflected spheres. Aluminum cylinders of UO2F2 are evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-050.

Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Clinton Gross

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

2 x 2 Polyethylene Reflected and Moderated Highly Enriched Uranium System with Rhenium  

SciTech Connect

The 2 × 2 array HEU-Re experiment was performed on the Planet universal critical assembly machine on November 4th, 2003 at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For this experiment, there were 10 ˝ units, each full unit containing four HEU foils and two rhenium foils. The top unit contained only two HEU foils and two rhenium foils. A total of 42 HEU foils were used for this experiment. Rhenium is a desirable cladding material for space nuclear power applications. This experiment consisted of HEU foils interleaved with rhenium foils and is moderated and reflected by polyethylene plates. A unit consisted of a polyethylene plate, which has a recess for rhenium foils, and four HEU foils in a single layer in the top recess of each polyethylene plate. The Planet universal criticality assembly machine has been previously used in experiments containing HEU foils interspersed with SiO2 (HEU-MET-THERM-001), Al (HEU-MET-THERM-008), MgO (HEU-MET-THERM-009), Gd foils (HEU-MET-THERM-010), 2 × 2 × 26 Al (HEU-MET-THERM-012), Fe (HEU-MET-THERM-013 and HEU-MET-THERM-015), 2 × 2 × 23 SiO2 (HEU-MET-THERM-014), 2 × 2 × 11 hastalloy plates (HEU-MET-THERM-016), and concrete (HEU-MET-THERM-018). The 2 × 2 array of HEU-Re is considered acceptable for use as a benchmark critical experiment.

A. Nichole Ellis; Jesson Hutchinson; John D. Bess; Dmitry N. Polyakov; Evgeny S. Glushkov; Alexey E. Glushkov

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

FLUID MODERATED REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reactor which utilizes fissionable fuel elements in rod form immersed in a moderator or heavy water and a means of circulating the heavy water so that it may also function as a coolant to remove the heat generated by the fission of the fuel are described. In this design, the clad fuel elements are held in vertical tubes immersed in heavy water in a tank. The water is circulated in a closed system by entering near the tops of the tubes, passing downward through the tubes over the fuel elements and out into the tank, where it is drawn off at the bottom, passed through heat exchangers to give up its heat and then returned to the tops of the tubes for recirculation.

Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.A.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

1957-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

4

Radar Reflectivity of Cumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationships between the radar reflectivity factor Z and significant physical cloud parameters are studied from a dataset collected with an instrumented aircraft in non- or very weakly precipitating warm clouds. The cloud droplet populations ...

Henri Sauvageot; Jilani Omar

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Moderate Temperature | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Moderate Temperature Moderate Temperature Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Moderate Temperature Dictionary.png Moderate Temperature: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Sanyal Temp Classification This temperature scheme was developed by Sanyal in 2005 at the request of DOE and GEA, as reported in Classification of Geothermal Systems: A Possible Scheme. Extremely Low Temperature Very Low Temperature Low Temperature Moderate Temperature High Temperature Ultra High Temperature Steam Field Reservoir fluid between 190°C and 230°C is considered by Sanyal to be "moderate temperature." "The next higher resource temperature limit is chosen as 230°C, which is lower than the minimum initial resource temperature encountered in

6

Moderator materials and neutronic performance  

SciTech Connect

The great variety of instruments proposed for LANSCE-II entails an equally varied set of requirements for the target stations moderators. Besides the obvious features such as intensity and pulse width of the neutron pulse, a number of more pragmatic questions have to be addressed such as fast neutron background and energy deposition in the moderators, especially at large proton beam powers such as the 1 MW proton beam power proposed for LANSCE-II.

Daemen, L.L.; Russell, G.J.; Pitcher, E.J.; Lujan, M. Jr.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

7

Moderated ruthenium fischer-tropsch synthesis catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The subject Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprises moderated ruthenium on an inorganic oxide support. The preferred moderator is silicon. Preferably the moderator is effectively positioned in relationship to ruthenium particles through simultaneous placement on the support using reverse micelle impregnation.

Abrevaya, Hayim (Wilmette, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

HEAVY WATER MODERATED NEUTRONIC REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor of the type which utilizes uranium fuel elements and a liquid coolant is described. The fuel elements are in the form of elongated tubes and are disposed within outer tubes extending through a tank containing heavy water, which acts as a moderator. The ends of the fuel tubes are connected by inlet and discharge headers, and liquid bismuth is circulated between the headers and through the fuel tubes for cooling. Helium is circulated through the annular space between the outer tubes in the tank and the fuel tubes to cool the water moderator to prevent boiling. The fuel tubes are covered with a steel lining, and suitable control means, heat exchange means, and pumping means for the coolants are provided to complete the reactor assembly.

Szilard, L.

1958-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

9

LIGHT WATER MODERATED NEUTRONIC REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A uranium fuel reactor designed to utilize light water as a moderator is described. The reactor core is in a tank at the bottom of a substantially cylindrical cross-section pit, the core being supported by an apertured grid member and comprised of hexagonal tubes each containing a pluralily of fuel rods held in a geometrical arrangement between end caps of the tubes. The end caps are apertured to permit passage of the coolant water through the tubes and the fuel elements are aluminum clad to prevent corrosion. The tubes are hexagonally arranged in the center of the tank providing an amulus between the core and tank wall which is filled with water to serve as a reflector. In use, the entire pit and tank are filled with water in which is circulated during operation by coming in at the bottom of the tank, passing upwardly through the grid member and fuel tubes and carried off near the top of the pit, thereby picking up the heat generated by the fuel elements during the fission thereof. With this particular design the light water coolant can also be used as the moderator when the uranium is enriched by fissionable isotope to an abundance of U/sup 235/ between 0.78% and 2%.

Christy, R.F.; Weinberg, A.M.

1957-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

10

Cold moderators for pulsed neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews cold moderators in pulsed neutron sources and provides details of the performance of different cold moderator materials and configurations. Analytical forms are presented which describe wavelength spectra and emission time distributions. Several types of cooling arrangements used in pulsed source moderators are described. Choices of materials are surveyed. The author examines some of the radiation damage effects in cold moderators, including the phenomenon of burping'' in irradiated cold solid methane. 9 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

Carpenter, J.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Some concluding remarks about cold moderator development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper is the transcription of remarks made at the conclusion of the Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources held at the Los Angeles National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, March 5--7, 1990. Areas of interest include the following: scattering functions; cold moderator materials; radiation mixing of chemical composition; comparison of some pulsed moderator spectra; hydrogen mixtures; premoderators and shields; composite reflectors; exotic moderator materials; deuterated methanes; mixed moderator materials; and test facility availabilities. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (MHB)

Carpenter, J.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

Balent, R.

1963-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

13

Neutron reflecting supermirror structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Neutron reflecting supermirror structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

Wood, J.L.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Tandem resonator reflectance modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

16

Tandem resonator reflectance modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

Fritz, Ian J. (Albuquerque, NM); Wendt, Joel R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Reflective diffraction grating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reflective diffraction grating. A focused ion beam (FIB) micromilling apparatus is used to store color images in a durable medium by milling away portions of the surface of the medium to produce a reflective diffraction grating with blazed pits. The images are retrieved by exposing the surface of the grating to polychromatic light from a particular incident bearing and observing the light reflected by the surface from specified reception bearing.

Lamartine, Bruce C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

18

NIST Terahertz Reflection Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... b) Superimposed Fourier Transform amplitude and power reflection map ... laser for broadband (0.2-2.5) THz GaAs antenna generation and detection ...

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Neutron reflecting supermirror structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Moderators - Instrument Support | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Moderators Moderators Detailed design of scattering instruments requires detailed knowledge of the neutron beam emitted from the moderator in question. We are currently providing moderator performance estimates based on the result of detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the entire target system. These simulations are being performed for both the High Power Target Station (HPTS) and the Long Wavelength Target Station (LWTS), and have been performed for the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) in the same manner. We make the IPNS source files available as a means to benchmark instrument simulation codes. These files follow a particular "source file format" which will adapt to the changing needs of instrument simulation as necessary. We also provide worked examples showing how to use the information in the source files

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Reflective Insulation Handbook.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When reflective-foil insulation manufacturers wanted the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to include their products in the Residential Weatherization Program, they lacked conclusive test data to prove that their products met program specifications. Reflective foils lacked widespread acceptance because of uncertainty about their insulation values. BPA discovered that the Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was preparing a study to test how well reflective foils reduced horizontal heat flow. Because the insulation value of reflective foils depends upon the direction of heat flow, BPA provided additional funding to test their effectiveness in reducing upward and downward heat flow and to produce this Handbook. The objectives of this study were to develop acceptable test and evaluation methods, produce an initial data base of idealized reflective-foil insulation systems, extend this data base to a limited number of commercially available products to develop and test analytical models to predict thermal performance and develop a Reflective Insulation Handbook for homeowners and insulation contractors. This handbook describes how heat is transferred; the function of an insulation; what reflective insulation is; types of reflective insulation; where it can be used; installation procedures; thermal performance; and useful sources of information. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Desjarlais, Andre O.; Tye, Ronald P.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Inventory Mistakes and the Great Moderation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Why did the volatility of U.S. real GDP decline by more than the volatility of final sales with the Great Moderation in the mid-1980s? One possible explanation is that firms shifted their inventory behaviour towards a greater emphasis on production smoothing. In this paper, we investigate the role of inventories in the Great Moderation by estimating an unobserved components model that identifies inventory and sales shocks and their propagation. We find only mixed evidence of increased production smoothing. Instead, it was a reduction in inventory mistakes that accounts for the excess volatility reduction in output relative to sales. The inventory mistakes are informational errors related to production that must be set in advance and their reduction also helps to explain the changed forecasting role of inventories since the mid-1980s. Our findings provide an optimistic prognosis for the continuation of the Great Moderation.

James Morley; Aarti Singh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Cold-moderator scattering kernel methods  

SciTech Connect

An accurate representation of the scattering of neutrons by the materials used to build cold sources at neutron scattering facilities is important for the initial design and optimization of a cold source, and for the analysis of experimental results obtained using the cold source. In practice, this requires a good representation of the physics of scattering from the material, a method to convert this into observable quantities (such as scattering cross sections), and a method to use the results in a neutron transport code (such as the MCNP Monte Carlo code). At Los Alamos, the authors have been developing these capabilities over the last ten years. The final set of cold-moderator evaluations, together with evaluations for conventional moderator materials, was released in 1994. These materials have been processed into MCNP data files using the NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System. Over the course of this work, they were able to develop a new module for NJOY called LEAPR based on the LEAP + ADDELT code from the UK as modified by D.J. Picton for cold-moderator calculations. Much of the physics for methane came from Picton`s work. The liquid hydrogen work was originally based on a code using the Young-Koppel approach that went through a number of hands in Europe (including Rolf Neef and Guy Robert). It was generalized and extended for LEAPR, and depends strongly on work by Keinert and Sax of the University of Stuttgart. Thus, their collection of cold-moderator scattering kernels is truly an international effort, and they are glad to be able to return the enhanced evaluations and processing techniques to the international community. In this paper, they give sections on the major cold moderator materials (namely, solid methane, liquid methane, and liquid hydrogen) using each section to introduce the relevant physics for that material and to show typical results.

MacFarlane, R.E.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Shape optimization using reflection lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many common objects have highly reflective metallic or painted finishes. Their appearance is primarily defined by the distortion the curved shape of the surface introduces in the reflections of surrounding objects. Reflection lines are commonly used ...

E. Tosun; Y. I. Gingold; J. Reisman; D. Zorin

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Solar Reflectance Index Calculator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reflectance Index Calculator Reflectance Index Calculator ASTM Designation: E 1980-01 Enter A State: Select a state Alabama Alaska Arkansas Arizona California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Iowa Idaho Illinois Indiana Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana North Carolina North Dakota Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Pacific Islands Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington Wisconsin West Virginia Wyoming Canadian Cities Enter A City: Select a city Wind Speed (mph) Wind Speed (m/s) Please input both the SR and the TE and the convection coeficient and surface temperature will be calculated

26

Polarizer reflectivity variations  

SciTech Connect

On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism.

Ozarski, R.G.; Prior, J.

1980-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

27

AN ORGANIC MODERATED REACTOR FOR PROCESS HEAT  

SciTech Connect

A review is given of the potentialities of an organic moderated reactor for the supply of heat to factories having a large demand for low-pressure steam, together with a requirement for power produced by back-pressure turbine generation. By choosing a suitable steam cycle it is possible to cover the range of typical power demand/head load ratios found in the chemical industry. The economic developments of a reactor installed for such a duty are briefly considered to show the reductions in operating cost that might be brought about during the operating lifetlme of the reactor and its associated plant. (auth)

Baines, B.D.; Conway-Jones, J.M.

1962-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Optimally moderated nuclear fission reactor and fuel source therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved nuclear fission reactor of the continuous fueling type involves determining an asymptotic equilibrium state for the nuclear fission reactor and providing the reactor with a moderator-to-fuel ratio that is optimally moderated for the asymptotic equilibrium state of the nuclear fission reactor; the fuel-to-moderator ratio allowing the nuclear fission reactor to be substantially continuously operated in an optimally moderated state.

Ougouag, Abderrafi M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Terry, William K. (Shelley, ID); Gougar, Hans D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

29

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process employing a moderated ruthenium catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Fischer-Tropsch type process produces hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using a novel catalyst comprising moderated ruthenium on an inorganic oxide support. The preferred moderator is silicon. Preferably the moderator is effectively positioned in relationship to ruthenium particles through simultaneous placement on the support using reverse micelle impregnation. 1 fig.

Abrevaya, H.

1990-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process employing a moderated ruthenium catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Fischer-Tropsch type process produces hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using a novel catalyst comprising moderated ruthenium on an inorganic oxide support. The preferred moderator is silicon. Preferably the moderator is effectively positioned in relationship to ruthenium particles through simultaneous placement on the support using reverse micelle impregnation.

Abrevaya, Hayim (Wilmette, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Documentation : a reflective practice approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Center for Reflective Community Practice in MIT's Department of Urban studies is involved in projects helping community organizers working on social change. In order to foster reflection, they are currently utilizing ...

Ouko, Luke Odhiambo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Generalization of Lambert's reflectance model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lambert's model for body reflection is widely used in computer graphics. It is used extensively by rendering techniques such as radiosity and ray tracing. For several real-world objects, however, Lambert's model can prove to be a very inaccurate approximation ... Keywords: BRDF, Lambert's model, moon reflectance, reflection models, rough surfaces

Michael Oren; Shree K. Nayar

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

MISMATCHES CREATE REFLECTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unlike low-power, metal-gate CMOS, high-speed 54HC/74HC devices readily drive long cable runs and backplanes. While the family maintains CMOS’s traditional noise immunity, you must watch transmission-line effects in such applications. Because of 54HC/74HC high-speed CMOS’s short propagation delays and fast rise and fall times, you must understand its transmission-line behavior when driving lines as short as even a foot or two, whether those lines are coaxial cables, twisted pairs or backplanes. Moreover, the devices ’ fast edge rates increase the likelihood of crosstalk among interconnecting cables. Despite the need, however, to take design precautions that minimize adverse effects related to high-speed operation, 54HC/74HC logic—unlike slower metal-gate CMOS—includes many features that suit it to driving transmission lines. For example, its symmetrical push-pull outputs result in stiff logic levels, and its high output drive allows fast bit rates. Another advantage of high-speed-CMOS designs is that they don’t prove to be as difficult as those based on other high-speed logic families. In general, high-speed CMOS doesn’t require the detailed attention to pc-board layout and transmission-line characteristics that Schottky TTL or ECL designs do. Furthermore, controlling unwanted reflections is easier in the CMOS designs, because 54HC/74HC devices’ electrostatic-protection diodes tend to clamp the reflected voltages to the power-supply levels.

unknown authors

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Variable area light reflecting assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

Howard, T.C.

1986-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

35

Variable area light reflecting assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

Howard, Thomas C. (Raleigh, NC)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Preferred methods of analysis for chemical tracers in moderate...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Preferred methods of analysis for chemical tracers in moderate- and high-temperature geothermal environments Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report:...

37

Improving the Health & Performance of Miners Working at Moderate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cross Pollination between Industry and Engineering Programs/Students in Manitoba · Improving the Health & Performance of Miners Working at Moderate to

38

In pursuit of moderation: nine common errors and teir solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One result of the increasing sophistication and complexity of MIS theory and research is the number of studies hypothesizing and testing for moderation effects. A review of the MIS and broader management literatures suggests researchers investigating ... Keywords: PLS, contingency models, tests of moderation

Traci A. Carte; Craig J. Russell

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

NWX-NOAA USEC & ADMIN OFFICES Moderator: Linda Belton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NWX-NOAA USEC & ADMIN OFFICES Moderator: Linda Belton 08-13-13/2:00 pm CT Confirmation # 1496113-NOAA USEC & ADMIN OFFICES Moderator: Linda Belton August 13, 2013 2:00 pm CT Coordinator: Welcome and thank with the Department of Commerce. Administrative NOAA has assigned NOAA's Office of Legislative #12;NWX-NOAA USEC

40

Ultrasonic flowmetering with reflected pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter was tested with two different reflected pulse trajectories in flowing air at ambient conditions against an orifice meter. The flowmeter was designed to be highly accurate, to require ...

Hoyle, David C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Ground Reflections and Green Thunderstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been suggested that green light often observed in association with severe thunderstorms is caused by sunlight being reflected onto the cloud by green vegetation. Colorimetric observations were recorded of green-colored and blue-colored ...

Frank W. Gallagher III

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

OPEC 1991 results reflect hard times  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that low crude oil prices and economic tough times in industrial countries cause a lean 1991 for members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. OPEC's 1991 annual report the member countries reported an overall loss of $12 billion in 1991 on oil revenues that fell 16.2%. Iraq and Kuwait were not included because of their unusual circumstances in the wake of the Persian Gulf war. Reduced oil revenues reflected a slide to $18.66/bbl in 1991 from $22.26/bbl in 1990 for the average price of OPEC basket crudes. As of last June 5 OPEC's basket crude price has averaged only $17.42/bbl this year, OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported. First quarter 1992 prices averaged $16.77/bbl, compared wit $19.31/bbl in fourth quarter 1991. The average price jumped 52 cent/bbl the first week in June this year to $19.93/bbl, bouyed by Saudi Arabia's move at the end of May to shift its policy from price moderation to one in favor of higher prices, Opecna the. OPEC members increased production 1% in 1991 to an average 23.28 million b/d in spite of negligible production from Iraq and Kuwait and reduced production from Qatar.

Not Available

1992-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

43

Laboratory Measurements of Spontaneous Oscillations for Moderate-Size Raindrops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The natural oscillations of moderate-size raindrops were studied in a seven-story fall column using a computer-controlled generator to produce isolated water drops at terminal speed. Instantaneous shapes were photographed to obtain oscillation ...

Rodney J. Kubesh; Kenneth V. Beard

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

CONVERSION RATIOS IN SLIGHTLY ENRICHED URANIUM, WATER MODERATED LATTICES  

SciTech Connect

An experiment is described in which the conversion ratios were measured using highly enriched U-Al foils as catchers. Data are included on the ratios of epi-cadmium to sub-cadmium fission rates of U/sup 235/ in l% enriched U light water moderated lattices, and on conversion ratios of 1% enriched U light water moderated lattices. (J.R.D.)

Tassan, S.

1963-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

45

Did 1998 Reflect Structural Change?  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Did 1998 Reflect Structural Change? Did 1998 Reflect Structural Change? 5/17/99 Click here to start Table of Contents PPT Slide Did 1998 Reflect Structural Change? Demand U.S. Propane Demand Sectors (1996) PPT Slide 1998 Propane Prices Fell with Crude Oil PPT Slide Warm Weather Behind Demand Decline 1998 Warm Weather Kept Demand Down Supply Propane Production Fell in 1998 1998 Propane Net Imports Increased Algeria Was Major Source of ‘98 Import Increase U.S. Chemical Use & Large Storage Attracts Excess Propane Petroleum & Propane Market Over Supply Average Stock Levels: Crude Market & Propane Futures Market Incentives to Build Petroleum Stocks New “Structure” or Cycle? Near-Term Future Large January Draw Did Not Remove Excess How Might Excess Stocks Decline? Near Term U.S. Propane Production

46

Reflection Survey | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Reflection Survey Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Reflection Survey Details Activities (35) Areas (22) Regions (2) NEPA(3) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Seismic Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Active Seismic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities. Stratigraphic/Structural: Structural geology- faults, folds, grabens, horst blocks, sedimentary layering, discontinuities, etc. Hydrological: Combining compressional and shear wave results can indicate the presence of fluid saturation in the formation. Thermal: High temperatures and pressure impact the compressional and shear wave velocities.

47

Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition Title Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2002 Authors Berdahl, Paul, Hashem...

48

Preferred methods of analysis for chemical tracers in moderate- and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Preferred methods of analysis for chemical tracers in moderate- and Preferred methods of analysis for chemical tracers in moderate- and high-temperature geothermal environments Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Preferred methods of analysis for chemical tracers in moderate- and high-temperature geothermal environments Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: This report describes the sampling and analytical techniques used for tracer analysis in the Raft River and East Mesa field tests. The collection procedures and sample preservation techniques, analytical methods and possible sources of contamination or error are discussed in detail. Author(s): Kroneman, R. L.; Yorgason, K. R.; Moore, J. N. Published: DOE Information Bridge, 12/1/1984 Document Number: Unavailable DOI: 10.2172/5121460

49

Cumulus Clouds and Reflected Sunlight  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cumulus Clouds and Reflected Sunlight Cumulus Clouds and Reflected Sunlight from Landsat ETM+ G. Wen and L. Oreopoulos National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center University of Maryland Baltimore County Joint Center of Earth System Technology Greenbelt, Maryland R. F. Cahalan and S. C. Tsay National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Introduction Cumulus clouds attenuate solar radiation casting shows on the ground. Cumulus clouds can also enhance solar radiation in the clear region nearby. The enhancement of down-welling solar radiation has been observed at the ground level in the clear region near cumulus clouds (Mims and Frederick 1994). The additional diffuse radiation source from cumulus clouds makes the clear gaps appear to be

50

Mixing in a Moderately Sheared Salt-Fingering Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixing due to sheared salt fingers is studied by means of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a double-diffusively unstable shear layer. The focus is on the “moderate shear” case, where shear is strong enough to produce Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) ...

W. D. Smyth; S. Kimura

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

NWX-NOAA-USEC & ADMIN OFFICES Moderator: Linda Belton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NWX-NOAA-USEC & ADMIN OFFICES Moderator: Linda Belton 07-17-13/2:00 pm CT Confirmation #1496093 for Government-to-Government Consultation with Federally Recognized Indian Tribes and Alaska Natives." NWX-NOAA-USEC and Intergovernmental Affairs, and most recently I've been appointed NOAA's Tribal Liaison. #12;NWX-NOAA-USEC & ADMIN

52

Discharge lamp with reflective jacket  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Unstructured grid and unstructured grid porous methods for numerical analysis of TACR moderator calandria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the design of the Thorium-based Advanced CANDU Reactor (TACR), the moderator system is used to remove the moderator heat in normal operations and to remove the residual heat in accidents. The numerical methods to analyze the heat transfer in the moderator ... Keywords: CANDU, Moderator calandria, Porous method, Thorium, Unstructured grid

Jue Yang; Baoshan Jia

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Spatial Convergence of Bidirectional Reflectance Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analyses of bidirectional reflectance data are presented with implications regarding the spatial scales appropriate for inferring irradiances from radiances reflected by various surface–atmosphere scenes. Multiple-angle radiance data collected in ...

John M. Davis; Stephen K. Cox

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Semantic Models for Distributed Object Reflection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A generic formal model of distributed object reflection is proposed, that combines logical reflection with a structuring of distributed objects as nested configurations of metaobject that can control subobjects under them. The model provides mathematical ...

José Meseguer; Carolyn L. Talcott

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Innovative Graphite Removal Technology for Graphite Moderated Reactor Decommissioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report defines a trial program to support the development of a new concept for the removal of reactor graphite by remote in-situ size reduction and vacuum transfer, known as nibble-and-vacuum. This new approach to graphite retrieval has significant potential for simplifying the decommissioning process of graphite moderated reactors. It produces graphite gravel, which has potential as feedstock for processes such as gasification/steam reforming. This report includes definition of the trial program, t...

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

57

The Advantages of Wearable Green Reflected Photoplethysmography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report evaluates the efficacy of reflected-type green light photoplethysmography (green light PPG). Transmitted infrared light was used for PPG and the arterial pulse was monitored transcutaneously. The reflected PPG signal contains AC components ... Keywords: Green light, Heat stress, Infrared light, Photoplethysmography, Reflection

Yuka Maeda; Masaki Sekine; Toshiyo Tamura

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Reflective coatings for solar applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many applications of solar energy require large mirrors to provide high levels of concentrated sunlight. The success of such conversion systems hinges on the optical durability and economic viability of the reflector materials. A major effort at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been to improve the existing reflector materials technology and to identify candidates that retain optical performance and durability criteria and offer potential for reduced cost. To attain the goals, it is desirable to maintain and increase the involvement of industrial organizations in reflective materials R&D related to the conversion of solar resources to useful energy. Toward this end, NREL has recently initiated several collaborative efforts with industry to develop advanced reflector materials.

Jorgensen, G.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Reflective coatings for solar applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many applications of solar energy require large mirrors to provide high levels of concentrated sunlight. The success of such conversion systems hinges on the optical durability and economic viability of the reflector materials. A major effort at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been to improve the existing reflector materials technology and to identify candidates that retain optical performance and durability criteria and offer potential for reduced cost. To attain the goals, it is desirable to maintain and increase the involvement of industrial organizations in reflective materials R D related to the conversion of solar resources to useful energy. Toward this end, NREL has recently initiated several collaborative efforts with industry to develop advanced reflector materials.

Jorgensen, G.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Reflective ghost imaging through turbulence  

SciTech Connect

Recent work has indicated that ghost imaging may have applications in standoff sensing. However, most theoretical work has addressed transmission-based ghost imaging. To be a viable remote-sensing system, the ghost imager needs to image rough-surfaced targets in reflection through long, turbulent optical paths. We develop, within a Gaussian-state framework, expressions for the spatial resolution, image contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio of such a system. We consider rough-surfaced targets that create fully developed speckle in their returns and Kolmogorov-spectrum turbulence that is uniformly distributed along all propagation paths. We address both classical and nonclassical optical sources, as well as a computational ghost imager.

Hardy, Nicholas D.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Reflection Survey (Nannini, 1986) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey (Nannini, 1986) Reflection Survey (Nannini, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey (Nannini, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes "seismic analyses" - no indication of active/passive, reflection/refraction, etc. ---> "On the contrary, in areas with little or no volcanic activity, assumptions on the nature, size and characteristics of the source of the thermal anomaly are generally much more difficult and hypothetical. In these circumstances, some useful data can be obtained from accurate seismic analyses, together with a seismotectonic and geodynamic

62

Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

63

Definition: Reflection Survey | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey Reflection Survey Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reflection Survey Seismic reflection surveys image the structure of the subsurface through the measurement of the two way travel time of reflected artificially-generated elastic waves.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Also Known As Seismic Reflection References ↑ http://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Geophysical-Prospecting-Milton-Dobrin/dp/0071004041 Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Reflection_Survey&oldid=598371" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load)

64

Tracer populations in the local group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, in good agreement with previous work. I go on to develop a set of tracer mass estimators that build on previous work which make use of actual (and not projected) distance and proper motion data, reflecting the amount and quality of data now available to us... ages range from 1-10 Gyr; the scale height of the population increases with age from 200 kpc to around 700 kpc and the metallicity decreases with age to around 20% solar. The typical content of this disk population are A stars, planetary nebulae...

Watkins, Laura Louise

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

65

Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical pr...

Bolonkin, Alexander

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical project. The main point of preference for the offered reactor is its likely cheapness as a power source. Key words: Micro-thermonuclear reactor, Multi-reflex AB-thermonuclear reactor, Self-magnetic AB-thermonuclear reactor, aerospace thermonuclear engine.

Alexander Bolonkin

2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

67

REFLECTED LIGHT INTENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM DEFECTS ON HIGHLY REFLECTIVE SPHERES PDO 6984778, Topical Report  

SciTech Connect

A light reflection technique suitable for development into an automated surface quality certification system was investigated to determine if reflected light intensity distributions could be corre]ated with surface defect depths. Reflected laser light intensity distributions from pit and scratch defects on highly reflective spheres were studied with a commercial multi-element photodetector. It was found that the intensity distributions --Goll'lf be correlated with depths of pits and scratches in a size range of concern on highly reflective' spheres.

Klingsport, P. E.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

I. Experimental spectroscopic temperature measurements in the reflected wave region of a shock tube using the OH ^2? ? ^2? band system. II. Shock tube measurements of the absorption oscillator strength for the ^2? ? ^2? band system of hydroxide.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? I. Experimental measurements of the population temperature behind the reflected shock in a shock tube are presented. Emission from two wavelength intervals of the… (more)

Watson, Ronald

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

The Stokes-Einstein Relation at Moderate Schmidt Number  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Stokes-Einstein relation for the self-diffusion coefficient of a spherical particle suspended in an incompressible fluid is an asymptotic result in the limit of large Schmidt number, that is, when momentum diffuses much faster than the particle. When the Schmidt number is moderate, which happens in most particle methods for hydrodynamics, deviations from the Stokes-Einstein prediction are expected. We study these corrections computationally using a recently-developed minimally-resolved method for coupling particles to an incompressible fluctuating fluid in both two and three dimensions. We find that for moderate Schmidt numbers the diffusion coefficient is reduced relative to the Stokes-Einstein prediction by an amount inversely proportional to the Schmidt number in both two and three dimensions. We find, however, that the Einstein formula is obeyed at all Schmidt numbers, consistent with linear response theory. The numerical data is in good agreement with an approximate self-consistent theory, which can be used to estimate finite-Schmidt number corrections in a variety of methods. Our results indicate that the corrections to the Stokes-Einstein formula come primarily from the fact that the particle itself diffuses together with the momentum. Our study separates effects coming from corrections to no-slip hydrodynamics from those of finite separation of time scales, allowing for a better understanding of widely observed deviations from the Stokes-Einstein prediction in particle methods such as molecular dynamics.

F. Balboa Usabiaga; X. Xie; R. Delgado-Buscalioni; A. Donev

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

70

Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

Gonsiorawski, Ronald C. (Danvers, MA)

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

71

On HVAC duct acoustical end reflection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Duct end reflection (ER) is the apparent loss of sound power resulting from an abrupt change in a cross?sectional area of the duct. In most references

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Natural gas consumption reflects shifting sectoral patterns ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. natural gas consumption since 1997 reflects shifting patterns. Total U.S. natural gas consumption rose 7% between 1997 and 2011, but this modest ...

73

5. Consumer Prices Reflect Benefits of Restructuring  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration Natural Gas 1996: Issues and Trends 99 5. Consumer Prices Reflect Benefits of Restructuring The restructuring of the natural gas ...

74

Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carlo program simulating light propagation in isotropic orTerms—Lambertian reflection, light collection, Monte Carloy-axis) and fraction specular light (right y- axis) for a

Janecek, Martin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Reflective Coherent Spatial Light Modulator (RCSLM)  

Reflective Coherent Spatial Light Modulator (RCSLM) Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this intellectual property may

76

Does Shareholder Voting Reflect Shareholder Preferences?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

=980422. Kamar, Ehud. 2006. “Does Shareholder Voting onDoes Shareholder Voting Reflect Shareholder Preferences?contests. The literature that does exist is methodologically

Listokin, Yair Jason

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Sandia National Laboratories Solar Reflection Panels  

Sandia National Laboratories Solar Reflection Panels HTTPS://IP.SANDIA.GOV Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia ...

78

VARIABLE MODERATOR REACTOR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM. Quarterly Progress Report No. 1  

SciTech Connect

Development of the boiling water UO/sub 2/ fueled Variable Moderator Reactor (VMR) is conducted under contract for the USAEC. The initiation and progress of work under Phase I of the contract, Physics and Kinetic Analysis and Initial Evaluation,'' and the preparation for Phase II, Critical Experiment and Analysis of Results,'' are reported. A hydrodynamic flow sheet representing the sequence of calculations for the BOCH program was prepared. A preliminary block diagram of the kinetics model of the VMR was prepared. Work is reported on the PUREE code which is designed to give an accurate representation of the physics of the VMR core. A fuel element fabrication speciftcation was prepared and released for quotations. A study was made to select the most appropriate material for void simulation throughout the range of interest in the VMR. (W.D.M.)

1959-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

79

SAFETY EVALUATION OF LIGHT-WATER-MODERATED POWER REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

Important problems associated with safety evaluation are reviewed. In contrast to absolute safety,'' the concept of social safety'' is explained and factors to compose social safety'' are evaluated. Some comments are made on the philosophy of safety evaluation. A core spray and enclosure spray systems, which are essential with respect to safety evaluation of the maximum credible accident of light-water-moderated power reactors, are analyzed in detail. In evaluation of a core spray system, detailed analysis is made on loss-of- coolant accident, and effects of core spray system design (spray initiation time, spray flow rate, spray distribution, etc.) on fission release are quantitatively clarified. In evaluation of an enclosure spray system, various product release reduction factors are calculated and relative importance of an enclosure spray system is discussed. A hypothetical accident is analyzed. (auth)

Togo, Y.

1963-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

THE USE OF MODERATELY HIGH PRESSURES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

The application of moderately high pressures to work at low temperatures is described. The problems involved in the merging of these two disciplines are discussed as they relate to laboratory research as well as to large scale nuclear rocket testing facility usage. The equipment used to determine some physical properties of liquid cryogens up to 50000 lb/in./sup 2/ are also described. The methods of obtaining and applying the low temperature to the high pressure volume will be mentioned. The use of a reciprocating piston pump to pump cryogenic liquids to high pressures is described. Consideration is also given to the problems of cryogenic seals for large size vacuum jacketed cryogenic piping. Safety requirements are also mentioned. (P.C.H.)

Edeskuty, F.J.; Mills, R.L.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Briles, Scott D. (Los Alamos, NM); Neagley, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Platts, David (Santa Fe, NM); Clark, David D. (Santa Fe, NM)

2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

82

Data Souvenirs: Environmental psychology and reflective design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The physical form of technology and its relationship to the surrounding environment is an important factor in design; we argue that this is especially true in the design of reflective technology. We suggest environmental psychology theory as a tool for ... Keywords: Design, Environmental psychology, Personal reflection, Tangible interfaces

Ryan Aipperspach; Ben Hooker; Allison Woodruff

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar-reflective roofs remain cooler than absorptive roofs and thus conserve electricity otherwise needed for air conditioning. A currently controversial aspect of solar-reflective cool roofing is the extent to which an initially high solar reflectance decreases with time. We present experimental data on the spectral absorption of deposits that accumulate on roofs, and we attribute most of the absorption to carbon soot originally produced by combustion. The deposits absorb more at short wavelengths (e.g., in the blue) than in the red and infrared, imparting a slightly yellow tinge to formerly white surfaces. The initial rate of reflectance reduction by soot accumulation is consistent with known emission rates that are due to combustion. The long-term reflectance change appears to be determined by the ability of the soot to adhere to the roof, resisting washout by rain.

Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Rose, Leanna S.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Reflectance based optical fiber chemical sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin film chemical sensor undergoes changes in reflective optical properties when exposed to a chemical species. A thin metal film is deposited at the end of an optical fiber, and exposure of the thin film to the chemical species causes changes in the effective thickness of the thin film, thereby changing its reflective properties. A chemical detection system based on the thin film sensor includes a light source and an optical divider for dividing light from the light source into a first and second light path. The first light path leads to circuitry for providing a reference signal. The thin film chemical sensor receives light from the second light path, and a photoelectric detector detects light reflected from the chemical sensor and provides an electrical signal representative of the reflected light. Circuitry is provided for comparing the reference signal with the reflected light signal, thereby providing a measurement signal indicative of the presence of the chemical species. 5 figs.

Butler, M.A.; Pfeifer, K.B.; Ricco, A.J.

1988-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

85

U-043: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for HP version 14.x Reflection for UNIX and OpenVMS version 14.x Reflection for ReGIS Graphics version 14.x Reflection for IBM version 14.x Reflection X version 14.x ABSTRACT: A...

86

GAMMA PROPORTIONAL COUNTER CONTAINING HIGH Z GAS AND LOW Z MODERATOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation counter employing a gas proportional counter is described. The radiation counter comprises a cylindrical gas proportional counter which contains a high atomic number gas and is surrounded by a low atomic number gamma radiation moderator material. At least one slit is provided in the moderator to allow accident gamma radiation to enter the moderator in the most favorable manner for moderation, and also to allow low energy gamma radiation to enter the counter without the necessity of passing through the moderator. This radiation counter is capable of detecting and measuring gamma radiation in the energy range of 0.5-5 Mev. (AEC)

Fox, R.

1963-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

87

Moderation control in low enriched {sup 235}U uranium hexafluoride packaging operations and transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moderation control is the basic parameter for ensuring nuclear criticality safety during the packaging and transport of low {sup 235}U enriched uranium hexafluoride before its conversion to nuclear power reactor fuel. Moderation control has permitted the shipment of bulk quantities in large cylinders instead of in many smaller cylinders and, therefore, has resulted in economies without compromising safety. Overall safety and uranium accountability have been enhanced through the use of the moderation control. This paper discusses moderation control and the operating procedures to ensure that moderation control is maintained during packaging operations and transportation.

Dyer, R.H. [USDOE Oak Ridge Operations Office, TN (United States); Kovac, F.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Conceptual design of a pressure tube light water reactor with variable moderator control  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the development of innovative pressure tube light water reactor with variable moderator control. The core layout is derived from a CANDU line of reactors in general, and advanced ACR-1000 design in particular. It should be stressed however, that while some of the ACR-1000 mechanical design features are adopted, the core design basics of the reactor proposed here are completely different. First, the inter fuel channels spacing, surrounded by the calandria tank, contains a low pressure gas instead of heavy water moderator. Second, the fuel channel design features an additional/external tube (designated as moderator tube) connected to a separate moderator management system. The moderator management system is design to vary the moderator tube content from 'dry' (gas) to 'flooded' (light water filled). The dynamic variation of the moderator is a unique and very important feature of the proposed design. The moderator variation allows an implementation of the 'breed and burn' mode of operation. The 'breed and burn' mode of operation is implemented by keeping the moderator tube empty ('dry' filled with gas) during the breed part of the fuel depletion and subsequently introducing the moderator by 'flooding' the moderator tube for the 'burn' part. This paper assesses the conceptual feasibility of the proposed concept from a neutronics point of view. (authors)

Rachamin, R.; Fridman, E. [Reactor Safety Div., Inst. of Resource Ecology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, POB 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Galperin, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, POB 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

The optical constants and spectral specular reflectivity of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the specular reflectivity and the optical constants of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) have been made using two independent optical systems. The first measures reflectance (at 1.06 {mu}m and 293 K) by comparing the intensity of a laser beam before and after reflecting off the sample. The second determines the complex index of raft-action (from 0.55 to 8.45 {mu}m, with sample temperatures of 293, 480, 900 and 1300 K) by ellipsometry. Agreement between the two methods is good. Moderate reflectivities are observed over the full spectral range of measurement: the spectral directional-hemispherical reflectivity at normal incidence varies from 0.41 at 0.55 {mu}m to 0.74 at 8.45 {mu}m. The components of the complex index of refraction increase smoothly with wavelength. The index of refraction increases from 3.10 at 0.55 {mu}m to 7.84 at 8.45 {mu}m. The extinction coefficient varies from 2.01 to 6.66 over the same range.

Havstad, M.A.; Schildbach, M.A.; McLean, W. II

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Effect Size and Moderators of Effects for Token Economy Interventions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a clear call to use evidence-based practice (EBP) in schools, and a growing knowledge base of practices that have proven to be effective in helping students achieve in educational settings. In addition, the current trends of Positive Behavior Supports (PBS) and Response to Intervention (RtI) advocate for preventative and proactive strategies. Token economies (TE) are one intervention that is proactive and can be flexible to use with students across a wide range of behaviors and settings. According to Higgins, Williams, and McLaughlin, token economy (TE) is an effective way to improve classroom behavior. Unfortunately, limited recent research is available that evaluated the effects and moderators of token economies in classroom settings. The purpose of this investigation was to Meta-analyze the single case research on TE implemented in school and is the first to offer effect size analysis and identify moderators. The use of TE's has been widely established as an evidence-based intervention for use in prisons, psychiatric hospitals, and school settings. However, very few articles discuss size of effects to expect, the essential elements required, or the practical implementation issues within a classroom. Many myths surround the use of a TE, i.e., many assume a token system is effective only for individuals and this is not so, as TE is effective for groups as well as individuals. In an age of accountability and emphasis on preventative evidence based practice evidence for using a TE and how to implement a TE is needed in our literature. Empirical evidence for the use of a token economy in a classroom is presented along with suggested implementation ideas. Twenty four studies were included in this Meta-analysis with an overall combined Tau-U ES of .78 of data showing improvement between phase A and B with CI90 [.72, .83]. Tau-U effect sizes ranged from .35 to 1.0. TE is effective with all ages evaluated (ages 3 - 15); however, statistically significant results indicated it was more effective with ages 6 - 15. Active ingredients (i.e. procedural steps) were evaluated, combined, and reported. Results indicate that TE is an evidence-based intervention to increase academic readiness behaviors and to decrease inappropriate behaviors.

Soares, Denise

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance  

SciTech Connect

Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 ?m, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

B. R. Marshall

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

92

Design of a Moderated Multidetector Neutron Spectrometer for Optimal Specificity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Neutron spectrometry can play an important role in the detection and identification of neutron-emitting sources in various security applications. In the present work, a portable filtered array neutron spectrometer, consisting of twelve 6LiF-based thermal neutron detectors embedded within a single heterogeneous volume was designed and its expected performance compared to that of a commercially available 12-sphere Bonner spheres spectrometer. Each detector within the volume was designed to optimally respond to a unique portion of the neutron spectrum by varying the type and thickness of materials used to filter the spectrum as well as the thickness of the moderator in front of the detector. The available design space was permuted and performance metrics developed to identify the optimal geometries. The top performing detector geometries were then combinatorially explored to identify the best array of geometries that yielded the most information about a neutron spectrum. The best performing filtered array was found to provide as much spectral information as, or more than, the commercially available 12-sphere Bonner spheres spectrometer to which it was compared.

Harrison, Mark J [ORNL; Cherel, Quentin [University of Florida, Gainesville; Monterial, Mateusz [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Proof Synthesis and Reflection for Linear Arithmetic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents detailed implementations of quantifier elimination for both integer and real linear arithmetic for theorem provers. The underlying algorithms are those by Cooper (for Z) and by Ferrante and Rackoff ... Keywords: Linear arithmetic, Proof synthesis, Reflection

Amine Chaieb; Tobias Nipkow

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Diffuse reflectance imaging with astronomical applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diffuse objects generally tell us little about the surrounding lighting, since the radiance they reflect blurs together incident lighting from many directions. In this paper we discuss how occlusion geometry can help invert ...

Hasinoff, Samuel W.

95

Solar Reflection Panels - Energy Innovation Portal  

Patent 7,077,532: Solar reflection panels A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front ...

96

Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

97

Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Butler, PA); Turner, Brian (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

SciTech Connect

Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 {mu}m wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

Nguyen, Khanh Bao

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Population | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Population Population Dataset Summary Description Total population (in millions) by country, 1980 to 2010. Compiled by Energy Information Administration (EIA). Source EIA Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords EIA Population world Data text/csv icon population_by_country_1980_2010millions.csv (csv, 59.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 1980 - 2010 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating Average vote Your vote Comments Login or register to post comments If you rate this dataset, your published comment will include your rating.

100

Global ice cloud observations: radiative properties and statistics from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ice clouds occur quite frequently, yet so much about these clouds is unknown. In recent years, numerous investigations and field campaigns have been focused on the study of ice clouds, all with the ultimate goal of gaining a better understanding of microphysical and optical properties, as well as determining the radiative impact. Perhaps one of the most recognized instruments used for such research is the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), carried aboard the NASA EOS satellites Terra and Aqua. The present research aims to support ongoing efforts in the field of ice cloud research by use of observations obtained from Terra and Aqua MODIS. First, a technique is developed to infer ice cloud optical depth from the MODIS cirrus reflectance parameter. This technique is based on a previous method developed by Meyer et al. (2004). The applicability of the algorithm is demonstrated with retrievals from level-2 and -3 MODIS data. The technique is also evaluated with the operational MODIS cloud retrieval product and a method based on airborne ice cloud observations. From this technique, an archive of daily optical depth retrievals is constructed. Using simple statistics, the global spatial and temporal distributions of ice clouds are determined. Research has found that Aqua MODIS observes more frequent ice clouds and larger optical depths and ice water paths than does Terra MODIS. Finally, an analysis of the time series of daily optical depth values revealed that ice clouds at high latitudes, which are most likely associated with synoptic scale weather sytems, persist long enough to move with the upper level winds. Tropical ice clouds, however, dissipate more rapidly, and are in all likelihood associated with deep convective cells.

Meyer, Kerry Glynne

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Neutronic Design Calculations on Moderators for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will provide an intense source of neutrons for a large variety of experiments. It consists of a high-energy (1-GeV) and high-power ({approximately}1-MW) proton accelerator, an accumulator ring, together with a target station and an experimental area. In the target itself, the proton beam will produce neutrons via the spallation process and these will be converted to low-energy (<2-eV) neutrons in moderators located close to the target. Current plans are to have two liquid-hydrogen (20-K) moderators and two room-temperature H{sub 2}O moderators. Extensive engineering design work has been conducted on the moderator vessels. For our studies we have produced realistic neutronic representations of these moderators. We report on neutronic studies conducted on these representations of the moderators using Monte Carlo simulation techniques.

Murphy, D.B.

1999-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

102

Regenerable Sorbents for CO2 Capture from Moderate and High Temperatur...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,314,847 entitled "Regenerable sorbents for CO 2 capture from moderate and...

103

Population and Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 Coastal and Marine Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Energy, Air Pollution or growth. Indeed, an overlay of graphs depicting global trends in population, energy consumption, carbon; coastal and marine environments; and energy, air pollu- tion, and climate change. In the concluding

104

Reflection Survey (Majer, 2003) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey (Majer, 2003) Reflection Survey (Majer, 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The goal of this work is to evaluate the most promising methods and approaches that may be used for improved geothermal exploration and reservoir assessment. It is not a comprehensive review of all seismic methods used to date in geothermal environments. This work was motivated by a need to assess current and developing seismic technology that if applied in geothermal cases may greatly improve the chances for locating new geothermal resources and/or improve assessment of current ones. References E. L. Majer (2003) 3-D Seismic Methods For Geothermal Reservoir Exploration And Assessment-Summary

105

Soil Moisture Monitorization Using GNSS Reflected Signals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of GNSS signals as a source of opportunity for remote sensing applications, GNSS-R, has been a research area of interest for more than a decade. One of the possible applications of this technique is soil moisture monitoring. The retrieval of soil moisture with GNSS-R systems is based on the variability of the ground dielectric properties associated to soil moisture. Higher concentrations of water in the soil yield a higher dielectric constant and reflectivity, which incurs in signals that reflect from the Earth surface with higher peak power. Previous investigations have demonstrated the capability of GPS bistatic scatterometers to obtain high enough signal to noise ratios in order to sense small changes in surface reflectivity. Furthermore, these systems present some advantages with respect to others currently used to retrieve soil moisture. Upcoming satellite navigation systems, such as the European Galileo, will represent an excellent source of opportunity for soil moisture remote sensing for vario...

Egido, Alejandro; Caparrini, Marco; Martin, Cristina; Farres, Esteve; Banque, Xavier

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

Berdahl, P.H.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

107

Reflection Survey (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Laney, 2005) Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Seismic Imaging, Majer, Gritto and Daley. The project objective includes the development and application of active seismic methods for improved understanding of the subsurface structure, faults, fractures lithology, and fluid paths in geothermal reservoirs. While the objective of the work previous to FY2003 was concerned with the detection and location of faults and fractures based on an existing 3-D seismic data set collected at the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir, the current work was aimed at investigating

108

Prisms with total internal reflection as solar reflectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved reflective wall for radiant energy collection and concentration devices is provided. The wall is comprised of a plurality of prisms whose frontal faces are adjacent and which reflect the desired radiation by total internal reflection.

Rabl, Arnulf (Downers Grove, IL); Rabl, Veronika (Downers Grove, IL)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

A Robust Estimator of Rainfall Rate Using Differential Reflectivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conventional estimator of rainfall rate using reflectivity factor and differential reflectivity ZDR becomes unstable when the measured values of ZDR are small due to measurement errors. An alternate estimator of rainfall rate using reflectivity ...

Eugenio Gorgucca; Gianfranco Scarchilli; V. Chandrasekar

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California  

SciTech Connect

The California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) selected the San Bernardino area for detailed geothermal resource investigation because the area was known to contain promising geothermal resource sites, the area contained a large population center, and the City of San Bernardino had expressed serious interest in developing the area's geothermal resource. Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs, South San Bernardino, and Harlem Hot Springs--in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the South San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142 C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the South San Bernardino geothermal area was 56 C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal areas was 49.5 C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well.

Youngs, Leslie G.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Title Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5022E Year...

112

Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: Cooler cabins...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of solar reflective car shells: Cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions Title Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: Cooler cabins, fuel savings and...

113

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,transfer at the siding surface. Direct solar radiation tosiding, reflected solar radiation from nearby surfaces,

Hart, Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal Development in Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Seismic Reflection...

115

Reflection Survey At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP)...

116

Reflection Survey At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

117

Options for Pursuing Moderator Exclusion for Application to Spent-Fuel Transportation Packages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses options for pursuing moderator exclusion, either by itself or in combination with burnup credit, for application to the criticality evaluation of spent nuclear fuel transportation packages. Also, information is provided on how to proceed in developing a request for rulemaking if the industry determines that changes to the existing regulations for streamlining implementation of moderator exclusion are highly desirable.

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Options for Pursuing Moderator Exclusion for Application to Spent-Fuel Transportation Packages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses the concept of moderator exclusion, either by itself or in combination with burnup credit, for application to the criticality evaluation of spent nuclear fuel transportation packages. Information is also provided on how to proceed in the development of regulatory amendments if the industry determines that changes to the existing regulations for streamlining implementation of moderator exclusion are highly desirable.

2004-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

119

Leader personal influences on membership decisions in moderated online social networking groups  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moderated online social networking (MOSN) groups have become a prominent way for Internet users to form relationships, learn about specialized topics, and share their understandings with others. However, unlike traditional social and work groups, very ... Keywords: Attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) theory, Homogeneity, Leader-member congruence, Leadership style, Moderated online social network, Personal values, Personality

Gary F. Templeton; Xin (Robert) Luo; Tomas R. Giberson; Natalie Campbell

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Gerouki, Alexandra (Medford, MA); Liu, Te-Yang (Arlington, MA); Goldner, Mark A. (Cambridge, MA); Haas, Terry E. (Southborough, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Land Surface Reflectance: A Possible Earth Science  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are in magenta, water bodies are outlined in white. MODIS Surface Reflectance South Africa From: E. Vermote, UMD correction (low, medium, high) ­ cloud and cloud shadow ­ snow flag ­ land/water flag · Supplemental information ­ Viewing geometry (view and solar zenith and azimuth angles) ­ Geolocation (lat

122

Dynamic shading enhancement for reflectance transformation imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a set of dynamic shading enhancement techniques for improving the perception of details, features, and overall shape characteristics from images created with Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) techniques. Selection of these perceptual ... Keywords: Visualization, cultural heritage shading enhancement, illumination, image processing

Gianpaolo Palma; Massimiliano Corsini; Paolo Cignoni; Roberto Scopigno; Mark Mudge

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Heat reflecting tape for thermoelectric converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Threads are interlaced with thermoelectric wires to provide a woven cloth in tape form, there being an intermediate layer of heat radiation reflecting material (e.g., aluminum foil) insulated electrically from said wires, which are of opposite thermoelectric polarity and connected as a plurality of thermocouples.

Purdy, David L. (Indiana, PA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Reflected Solar Radiances from Regional Scale Scenes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of bi-directional reflectance models is presented for various atmospheric scene types. The models were composited from data collected from an aircraft platform in May-July 1979 during Summer MONEX. The space scale of the composited models ...

John M. Davis; Stephen K. Cox

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Characterization of background reflectivity for MEDUSA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DARPA MEDUSA program goal is to detect, locate, and identify electro-optical threats in the vicinity of a moving platform. Laser sensing will be employed to find these threats by looking for anomalous reflections from threat sensors. However, the reflectivity variability (clutter) in both natural and manmade backgrounds will inherently limit target detection levels. In parallel with advanced component development by several aerospace contractors, a study of this clutter limitation was initiated in the long-wave (LW) and midwave (MW) infrared spectral regions to properly drive system design parameters. The analysis of clutter and associated limits on detection has been a major component of LANL efforts in laser remote sensing for non-proliferation. LANL is now analyzing existing data and conducting additional selected measurements in both the LWIR (9 and 10.6 pm) and MWIR (4.6 pm) in support of the DARPA program to increase our understanding of these clutter limitations and, thereby aid in the design and development of the MEDUSA system. The status of the LANL effort will be discussed. A variety of different natural and manmade target types have been investigated. Target scenes range from relatively low clutter sites typical of a southwestern desert to higher clutter downtown urban sites. Images are created by conducting raster scans across a scene interest. These images are then analyzed using data clustering techniques (e g K-means) to identify regions within the scene that contain similar reflectivity profiles. Data will be presented illustrating the reflectivity variability among different samples of the same target type, Le. within the same cluster, and among different data clusters. In general, it is found that the variability of reflectivities among similar targets is well represented by a log-normal distribution. Furthermore, manmade target tend to have higher reflectivities and more variability than natural targets. The implications of this observation for MEDUSA systems designed to locate and identify threat sensors will be discussed. The implications for chemical sensing applications will also be addressed.

Oldenborg, R. C. (Richard C.); Tiee, J. J. (Joe J.); Foy, B. R. (Bernard R.); Petrin, R. R. (Roger R.); Wilson, C. W. (Carl W.)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Milwaukee Installer Reflects on His Career In Solar  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Interested in joining America's solar workforce? One Milwaukee solar installer shares his career reflections and advice.

127

U.S. Reflects World Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: U.S. crude oil inventories reflect the world situation. U.S. inventories were drawn down in 1999 as world demand exceeded world supply of crude oil as OPEC cut back on production. Low crude oil inventories go hand in hand with low product inventories. Product inventories were also drawn down to help meet demand, as was seen with gasoline this Spring. The rise in crude oil inventories earlier this year, while indicating an improvement in the market balance, appears to be short-lived, just as we had predicted a few months ago. Looking at U.S. crude stock levels in April and May can be misleading, since increases then were more reflective of the surge in WTI and U.S. product prices in the 1st quarter. With U.S. crude oil stocks drawn down by more than 20 million barrels from

128

Modeling the effects of reflective roofing  

SciTech Connect

Roofing materials which are highly reflective to sunlight are currently being developed. Reflective roofing is an effective summertime energy saver in warm and sunny climates. It has been demonstrated to save up to 40% of the energy needed to cool a building during the summer months. Buildings without air conditioning can reduce their indoor temperatures and improve occupant comfort during the summer if highly reflective roofing materials are used. But there are questions about the tradeoff between summer energy savings and extra wintertime energy use due to reduced heat collection by the roof. These questions are being answered by simulating buildings in various climates using the DOE-2 program (version 2.1E). Unfortunately, DOE-2 does not accurately model radiative, convective and conductive processes in the roof-attic. Radiative heat transfer from the underside of a reflective roof is much smaller than that of a roof which absorbs heat from sunlight, and must be accounted for in the building energy model. Convection correlations for the attic and the roof surface must be fine tuned. An equation to model the insulation`s conductivity dependence on temperature must also be added. A function was written to incorporate the attic heat transfer processes into the DOE-2 building energy simulation. This function adds radiative, convective and conductive equations to the energy balance of the roof. Results of the enhanced DOE-2 model were compared to measured data collected from a school bungalow in a Sacramento Municipal Utility District monitoring project, with particular attention paid to the year-round energy effects.

Gartland, L.M.; Konopacki, S.J.; Akbari, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

2006-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

130

Light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

Sawicki, Richard H. (Pleasanton, CA); Sweatt, William (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

V-022: Attachmate Reflection Products Java Multiple Vulnerabilities |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2: Attachmate Reflection Products Java Multiple Vulnerabilities 2: Attachmate Reflection Products Java Multiple Vulnerabilities V-022: Attachmate Reflection Products Java Multiple Vulnerabilities November 13, 2012 - 1:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Attachmate Reflection Products Java Multiple Vulnerabilities PLATFORM: Reflection X 2011 Reflection Suite for X 2011 Reflection for Secure IT Server for Windows Reflection for Secure IT Client and Server for UNIX ABSTRACT: Security issues related to Reflection PKI Services Manager REFERENCE LINKS: PKI Services Manager Technical Note 2560 Secunia Advisory SA51256 CVE-2012-0551 CVE-2012-1711 CVE-2012-1713 CVE-2012-1716 CVE-2012-1717 CVE-2012-1718 CVE-2012-1719 CVE-2012-1720 CVE-2012-1721 CVE-2012-1722 CVE-2012-1723 CVE-2012-1724 CVE-2012-1725 CVE-2012-1726 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: High DISCUSSION: Attachmate has acknowledged multiple vulnerabilities in some Reflection

132

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

133

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

134

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

135

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

136

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

137

Performance of long-pulse source reference target-moderator-reflector configurations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have calculated the performance of five similar target-moderator-reflector geometries that are reasonably well optimized for long-pulse source applications. For all cases, the moderators are fully coupled; that is, no poisons, decouplers, or liners are used. For each case, the energy- and time-dependent characteristics of the moderator source brightness have been parameteterized using empirical functions. These parameterizations have been made available to users of the Monte Carlo neutron scattering instrument design code MCLIB for use in evaluating the performance of neutron scattering instruments on a long-pulse source.

Pitcher, E.J.; Russell, G.J.; Seeger, P.A.; Ferguson, P.D.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

138

Internal Technical Report, Low-To-Moderate Temperature Reservoir Engineering Research Program - Fiscal Year 1982  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerous low (<90 C) to moderate (90 C-150 C) geothermal resources occur in many areas of the United States. The reservoir research conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is designed to develop innovative techniques that can be used to evaluate reservoir characteristics and improve reservoir management for low-to-moderate temperature resources. The purpose of this report is to review the program accomplishments for FY 1982 and present the initial data and results obtained from the ongoing research program. The project tasks reported in this document are: (1) Low-To-Moderate Temperature Hydrothermal Reservoir Engineering Handbook; and (2) Reservoir Assessment Technique Development--data analysis and reaction kinetics.

Russell, B.F.; Dolenc, M.R.; Downs, W.F.; Hull, L.C.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Direct Effects of Low-to-Moderate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Direct Effects of Low-to-Moderate CO2 Concentrations on Human Decision-Making Performance Title Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Direct Effects of...

140

Meta-analysis of age and job performance relation: Is job complexity a moderator?.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??I conducted a meta-analysis of 121 samples (N = 18,694) that examined the relation between age and job performance with job complexity as a moderator.… (more)

Hardigree, Anna E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Hailstone Growth Trajectories in the Dynamic Evolution of a Moderate Hailstorm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the purpose of studying the growth environment of hailstones in a moderate storm, more than 200 hailstones, collected at several points along the storm path, were investigated by crystallographic and isotopic analysis. The majority of the ...

Jean-Claude Grenier; Pierre Admirat Sadok Zair

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Zoning and occupancy-moderation for residential space-conditioning under demand-driven electricity pricing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Occupancy-moderated zonal space-conditioning (OZS) refers to the partitioning of a residence into different zones and independently operating the space-conditioning equipment of each zone based on its occupancy. OZS remains ...

Leow, Woei Ling, 1977-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Vertical Transports by Plumes within the Moderately Convective Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bursts in the kinematic vertical transports of heat and horizontal momentum in a moderately convective marine atmospheric surface layer are studied by applying the variable interval time averaging (VITA) detection method to principal components ...

Richard A. Mason; Hampton N. Shirer; Robert Wells; George S. Young

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Climate Sensitivity of Moderate- and Low-Resolution Versions of CCSM3 to Preindustrial Forcings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Preindustrial (PI) simulations of the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) at two resolutions, a moderate and a low resolution, are described and compared to the standard controls for present-day (PD) simulations. Because of ...

Bette L. Otto-Bliesner; Robert Tomas; Esther C. Brady; Caspar Ammann; Zav Kothavala; Gabriel Clauzet

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

A Case Study of Ships Forming and Not Forming Tracks in Moderately Polluted Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of anthropogenic particulate emissions from ships on the radiative, microphysical, and chemical properties of moderately polluted marine stratiform clouds are examined. A case study of two ships in the same air mass is presented where ...

Kevin J. Noone; Elisabeth Öström; Ronald J. Ferek; Tim Garrett; Peter V. Hobbs; Doug W. Johnson; Jonathan P. Taylor; Lynn M. Russell; Richard C. Flagan; John H. Seinfeld; Colin D. O’Dowd; Michael H. Smith; Philip A. Durkee; Kurt Nielsen; James G. Hudson; Robert A. Pockalny; Lieve De Bock; René E. Van Grieken; Richard F. Gasparovic; Ian Brooks

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

An Intercomparison of Acoustic Current Meter Measurements in Low to Moderate Flow Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Instrumented, subsurface moorings deployed in the Scotian shelf and slope regions of the North Atlantic provide data in low to moderate flows for a current meter intercomparison. The primary instruments being evaluated are two acoustic Doppler ...

Adam Drozdowski; Blair J. W. Greenan

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Properties and Parameterization of the Stable Boundary Layer over Moderate Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations are used to investigate the impact on the stable boundary layer of moderate topography (with hill heights in some cases comparable to the undisturbed boundary layer depth). Area-averaged properties of the resulting boundary ...

A. R. Brown; N. Wood

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Reflection and Transmission for Conformal Defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider conformal defects joining two conformal field theories along a line. We define two new quantities associated to such defects in terms of expectation values of the stress tensors and we propose them as measures of the reflectivity and transmissivity of the defect. Their properties are investigated and they are computed in a number of examples. We obtain a complete answer for all defects in the Ising model and between certain pairs of minimal models. In the case of two conformal field theories with an enhanced symmetry we restrict ourselves to non-trivial defects that can be obtained by a coset construction.

Thomas Quella; Ingo Runkel; Gerard M. T. Watts

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

149

Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface, and will eventually need to be replaced. 3M uses a very aggressive adhesive on this film, and once it is laminated, replacement is very difficult. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate (GE 8030) as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape (3M Y-9425) was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real-time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50-m{sup 2} SKI heliostat at the Central Receiver Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. 4 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Reflection-Based Python-C++ Bindings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Python is a flexible, powerful, high-level language with excellent interactive and introspective capabilities and a very clean syntax. As such, it can be a very effective tool for driving physics analysis. Python is designed to be extensible in low-level C-like languages, and its use as a scientific steering language has become quite widespread. To this end, existing and custom-written C or C++ libraries are bound to the Python environment as so-called extension modules. A number of tools for easing the process of creating such bindings exist, such as SWIG and Boost. Python. Yet, the process still requires a considerable amount of effort and expertise. The C++ language has few built-in introspective capabilities, but tools such as LCGDict and CINT add this by providing so-called dictionaries: libraries that contain information about the names, entry points, argument types, etc. of other libraries. The reflection information from these dictionaries can be used for the creation of bindings and so the process can be fully automated, as dictionaries are already provided for many end-user libraries for other purposes, such as object persistency. PyLCGDict is a Python extension module that uses LCG dictionaries, as PyROOT uses CINT reflection information, to allow /cwPython users to access C++ libraries with essentially no preparation on the users' behalf. In addition, and in a similar way, PyROOT gives ROOT users access to Python libraries.

Generowicz, Jacek; Lavrijsen, Wim T.L.P.; Marino, Massimo; Mato, Pere

2004-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

152

Population Monte Carlo algorithms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give a cross-disciplinary survey on ``population'' Monte Carlo algorithms. In these algorithms, a set of ``walkers'' or ``particles'' is used as a representation of a high-dimensional vector. The computation is carried out by a random walk and split/deletion of these objects. The algorithms are developed in various fields in physics and statistical sciences and called by lots of different terms -- ``quantum Monte Carlo'', ``transfer-matrix Monte Carlo'', ``Monte Carlo filter (particle filter)'',``sequential Monte Carlo'' and ``PERM'' etc. Here we discuss them in a coherent framework. We also touch on related algorithms -- genetic algorithms and annealed importance sampling.

Yukito IBA

2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

153

Satellite-Observed Reflectance of Snow and Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of snow and cloud cover on bidirectional reflectance were examined using visible radiation (0.5–0.7 ?m) data measured by NOAA polar orbiting satellites between June 1974 and February 1978. Reflectances resulting from different cloud/...

Alan Robock; Dale Kaiser

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Narrowband to Broadband Conversion with Spatially Autocorrelated Reflectance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new technique for estimating broadband reflectance from Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) narrowband reflectances in channel 1 and 2 is developed. The data used are simultaneous and coincident narrowband and broadband ...

Zhanqing Li; H. G. Leighton

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

RefaFlex: safer refactorings for reflective Java programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If programs access types and members through reflection, refactoring tools cannot guarantee that refactorings on those programs are behavior preserving. Refactoring approaches for highly reflective languages like Smalltalk therefore check behavior preservation ...

Andreas Thies; Eric Bodden

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Reflected Fluxes for Broken Clouds over a Lambertian Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reflected fluxes are calculated for broken cloudiness (i.e., nonplane parallel) as a function of cloud cover, cloud optical depth, solar zenith angle and surface albedo. These calculations extend previous results for broken cloud reflected fluxes ...

Ronald M. Welch; Bruce A. Wielicki

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Reconstruction of shape and reflectance properties based on visual hull  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method based on Visual Hull is proposed for simultaneously recovering an object's shape and its reflectance properties from multiple images. Here, the reflectance properties are described by the Ward BRDF model. Firstly, the shape represented by voxels ...

Zuoyong Zheng; Lizhuang Ma; Zhong Li; Zhihua Chen

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Low-Latitude Reflection of Rossby Wave Trains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nonlinear reflection of an isolated Rossby wave train at a low-latitude wave-breaking region is contrasted with the more familiar longitudinally periodic case. General theoretical arguments for nonlinear reflection based on absorptivity ...

G. Brunet; P. H. Haynes

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

EIA projections for carbon dioxide emissions reflect changes ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration ... The lowered projections reflect both market and policy developments that have reduced recent and projected ...

160

Oxide Multilayer Thermal Radiation Energy Reflection EBCs: Effect ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) with thermal radiation energy reflection have been developed recently. The EBCs utilize interaction between ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Design studies of the Moderated Thermonic Heat Pipe Reactor (MOHTR) concept  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Design studies, based primarily on neutronics analysis, have been conducted on a thermionic reactor concept that uses a combined beryllium and zirconium hydride moderator to facilitate the incorporation of heat pipe cooling into compact thermionic fuel element (TFE) based designs useful in the tens of kilowatts electrical power regime. The goal of the design approach is to achieve a single point failure free system with technologies such as TFEs, high-temperature heat pipes, and ZrH moderation, which have extensive test data bases and have been shown to be capable of long lifetimes. Beryllium is used to thermally couple redundant heat pipes to TFEs and ZrH is added to reduce critical size. Neutronic analysis undertaken to investigate this design approach shows that greater reactivity can be achieved for a given geometry with a combination of the two moderator materials than with ZrH alone and that the combined moderator is much less sensitive to hydrogen loss than more traditional ZrH-moderated thermionic reactor designs. These and other analytical approaches have demonstrated the credibility of a heat pipe cooled thermionic reactor concept that has a reactor height and diameter of 60 cm and a reactor mass of 400 kg for 30-kWe power output. 14 refs., 8 figs.

Ranken, W.A.; Turner, J.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Autonomous recovery from hostile code insertion using distributed reflection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a hostile environment, an autonomous cognitive system requires a reflective capability to detect problems in its own operation and recover from them without external intervention. We present an architecture in which reflection is distributed so that ... Keywords: Anomaly, Immune systems, Meta-level, Quality-monitoring, Reflection, Self-repair

Catriona M Kennedy; Aaron Sloman

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Reflection and transmission at dimensional boundaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An inhomogeneous Kaluza-Klein compactification of a higher dimensional spacetime may give rise to an effective 4d spacetime with distinct domains having different sizes of the extra dimensions. The domains are separated by domain walls generated by the extra dimensional scale factor. The scattering of electromagnetic and massive particle waves at such boundaries is examined here for models without warping or branes. We consider the limits corresponding to thin (thick) domain walls, i.e., limits where wavelengths are large (small) in comparison to wall thickness. We also obtain numerical solutions for a wall of arbitrary thickness and extract the reflection and transmission coefficients as functions of frequency. Results are obtained which qualitatively resemble those for electroweak domain walls and other "ordinary" domain walls for 4d theories.

Nelson De Leon; John Morris

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

164

CONCRETE REFLECTED ARRAYS OF U(93.2) METAL  

SciTech Connect

During the period from 1963 – 1973, experiments involving highly enriched uranium units were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine various critical configurations of three-dimensional arrays. The experiments formed a four-part series, and were reported by several different experimenters; the results of interest for this evaluation are those reported for the fourth experimentation, Critical Three-Dimensional Arrays of Neutron Interacting Units: Part IV, published and performed by D.W.Magnuson (Ref 1). Information is also available in the logbook . This set of experiments utilized subcritical metal units on a split table apparatus to determine critical configurations for 2×2×2 arrangements of highly enriched uranium reflected by concrete. Magnuson manipulated the configuration of several uranium cylinders and blocks within a concrete reflector. The different permutations utilized uranium cylinders of two different heights in various positions in the three dimensional array; certain cases also placed thin uranium blocks on top of the cylinders. The thickness of the surrounding concrete, as well as the inner dimensions of the concrete reflector was also varied in certain cases. The variations resulted in fourteen different experimental permutations or configurations. All fourteen configurations were judged to be unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmarks. All experiments were initially evaluated; however only three configurations were evaluated in detail. Configurations 2, 4, 6 and 12 were not evaluated in detail because they are subcritical and configurations 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10 were also were not evaluated in detail because they were supercritical by more than beta effective (~0.007), or prompt critical. The experiments evaluated in detail for this benchmark were configurations 1, 3, and 11. The experimental report also contains the information for HEU-MET-FAST-056. Closely related work has been recorded in HEU-MET-FAST-053, which is a benchmark evaluation of a different series of three dimensional array experiments with four different moderator materials. HEU-MET-FAST-023 and HEU-MET-FAST-026 are also related because they utilize the same metal cylinders as these experiments.

Mackenzie Gorham; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Virginia Dean; Davis Reed

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

The Effect of Mean and Differential Attenuation on the Precision and Accuracy of the Estimates of Reflectivity and Differential Reflectivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Error propagation analysis is applied to evaluate the effects of correcting horizontal and differential attenuation on the precision of the estimates of reflectivity and differential reflectivity. The analysis shows that the loss of precision on ...

Enrico Torlaschi; Isztar Zawadzki

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Direct Effects of Low-to-Moderate CO2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Direct Effects of Low-to-Moderate CO2 Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Direct Effects of Low-to-Moderate CO2 Concentrations on Human Decision-Making Performance Title Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Direct Effects of Low-to-Moderate CO2 Concentrations on Human Decision-Making Performance Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Refereed LBNL Report Number LBNL-6196E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Satish, Usha, Mark J. Mendell, Krishnamurthy Shekhar, Toshifumi Hotchi, Douglas P. Sullivan, Siegfried Streufert, and William J. Fisk Journal Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 120 Issue 12 Pagination 1671-1677 Date Published 09/20/2012 Keywords carbon dioxide, cognition, Decision Making, human performance, indoor environmental quality, ventilation Abstract Background - Associations of higher indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations with impaired

167

Computer-optimized design of polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He counters for fast neutrons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He counters are rugged and reliable, they are generally the instruments of choice for field detection of fast neutrons in gamma-ray backgrounds. Their main drawback is the bulky, massive moderator needed to reduce the incident neutron energies to the sensitive range of the {sup 3}He+n capture reaction. This report discusses an optimization approach that provides a detector with uniform angular response and the maximum detection efficiency per unit mass. The key assumption is that each parameter has a geometrical interpretation and its effect on the response can be evaluated independently from that of the others. Specifically, the detection efficiency can be written as a product of separate functions for the moderator mass, gas pressure, tube position, etc., and the uniformity of the angular response is determined by the symmetry of the moderator dimensions. This analytical model was tested by compiling a comprehensive database of detector efficiencies as functions of the different parameters, including one- versus two-tube detectors, moderator masses from 1 to 6 kg, gas pressures from 1 to 20 atm, etc. In general, the model reproduced both the magnitude and angular dependence of the efficiency to within about 10%. To a high degree, the most important parameters are polyethylene mass and the quantity of {sup 3}He gas; because of neutron diffusion out of the moderator, the optimum tube positions are near the center of the detector. The highest value of the efficiency per unit mass occurs near 3 kg, a result that requires the most compact detectors to use more than a single {sup 3}He tube. In this case, the optimum detector has two tubes and a total mass of 3.0 kg. Although they could use 4-atm tubes with 2.54-cm diameters, increasing the gas volume could easily provide a 20% increase in efficiency with no changes in other parameters.

R. C. Byrd

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Polyethylene-Reflected Arrays of HEU(93.2) Metal Units Separated by Vermiculite  

SciTech Connect

This benchmark details the results of an experiment performed in the early 1970s as part of a series testing critical configurations in three dimensional arrays. For this experiment, cylinders of 93.2% enriched uranium metal were arranged in a 2x2x2 array inside of a polyethylene reflector. Layers of vermiculite of varying heights were surrounding each cylinder to achieve criticality variations. A total of four experimental configurations were tested by D.W. Magnuson, and detailed in his experimental report “Critical Three-Dimensional Arrays of Neutron Interacting Units: Part IV. Arrays of U(93.2) Metal Reflected by Concrete and Arrays Separated by Vermiculite and Reflected by Polyethylene.” The benchmark HEU-MET-FAST054 is closely related; the results of both experiments are discussed in the same report (Ref. 1) Closely related work has been recorded in HEU-MET-FAST-053, which is a benchmark evaluation of a different series of three dimensional array experiments with four different moderator materials. HEU-MET-FAST-023 and HEU-MET-FAST-026 are also related because they utilize the same metal cylinders as these experiments.

Mackenzie Gorham; J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess; Virginia Dean; Davis Reed

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

"Development and Neutronic Validation of pelletized Cold and Very Cold Moderators for Pulsed Neutron Sources" Phase II Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intense beams of cold neutrons are produced at several DOE facilities and are used by researchers to study the microscopic structure of materials. Energetic neutrons are produced by a high energy proton beam impacting a target. The fast neutrons are converted to the desired cold neutrons passing through a cryogenic moderator vessel, presently filled with dense cold hydrogen gas. Moderators made from solid methane have demonstrated superior performance to the hydrogen moderators but cannot be implemented on high power sources such as the SNS due to the difficulty of removing heat from the solid blocks of methane. Cryogenic Applications F, Inc has developed the methane pellet formation and transport technologies needed to produce a hydrogen cooled solid methane pellet moderator, potentially capable of being used in a high power spallation neutron facility. Such a methane pellet moderator could double the brightness of the neutron beam. Prior to this work a methane pellet moderator had not been produced or studied. The Indiana University LENS facility is a small pulsed neutron source used in part to study and develop cold neutron moderators. In this project cold neutrons were produced in a solid methane pellet moderator and analyzed with the LENS facility diagnostics. The results indicated that the neutron beam formed by the pellet moderator was similar to that of a solid methane block moderator.

Foster, Christopher; Baxter, David V

2012-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

170

Extended Kantorovich method for static analysis of moderately thick functionally graded sector plates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, an iterative procedure based on the extended Kantorovich method (EKM) is presented to gain highly accurate solution for bending of moderately thick functionally graded (FG) fully clamped sector plates. Effective mechanical properties of ... Keywords: Bending analysis, Extended Kantorovich method, Fully clamped sector plates, Functionally graded material

M. M. Aghdam; N. Shahmansouri; M. Mohammadi

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

On-Line Determination of the MTC 1 On-Line Determination of the MTC (Moderator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for water moderated power reactors, an American National Standard. American Nuclear Society, ANSI/ANS-19 temperature coefficient of pressurized water reactors: I. Theory. Nuc. Sci. Eng. 108: 331-340 27. Thomas JR Jr Coefficient) by Neutron Noise and Gamma-Thermometer Signals C. Demazière and I. Pázsit Department of Reactor

Demazière, Christophe

172

IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY TRANSPORTATION TASK REPORT ON ACHIEVING MODERATOR EXCLUSION AND SUPPORTING STANDARDIZED TRANSPORTATION  

SciTech Connect

Following the defunding of the Yucca Mountain Project, it is reasonable to assume that commercial used fuel will remain in storage for the foreseeable future. This report proposes supplementing the ongoing research and development work related to potential degradation of used fuel, baskets, poisons, and storage canisters during an extended period of storage with a parallel path. This parallel path can assure criticality safety during transportation by implementing a concept that achieves moderator exclusion (no in-leakage of moderator into the used fuel cavity). Using updated risk assessment insights for additional technical justification and relying upon a component inside of the transportation cask that provides a watertight function, a strong argument can be made that moderator intrusion is not credible and should not be a required assumption for criticality evaluations during normal conditions of transportation. A demonstrating testing program supporting a detailed analytical effort as well as updated risk assessment insights can provide the basis for moderator exclusion during hypothetical accident conditions. This report also discusses how this engineered concept can support the goal of standardized transportation.

D.K. Morton

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Development of a Method for Measuring the Moderator Temperature Coefficient by Noise Analysis and Its Experimental  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Technology, Department of Reactor Physics SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Received February 6, 2003 Accepted if the reactor can be operated until its expected EOC. According to the newest U.S. standard, the MTC is definedDevelopment of a Method for Measuring the Moderator Temperature Coefficient by Noise Analysis

Demazière, Christophe

174

Recently developed well test insrumentation for low-to-moderate temperature hydrothermal reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The engineering drawings, assembly instructions, and recommended usage for several of the instruments developed for low and moderate temperature (< 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal well testing are presented. Included are the drawings for: a downhole pressure and temperature instrument, a multi-conductor cablehead, a line driver to be used with the downhole pressure and temperature instrument, and a fluid-level detector.

Solbau, R.; Goranson, C.B.; Benson, S.M.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Genetic analysis in the Collaborative Cross breeding population  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Genetic reference populations in model organisms are critical resources for systems genetic analysis of disease related phenotypes. The breeding history of these inbred panels may influence detectable allelic and phenotypic diversity. The existing panel of common inbred strains reflects historical selection biases, and existing recombinant inbred panels have low allelic diversity. All such populations may be subject to consequences of inbreeding depression. The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a mouse reference population with high allelic diversity that is being constructed using a randomized breeding design that systematically outcrosses eight founder strains, followed by inbreeding to obtain new recombinant inbred strains. Five of the eight founders are common laboratory strains, and three are wild-derived. Since its inception, the partially inbred CC has been characterized for physiological, morphological, and behavioral traits. The construction of this population provided a unique opportunity to observe phenotypic variation as new allelic combinations arose through intercrossing and inbreeding to create new stable genetic combinations. Processes including inbreeding depression and its impact on allelic and phenotypic diversity were assessed. Phenotypic variation in the CC breeding population exceeds that of existing mouse genetic reference populations due to both high founder genetic diversity and novel epistatic combinations. However, some focal evidence of allele purging was detected including a suggestive QTL for litter size in a location of changing allele frequency. Despite these inescapable pressures, high diversity and precision for genetic mapping remain. These results demonstrate the potential of the CC population once completed and highlight implications for development of related populations. Supplementary material consists of Supplementary Table 1 Phenotypic means, variances, ranges and heritabilities for all traits and generations, Supplementary Table 2, all phenotypic values, Supplementary Table 3, multiple QTL mapping.

Philip, Vivek [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokoloff, Greta [ORNL; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Striz, Martin [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Branstetter, Lisa R [ORNL; Beckmann, Melissa [ORNL; Spence, Jason S [ORNL; Jackson, Barbara L [ORNL; Galloway, Leslie D [ORNL; Barker, Gene [ORNL; Wymore, Ann M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hunsicker, Patricia R [ORNL; Durtschi, David W [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Shaw, Ginger S [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Shinpock, Sarah G [ORNL; Manly, Kenneth F [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Miller, Darla R [ORNL; Donahue, Kevin [University at Buffalo, NY; Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL; Churchill, Gary A [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Palmer, Abraham [University of Chicago; O'Hara, Bruce [University of Kentucky; Voy, Brynn H [ORNL; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Evolution of the Population of Precipitating Convective Systems over the Equatorial Indian Ocean in Active Phases of the Madden–Julian Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional radar reflectivity fields from a dual-wavelength Doppler polarimetric radar (S-PolKa) deployed in the equatorial Indian Ocean are used to evaluate the composition of the population of convective cloud elements during active ...

Manuel D. Zuluaga; Robert A. Houze Jr.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Evolution of the Population of Precipitating Convective Systems over the Equatorial Indian Ocean in Active Phases of the Madden-Julian Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional radar-reflectivity fields from a dual-wavelength Doppler polarimetric radar (S-PolKa) deployed in the equatorial Indian Ocean are used to evaluate the composition of the population of convective cloud elements during active ...

Manuel D. Zuluaga; Robert A. Houze; Jr.

178

Transformational leadership and group affective well-being and job satisfaction: a group-level test of two potential moderators.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study examines the relationship between supervisors’ transformational leadership behaviors and their work groups’ subsequent affective well-being and job satisfaction under specific moderating conditions (collective… (more)

Bruning, Patrick

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

LBNL-5022E Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

022E Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Authors: R. Hart*, C. Curcija, D. Arasteh, H. Goudey, C. Kohler, S. Selkowitz Environmental Energy Technologies...

180

Experimental Cell for Neutron Reflection on Lithium Manganese ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Experimental Cell for Neutron Reflection on Lithium Manganese Oxide to Study the Electrode/Electrolyte Interface. Author(s), Brian Kitchen.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Measuring solar reflectance-Part II: Review of practical methods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

II: Review of practical methods Title Measuring solar reflectance-Part II: Review of practical methods Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Levinson,...

182

Reflection and transmission resonances and accuracy of the wkb method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we calculate the transmission and reflection amplitudes of wave functions for different potentials such as the delta function, the rectangular barrier, the Eckart potential, and the Hulthen potential. We describe the relationship between these amplitudes and compute the reflection resonances between each potential. We describe the transmission and reflection probabilities using the WKB formula and compare the results with ones obtained from matching the boundary conditions. Furthermore, we use a two by two transfer matrix to calculate a rigorous bound on the transmission and reflection probabilities.

Tritos Ngampitipan; Petarpa Boonserm

2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

183

Improvement of retrieved reflectance in the presence of clouds.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Many algorithms exist to invert airborne imagery from units of either radiance or sensor specific digital counts to units of reflectance. These compensation algorithms remove… (more)

Bartlett, Brent

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Rail traffic reflects more oil production, less coal-fired ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The record increase in U.S. crude oil production during 2012 and the significant decline in coal use for domestic electricity generation were reflected in the ...

185

High-Temperature Reactor for Diffuse Reflectance Infrared ...  

High-Temperature Reactor for Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy Note: The technology described above is an early stage ...

186

Reflection Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area (Blackwell...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area (Blackwell, Et Al., 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area Exploration Technique...

187

Reflection Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area (Blackwell...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area (Blackwell, Et Al., 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area Exploration Technique...

188

Reflection Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Goranson, 2005...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Springs Area (Goranson, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Goranson, 2005)...

189

Estimated population near uranium tailings  

SciTech Connect

Population studies, which took place during the months of April, May, and June 1983, were performed for 27 active and 25 inactive mill sites. For each mill site, a table showing population by radius (1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 km) in 16 compass directions was generated. 22 references, 6 tables.

Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Craig, S.N.; Dirks, J.A.; Griffin, E.A.; Reis, J.W.; Young, J.K.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Blogs, reflective practice and student-centered learning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blogging can be used to enhance education by encouraging reflective practice. We present a study in which a final year HCI course was constructed around regular blogging activity. We discuss the role of blogs in providing a social mechanism for the student ... Keywords: blogging, cultural probe, education, reflective practice

Russell Beale

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Technical Section: Linear approximation of Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various empirical and theoretical models of the surface reflectance have been introduced so far. Most of these models are based on functions with non-linear parameters and therefore faces some computational difficulties involved in non-linear optimization ... Keywords: BRDF representation, Linear models, Principal components, Reflection models, Rendering

Aydin Ozturk; Murat Kurt; Ahmet Bilgili; Cengiz Gungor

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Efficient virtual machine support of runtime structural reflection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing trends towards adaptive, distributed, generative and pervasive software have made object-oriented dynamically typed languages become increasingly popular. These languages offer dynamic software evolution by means of reflection, facilitating ... Keywords: Dynamically typed languages, JIT compilation, Prototype-based object-oriented model, SSCLI, Structural reflection, Virtual machine

Francisco Ortin; Jose Manuel Redondo; J. Baltasar García Perez-Schofield

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date 1989 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determine the crustul structure of the Coso geothermal system Notes In mid-1989 the authors designed and collected four seismic reflection/refraction profiles that addressed the crustal structure of the Coso geothermal field. The two main east-west and north-south profiles crossed at the southeastern most base of Sugar Loaf Mountain. Both in-line and cross-line Vibroseis and explosion data were recorded on each of these

194

Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2008) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

At Coso Geothermal Area (2008) At Coso Geothermal Area (2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date 2008 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis A reflection survey was done to analyze the brittle upper plate structure revealed by reflection seismic data Notes The relationships between upper crustal faults, the brittle-ductile transition zone, and underlying magmatic features imaged by multifold seismic reflection data are consistent with the hypothesis that the Coso geothermal field, which lies within an extensional step-over between dextral faults, is a young, actively developing metamorphic core complex.

195

Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal Development in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal Development in Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal Development in Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal Development in Nevada Abstract Seismic reflection data were collected in two geothermalareas in Nevada to support geologic structural models andgeothermal well targeting. The data were integrated withsurface mapping, well results, and other geophysical data inconceptual geologic models in both areas. Faults wereinterpreted from reflection data based on reflector offsetsand apparent fault surface reflectors dipping away from therange front. Interpreted faults at Blue Mt., where severalwells have been drilled, correlated with well entries.Subsequent well targeting based on the conceptualstructural model

196

The development of solid methane neutron moderators at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source facility of Argonne National Laboratory.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) started using solid methane moderators in 1985 because of their efficient conversion (about 3.5 times greater than was achieved with a liquid hydrogen moderator) of fast neutrons to long wavelength neutrons. However, the solid methane moderators experienced numerous failures due to pressure surges caused by a combination of (1) the release of stored energy, which occurred when methane radiolytic products recombined, and (2) the expansion of hydrogen, which built up in the solid methane during irradiation. During the ensuing years studies were made to determine how to operate the solid methane moderators without causing failure. The rate at which stored energy built up during irradiation and the temperature at which hydrogen was released during annealing were determined. Since 1993 IPNS has successfully operated the solid methane moderators (at about 30 K) by periodically annealing to the liquid state around 90 K after every roughly three days of irradiation.

Carpenter, J. M.; Miller, M. E.; Scott, T. L.

1999-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

197

CFD Simulation of the CANDU-6 Moderator Circulation Under Normal Operating Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A steady-state 3D simulation for predicting the local subcooling of the moderator in the vicinity of the calandria tubes in a CANDU-6 reactor is performed. For the current simulation, a set of grid structures with the same geometry as the CANDU-6 moderator tank, called 'calandria vessel', is generated and the momentum, heat and continuity equations are solved by CFX-4.3, a CFD code developed by AEA technology. The standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model associated with logarithmic wall treatment is used to model turbulence generation and dissipation within the vessel. The moderator fluid is heavy water. Buoyancy forces are modeled using the Boussinesq approximation in which density is assumed to be a linear function of temperature. The matrix of the calandria tubes in the center region of the calandria vessel is simplified by the porous media approach. The anisotropic hydraulic impedance of the calandria tubes is modeled using the frictional pressure drop correlations suggested by Idelchik and Szymanski. The heat load in this steady-state simulation is conservatively set as 103 MW of 103% full power, consisting of 96.7 MW to the core region and 6.3 MW to the reflector region. The total volumetric flow rate through eight inlet nozzles is 940 L/s and the outlet temperature is constantly 71.0 deg. C. The thermal boundary condition of the circumferential vessel wall is assumed a little heat flux out. As a result, the velocity field and temperature distribution of a CANDU-6 moderator in the operating condition are presented. The flow pattern identified in this simulation is the weak jet momentum-dominated flow, which is generated by the interaction between the buoyancy force by heating and the dominant momentum forces by inlet jets. The calculated maximum temperature of the moderator is 83.0 deg. C at the lower center region of the core, which corresponds to the minimum subcooling of 33.0 deg. C considering the boiling point increase due to the hydrostatic pressure change. (authors)

Bo Wook Rhee; Churl Yoon; Byung-Joo Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150, Dukjin-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Correction of Radar Reflectivity and Differential Reflectivity for Rain Attenuation at X Band. Part I: Theoretical and Empirical Basis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this two-part paper, a correction for rain attenuation of radar reflectivity (ZH) and differential reflectivity (ZDR) at the X-band wavelength is presented. The correction algorithm that is used is based on the self-consistent method with ...

S-G. Park; V. N. Bringi; V. Chandrasekar; M. Maki; K. Iwanami

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Solids Fraction Measurement with a Reflective Fiber Optic Probe  

SciTech Connect

A method has been developed to extract solids fraction information from a reflective fiber optic probe. The commercially available reflective fiber optic probe was designed to measure axial particle velocity (both up and down directions). However, the reflected light intensity measured is related to particle size and particle concentration. A light reflection model is used to relate the reflected light intensity to solids fraction. In this model we assume that the reflected light intensity is a fixed fraction, K1, of the total light intensity lost in penetration of a solid layer. Also, the solids fraction is related to particle concentration, N, in the light path, by N = K2 (1- ?), where (1-?) is the solids fraction. The parameters K1 and K2 are determined through a calibration and curve fitting procedure. This paper describes this procedure and the steps taken to derive the values of K1 and K2. It is proposed that the reflective fiber optic can be used for real time measurement of solids fraction in a circulating fluid bed.

Seachman, S.M.; Yue, P.C.; Ludlow, J.C.; Shadle, L.J.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Whisper gallery mirrors reflectivities from 100 [angstrom] to 500 [angstrom  

SciTech Connect

We have examined optical constants and predicted reflectivities of candidate surface coatings for whisper gallery mirrors in the extreme ultraviolet (100 [Angstrom] to 500 [Angstrom]). Previous work of Vinogradov and coworkers have identified the spectral regime near 100-150 [Angstrom] as particularly promising due to the high whisper gallery mirror reflectivities of the noble metals in the vicinity of their Cooper minima in this regime. We confirm this basic result using newer optical data, and we have sought surface materials which would extend the range over which the whisper gallery mirrors may be used: between 100 to 500 [Angstrom]. We find that substantial whisper gallery mirror reflectivities (near or greater than 50%) are predicted for a variety of elements, and that the TE peak reflection is larger than TM peak reflection by on the order of 10%. However, most of the elements which do reflect well have surfaces that are vulnerable to oxygen contamination, which seriously degrades mirror performance. A cryogenic mirror design using a dynamic solid rare gas surface which has the potential to defeat such surface contaminations is described: it has peak reflectivity of more than 50% centered near 280 [Angstrom]. 8 figs, 18 refs.

Hung, Tsen-Yu; Hagelstein, P.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Whisper gallery mirrors reflectivities from 100 {angstrom} to 500 {angstrom}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have examined optical constants and predicted reflectivities of candidate surface coatings for whisper gallery mirrors in the extreme ultraviolet (100 {Angstrom} to 500 {Angstrom}). Previous work of Vinogradov and coworkers have identified the spectral regime near 100-150 {Angstrom} as particularly promising due to the high whisper gallery mirror reflectivities of the noble metals in the vicinity of their Cooper minima in this regime. We confirm this basic result using newer optical data, and we have sought surface materials which would extend the range over which the whisper gallery mirrors may be used: between 100 to 500 {Angstrom}. We find that substantial whisper gallery mirror reflectivities (near or greater than 50%) are predicted for a variety of elements, and that the TE peak reflection is larger than TM peak reflection by on the order of 10%. However, most of the elements which do reflect well have surfaces that are vulnerable to oxygen contamination, which seriously degrades mirror performance. A cryogenic mirror design using a dynamic solid rare gas surface which has the potential to defeat such surface contaminations is described: it has peak reflectivity of more than 50% centered near 280 {Angstrom}. 8 figs, 18 refs.

Hung, Tsen-Yu; Hagelstein, P.L.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a projection reflection optical system having two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have aspherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 {mu}m, and preferably less than 100 {mu}m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05--0.1 {mu}m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm {times} 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

Mark Spitzer

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

204

Improved Spatial Resolution For Reflection Mode Infrared Spectromicroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Standard commercial infrared microscopes operating in reflection mode use a mirror to direct the reflected light from the sample to the detector. This mirror blocks about half of the incident light, however, and thus degrades the spatial resolution by reducing the numerical aperture of the objective. Here, we replace the mirror with a 50% beamsplitter to allow full illumination of the objective and retain a way to direct the reflected light to the detector. The improved spatial resolution is demonstrated using a microscope coupled to a synchrotron source.

Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C.; May, T. E.; Lerch, Philippe

2009-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

205

FUEL CYCLE COSTS IN A GRAPHITE MODERATED SLIGHTLY ENRICHED FUSED SALT REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

A fuel cycle economic study has been made for a 315Mwe graphite- moderated slightly enriched fused-salt reactor. Fuel cycle costs of less than 1.5 mills may be possible for such reactors operating on a ten-year cycle even when the fuel is discarded at the end of the cycle. Recovery of the uranium and plutonium at the end of the cycle reduces the fuel cycle costs to approximates 1 mill/kwh. Changes in the waste storage cost, reprocessing cost or salt inventory have a relatively minor effect on fuel cycle costs. (auth)

Guthrie, C.E.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Heat Capacity of MgB2: Evidence for Moderately Strong Coupling Behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We characterize the superconducting state of a phase pure polycrystalline sample of the new layered high-temperature superconductor MgB2 by specific heat measurements in magnetic fields up to 9 Tesla. The characteristic jump at the superconducting transition is observed and compared with the predictions of weak coupling BCS-theory and the ?-model. Our analysis shows excellent agreement with the predictions for ? = ?/kBTC = 2.1(1) with a Sommerfeld term ? of 1.1(1) mJ/mol K indicating that MgB2 is a superconductor in the moderately strong electron-phonon coupling regime.

R. K. Kremer; B. J. Gibson; K. Ahn

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Case studies of low-to-moderate temperature hydrothermal energy development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Six development projects are examined that use low- (less than 90/sup 0/C (194/sup 0/F)) to-moderate (90 to 150/sup 0/C (194 to 302/sup 0/F)) temperature geothermal resources. These projects were selected from 22 government cost-shared projects to illustrate the many facets of hydrothermal development. The case studies describe the history of this development, its exploratory methods, and its resource definition, as well as address legal, environmental, and institutional constraints. A critique of procedures used in the development is also provided and recommendations for similar future hydrothermal projects are suggested.

Not Available

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

METHANE AND n-BUTANE OXIDATION WITH CO2 UNDER RADIOFREQUENCY PLASMAS OF MODERATE PRESSURES (*)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1205 METHANE AND n-BUTANE OXIDATION WITH CO2 UNDER RADIOFREQUENCY PLASMAS OF MODERATE PRESSURES) Résumé. 2014 L'oxydation du méthane et du n-butane avec CO2 a été étudiée dans des décharges électriques intermédiaires en C2 (C2H2, C2H4, C2H6) qui est la voie principale pour convertir mé- thane et n-butane en CO

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

100-MW NUCLEAR POWER PLANT UTILIZING A SODIUM COOLED, GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual design of a 100 Mw(e) nuclear power plant is described. The plant utilized a sodium-cooled graphite-moderated reactor with stainless- steel clad. slightiy enriched UO/sub 2/ fuel. The reactor is provided with three main coolant circuits, and the steam cycle has three stages of regenerative heating. The plant control system allows automatic operation over the range of 20 to 100% load, or manual operation at all loads. The site, reactor, sodium systems, reactor auxiliaries, fuel handling, instrumentation, turbine-generator, buildings. and safety measures are described. Engineering drawings are included. (W.D.M.)

1958-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

210

EVALUATION OF CALANDRIA, THIMBLE, AND CANNED-MODERATOR CONCEPTS FOR SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

In efforts to improve the neutron economy and lower the capital costs of sodium graphite reactors, several methods of separating the sodium and graphite were investigated including the calandria, the thimble, and the canned moderator reactors. An analysis including nuclear, heat transfer, and economic comparisons was made of these SGR concepts. Based upon neutron economy and feasibility of core fabrication, the calandria concept appears to offer the greatest potential for improvement in 8GR design. The thimble concept provides some improvement in neutron economy but introduced numerous problems requiring developmental work. (auth)

Reed, G.L.

1960-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

211

Standardization of Solar Mirror Reflectance Measurements - Round Robin Test: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Within the SolarPaces Task III standardization activities, DLR, CIEMAT, and NREL have concentrated on optimizing the procedure to measure the reflectance of solar mirrors. From this work, the laboratories have developed a clear definition of the method and requirements needed of commercial instruments for reliable reflectance results. A round robin test was performed between the three laboratories with samples that represent all of the commercial solar mirrors currently available for concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The results show surprisingly large differences in hemispherical reflectance (sh) of 0.007 and specular reflectance (ss) of 0.004 between the laboratories. These differences indicate the importance of minimum instrument requirements and standardized procedures. Based on these results, the optimal procedure will be formulated and validated with a new round robin test in which a better accuracy is expected. Improved instruments and reference standards are needed to reach the necessary accuracy for cost and efficiency calculations.

Meyen, S.; Lupfert, E.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Kennedy, C.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Retrieval of Reflectivity in a Networked Radar Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system for reflectivity and attenuation retrieval for rain medium in a networked radar environment is described. Electromagnetic waves backscattered from a common volume in networked radar systems are attenuated differently along the different ...

V. Chandrasekar; S. Lim

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Solar Radiative Fluxes for Broken Cloud Fields above Reflecting Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistical bidirectional method for including the effects of underlying reflecting surfaces in Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric photon transport is presented. It is illustrated for the idealized Lambertian surface and a general ...

Howard W. Barker; John A. Davies

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Progress Toward Roll Processing of Solar Reflective Material (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation discusses the goal of this project which was to demonstrate that it is possible to cost-effectively produce high performance solar reflective material using vacuum deposition techniques.

Smilgys, R.; Wallace, S.; Kennedy, C.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Radar Reflectivity–Based Estimates of Mixed Layer Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the potential for estimating mixed layer depth by taking advantage of the radial gradients in the radar reflectivity field produced by the large vertical gradients in water vapor mixing ratio that are characteristic of the ...

P. L. Heinselman; P. L. Spencer; K. L. Elmore; D. J. Stensrud; R. M. Hluchan; P. C. Burke

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Calibrating Differential Reflectivity on the WSR-88D  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A calibration procedure of differential reflectivity on the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) is described. It has been tested on NOAA's modified WSR-88D research and development polarimetric radar and is directly applicable to ...

Dusan S. Zrnic; Valery M. Melnikov; John K. Carter

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Internal Wave Reflection and Scatter from Sloping Rough Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Internal gravity waves propagating in a uniformly stratified ocean are scattered on reflection from a rough inclined boundary. The boundary is inclined at angle ? to the horizontal and the roughness is represented by superimposed sinusoidal ...

S. A. Thorpe

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

On the Interactions of Internal Waves Reflecting from Slopes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Incident internal waves and those reflected from a uniform slope interact at second order. These interactions are considered for incident waves traveling obliquely to the slope in a uniformly stratified rotating fluid. It is found that (i) ...

S. A. Thorpe

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

A Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for Reflection of Solar Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rapid analytical radiative transfer model for reflection of solar radiation in plane-parallel atmospheres is developed based on the Sobolev approach and the delta function transformation technique. A distinct advantage of this model over ...

X. Xiang; E. A. Smith; C. G. Justus

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Reflective Interfaces : assisting teens with stressful situations online  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the concept of Reflective Interfaces, a novel approach to user experience design that promotes positive behavioral norms. Traditional interface design methodologies such as User Centered Design are ...

Jones, Birago (Birago Korayga)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A Microphysical Interpretation of Radar Reflectivity–Rain Rate Relationships  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The microphysical aspects of the relationship between radar reflectivity Z and rainfall rate R are examined. Various concepts discussed in the literature are integrated into a coherent analytical framework and discussed with a focus on the ...

Matthias Steiner; James A. Smith; Remko Uijlenhoet

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

The Relationship of Highly Reflective Clouds to Tropical Climate Anomalies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interannual variability of tropical convection related to the Southern Oscillation (SO) and regional climate anomalies is studied from satellite-derived estimates of highly reflective clouds (HRC) during 1971–87. The novel HRC data bank ...

Stefan Hastenrath

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Assessing Snowfall Rates from X-Band Radar Reflectivity Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Realistic aggregate snowflake models and experimental snowflake size distribution parameters are used to derive X-band power-law relations between the equivalent radar reflectivity factor Ze and the liquid equivalent snowfall precipitation rate S ...

Sergey Y. Matrosov; Carroll Campbell; David Kingsmill; Ellen Sukovich

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Sustainable Transport: from Bullock Carts to Bugatis: Reflections...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sustainable Transport: from Bullock Carts to Bugatis: Reflections on Major Transport Issues North and South Speaker(s): Lee Schipper Date: August 16, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg....

225

Kinematic, Thermodynamic, and Visual Structure of Low-Reflectivity Microbursts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 9 July 1987, a series of low-reflectivity microbursts were studied over Colorado using dual-Doppler analyses, cloud photogrammetry, and in situ measurements collected by aircraft. These types of wind-shear events are particularly hazardous to ...

Roger M. Wakimoto; Cathy J. Kessinger; David E. Kingsmill

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

EM-ONE : an architecture for reflective commonsense thinking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes EM-ONE, an architecture for commonsense thinking capable of reflective reasoning about situations involving physical, social, and mental dimensions. EM-ONE uses as its knowledge base a library of ...

Singh, Pushpinder, 1972-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Beryllium based multilayers for normal incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the experimental results of beryllium based multilayer mirrors for use in the 11.4 nm region. Mirrors using molybdenum as the high-Z material have demonstrated 68.7% peak reflectance at 11.3 nm.

Skulina, K.; Alford, C.; Bionta, R.; Makowiecki, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gullikson, E.; Soufli, R.; Kortright, J.; Underwood, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Degradation of Radar Reflectivity by Cloud Attenuation at Microwave Frequency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main object of this paper is to emphasize that clouds—the nonprecipitating component of condensed atmospheric water—can produce a strong attenuation at operational microwave frequencies, although they present a low reflectivity preventing ...

Olivier Pujol; Jean-François Georgis; Laurent Féral; Henri Sauvageot

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Using parametric {ital B} splines to fit specular reflectivities  

SciTech Connect

Parametric {ital B}-spline curves offer a flexible and appropriate mathematical description of scattering length density profiles in specular reflectivity analysis. Profiles combining smooth and sharp features can be defined in low dimensional representations using control points in the density-depth plane which provide graded local influence on profile shape. These profiles exist in vector spaces defined by {ital B}-spline order and parameter knot set, which can be systematically densified during analysis. Such profiles can easily be rendered as adaptive histograms for reflectivity computation. {ital B}-spline order can be chosen to accommodate the asymptotic (large-{ital Q}) behavior indicated by reflectivity data. We describe an interactive fitting strategy in which the Nelder and Mead simplex method is used in the {ital B}-spline control point space to guide the discovery of profiles that can produce given reflectivity data. Examples using actual and simulated spectra are discussed.

Berk, N.F.; Majkrzak, C.F. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Insitute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-0001 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Insitute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-0001 (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Image statistics and the perception of surface reflectance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humans are surprisingly good at judging the reflectance of complex surfaces even when the surfaces are viewed in isolation, contrary to the Gelb effect. We argue that textural cues are important for this task. Traditional ...

Sharan, Lavanya

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

A New Relationship between Mean Doppler Velocity and Differential Reflectivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new relationship has been established linking the vertical mean Doppler velocity of raindrop spectra and the accompanying differential reflectivities. It is based upon the specific radar combination of a vertically pointing Doppler and a ...

Matthias Steiner

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Can Reflected Extra-equatorial Rossby Waves Drive ENSO?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility that the evolution of the ENSO phenomenon is determined by the reflection of extra-equatorial Rossby waves from the western boundary into the equatorial waveguide has been a subject of recent debate. Observations and some wind-...

William S. Kessler

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Operational Monitoring of Radar Differential Reflectivity Using the Sun  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for the daily monitoring of the differential reflectivity bias for polarimetric weather radars is presented. Sun signals detected in polar volume data produced during operational scanning of the radar are used. This method is an ...

Iwan Holleman; Asko Huuskonen; Rashpal Gill; Pierre Tabary

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Stratocumulus Cloud Field Reflected Fluxes: The Effect of Cloud Shape  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reflected fluxes are calculated for stratocumulus cloud fields as a function of sky cover, cloud aspect ratio, and cloud shape. Cloud liquid water volume is held invariant as cloud shape is varied so that the results can be utilized more ...

R. M. Welch; B. A. Wielicki

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Single photon reflection and transmission in optomechanical system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cavity Optomechanical system is speedily approaching the regime where the radiation pressure of a single photon displaces the moving mirror. In this paper, we consider a cavity optomechanical system where the cavity field is driven by an external field. In the limit of weak mirror-cavity couplings, we calculate analytically the reflection and transmission rates for cavity field and discuss the effects of mirror-cavity coupling on the reflection and transmission.

M. A. Khan; S. C. Hou; K. Farooq; X. X. Yi

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

236

Reflection-Transmission Quantum Yang-Baxter Equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the reflection-transmission quantum Yang-Baxter equations, arising in factorized scattering theory of integrable models with impurities. The physical origin of these equations is clarified and three general families of solutions are described in detail. Explicit representatives of each family are also displayed. These results allow to establish a direct relationship with the different previous works on the subject and make evident the advantages of the reflection-transmission algebra as an universal approach to integrable systems with impurities.

V. Caudrelier; M. Mintchev; E. Ragoucy; P. Sorba

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

HEAVY-WATER-MODERATED POWER REACTORS ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS. VOLUME I. SUMMARY REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Capital investments and the cost of power were estimated for 21 heavy- water-moderated, natural-uraniumfueled power-reactor plants, ranging in capacity from 100 to 460 Mw(e). Comparisons were made of hot- and coldmoderator reactors and of the relative merits of pressuretube and pressure-vessel designs. Reactors cooled with liquid D/sub 2/O, boiling D/sub 2/O, /sub 2/O steam, and helium were evalunted. A cold-moderator pressure-tube reactor cooled with boiling D/sub 2/O shows the most economic promise of the D/sub 2/Omoderated reactor systems studied to date. Reactors of this type have sufficient reactivity to permit satisfactory fuel exposures, but the development of additional technology is a prerequisite for optimum designs. At capacities of 300 and 400 Mw(e), the estimated power costs from the current designs of boiling-D/sub 2/O pressure-tabe reactor plants are 11.3 and 9.8 mills/kwh, respectively. From liquid-D/sub 2/-cooled concepts of comparable capacities the indicated power costs are 7 to 20% higher. With an active development program, a power cost of 8.0 to 8.5 mills/kwh may be attained in a 300 Mw(e) boiling-D/sub 2/O reactor plant within the next decade. (auth)

1960-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

SOCIAL SUPPORT: MEDIATORS AND MODERATORS OF DEPRESSION IN A SPINAL CORD INJURY SAMPLE WITH CHRONIC PAIN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chronic pain and depression are frequently co-reported secondary complications following spinal cord injury (SCI) that impact multiple psychosocial domains. This study investigated the contribution of pain intensity, perceived stress, pain coping strategies, pain interference, and social support in depression and sought to identify mediator and moderator effects in the pain-depression relationship among persons with chronic SCI pain. Perceived stress, pain coping strategies, and pain interference were proposed as likely mediators of pain intensity and depression. Different types of social support were proposed as likely moderators of pain intensity and depression. The SCI sample consisted of 60 people with chronic pain who completed measures of pain intensity, perceived stress, pain coping strategies, pain interference, social support, and depression. Demographic and injury-related factors were also examined as confounding variables. Occupational status, positive reframing, behavioral disengagement, self-blame, emotional support, perceived stress, and pain interference were associated with depression, with 7% of variance in depression accounted for by occupational status, 19 % of variance in

Michael W. Wilson; J. Scott Richards; Timothy R. Elliott; Warren T. Jackson; Adrian Hal Thurstin; Rudy Vuchinich; Michael W. Wilson

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Apparatus for and method of correcting for astigmatism in a light beam reflected off of a light reflecting surface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for adjustably correcting for astigmatism in a light beam is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes first means which defines a flat, rectangular light reflecting surface having opposite reinforced side edges and which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, into different concave and/or convex cylindrical curvatures about a particular axis and second means acting on the first means for adjustably bending the light reflecting surface into a particular selected one of the different curvatures depending upon the astigmatism to be corrected for and for fixedly maintaining the curvature selected. In the embodiment disclosed, the light reflecting surface is adjustably bendable into the selected cylindrical curvature by application of a particular bending moment to the reinforced side edges of the light reflecting surface.

Sawicki, Richard H. (Pleasanton, CA); Sweatt, William (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

An Evaluation of Radiometric Products from Fixed-Depth and Continuous In-Water Profile Data from Moderately Complex Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiometric products determined from fixed-depth and continuous in-water profile data collected at a coastal site characterized by moderately complex waters were compared to investigate differences and limitations between the two measurement ...

Giuseppe Zibordi; Jean-François Berthon; Davide D’Alimonte

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Reproductive and endocrine parameters of fat versus moderately conditioned mares following parturition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An increase in time to ovulation following parturition could result in economic loss if the mare cannot successfully conceive within a short time after foaling. To evaluate if a difference exists in reproductive efficiency of fat- (body condition score of 7 to 8) versus moderately-conditioned (body condition score of 5 to 6), 24 mares were allotted to and maintained in their respective group from late gestation until pregnancy was confirmed following breeding on the second post-partum estrus. Days to ovulation, interovulatory intervals, conception rates, and endocrine profiles were analyzed. Serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and leptin were assayed in order to characterize normal circulating blood concentrations. There were no differences (P>0.05) in mean interval from parturition to first ovulation (14.41 ± 1.07 and 16.18 ± 1.06 d), first to second postpartum ovulation (22.91 ± 1.07 and 24.33 ± 0.93 d), or in conception rates (91.67% and 83.33%) between the 2 groups. However, mares in moderate conditioning did lose a greater percentage of body fat upon foaling as compared to fleshier mares (0.82% versus 0.35%). Leptin concentrations were not different between the groups (P>0.05). Nevertheless, serum concentrations of T4 were higher (P<0.01) and IGF-1 concentrations lower (P<0.01) in moderate- as compared to fat-conditioned mares during times of ovulation and the interovulatory period. Results indicate that mares maintained in a fleshy body condition are not prone to reproductive dysfunction or lowered levels of fertility. The significance of the current results is important as it reassures the breeder that mares in a fatter body condition score (BCS of 7-8) should not demonstrate sub-fertility related to level of body fat. Additionally, results indicate that mares may need to be kept in a BCS of 6 in order to avoid losing enough weight upon parturition and early lactation to bring the BCS below 5. It suggests that varying amounts of circulating T4 and IGF-1 do not affect reproductive capabilities of mares in a BCS of greater than 5 following parturition.

Cavinder, Clay Alan

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Optimal fracture stimulation of a moderate-permeability reservoir; Kuparuk River Unit, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-five percent of the reserves of the Kuparuk River field, the second-largest producing oil field in the U.S., is contained in a 20- 80-md-permeability sandstone. This paper provides details of stimulation design advances made over the past 3 years in this formation. The design steps for optimizing fracture treatments in a moderate-permeability formation require primary emphasis on fracture conductivity rather than on treatment size or fracture length. This philosophy was used for the 140 new wells documented in this paper. Treatment size was gradually increased once a commensurate increase in fracture conductivity was obtained. Applying the new design to the refracturing of 88 producing wells in the field resulted in an incremental 40,000 BOPD, a significant portion of the field's 300,000 BOPD.

Pearson, C.M.; Bond, A.J.; Eck, M.E.; Lynch, K.W. (Arco Alaska, Inc. (US))

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

A SODIUM COOLED, GRAPHITE MODERATED, LOW ENRICHMENT URANIUM REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF USEFUL POWER  

SciTech Connect

A design study is presented for a sodium cooled, graphite moderated power reactor utilizing low enrichment uranium fuel. The design is characterized by dependence on existing technology and the use of standard, or nearly standard, components. The reactor has a nominal rating of 167 thermal megawatts, and a plant comprising three such reactors for a total output of 500 thermal megawatts is described. Sodium in a secondary, non-radioactive, circulation system carries the heat to a steam generator at 910 deg F and is returned at 420 deg F. Steam conditions at the turbine throttle are 600 psig and 825 deg F. Cost of the complete reactor power plant, consisting of the three reactors and one 150- megawatt turbogenerator, is estimated to be approximately ,165,000. (auth)

Weisner, E.F. ed.

1954-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

STORED ENERGY: GROWTH AND ANNEALING STATUS OF GRAPHITE MODERATOR IN THE BNL RESEARCH REACTOR. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The present sthtus, past annealing procedures and experiences, future annealing procedures, annealing sehedule, revised annealing procedure (1958), procedure for combating a graphite fire in fuel channel, high-temperature stored energy, and graphite burning experiments are reportcd for the BNL Research Reactor. The following subjccts are discussed in the appendixes: control of radiation damage in a graphitc reactor; annealing of graphite moderator structure in the BNL; annealing operation in BNL graphite reactor; effect of pile radiation on mechanical and other properties of graphite; neutron sensing instrumentation; instrumentation for sensing fuel failures; thermocouple pattern for enriched fuel loading; environmental hazard from a molten fuel element; retention of volatile flssion products on filters; retention of volatile fission products on water tube coolers; retention of volatile fission products in molten fuel plates; and release of the lowtemperature stored energy in the BEPO Pile. (W.L.H.)

1959-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

245

Reflection Survey At Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank Engineering, 2007) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank Engineering, 2007) Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank Engineering, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank Engineering, 2007) Exploration Activity Details Location Blue Mountain Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes A high-resolution seismic reflection survey was conducted by Utah Geophysical, Inc. (1990) along four widely spaced survey lines normal to range front fault sets. The survey was designed primarily to detect silicified zones or zones of argillic alteration, and faulting, to depths of about 300 meters (1000 feet), as part of the precious metals exploration program. One interpretation of the data showed discrete, high-angle faults

246

Reflection Survey At Yellowstone Region (Morgan, Et Al., 2003) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Yellowstone Region (Morgan, Et Al., 2003) Yellowstone Region (Morgan, Et Al., 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Yellowstone Region (Morgan, Et Al., 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Simultan eously, we surveyed over 2500 linear km with high-resolution seismic reflection profling that penetrated the upper ~25 m of the lake bottom. References L. A. Morgan, W. C. Shanks, D. A. Lovalvo, S. Y. Johnson, W. J. Stephenson, K. L. Pierce, S. S. Harlan, C. A. Finn, G. Lee, M. Webring, B. Schulze, J. Duhn, R. Sweeney, L. Balistrieri (2003) Exploration And Discovery In Yellowstone Lake- Results From High-Resolution Sonar Imaging,

247

Fiber optic moisture sensor with moisture-absorbing reflective target  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

Kirkham, Randy R. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Electron reflection from one-dimensional potential barriers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the relevant experimental evidence for electron reflectivity effects in TEC and describes the analytical effort to better understand electron reflectivity as a function of the potential configuration of the surface layer. The analyses consider rectangular and triangular barrier models with, and without, image potentials. The calculated results are presented and discussed. Details of the solutions are given in Appendices A, B, and C. The computer programs to obtain these results are listed in Appendix D. These analyses demonstrate that cesium-oxygen composites with potential discontinuities around one volt and 20 A thick can be expected to be highly reflective to thermal electrons. Consequently, such composites would be expected to have significant effects on TEC performance.

Balestra, C.L.; Huffman, F.N.; Yang, C.C.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

1979-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

250

Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

Barnes, Paul R. (Lenoir City, TN); Shapira, Hanna B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Reflection Survey (Deangelo, Et Al., 1999) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Deangelo, Et Al., 1999) Deangelo, Et Al., 1999) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey (Deangelo, Et Al., 1999) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes We believe we have demonstrated two sources that can generate S-waves that are appropriate for evaluating geothermal prospects. The first, a vector-explosive package, has never been available to the seismic industry, and the demonstration of its source pe References M. DeAngelo, B.A. Hardage, J. L. Simmons Jr. (1999) Development Of Active Seismic Vector-Wavefield Imaging Technology For Geothermal Applications Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Reflection_Survey_(Deangelo,_Et_Al.,_1999)&oldid=388218

252

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

253

Critical reflection in a digital media artwork - Playas: homeland mirage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The introduction of digital media into the working practice of artists has produced challenges previously unknown to the field of art. This inquiry follows an atypical model of artist-driven research derived from disciplines such as social science and education. Here, an artwork functions as a model that is self-reflective, integrating methodologies in a form that benefits art and science. Using Naturalistic Inquiry, including semi-structured interviews of fifteen participants, the work illustrates a process of creation, analysis and evaluation that places the values of the artist on equal footing with the needs of science. Recently, artists have begun using video game engines as a tool to produce 3D navigable spaces. Using the hybrid video game/installation Playas: Homeland Mirage as a case study, this research examines the impact of technology on the artwork and identifies a number of key issues related to the function of critical reflection in this environment. Rules-of-play were a fundamental pre-requisite to the stimulation of critically reflective experience. The human interface with software and hardware was also a primary factor in reflective experience. Based on participant evaluation and observation, the interface was altered in response to its effect on critical reflection, illustrating how choices in this area impact aesthetic experience. Those with experience in visual art were more likely to engage the work in a critically reflective manner than seasoned video game players who tended to be more interested in scoring and winning. These findings and others inform our understanding of the stimulation of critical reflection in immersive environments and show how we can sensitively integrate technology with meaningful evaluative methods. By repurposing a video game in this manner, we learn about the nature of the video game and the nature of art. This research enables artists to gain a better understanding of the medium to more fully integrate technology within a meaningful practice. Conversely, other fields will benefit from a better understanding of the stimulation of meaning in immersive spaces and gain a comprehensive view of a work that strives to contribute to our culture on a deeper level than as simple entertainment. Ultimately, more fully understanding critical reflection in virtual environments will enable us to create enriched experiences that transcend space to create “real” or “virtual” place.

Stenner, Jack Eric

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Effect of window reflections on photonic Doppler velocimetry measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) has rapidly become a standard diagnostic for measuring velocities in dynamic compression research. While free surface velocity measurements are fairly straightforward, complications occur when PDV is used to measure a dynamically loaded sample through a window. Fresnel reflections can severely affect the velocity and time resolution of PDV measurements, especially for low-velocity transients. Shock experiments of quartz compressed between two sapphire plates demonstrate how optical window reflections cause ringing in the extracted PDV velocity profile. Velocity ringing is significantly reduced by using either a wedge window or an antireflective coating.

Ao, T.; Dolan, D. H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

Total Resonant Transmission and Reflection by Periodic Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Resonant scattering of plane waves by a periodic slab under conditions close to those that support a guided mode is accompanied by sharp transmission anomalies. For two-dimensional structures, we establish sufficient conditions, involving structural symmetry, under which these anomalies are characterized by total transmission and total reflection at frequencies separated by an arbitrarily small amount. The loci of total reflection and total transmission are real-analytic curves in frequency-wavenumber space that intersect quadratically at a single point corresponding to the guided mode. A single anomaly or multiple anomalies can be excited by the interaction with a single guided mode.

Stephen P. Shipman; Hairui Tu

2011-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

256

Determination of the Scaled Optical Thickness of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for determining the scaled optical thickness of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. The procedure compares measurements of the reflection function with asymptotic expressions for the reflection function of ...

Michael D. King

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Highly Enriched Uranium Metal Annuli and Cylinders with Polyethylene Reflectors and/or Internal Polyethylene Moderator  

SciTech Connect

A variety of critical experiments were constructed of enriched uranium metal during the 1960s and 1970s at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility in support of criticality safety operations at the Y-12 Plant. The purposes of these experiments included the evaluation of storage, casting, and handling limits for the Y-12 Plant and providing data for verification of calculation methods and cross-sections for nuclear criticality safety applications. These included solid cylinders of various diameters, annuli of various inner and outer diameters, two and three interacting cylinders of various diameters, and graphite and polyethylene reflected cylinders and annuli. Of the hundreds of delayed critical experiments, experiments of uranium metal annuli with and without polyethylene reflectors and with the central void region either empty or filled with polyethylene were evaluated under ICSBEP Identifier HEU-MET-FAST-076. The outer diameter of the uranium annuli varied from 9 to 15 inches in two-inch increments. In addition, there were uranium metal cylinders with diameters varying from 7 to 15 inches with complete reflection and reflection on one flat surface to simulate floor reflection. Most of the experiments were performed between February 1964 and April 1964. Five partially reflected (reflected on the top only) experiments were assembled in November 1967, but are judged by the evaluators not to be of benchmark quality. Twenty-four of the twenty-five experiments have been determined to have fast spectra. The only exception has a mixed spectrum. Analyses were performed in which uncertainty associated with five different parameters associated with the uranium parts and three associated with the polyethylene parts was evaluated. Included were uranium mass, height, diameter, isotopic content, and impurity content and polyethylene mass, diameter, and impurity content. There were additional uncertainties associated with assembly alignment, support structure, and the value for ßeff. In addition to the idealizations made by the experimenters (removal of a diaphragm), a few simplifications were also made to the benchmark models that resulted in a small bias and additional uncertainty. Simplifications included omission of the support structure, possible surrounding equipment, and the walls, floor, and ceiling of the experimental cell. Bias values that result from these simplifications were determined and associated uncertainty in the bias values were included in the overall uncertainty in benchmark keff values. Bias values ranged from 0.0002 ?k to 0.0093 ?k below the experimental value. Overall uncertainties range from ? 0.0002 to ? 0.0011. Major contributors to the overall uncertainty include uncertainty in the support structure and the polyethylene parts. A comparison of experimental, benchmark-model, and MCNP-model keff values is shown in Figure 1. The experimental keff values are derived from the original reactivities reported by the principal experimentalist. The benchmark-model keff values are the experimental keff values adjusted to account for biases that were introduced by removing the support structure and surroundings. The MCNP-model keff values are simply the values found from MCNP calculations using the benchmark specifications and ENDF/B-VI cross-section data. Figure 1. Comparison of Experimental, Benchmark-Model and MCNP-Model keff value. Calculated results for most of the experiments are

Tyler Sumner; J. Blair Briggs; Leland Montierth

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Advances in Measuring Solar Reflectance-or, Why That Roof isn...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reflectance is often used to estimate the solar heat gain and rate the "coolness" of roofs and pavements. A solar reflectance property measured by two popular ASTM standard...

259

Bragg Reflectivity of X-rays: At the Limit of the Possible |...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of reflectivity across the sample. Their results, which are published in Nature Photonics, represent a quantum leap to the largest reflectivity measured, at the limit of what...

260

Reflection Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Reflection Survey At New River Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At New River Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At New River Area (DOE GTP)...

262

Removing the veil: personal reflections on educating women in Dubai  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article is a personal reflection on the culture and the education of young women in the United Arab Emirates, a group of seven emirates along the Persian Gulf, which has only been a federated nation since 1971. The rapid pace of development in the ... Keywords: UAE, education, gender, social impact

C. Dianne Martin

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Does your distillation simulation reflect the real world?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The question ``Do you have a simulation?`` is asked during almost every troubleshooting investigation. A question equally important: ``Does your simulation reflect the real world?`` is raised far less frequently. To correctly answer the latter question, it is imperative that the simulation reflects the real world (i.e., plant data). Any mismatch provides a warning of a potential simulation deficiency. A previous paper described a case where a seemingly minor mismatch led to the discovery of a major simulation deficiency. Undiscovered, the deficiency would have led to a failed tower debottleneck. This paper expands on this previous theme, but focuses on column troubleshooting. A simulation that did not reflect the real world steered a troubleshooting investigation toward an incorrect diagnosis and into inadequate solutions. Once revised to reflect the real world, the same simulation proved invaluable for identifying the correct root cause and guiding the investigation toward the proper solution. An initial simulation of an aromatics fractionator revealed no cause for an operational instability apparent in the tower. Field testing of the tower, establishing correct energy balances, overcoming an analytical limitation, and finally, identifying a simulation trap, yielded information that led to revision of the initial simulation. The revised simulation readily identified the cause of the tower instability.

Kister, H.Z. [Brown and Root, Alhambra, CA (United States); Neves, S.B.; Siles, R.C.; Costa Lima, R. da [Copene Petroquimica do Nordeste S.A., Camacari, Bahia (Brazil)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Designing optimal iBGP route-reflection topologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is used today by all Autonomous Systems (AS) in the Internet. Inside each AS, iBGP sessions distribute the external routes among the routers. In large ASs, relying on a full-mesh of iBGP sessions between routers is not ... Keywords: BGP, iBGP topology design, optimization, route-reflection

Marc-Olivier Buob; Steve Uhlig; Mickael Meulle

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Experiences surveying the crowd: reflections on methods, participation, and reliability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crowdsourcing services such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) provide new venues for recruiting participants and conducting studies; hundreds of surveys may be offered to workers at any given time. We reflect on the results of six related studies we ... Keywords: crowdsourcing, demographics, reliability, surveys

Catherine C. Marshall; Frank M. Shipman

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

A 16-ELEMENT REFLECTION GRID AMPLIFIER Frederic Lecuyer1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, which can double as a large metal heat sink. Otherwise, the operation of reflection grid amplifiers to improve common- Mirror/Heat Sink Active GridInput Polarizer Active Grid Output Polarizer E Output Beam E Input Beam E Output Beam Differential Transistor Pair E Input Beam Mirror/Heat Sink Active Grid

267

Remote Sensing Of Photosynthetic Processes By Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) has been proposed as a tool for the estimation of leaf and canopy light?use efficiency and photosynthesis from remote?sensing data. The application of the index is based on more than fifteen years of spectroscopic studies at the leaf level

S. Raddi; S. Cortes; E. Vicinelli; F. Magnani

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Prediction of Reflection Cracking in Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reflection cracking is one of the main distresses in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays. It has been a serious concern since early in the 20th century. Since then, several models have been developed to predict the extent and severity of reflection cracking in HMA overlays. However, only limited research has been performed to evaluate and calibrate these models. In this dissertation, mechanistic-based models are calibrated to field data of over 400 overlay test sections to produce a design process for predicting reflection cracks. Three cracking mechanisms: bending, shearing traffic stresses, and thermal stress are taken into account to evaluate the rate of growth of the three increasing levels of distress severity: low, medium, and high. The cumulative damage done by all three cracking mechanisms is used to predict the number of days for the reflection crack to reach the surface of the overlay. The result of this calculation is calibrated to the observed field data (severity and extent) which has been fitted with an S-shaped curve. In the mechanistic computations, material properties and fracture-related stress intensity factors are generated using efficient Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms. In the bending and shearing traffic stress models, the traffic was represented by axle load spectra. In the thermal stress model, a recently developed temperature model was used to predict the temperature at the crack tips. This process was developed to analyze various overlay structures. HMA overlays over either asphalt pavement or jointed concrete pavement in all four major climatic zones are discussed in this dissertation. The results of this calculated mechanistic approach showed its ability to efficiently reproduce field observations of the growth, extent, and severity of reflection cracking. The most important contribution to crack growth was found to be thermal stress. The computer running time for a twenty-year prediction of a typical overlay was between one and four minutes.

Tsai, Fang-Ling

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Implementation of solar-reflective surfaces: Materials and utility programs  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on implementation issues for using solar-reflective surfaces to cool urban heat islands, with specific examples for Sacramento, California. Advantages of solar-reflective surfaces for reducing energy use are: (1) they are cost-effective if albedo is increased during routine maintenance; (2) the energy savings coincide with peak demand for power; (3) there are positive effects on environmental quality; and (4) the white materials have a long service life. Important considerations when choosing materials for mitigating heat islands are identified as albedo, emissivity, durability, cost, pollution and appearance. There is a potential for increasing urban albedo in Sacramento by an additional 18%. Of residential roofs, we estimate that asphalt shingle and modified bitumen cover the largest area, and that built-up roofing and modified bitumen cover the largest area of commercial buildings. For all of these roof types, albedo may be increased at the time of re-roofing without any additional cost. When a roof is repaired, a solar-reflective roof coating may be applied to significantly increase albedo and extend the life of the root Although a coating may be cost-effective if applied to a new roof following installation or to an older roof following repair, it is not cost-effective if the coating is applied only to save energy. Solar-reflective pavement may be cost-effective if the albedo change is included in the routine resurfacing schedule. Cost-effective options for producing light-colored pavement may include: (1) asphalt concrete, if white aggregate is locally available; (2) concrete overlays; and (3) newly developed white binders and aggregate. Another option may be hot-rolled asphalt, with white chippings. Utilities could promote solar-reflective surfaces through advertisement, educational programs and cost-sharing of road resurfacing.

Bretz, S.; Akbari, H.; Rosenfeld, A.; Taha, H.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Reflected Neutron Effects in Multiplicity Measurements of Bare HEU Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

In a passive multiplicity characterization of highly enriched uranium (HEU) assemblies, fission chains are initiated by the characteristically fast neutrons from spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U as well as cosmic-ray spallation neutrons. Active interrogation of HEU uses other physical mechanisms for starting chains by inducing fission from high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma-rays, delayed neutrons, or thermal neutrons. In all cases a contribution to the initiation of fission chains is the reflection of neutrons that initially escape the assembly and re-enter it after undergoing some scattering. The reflected neutron flux is geometry dependent and a combination of fast and thermal energies. The reflected thermal neutron contribution occurs hundreds of microseconds after the beginning of the fission chain and can be distinguished from the cosmic-ray spallation neutrons unrelated to fission chains, resulting in an HEU detection signature with high signal-to-noise. However, the reflected thermal neutron flux can be eliminated with an efficient thermal neutron absorber to investigate reflected neutron effects. In this paper, active and passive multiplicity measurements with HEU oxide assemblies of up to 16 kg of fuel pins and HEU metal assemblies of up to five 18 kg storage castings are reported. Each case demonstrates the differences in HEU signature when a borated thermal neutron absorber is present and shows the various detectable signatures with 3He proportional counters, the standard detector for differential die-way and neutron multiplicity measurements, and liquid scintillators, a detector capable of operating on the timescale of fission chains.

McConchie, Seth M [ORNL; Hausladen, Paul [ORNL; Mihalczo, John T [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt shingles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze the solar reflectance of asphalt roofing shingles that are covered with pigmented mineral roofing granules. The reflecting surface is rough, with a total area approximately twice the nominal area. We introduce a simple analytical model that relates the 'micro-reflectance' of a small surface region to the 'macro-reflectance' of the shingle. This model uses a mean field approximation to account for multiple scattering effects. The model is then used to compute the reflectance of shingles with a mixture of different colored granules, when the reflectances of the corresponding mono-color shingles are known. Simple linear averaging works well, with small corrections to linear averaging derived for highly reflective materials. Reflective base granules and reflective surface coatings aid achievement of high solar reflectance. Other factors that influence the solar reflectance are the size distribution of the granules, coverage of the asphalt substrate, and orientation of the granules as affected by rollers during fabrication.

Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Jacobs, Jeffry; Klink, Frank

2008-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

272

HEAVY-WATER-MODERATED POWER REACTORS ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS. VOLUME II. ENGINEERING STUDIES AND TECHNICAL DATA  

SciTech Connect

The results of preliminary design and evaluation studies of various concepts of a power reactor that is moderated by heavy water and fueled with natural uranium are presented. Twenty-nine conceptal designs were developed for reactors ranging in capacity from 100 Mwe to 460 Mwe. Resigns were prepared for hot- and cold-moderator reac tors of the pressure vessel type, with liquid D/sub 2/O, boiling D/sub 2/O, E/sub 2/O steam, and helium as coolants. Also studied were cold-moderator pressure tube reactors cooled with liquid D/sub 2/O and boiling D/sub 2/O. The repont includes the results of engineering studies of the reactor systems, electrical generation facilities, and auxiliary equipment. (auth)

1960-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Adequacy of the 123-group cross-section library for criticality analyses of water-moderated uranium systems  

SciTech Connect

In a recent criticality analysis for an array of water-moderated packages containing highly enriched uranium, the 123-group cross-section library in the SCALE system was observed to have a nonconservative discrepancy of approximately 3 to 3.5% when compared with more recently developed libraries. A simple representative system of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O was used to identify that the problem results from a lack of resonance data for {sup 235}U. Only a single set of self-shielded cross sections, most likely corresponding to a water-moderated infinite dilute system, was provided with the original data. The UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O study indicates that this limitation may cause nonconservative discrepancies as high as 5.5% for some water-moderated, highly enriched uranium systems. Characteristics of the systems where the discrepancy is evident are identified and discussed.

Parks, C.V.; Wright, R.Q.; Jordan, W.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Monte Carlo calculations of the effective area and directional response of a polyethylene-moderated neutron counter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two recent reports on Monte Carlo studies have examined the angular response of a multiple-rod neutron scintillator and the energy response of a moderated {sup 3}He neutron counter. This report extends those studies to provide calculations of the effective area and angular sensitivity of a polyethylene-moderated neutron detector that has multiple {sup 3}He tubes. The results (1) provide a more accurate and general determination of the sensor`s detection efficiency, (2) suggest new techniques for obtaining information about the source direction, and (3) allow evaluation of proposals to improve the high-energy detection efficiency by using the production of (n,2n) neutrons in high-density material added to the moderator.

Not Available

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Actinide destruction and power peaking analysis in a 1000 MWt advanced burner reactor using moderated heterogeneous target assemblies  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of moderated heterogeneous subassemblies located in the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor on minor actinide (MA) destruction rates over the lifecycle of the core. Additionally, particular emphasis was placed on the power peaking of the pins and the assemblies with the moderated targets as compared to standard unmoderated heterogeneous targets and a core without MA targets present. Power peaking analysis was performed on the target assemblies and on the fuel assemblies adjacent to the targets. The moderated subassemblies had a marked improvement in the overall destruction of heavy metals in the targets. The design with acceptable power peaking results had a 12.25% greater destruction of heavy metals than a similar ex-core unmoderated assembly. The increase in minor actinide destruction was most evident with americium where the moderated assemblies reduced the initial amount to less than 3% of the initial loading over a period of five years core residency. In order to take advantage of the high minor actinide destruction and minimize the power peaking effects, a hybrid scenario was devised where the targets resided ex-core in a moderated assembly for the first 506.9 effective full power days (EFPDs) and were moved to an in-core arrangement with the moderated targets removed for the remainder of the lifecycle. The hybrid model had an assembly and pin power peaking of less than 2.0 and a higher heavy metal and minor actinide destruction rate than the standard unmoderated heterogeneous targets either in-core or ex-core. The hybrid model has a 54.5% greater Am reduction over the standard ex-core model. It also had a 27.8% greater production of Cm and a 41.5% greater production of Pu than the standard ex-core model. The radiotoxicity of the targets in the hybrid design was 20% less than the discharged standard ex-core targets.

Kenneth Allen; Travis Knight; Samuel Bays

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Analysis of binary thermodynamic cycles for a moderately low-temperature geothermal resource  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analyses of a number of geothermal binary-cycles were made with the objective of finding a cycle which can produce low-cost electrical energy from a moderately low-temperature geothermal resource. Cycles were screened which included isobutane, pentane, cis-2-butene, and several mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids. Dual- and triple-boiling cycles were analyzed. Both shell-and-tube and direct-contact boilers, heaters, and condensers were assessed. A geothermal fluid (geo-fluid), typical of Raft River resource conditions was assumed, which has a temperature of 290/sup 0/F and 52 parts per million dissolved nitrogen. Special emphasis in the analyses was directed toward investigation of several methods for keeping the loss of working fluid for the cycle at an acceptable level. It was concluded that for the Raft River geo-fluid, the direct-contact cycle has a potential for net geofluid utilization effectiveness values, (watt-hr/lbm geo-fluid) equivalent to those of the shell-and-tube cycle. Therefore, because of the lower cost of direct-contact components, a potential exists for the direct-contact plant to produce lower cost electrical energy than a comparable shell-and-tube plant. Advanced cycles were assessed which showed improvements in net geo-fluid utilization effectivness, relative to the first Raft River 5-MW Pilot Plant (dual-boiling, shell-and-tube isobutane cycle), of up to 19%.

Demuth, O.J.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Cooling by Heat Conduction Inside Magnetic Flux Loops and the Moderate Cluster Cooling Flow Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I study non-radiative cooling of X-ray emitting gas via heat conduction along magnetic field lines inside magnetic flux loops in cooling flow clusters of galaxies. I find that such heat conduction can reduce the fraction of energy radiated in the X-ray band by a factor of 1.5-2. This non-radiative cooling joins two other proposed non-radiative cooling processes, which can be more efficient. These are mixing of cold and hot gas, and heat conduction initiated by magnetic fields reconnection between hot and cold gas. These processes when incorporated into the moderate cooling flow model lead to a general cooling flow model with the following ingredients. (1) Cooling flow does occur, but with a mass cooling rate about 10 times lower than in old versions of the cooling flow model. Namely, heating occurs such that the effective age of the cooling flow is much below the cluster age, but the heating can't prevent cooling altogether. (2) The cooling flow region is in a non-steady state evolution. (3) Non-radiative cooling of X-ray emitting gas can bring the model to a much better agreement with observations. (4) The general behavior of the cooling flow gas, and in particular the role played by magnetic fields, make the intracluster medium in cooling flow clusters similar in some aspects to the active solar corona.

Noam Soker

2003-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

278

A graphite-moderated pulsed spallation ultra-cold neutron source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposals exist and efforts are under way to construct pulsed spallation ultra-cold neutron (UCN) sources at accelerator laboratories around the world. At the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Switzerland, and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), U.S.A., it is planned to use solid deuterium (SD_2) for the UCN production from cold neutrons. The philosophies about how the cold neutrons are obtained are quite different, though. The present proposal describes a third approach which applies a temperature optimized graphite moderator in combination with the SD_2 and qualitatively combines advantages of the different schemes. The scheme described here allows to build a powerful UCN source. Assuming a pulsed 2 mA, 590 MeV proton beam with an average current of 10 microA, one obtains UCN densities in excess of 2000 cm^{-3}, UCN fluxes of about 10^6 cm^{-2} s^{-1}, and total numbers of UCN in excess of 2*10^9 every 800 s.

Klaus Kirch

2001-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

279

Brazil-nut effect versus reverse Brazil-nut effect in a moderately dense granular fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new segregation criterion based on the inelastic Enskog kinetic equation is derived to show the transition between the Brazil-nut effect (BNE) and the reverse Brazil-nut effect (RBNE) by varying the different parameters of the system. In contrast to previous theoretical attempts the approach is not limited to the near-elastic case, takes into account the influence of both thermal gradients and gravity and applies for moderate densities. The form of the phase-diagrams for the BNE/RBNE transition depends sensitively on the value of gravity relative to the thermal gradient, so that it is possible to switch between both states for given values of the mass and size ratios, the coefficients of restitution and the solid volume fraction. In particular, the influence of collisional dissipation on segregation becomes more important when the thermal gradient dominates over gravity than in the opposite limit. The present analysis extends previous results derived in the dilute limit case and is consistent with the findings of some recent experimental results.

Vicente Garzo

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

280

An Active Gain-control System for Avalanche Photo-Diodes under Moderate Temperature Variations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are promising light sensor for various fields of experimental physics. It has been argued, however, that variation of APD gain with temperature could be a serious problem preventing APDs from replacing traditional photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in some applications. Here we develop an active gain-control system to keep the APD gain stable under moderate temperature variations. As a performance demonstration of the proposed system, we have tested the response of a scintillation photon detector consisting of a 5x5 mm^2 reverse-type APD optically coupled with a CsI(Tl) crystal. We show that the APD gain was successfully controlled under a temperature variation of DT = 20deg, within a time-cycle of 6000 sec. The best FWHM energy resolution of 6.1+-0.2 % was obtained for 662 keV gamma-rays, and the energy threshold was as low as 6.5 keV, by integrating data from +20deg - 0deg cycles. The corresponding values for -20deg - 0deg cycles were 6.9+-0.2 % and 5.2 keV, respectively. These results are comparable, or only slightly worse than that obtained at a fixed temperature. Our results suggest new potential uses for APDs in various space researches and nuclear physics. As examples, we briefly introduce the NeXT and Cute-1.7 satellite missions that will carry the APDs as scientific instruments for the first time.

J. Kataoka; R. Sato; T. Ikagawa; J. Kotoku; Y. Kuramoto; Y. Tsubuku; T. Saito; Y. Yatsu; N. Kawai; Y. Ishikawa; N. Kawabata

2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Development of Probabilistic Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for Moderate and High Hazard Facilities at INEEL  

SciTech Connect

Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) horizontal and vertical response spectra are developed for moderate and high hazard facilities or Performance Categories (PC) 3 and 4, respectively, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The probabilistic DBE response spectra will replace the deterministic DBE response spectra currently in the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Architectural Engineering Standards that govern seismic design criteria for several facility areas at the INEEL. Probabilistic DBE response spectra are recommended to DOE Naval Reactors for use at the Naval Reactor Facility at INEEL. The site-specific Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) developed by URS Greiner Woodward Clyde Federal Services are used as the basis for developing the DBE response spectra. In 1999, the UHS for all INEEL facility areas were recomputed using more appropriate attenuation relationships for the Basin and Range province. The revised UHS have lower ground motions than those produced in the 1996 INEEL site-wide probabilistic ground motion study. The DBE response spectra were developed by incorporating smoothed broadened regions of the peak accelerations, velocities, and displacements defined by the site-specific UHS. Portions of the DBE response spectra were adjusted to ensure conservatism for the structural design process.

S. M. Payne; V. W. Gorman; S. A. Jensen; M. E. Nitzel; M. J. Russell; R. P. Smith

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Active Reflection Absorption for a Three Dimensional Multidirectional Wave Generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to implement an accurate system that allows for absorption of reflected waves impinging to a wave maker (Active Reflection Absorption), it was required to apply a method to estimate properly the direction of arrival of the waves that does it in the fastest way possible. Our wavemaker control system has been prepared to handle an algorithm provided by Bosch-Rexroth where the wave angle estimation is practically locked to a very narrow frequency band (spatial gain-mixer). The system was evaluated with physical tests in a 3D wave basin for different conditions of reflected waves arriving with an angle to the wavemaker front, and acceptable performance has been found for the 3D ARA mode. However, for certain conditions over-compensation or sub-compensation can develop resulting in a poor absorption. This is mainly related to not being able to determine accurately the direction from which the reflected waves travel towards the wavemaker. The present work employed concepts found in the areas of antenna array signal processing and signal propagation, which were applied to this problem. This approach coupled naturally with our wavemaker system since it was prepared with 48 gages that can be employed in an array antenna fashion. A program was codified from an algorithm found in literature to calculate the Direction of Arrival (DOA) of the reflected waves. The focus for the testing of this program was with regular waves. The tests were conducted to validate the program with different angles of incidence and show that for regular waves the program was able to detect accurately the DOA of these in as few as 5 snapshots, with a minimum of 7 gages used as the antenna input. With data obtained directly from the control system of our wavemaker using regular waves, the program was able to determine the DOA. The computational burden of the algorithm is not significant in the case of regular waves. A modification of the program is required to analyze the DOA of reflected irregular waves, which could increase the computational burden. Actual implementation of this program to our control system depends on cooperation with Bosch-Rexroth.

Cruz Castro, Oscar

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Adaptive Evolution and Effective Population Size in Wild House Mice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimates of the proportion of amino acid substitutions that have been fixed by selection (a) vary widely among taxa, ranging from zero in humans to over 50 % in Drosophila. This wide range may reflect differences in the efficacy of selection due to differences in the effective population size (Ne). However, most comparisons have been made among distantly related organisms that differ not only in Ne but also in many other aspects of their biology. Here, we estimate a in three closely related lineages of house mice that have a similar ecology but differ widely in Ne: Mus musculus musculus (Ne; 25,000–120,000), M. m. domesticus (Ne; 58,000–200,000), and M. m. castaneus (Ne; 200,000–733,000). Mice were genotyped using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism array, and the proportions of replacement and silent mutations within subspecies were compared with those fixed between each subspecies and an outgroup, Mus spretus. There was significant evidence of positive selection in M. m. castaneus, the lineage with the largest Ne, with a estimated to be approximately 40%. In contrast, estimates of a for M. m. domesticus (a 5 13%) and for M. m. musculus (a 5 12 %) were much smaller. Interestingly, the higher estimate of a for M. m. castaneus appears to reflect not only more adaptive fixations but also more effective purifying selection. These results support the hypothesis that differences in Ne contribute to differences among species in the efficacy of selection.

Megan Phifer-rixey; Francxois Bonhomme; Pierre Boursot; Gary A. Churchill; Jaroslav Piálek; Priscilla K. Tucker; Michael W. Nachman

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Sustainable Transport: from Bullock Carts to Bugatis: Reflections on Major  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sustainable Transport: from Bullock Carts to Bugatis: Reflections on Major Sustainable Transport: from Bullock Carts to Bugatis: Reflections on Major Transport Issues North and South Speaker(s): Lee Schipper Date: August 16, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Marcia Beck This talk reviews quantitative and qualitative trends in urban transportation and environment, focusing on developing countries. Reviewing recent efforts to look at transportation, the talk adopts a definition of "sustainable transportation" that includes economic and environmental sustainability as well as equity as key criteria. It is argued that governance sustainability is also important if policies and technologies are to reduce the main externalities from urban transport. An important identity is introduced to relate emissions to traffic, modal share, fuel

285

Time Correlations in Backscattering Radar Reflectivity Measurements from Cirrus Clouds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time Correlations in Backscattering Radar Reflectivity Time Correlations in Backscattering Radar Reflectivity Measurements from Cirrus Clouds K. Ivanova, H. N. Shirer, and E. E. Clothiaux Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The state variables of the atmosphere exhibit correlations at various spatial and temporal scales. These correlations are crucial for understanding short- and long-term trends in climate. Cirrus clouds are important phenomena in the troposphere affecting climate. To improve future parameterization of cirrus clouds in climate models, we must understand the cloud properties and how they change within the cloud. We consider fluctuations of cloud radar signals obtained at isodepths within cirrus clouds

286

Method and apparatus for inspecting reflection masks for defects  

SciTech Connect

An at-wavelength system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blank defect detection is provided. When a focused beam of wavelength 13 nm is incident on a defective region of a mask blank, three possible phenomena can occur. The defect will induce an intensity reduction in the specularly reflected beam, scatter incoming photons into an off-specular direction, and change the amplitude and phase of the electric field at the surface which can be monitored through the change in the photoemission current. The magnitude of these changes will depend on the incident beam size, and the nature, extent and size of the defect. Inspection of the mask blank is performed by scanning the mask blank with 13 nm light focused to a spot a few .mu.m in diameter, while measuring the reflected beam intensity (bright field detection), the scattered beam intensity (dark-field detection) and/or the change in the photoemission current.

Bokor, Jeffrey (Oakland, CA); Lin, Yun (Berkeley, CA)

2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

287

Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2001) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2001) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date 2001 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Look for features that are characteristic of the geothermal producing region not originally seen by imaging the Coso Field using seismic Notes During December of 1999, approximately 32 miles of seismic data were acquired as part of a detailed seismic investigation undertaken by the US Navy Geothermal Program Office. Data acquisition was designed to make effective use of advanced data processing methods, which include Optim's proprietary nonlinear velocity optimization technique and pre-stack Kirchhoff migration. The velocity models from the 2-D lines were combined

288

On the Complexity of the "Reflections" game David Kempe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. A single player tries to hit a given set of light bulbs with a laser beam, by placing mirrors and other beam must be reflected and split with the help of the movable items, so as to hit a set of light bulbs of the bombs that are part of the board must be hit by a beam. In addition to the laser, light bulbs and bombs

Kempe, David

289

Summary report of the Solar Reflective Materials Technology Workshop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Reflective Materials Technology Workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy and organized by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the Solar Energy Research Institute was held on March 28--30, 1978, in Denver, Colorado. The two and one-half day seminar/workshop was attended by over 95 people representing some 60 private companies and government laboratories. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the ''state-of-the-art'' of solar reflector materials technology, define current mirror design requirements, and make recommendations to DOE for future research and development efforts. The reflector materials are defined for the purpose of this workshop as including all the materials which make up the reflector structure including the actual reflecting surface, the protective coatings, and the support substrate. The reflective surface includes metals, metallic films, metallic alloys, and dielectric or ceramic stacks. The protective coatings, which can be applied to both the front and back of the reflective surface, include such materials as polymer paints and films as well as inorganic coatings such as SiO, MgF/sub 2/ and thin glass. Mirror support structures which have been considered include polymer foams, cellular glass, aluminum honeycomb, wood and paper products, and fiberglass and epoxy composites. The authors of the invited papers were asked to emphasize one or more of four basic areas. These topics included: the requirements and properties for reflector materials, the testing procedures used to evaluate the materials, the results of environmental tests performed on some of the materials, and the actual field experience of solar concentrator structures. Acknowledging that the most severe applications for reflector materials result from high concentration ratio or central receiver concepts, the majority of the speakers addressed specific problems dealing with these concepts. (WHK)

Lind, M.A.; Ault, L.E.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Bohmian transmission and reflection dwell times without trajectory sampling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within the framework of Bohmian mechanics dwell times find a straightforward formulation. The computation of associated probabilities and distributions however needs the explicit knowledge of a relevant sample of trajectories and therefore implies formidable numerical effort. Here a trajectory free formulation for the average transmission and reflection dwell times within static spatial intervals [a,b] is given for one-dimensional scattering problems. This formulation reduces the computation time to less than 5% of the computation time by means of trajectory sampling.

Sabine Kreidl

2004-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

291

U-043: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets 3: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote Servers Execute Arbitrary Code U-043: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote Servers Execute Arbitrary Code November 22, 2011 - 8:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote Servers Execute Arbitrary Code. PLATFORM: 14.1.1173 and prior versions The following product versions are affected: Reflection for HP version 14.x Reflection for UNIX and OpenVMS version 14.x Reflection for ReGIS Graphics version 14.x Reflection for IBM version 14.x Reflection X version 14.x ABSTRACT: A remote server can execute arbitrary code on the connected target system. reference LINKS: Security Updates and Reflection Attachmate Support Lifecycle Attachmate Downloads

292

U-043: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets 3: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote Servers Execute Arbitrary Code U-043: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote Servers Execute Arbitrary Code November 22, 2011 - 8:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote Servers Execute Arbitrary Code. PLATFORM: 14.1.1173 and prior versions The following product versions are affected: Reflection for HP version 14.x Reflection for UNIX and OpenVMS version 14.x Reflection for ReGIS Graphics version 14.x Reflection for IBM version 14.x Reflection X version 14.x ABSTRACT: A remote server can execute arbitrary code on the connected target system. reference LINKS: Security Updates and Reflection Attachmate Support Lifecycle Attachmate Downloads

293

Analytical study of residential building with reflecting roofs  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an analysis of the effect of roof solar reflectance on the annual heating (cooling) loads, peak heating (cooling) loads, and roof temperatures of the residential buildings. The annual heating (cooling) loads, peak heating (cooling) loads, and exterior roof temperatures for a small compact ranch house are computed using the Thermal Analysis Research Program (TARP). The residential models, with minor modifications in the thermal envelope for different locations, are subjected to hourly weather data for one year compiled in the Weather Year for Energy Calculation (WYEC) for in the following locations: Birmingham, Alabama; Bismarck, North Dakota; Miami, Florida; Phoenix, Arizona; Portland, Maine; and, Washington, D.C. Building loads have been determined for a full factorial experimental design that varies the following parameters of the residential model: solar reflectance of the roof, ceiling thermal resistance, attic ventilation, and attic mass framing area. The computed results for annual heating (cooling) loads and peak heating (cooling) loads are illustrated graphically, both globally for all cities and locally for each geographic location. The effect of peak parameter is ranked (highest to lowest) for effect on annual heating and cooling loads, and peak heating and cooling loads. A parametric study plots the building loads as a function of roof solar reflectance for different levels of ceiling thermal resistances and for each geographic location.

Zarr, R.R.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Benchmarking of Graphite Reflected Critical Assemblies of UO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of experiments were carried out in 1963 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for use in space reactor research programs. A core containing 93.2% enriched UO2 fuel rods was used in these experiments. The first part of the experimental series consisted of 253 tightly-packed fuel rods (1.27 cm triangular pitch) with graphite reflectors [1], the second part used 253 graphite-reflected fuel rods organized in a 1.506 cm triangular pitch [2], and the final part of the experimental series consisted of 253 beryllium-reflected fuel rods with a 1.506 cm triangular pitch. [3] Fission rate distribution and cadmium ratio measurements were taken for all three parts of the experimental series. Reactivity coefficient measurements were taken for various materials placed in the beryllium reflected core. The first part of this experimental series has been evaluated for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [4] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbooks, [5] and is discussed below. These experiments are of interest as benchmarks because they support the validation of compact reactor designs with similar characteristics to the design parameters for a space nuclear fission surface power systems. [6

Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Bayesian Conditioning, the Reflection Principle, and Quantum Decoherence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The probabilities a Bayesian agent assigns to a set of events typically change with time, for instance when the agent updates them in the light of new data. In this paper we address the question of how an agent's probabilities at different times are constrained by Dutch-book coherence. We review and attempt to clarify the argument that, although an agent is not forced by coherence to use the usual Bayesian conditioning rule to update his probabilities, coherence does require the agent's probabilities to satisfy van Fraassen's [1984] reflection principle (which entails a related constraint pointed out by Goldstein [1983]). We then exhibit the specialized assumption needed to recover Bayesian conditioning from an analogous reflection-style consideration. Bringing the argument to the context of quantum measurement theory, we show that "quantum decoherence" can be understood in purely personalist terms---quantum decoherence (as supposed in a von Neumann chain) is not a physical process at all, but an application of the reflection principle. From this point of view, the decoherence theory of Zeh, Zurek, and others as a story of quantum measurement has the plot turned exactly backward.

Christopher A. Fuchs; Ruediger Schack

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

296

Helios model for the optical behavior of reflecting solar concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Helios model simulates the optical behavior of reflecting concentrators. The model follows the incident solar radiation through the system (including the atmosphere) and includes all the factors that influence the optical performance of a collector. An important output is the flux-density pattern (W/cm/sup 2/) at a grid of points on a surface such as the absorbing surface of a receiver and its integral (power in watts) over the surface. The angular distribution of sunrays for the radiation incident on a concentrator is modified by convolution, using the fast Fourier transform, to incorporate the effects of other nondeterministic factors such as sun-tracking errors, surface slope errors, and reflectance properties. The analytical methods used for the statistics, the off-axis reflecting optics, the atmospheric effects, and the various coordinate systems are described and illustrated. This model forms a basis for the simulation code HELIOS as well as for other codes under development. Some of the HELIOS routines are described, a few of its capabilities are discussed and illustrated, and comparisons of data with calculations are presented. These capabilities have been used for performance predictions, safety studies, design trade-offs, data analysis problems, the specification and analysis of concentrator quality, and for the general understanding of solar-concentrator technology.

Biggs, F.; Vittitoe, C.N.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Transport Energy Use and Population Density  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transport Energy Use and Population Density Transport Energy Use and Population Density Speaker(s): Masayoshi Tanishita Date: July 1, 2004 - 10:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Jonathan Sinton After Peter Newman and Jeffrey Kenworthy published "Cities and Automobile Dependence" in 1989, population density was brought to public attention as an important factor to explain transport mobility and energy use. However, several related issues still remain open: Is an increase in population density more effective than rising gas prices in reducing transport energy use? How much does per capita transport energy use change as population density in cities changes? And what kind of factors influence changes in population density? In this presentation, using city-level data in the US, Japan and other countries, the population-density elasticity of

298

FY 2012 USED FUEL DISPOSITION CAMPAIGN TRANSPORTATION TASK REPORT ON INL EFFORTS SUPPORTING THE MODERATOR EXCLUSION CONCEPT AND STANDARDIZED TRANSPORTATION  

SciTech Connect

Following the defunding of the Yucca Mountain Project, it is reasonable to assume that commercial used fuel will remain in storage for a longer time period than initially assumed. Previous transportation task work in FY 2011, under the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, proposed an alternative for safely transporting used fuel regardless of the structural integrity of the used fuel, baskets, poisons, or storage canisters after an extended period of storage. This alternative assures criticality safety during transportation by implementing a concept that achieves moderator exclusion (no in-leakage of moderator into the used fuel cavity). By relying upon a component inside of the transportation cask that provides a watertight function, a strong argument can be made that moderator intrusion is not credible and should not be a required assumption for criticality evaluations during normal or hypothetical accident conditions of transportation. This Transportation Task report addresses the assigned FY 2012 work that supports the proposed moderator exclusion concept as well as a standardized transportation system. The two tasks assigned were to (1) promote the proposed moderator exclusion concept to both regulatory and nuclear industry audiences and (2) advance specific technical issues in order to improve American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 3 rules for storage and transportation containments. The common point behind both of the assigned tasks is to provide more options that can be used to resolve current issues being debated regarding the future transportation of used fuel after extended storage.

D. K. Morton

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

The utilization of genetic markers to resolve modern management issues in historic bison populations: implications for species conservation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The saga of the American bison (Bison bison) is a well-known story of death, destruction, and greed circumvented by early conservationists. The foresight of 5 cattlemen and the Canadian and U.S. governments at the apex of the population bottleneck in the 1880s led to the eventual establishment of several federal bison populations, from which virtually all of the 300,000 extant bison are descended. A survey of 54 microsatellite loci spanning each autosomal and both sex chromosomes was used to compare levels of genetic variation among 10 of the 11 federal bison populations in the U.S. Although most populations contain moderate levels of genetic variation, the majority of genetic variation is contained within only 4 of the federal populations surveyed. The distribution and partitioning of genetic variation confirm historical records of founding lineages and transfers among populations. Previously published mitochondrial and nuclear markers were used to survey federal bison populations for evidence of domestic cattle introgression. While only 1 population was found to contain low levels of domestic cattle mitochondrial DNA, 7 of the 10 surveyed populations had detectable introgression of nuclear genes from domestic cattle. From this, 2 federal bison populations were identified that have both high levels of genetic variation and no evidence of introgression of domestic cattle genes. The data obtained from this study were used to examine consequences of past and present management practices in closed bison populations. In the case of the Texas State Bison Herd, observed chronic small population size, low levels of genetic variation, low natality rates, and high juvenile mortality rates combined with the results of population modeling indicate a high risk of extinction within the next 50 years unless new genetic variation is introduced into the herd. Alternatively, analysis of population substructure and nonrandom culling reveal the necessity for further investigation into the long-term effects of current management practices in the Yellowstone National Park bison population. This study illustrates that while bison may be considered a conservation success story, long-term survival of protected federal populations requires the development of effective genetic management strategies.

Halbert, Natalie Dierschke

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Reflections in Mutation Research Electric light causes cancer?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

]. And on a population level, there is a strong international correlation between estimates of per capita fat consumption) wasted energy, (3) harm to animal and plant life, (4) and perhaps increases in some severe human maladies dismayed by the recent reports that dietary fat consumption was unrelated to risk of breast cancer in women

Oliver, Douglas L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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301

Application of Precision Mechanical Engineering Techniques to the Design of a Moderate Energy Beam Transport for the FAA Explosive Detection System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Application of Precision Mechanical Engineering Techniques to the Design of a Moderate Energy Beam Transport for the FAA Explosive Detection System

Lujan, R

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Preliminary analysis of gain measurements at the HFBR liquid hydrogen moderator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) is a 60 MW steady state neutron source. As part of the facility a cold neutron source is included in one of the beam tubes (H-9). The arrangement of this source is shown in Figure 1, which shows the reactor core, beam tube H-9, and the cold source with its attached helium cooling lines and hydrogen feed lines. The liquid hydrogen chamber is in the shape of an oblate spheroid and has a volume of 1.466 liters, and an aspect ratio of 1:3. Aluminum is used as the material of construction. The wall thickness of the chamber varies, with the thinnest value being on the flatter parts of the oblate spheroid. This design minimizes the amount of metal in the direction of the neutron beam of interest. Gain is defined as the ratio of the flux at a specific wave length leaking from the front face of the cold source, with and without the liquid hydrogen present. Measurements of the gain were made at several wavelength for the HFBR cold source. The change in the neutron spectrum at a particular wave length is a strong function of the scattering kernel of the moderator. Thus, these measurements can be used as integral data to validate calculational models and scattering kernel data for liquid hydrogen, and shed light on the actual mixture of ortho/para hydrogen in the cold source. Two scattering kernels for each of the states of liquid hydrogen (ortho and para) were available at the beginning of the study. The total scattering cross section for each of these are shown. The two ortho kernels are seen to be quite similar. However, in the case of para-hydrogen there is seen to be a significant difference between the two cross sections at lower energies or longer wavelengths. This difference implies a similar difference in the scattering kernel. In the following analysis both para-hydrogen kernels and only one ortho-hydrogen kernel will be used. In addition, a free proton gas kernel (no molecular binding) will be used for comparison purposes.

Ludewig, H.; Aronson, A.; Todosow, M.; Passell, L.; Wildgruber, U.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Development of a Safeguards Approach for a Small Graphite Moderated Reactor and Associated Fuel Cycle Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Small graphite-moderated and gas-cooled reactors have been around since the beginning of the atomic age. Though their existence in the past has been associated with nuclear weapons programs, they are capable of being used in civilian power programs. The simpler design constraints associated with this type of reactor would make them ideal for developing nations to bolster their electricity generation and help promote a greater standard of living in those nations. However, the same benefits that make this type of reactor desirable also make it suspicious to the international community as a possible means to shorten that state?s nuclear latency. If a safeguards approach could be developed for a fuel cycle featuring one of these reactors, it would ease the tension surrounding their existence and possibly lead to an increased latency through engineered barriers. The development of this safeguards approach follows a six step procedure. First, the fuel cycle was analyzed for the types of facilities found in it and how nuclear material flows between facilities. The goals of the safeguards system were established next, using the normal IAEA standards for the non-detection and false alarm probabilities. The 5 MWe Reactor was modeled for both plutonium production and maximum power capacity. Each facility was analyzed for material throughput and the processes that occur in each facility were researched. Through those processes, diversion pathways were developed to test the proposed safeguards system. Finally, each facility was divided into material balance areas and a traditional nuclear material accountancy system was set up to meet the established safeguards goals for the facility. The DPRK weapons program is a great example of the type of fuel cycle that is the problem. The three major facilities in the fuel cycle, the Fuel Fabrication Facility, the 5 MWe Reactor, and the Radiochemical Laboratory, can achieve the two goals of safeguards using traditional methods. Each facility can be adequately safeguarded using methods and practices that are relatively inexpensive and can obtain material balance periods close to the timeliness limits set forth by the IAEA. The Fuel Fabrication Facility can be safeguarded at both its current needed capacity and its full design capacity using inexpensive measurements. The material balance period needed for both capacities are reasonable. For the 5 MWe reactor, plutonium production is simulated to be 6.7 kg per year and is on the high side of estimates. The Radiochemical Laboratory can also be safeguarded at its current capacity. In fact, the timeliness goal for the facility dictates what the material balance period must be for the chosen set of detectors which make it very reasonable.

Rauch, Eric B.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

DETERMINING REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF SURFACES AND CLOUDS ON EXOPLANETS  

SciTech Connect

Planned missions will spatially resolve temperate terrestrial planets from their host star. Although reflected light from such a planet encodes information about its surface, it has not been shown how to establish surface characteristics of a planet without assuming known surfaces to begin with. We present a reanalysis of disk-integrated, time-resolved, multiband photometry of Earth obtained by the Deep Impact spacecraft as part of the EPOXI Mission of Opportunity. We extract reflectance spectra of clouds, ocean, and land without a priori knowledge of the numbers or colors of these surfaces. We show that the inverse problem of extracting surface spectra from such data is a novel and extreme instance of spectral unmixing, a well-studied problem in remote sensing. Principal component analysis is used to determine an appropriate number of model surfaces with which to interpret the data. Shrink-wrapping a simplex to the color excursions of the planet yields a conservative estimate of the planet's endmember spectra. The resulting surface maps are unphysical, however, requiring negative or larger-than-unity surface coverage at certain locations. Our ''rotational unmixing'' supersedes the endmember analysis by simultaneously solving for the surface spectra and their geographical distributions on the planet, under the assumption of diffuse reflection and known viewing geometry. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo to determine best-fit parameters and their uncertainties. The resulting albedo spectra are similar to clouds, ocean, and land seen through a Rayleigh-scattering atmosphere. This study suggests that future direct-imaging efforts could identify and map unknown surfaces and clouds on exoplanets.

Cowan, Nicolas B.; Strait, Talia E., E-mail: n-cowan@northwestern.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Dr., IL 60208 (United States)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Supernova rates and stellar populations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the results about the nature of type Ia Supernovae that can be derived by studying their rates in different stellar populations. While the evolution of SN photometry and spectra can constrain the explosion mechanism, the SN rate depends on the progenitor system. We review the current available data on rates as a function of parent galaxy color, morphology, star formation rate, radio luminosity and environment. By studying the variation of the rates with the color of the parent galaxy, a strong evidence was established that type Ia SNe come from both young and old stars. The dependence of the rates with the radio power of the parent galaxy is best reproduced by a bimodal distribution of delay time between the formation of the progenitor and its explosion as a SN. Cluster early-type galaxies show higher type Ia SN rate with respect to field galaxies, and this effect can be due either to traces of young stars or to differences in the delay time distribution.

F. Mannucci

2007-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

306

SiO2 - polyethylene reflected critical assembly  

SciTech Connect

The Planet universal critical assembly machine was used to perform a series of three critical experiments. This experiment used HEU foils reflected by polyethylene and interleaved with plates of SiO{sub 2} glass and polyethylene. Only the experiment performed using the SiO{sub 2} matrix material is evaluated in this report. The assembly was delayed critical with 33 HEU foils or 17 units (sets of HEU foils). The critical assembly has an intermediate neutron spectrum, with 51.2% of the fissions occurring between 0.625 eV and 100 keV. The calculational results show good agreement with the experimental results.

Brewer, R. W. (Roger W.); Sanchez, R. G. (Rene G.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Accurate hydrogen depth profiling by reflection elastic recoil detection analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technique to convert reflection elastic recoil detection analysis spectra to depth profiles, the channel-depth conversion, was introduced by Verda, et al [1]. But the channel-depth conversion does not correct for energy spread, the unwanted broadening in the energy of the spectra, which can lead to errors in depth profiling. A work in progress introduces a technique that corrects for energy spread in elastic recoil detection analysis spectra, the energy spread correction [2]. Together, the energy spread correction and the channel-depth conversion comprise an accurate and convenient hydrogen depth profiling method.

Verda, R. D. (Raymond D.); Tesmer, Joseph R.; Nastasi, Michael Anthony,; Bower, R. W. (Robert W.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

The Effect of Environmental Contaminants on Mating Dynamics and Population Viability in a Sex-Role-Reversed Pipefish  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding how anthropogenic activity impacts the health and viability of wildlife populations is one of the most important tasks of environmental biology. A key concern related to bi-products of human activity is the accumulation of environmental pollutants within aquatic environments. Pollutants such as endocrine disruptors and heavy metals have the potential to impact both human and wildlife populations in contaminated areas. While much research has focused on how these compounds impact natural selection processes, such as viability and reproduction, their effect on sexual selection processes is not as clear. The goal of this dissertation was to address how environmental contaminants impact sexual selection processes in a sex-role reversed pipefish and evaluate how these effects may impact long-term population viability. Here we show that short periods of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a synthetic estrogen result in male pipefish with female-like secondary sexual traits. While these males are capable of reproduction, exposed males are discriminated against by females in mate choice tests. In natural populations, this type of discrimination could reduce male mating opportunities, potentially reducing their reproductive success. In an additional component of this dissertation, it was discovered that pipefish populations around Mobile Bay, specifically Weeks Bay, are currently being exposed to significantly elevated levels of mercury. These populations are genetically distinct from coastal populations but moderate levels of gene flow occur among sites, and gene flow between contaminated and non-contaminated population may be influencing how environmental contaminants are impacting genetic diversity and population viability. In the case of endocrine disruptors, migration between contaminated and non-contaminated sites may negatively impact population viability. Morphological traits induced with exposure to contaminants may be maintained for extended periods of time, therefore, the effect the exposed phenotype has on mating dynamics and sexual selection could be carried to non-contaminated sites if exposed individuals move to new populations. On the other hand, immigration of individuals from non-contaminated sites into contaminated areas may help maintain genetic diversity within exposed populations. In conclusion, the work presented in this dissertation shows that the presence of environmental toxins can significantly impact sexual selection processes, which in turn can have profound effects on the viability and future evolutionary trajectory of populations. Future work in this area should not only address how these toxins impact individual fitness, but should also address how population structure may be influencing the severity of these compounds on natural populations.

Partridge, Charlyn G.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Nuclear Star Clusters - Structure and Stellar Populations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is an overview of nuclear star cluster observations, covering their structure, stellar populations, kinematics and possible connection to black holes at the centers of galaxies.

Neumayer, Nadine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Four Most Populous States - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

RESIDENTIAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION SURVEY 1997. OVERVIEW: MOST POPULOUS STATES ... Homes with air-conditioning: 62%... with a central air-conditioning system: 18%

311

Optimal control of leukemic cell population dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sep 5, 2013 ... This issue can be formulated as an optimal control problem. The dynamics of leukemic cell populations in culture is given by age-structured ...

312

Benchmark Evaluation of Plutonium Hemispheres Reflected by Steel and Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the period from June 1967 through September 1969 a series of critical experiments was performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory with spherical and hemispherical plutonium assemblies as nested hemishells as part of a Nuclear Safety Facility Experimental Program to evaluate operational safety margins for the Rocky Flats Plant. These assemblies were both bare and fully or partially oil-reflected. Many of these experiments were subcritical with an extrapolation to critical configurations or critical at a particular oil height. Existing records reveal that 167 experiments were performed over the course of 28 months. Unfortunately, much of the data was not recorded. A reevaluation of the experiments had been summarized in a report for future experimental and computational analyses. This report examines only fifteen partially oil-reflected hemispherical assemblies. Fourteen of these assemblies also had close-fitting stainless-steel hemishell reflectors, used to determine the effective critical reflector height of oil with varying steel-reflector thickness. The experiments and their uncertainty in keff values were evaluated to determine their potential as valid criticality benchmark experiments of plutonium.

John Darrell Bess

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Progress toward achieving a commercially viable solar reflective material  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar thermal technologies use large mirrors to concentrate sunlight for renewable power generation. The development of advanced reflector materials is important to the viability of electricity production by solar thermal energy systems. The reflector materials must be low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. Production processes associated with candidate materials must be scalable to mass production techniques. A promising low-cost construction uses a stainless steel foil substrate with a silver reflective layer protected by an optically transparent oxide topcoat. Thick (2 to 4 micron), dense alumina coatings provide durable protective layers. The excellent performance of alumina-coated reflector materials in outdoor and accelerated testing suggests that a larger field trial of the material is warranted. The key to producing a greater quantity of material for field deployment and testing without incurring substantial capital is the use of a chilled drum coater. An existing chamber is being modified, and the deposition rate will be increased prior to the installation of a drum coater to produce 1-ft wide by 10-ft long strips of solar reflector material. The production and performance of these materials are discussed.

Kennedy, C.E.; Smilgys, R.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)]|[Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

90-Degree Bragg Reflection from a Thin Crystalline Film  

SciTech Connect

Experimental observations of synchrotron radiation diffraction from a thin surface layer at a 90-degree Bragg reflection are reported and discussed. The synchrotron experiments were performed using a bending magnet source at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France and undulator sources at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the U.S. and SPring-8 in Japan. Thin (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 micron) InGaAs films deposited on a GaAs (100) substrate were studied near the 90- degree using the GaAs (800) reflection. A slight, less than 0.1%, difference in the lattice spacing between the layer and the substrate is sufficient to allow a direct and exclusive observation of the diffraction profile from a thin layer as if it was a 'free-standing' thin crystal. This research opens new possibilities for x-ray optical schemes and the development of novel analytical techniques for surface/interface x-ray diffraction studies.

Nikulin, A.Y.; Davis, J.R.; Usher, B.F.; Freund, A.K.; Ishikawa, T.

2001-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

315

Gas-cooled, Li/sub 2/O moderator/breeder canister blanket for fusion-synfuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new integrated power and breeding blanket is described. The blanket incorporates features that make it suitable for synthetic fuel production. It is matched to the thermal and electrical requirements of the General atomic water-splitting process for producing hydrogen. The fusion reaction is the Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR) using Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) physics. The canister blanket is a high temperature, pressure balanced, cross-flow heat exchanger contained within a low activity, independently cooled, moderate temperature, first wall structural envelope. The canister uses Li/sub 2/O as the moderator/breeder and helium as the coolant. In situ tritium control, combined with slip stream processing and self-healing permeation barriers, assures a hydrogen product essentially free of tritium. The blanket is particularly adapted to synfuels production but is equally useful for electricity production or co-generation.

Werner, R.W.; Hoffman, M.A.

1983-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

316

CIVILIAN POWER REACTOR PROGRAM. PART II. ECONOMIC POTENTIAL AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM. HEAVY WATER-MODERATED POWER REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

The reactor design which forms the base for the current economic status of D/sub 2/O-moderated reactors was estimated from developments in several reactor programs. However, since a heavy water-moderated reactor was not operated on natural U fuel at power reactor conditions, considerable improvement from this current status can be foreseen. A summary of improvements is presented concerning the concept which would result solely from operation of succeeding generation plants without a parallel development program, and improvements which would result from the successful completion of the development program as presented. One plant size was used in the evaluation of plant potential, with a 300 Mw/sub e/ nominal rating. The boiling D/sub 2/O-cooled, pressure tube direct cycle plant design was used. The current development program is outlined; this work includes several items leading to the long-range development of the concept. (auth)

Hutton, J.H.; Davis, S.A.; Graves, C.C.; Duffy, J.G. comps.

1960-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

317

The oxidation of Ba dosed Mo(100) surfaces with O/sub 2/ at moderately high temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The oxidation of Mo(100) and Ba-covered Mo(100) by O/sub 2/ have been examined at moderately high temperature (700 to 1400/sup 0/K) using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results indicate that the Ba or BaO overlayer retards but does not prevent oxidation of the underlying Mo surface. The high temperature surface chemistry of the O/Ba/Mo surface is described. 11 refs., 3 figs.

Rogers, J.W. Jr.; Blair, D.S.; Paffett, M.T.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Meteorological and Astronomical Influences on Radar Reflectivity in the Convective Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations are presented of time-varying radar reflectivity during a partial solar eclipse in Oklahoma. The measurements from a radar of 10-cm wavelength, were obtained in the clear-air boundary layer. The reflectivity changes closely follow ...

Robert M. Rabin; Richard J. Doviak

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

V-142: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code V-142: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code April 25, 2013 - 12:14am...

320

The Effect of Cloud Sides on Reflected Solar Radiation as Deduced from Satellite Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the observation of a feature that is characteristic of the reflection of solar radiation from absorbing, finite clouds. When absorption takes place, more radiation can be reflected by broken cloud fields than by extensive unbroken cloud ...

James A. Coakley Jr.; Roger Davies

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

A Differential Reflectivity Radar Hall Measurement Technique: Observations during the Denver Hailstorm of 13 June 1984  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A differential reflectivity radar technique for observing hailstorms is demonstrated using measurements obtained during the 13 June 1984 Denver hailstorm. The hail regions of the storm are identified with the differential reflectivity hail ...

K. Aydin; Y. Zhao; T. A. Seliga

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

General Probability-matched Relations between Radar Reflectivity and Rain Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of deriving the relation between radar-observed reflectivities Ze and gauge-measured rain intensity, R is presented. It is based on matching the probabilities of the two variables. The observed reflectivity is often very different from ...

Daniel Rosenfeld; David B. Wolff; David Atlas

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Experimental studies of a teleoperator system with projection-based force reflection algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of experimental studies of a teleoperator system with projection-based force reflection algorithms in the presence of communication constraints are presented. It is demonstrated that, using the projection-based force reflection algorithms, the ...

Ilia G. Polushin; Peter X. Liu; Chung-Horng Lung

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Centrifuging of Hydrometeors and Debris in Tornadoes: Radar-Reflectivity Patterns and Wind-Measurement Errors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution Doppler radar observations of tornadoes reveal a distinctive tornado-scale signature with the following properties: a reflectivity minimum aloft inside the tornado core (described previously as an “eye”), a high-reflectivity tube ...

David C. Dowell; Curtis R. Alexander; Joshua M. Wurman; Louis J. Wicker

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Airborne Doppler Lidar Investigation of Sea Surface Reflectance at a 355-nm Ultraviolet Wavelength  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The analysis of the sea surface reflectance for different incidence angles based on observations of an airborne Doppler lidar at an ultraviolet wavelength of 355 nm is described. The results were compared to sea surface reflectance models, ...

Zhigang Li; Christian Lemmerz; Ulrike Paffrath; Oliver Reitebuch; Benjamin Witschas

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

An Experimental Study of Small-Scale Variability of Radar Reflectivity Using Disdrometer Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of data collected by four disdrometers deployed in a 1-km2 area is presented with the intent of quantifying the spatial variability of radar reflectivity at small spatial scales. Spatial variability of radar reflectivity within the radar ...

Benjamin J. Miriovsky; A. Allen Bradley; William E. Eichinger; Witold F. Krajewski; Anton Kruger; Brian R. Nelson; Jean-Dominique Creutin; Jean-Marc Lapetite; Gyu Won Lee; Isztar Zawadzki; Fred L. Ogden

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Using Sun Glint to Check the Relative Calibration of Reflected Spectral Radiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of sunlight reflected from regions of sun glint are used to check the relative calibration of spectral radiances obtained with imaging radiometers. Reflectances at different wavelengths for sun-glint regions are linearly related. ...

Gunnar Luderer; James A. Coakley Jr.; William R. Tahnk

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations This...

329

Disdrometer Measurements during an Intense Rainfall Event in Central Illinois: Implications for Differential Reflectivity Radar Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Empirical relationships for estimating rainfall rate, liquid water content and median volume diameter from radar measurements of reflectivity factor and differential reflectivity are derived from a disdrometer record of a highly variable, heavy ...

T. A. Seliga; K. Aydin; H. Direskeneli

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Hungry for Respect: The Moderating Roles of Status and Justice Orientation on Relationships between Interpersonal Justice and Emotions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Affective reactions to unfair treatment date back to the earliest work on organizational justice. Seminal research on inequity identifies anger and guilt as primary responses to judgments of low justice. More recently, interpersonal justice has been linked to emotions such as anger and hostility. In fact, interpersonal justice is arguably the most emotionally charged of all the justice types. Yet, despite the strong theoretical support and empirical evidence linking interpersonal justice to negative emotions, we are unsure whether dignity and respect from a supervisor may also influence positive emotions. Justice scholars have also begun to investigate the moderating influence of status on to the effects of interpersonal justice. It has been suggested, and empirically demonstrated, that people of lower objective status (hierarchical position, race) react more strongly to fairness relative to those higher in status. However, we do not yet know how the effects of interpersonal justice may be moderated by employees’ perceptions of personal status, workgroup status, or supervisor status. Furthermore, scholars have yet to examine the moderating influence of status on emotional reactions to interpersonal justice. In this dissertation, I answer recent calls for further investigation into the relationships between interpersonal justice and emotions and between interpersonal justice and status. Specifically, I draw from affective events theory and self-enhancement theory to develop a model of interpersonal justice, status, and emotions. In this model, I hypothesize a mediating effect of emotions on the relationships between interpersonal justice and a number of distal attitudes and behaviors. I further predict a moderating influence of justice orientation and three types of status—personal (self) status, workgroup status, and supervisor status—on the interpersonal justice to emotions relationships. A sample of 427 university-based military cadets provided partial support for my model. As expected, interpersonal justice predicted a number of important distal outcomes indirectly through both positive and negative emotions. Personal status, supervisor status, and justice orientation moderated several of the relationships between interpersonal justice and emotions. Implications for practice and theory are discussed.

Stoverink, Adam C

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Wavelength Dependent Reflectance Functions Jay S. Gondek, Gary W. Meyer, Jonathan G. Newman  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reflected from a paint or a plastic is not completely determined by the absorptive properties of the pigment, the spatial distribution of the light reflected from multilayer systems (such as an iridescent paint) is onlyWavelength Dependent Reflectance Functions Jay S. Gondek, Gary W. Meyer, Jonathan G. Newman

Meyer, Gary

332

Linearity and CNR Improvement Technologies against Optical Reflection inFiber-Oriented Wireless Access Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is important to consider optical reflection conditions when designing fiber-oriented wireless access systems around subcarrier optical transmission since the noise characteristic can be significantly degraded by optical reflection, especially ... Keywords: intensity noise, optical reflection, predistorter, subcarrier optical transmission, superimposed subcarrier modulation, superluminescent diode

Yuji Aburakawa; Hiroyuki Ohtsuka

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form Date: Climate Roof) Roofing products with high solar reflectance and thermal emittance are referred to as "Cool Roof hot, light-colored surfaces reflect solar energy and stay cooler. However, high emittance is also

334

Aberration-free, all-reflective laser pulse stretcher  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An all-reflective pulse stretcher for laser systems employing chirped-pulse amplification enables on-axis use of the focusing mirror which results in ease of use, significantly decreased sensitivity to alignment and near aberration-free performance. By using a new type of diffraction grating which contains a mirror incorporated into the grating, the stretcher contains only three elements: 1) the grating, 2) a spherical or parabolic focusing mirror, and 3) a flat mirror. Addition of a fourth component, a retro-reflector, enables multiple passes of the same stretcher resulting in stretching ratios beyond the current state of the art in a simple and compact design. The pulse stretcher has been used to stretch pulses from 20 fsec to over 600 psec (a stretching ratio in excess of 30,000).

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Fochs, Scott N. (Livermore, CA)

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

335

Energy Systems and Population Health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well-documented that energy and energy systems have a central role in social and economic development and human welfare at all scales, from household and community to regional and national (41). Among its various welfare effects, energy is closely linked with people s health. Some of the effects of energy on health and welfare are direct. With abundant energy, more food or more frequent meals can be prepared; food can be refrigerated, increasing the types of food items that are consumed and reducing food contamination; water pumps can provide more water and eliminate the need for water storage leading to contamination or increased exposure to disease vectors such as mosquitoes or snails; water can be disinfected by boiling or using other technologies such as radiation. Other effects of energy on public health are mediated through more proximal determinants of health and disease. Abundant energy can lead to increased irrigation, agricultural productivity, and access to food and nutrition; access to energy can also increase small-scale income generation such as processing of agricultural commodities (e.g., producing refined oil from oil seeds, roasting coffee, drying and preserving fruits and meats) and production of crafts; ability to control lighting and heating allows education or economic activities to be shielded from daily or seasonal environmental constraints such as light, temperature, rainfall, or wind; time and other economic resources spent on collecting and/or transporting fuels can be used for other household needs if access to energy is facilitated; energy availability for transportation increases access to health and education facilities and allow increased economic activity by facilitating the transportation of goods and services to and from markets; energy for telecommunication technology (radio, television, telephone, or internet) provides increased access to information useful for health, education, or economic purposes; provision of energy to rural and urban health facilities allows increased delivery and coverage of 3 various health services and interventions such as tests and treatments, better storage of medicine and vaccines, disinfection of medical equipment by boiling or radiation, and more frequent and efficient health system encounters through mobile clinics or longer working hours; and so on. In fact, while the dominant view of development-energy-health linkages has been that improvements in energy and health are outcomes of the socioeconomic development process (e.g., the ''energy ladder'' framework discussed below), it has even been argued that access to higher quality energy sources and technologies can initiate a chain of demographic, health, and development outcomes by changing the household structure and socioeconomic relationships. For example, in addition to increased opportunities for food and income production, reduced infant mortality as a result of transition to cleaner fuels or increased coverage of vaccination with availability of refrigerators in rural clinics may initiate a process of ''demographic transition'' to low-mortality and low-fertility populations (14). Such a transition has historically been followed with further improvements in maternal and child health and increased female participation in the labor markets and other economic activities.

Ezzati, Majid; Bailis, Rob; Kammen, Daniel M.; Holloway, Tracey; Price, Lynn; Cifuentes, Luis A.; Barnes, Brendon; Chaurey, Akanksha; Dhanapala, Kiran N.

2004-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

336

Modeling Electromagnetic Reflectivity of Agbabu Oil Sand from Hyperspectral Infrared Reflectance Spectra and Dielectric Properties at L-, C- and X-Band Frequencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper remote identification of oil sand reservoirs from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is enhanced by accurate modeling of the electromagnetic (EM) reflectivity of Agbabu oil sands. This is demonstrated using a novel combination of hyperspectral ... Keywords: EM Reflectivity, Computer Simulation, Agbabu Oil Sand, Dielectric property, Petroleum Exploration

Maurice Ezeoke, Kenneth Tong

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Estimating Traveler Populations at Airport and Cruise Terminals for Population Distribution and Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, uses of high-resolution population distribution databases are increasing steadily for environmental, socioeconomic, public health, and disaster-related research and operations. With the development of daytime population distribution, temporal resolution of such databases has been improved. However, the lack of incorporation of transitional population, namely business and leisure travelers, leaves a significant population unaccounted for within the critical infrastructure networks, such as at transportation hubs. This paper presents two general methodologies for estimating passenger populations in airport and cruise port terminals at a high temporal resolution which can be incorporated into existing population distribution models. The methodologies are geographically scalable and are based on, and demonstrate how, two different transportation hubs with disparate temporal population dynamics can be modeled utilizing publicly available databases including novel data sources of flight activity from the Internet which are updated in near-real time. The airport population estimation model shows great potential for rapid implementation for a large collection of airports on a national scale, and the results suggest reasonable accuracy in the estimated passenger traffic. By incorporating population dynamics at high temporal resolutions into population distribution models, we hope to improve the estimates of populations exposed to or at risk to disasters, thereby improving emergency planning and response, and leading to more informed policy decisions.

Jochem, Warren C [ORNL; Sims, Kelly M [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Urban, Marie L [ORNL; Rose, Amy N [ORNL; Coleman, Phil R [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Hanford Site Regional Population - 2010 Census  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy conducts radiological operations in south-central Washington State. Population dose estimates must be performed to provide a measure of the impact from site radiological releases. Results of the U.S. 2010 Census were used to determine counts and distributions for the residential population located within 50-miles of several operating areas of the Hanford Site. Year 2010 was the first census year that a 50-mile population of a Hanford Site operational area exceeded the half-million mark.

Hamilton, Erin L.; Snyder, Sandra F.

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

339

Benchmark test of neutron transport calculations: Indium, nickel, gold, europium, and cobalt activation with and without energy moderated fission neutrons by iron simulating the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A benchmark test of the Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code system (MCNP) was performed using a bare- and energy-moderated {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source which was obtained by transmission through 10-cm-thick iron. An iron plate was used to simulate the effect of the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing. This test includes the activation of indium and nickel for fast neutrons and gold, europium, and cobalt for thermal and epithermal neutrons, which were inserted in the moderators. The latter two activations are also to validate {sup 152}Eu and {sup 60}Co activity data obtained from the atomic bomb-exposed specimens collected at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The neutron moderators used were Lucite and Nylon 6 and the total thickness of each moderator was 60 cm or 65 cm. Measured activity data (reaction yield) of the neutron-irradiated detectors in these moderators decreased to about 1/1,000th or 1/10,000th, which corresponds to about 1,500 m ground distance from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. For all of the indium, nickel, and gold activity data, the measured and calculated values agreed within 25%, and the corresponding values for europium and cobalt were within 40%. From this study, the MCNP code was found to be accurate enough for the bare- and energy-moderated {sup 252}Cf neutron activation calculations of these elements using moderators containing hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. 18 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Iwatani, Kazuo; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hiraoka, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Norihiko [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Oka, Takamitsu [Kure Women`s College, Hiroshima-ken (Japan)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Calibration Accuracy Of Aerial Multispectral Reflectance Images And Estimation Of Error Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: We have performed a systematic study of the calibration accuracy of multispectral aerial reflectance images. The study is part of the improvement of change detection for aerial and satellite multispectral images. It is based on (a) a multitemporal image data set from the multispectral airborne scanner Daedalus AADS 1268 and (b) simultaneously made ground based hyperspectral reflectance measurements. Reflectance images were obtained from the raw images by processing with the program package SENSAT-5, using standard urban atmospheres in the MODTRAN code. The systematic uncertainty of the resulting reflectance spectra is mainly due to the uncertainty in the atmospheric parameters. It can be reduced by fitting the Daedalus spectra to ground truth hyperspectral reflectance measurements of selected surfaces. The resulting uncertainty oe ae =ae of the reflectance ae is estimated to be 11.0 % on average. KEY WORDS: Remote sensing, Reflectance, Error sources 1 INTRODUCTION Remotely sensed ...

Andre Rothkirch; Martin Kollewe; Hartwig Spitzer

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A FORCE-REFLECTING TELEOPERATION SYSTEM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For certain applications, such as space servicing, undersea operations, and hazardous material handling tasks in nuclear reactors, the environments can be uncertain, complex, and hazardous. Lives may be in danger if humans were to work under these conditions. As a result, a man-machine system--a teleoperator system--has been developed to work in these types of environments. In a typical teleoperator system, the actual system operates at a remote site; the operator located away from this system usually receives visual information from a video image and/or graphical animation on the computer screen. Additional feedback, such as aural and force information, can significantly enhance performance of the system. Force reflection is a type of feedback in which forces experienced by the remote manipulator are fed back to the manual controller. Various control methods have been proposed for implementation on a teleoperator system. In order to examine different control schemes, a one Degree-Of-Freedom (DOF) Force-Reflecting Manual Controller (FRMC) is constructed and integrated into a PC. The system parameters are identified and constructed as a mathematical model. The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic controllers are developed and tested experimentally. Numerical simulation results obtained from the mathematical model are compared with those of experimental data for both types of controllers. In addition, the concept of a telesensation system is introduced. A telesensation system is an advanced teleoperator system that attempts to provide the operator with sensory feedback. In this context, a telesensation system integrates the use of a Virtual Reality (VR) unit, FRMC, and Graphical User Interface (GUI). The VR unit is used to provide the operator with a 3-D visual effect. Various commercial VR units are reviewed and features compared for use in a telesensation system. As for the FRMC, the conceptual design of a 3-DOF FRMC is developed in an effort to make the system portable, compact, and lightweight. A variety of design alternatives are presented and evaluated. Finally, a GUI software package is developed to interface with several teleoperation unit components. These components include an industrial robot, electric motor, encoder, force/torque sensor, and CCD camera. The software includes features such as position scaling, force scaling, and rereferencing and is intended to provide a sound basis for the development of a multi-DOF FRMC system in the future.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

CORRELATION OF CRITICAL MASS DATA ON LIGHT WATER MODERATED, FULLY ENRICHED URANIUM, STAINLESS STEEL REACTORS. PART I  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data were collected on over 70 light water moderated, fully enriched uranium, stainless steel, critical cores. An equation for the critical mass of cores with a buckling of 0.007 cm/sup -2/ that is lineally dependent on stainless steel volume fraction and grams of B/sup 10/ was compared with available critical experiments and found to yield reasonable results. A correlation method, relating buckling to ( xi SIGMA /sub s// SIGMA /sub a/) was found to fit the available experiments. (auth)

Lee, D.H.

1962-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

343

Analysis of the burping behavior of the cold solid methane moderator at IPNS (Intense Pulsed Neutron Source)  

SciTech Connect

Examination of the cold solid methane moderator at IPNS (Model II) revealed that a circumferential weld failed due to high internal pressure, such as would be caused by thermal expansion of solid methane or the release of Hydrogen gas upon spontaneous heating. This weld is the main object of current attention for a design of a replacement. The present paper deals with the processes which lead to the burping behavior and outlines the analysis of some of the consequences. The purpose is to determine conditions under which the system can operate at the lowest possible temperature, avoiding the problems experienced to data.

Carpenter, J.M.; Walter, U.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Multi-Instrument Comparison of Top-of-Atmosphere Reflected Solar Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and Sea-Viewing Wide-Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) between 2000 and ...

Norman G. Loeb; Bruce A. Wielicki; Wenying Su; Konstantin Loukachine; Wenbo Sun; Takmeng Wong; Kory J. Priestley; Grant Matthews; Walter F. Miller; R. Davies

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Method for spatially distributing a population  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for spatially distributing a population count within a geographically defined area can include the steps of logically correlating land usages apparent from a geographically defined area to geospatial features in the geographically defined area and allocating portions of the population count to regions of the geographically defined area having the land usages, according to the logical correlation. The process can also include weighing the logical correlation for determining the allocation of portions of the population count and storing the allocated portions within a searchable data store. The logically correlating step can include the step of logically correlating time-based land usages to geospatial features of the geographically defined area. The process can also include obtaining a population count for the geographically defined area, organizing the geographically defined area into a plurality of sectors, and verifying the allocated portions according to direct observation.

Bright, Edward A [Knoxville, TN; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [Knoxville, TN; Coleman, Phillip R [Knoxville, TN; Dobson, Jerome E [Lawrence, KS

2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

346

Planning combat outposts to maximize population security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combat outposts (COPs) are small, well-protected bases from which soldiers reside and conduct operations from. Used extensively during the "Surge" in Iraq, COPs are usually established in populated areas and are prevalent ...

Seidel, Scott B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

HUMAN SUBJECT RESEARCH INVOLVING SPECIAL SUBJECT POPULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, April 18, 1979. While there are legitimate ethical concerns whenever vulnerable populations are studied of which are intended to be submitted later to, or held for inspection by, the Food and Drug Administration

Sibille, Etienne

348

Effects of Reflection by Natural Surfaces on the Radiation Emerging from the Top of the Earth's Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiation emerging from the top of the earth's atmosphere is affected by the reflection characteristics of the underlying surface. Laboratory-gathered bidirectional reflectance data were used to characterize the reflection matrix for three ...

Bruce W. Fitch

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Simulation studies for the detection of changes in broadband albedo and shortwave nadir reflectance spectra under a climate change scenario  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Earth’s reflected solar radiation. While Pallé et al. [of the reflected solar radiation [Wielicki et al. , 1995].the nadir reflectance of solar radiation from Earth to space

Feldman, D.R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Solar reflector soiling pattern distributions and reflectance measurement requirements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Short-term specular reflectance losses from optical surfaces used in the collection or concentration of solar energy results in significant reduction of these systems' output. Losses range from 0.1% to 1.0% per day, approaching asymptotes of 25% to 60% for periods greater than one year, depending onsite and season. To appropriately assess the value of a particular location for the production of power, consideration of the rates of soiling and strategies to minimize losses resulting from soiling must be considered. Strategies for measuring the optical performance of reflector materials to a specified degree of accuracy have been developed, according to the types of soiling patterns observed. It was found most soiling occurs with the accumulation of particulates in spots of different sizes, and the spot sizes follow a lognormal distribution. For most practical situations, it was determined that 10 measurements with a 1-cm-diameter beam are enough to place the average value within 3% of the true value, with a confidence level of 95%.

Kidney, K. (Colorado Univ., Denver, CO (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Criticality Benchmark Analysis of Water-Reflected Uranium Oxyfluoride Slabs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of twelve experiments were conducted in the mid 1950's at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine the critical conditions of a semi-infinite water-reflected slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). A different slab thickness was used for each experiment. Results from the twelve experiment recorded in the laboratory notebook were published in Reference 1. Seven of the twelve experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments for the inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. This evaluation will not only be available to handbook users for the validation of computer codes and integral cross-section data, but also for the reevaluation of experimental data used in the ANSI/ANS-8.1 standard. This evaluation is important as part of the technical basis of the subcritical slab limits in ANSI/ANS-8.1. The original publication of the experimental results was used for the determination of bias and bias uncertainties for subcritical slab limits, as documented by Hugh Clark's paper 'Subcritical Limits for Uranium-235 Systems'.

Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Albedo and Reflection Spectra of Extrasolar Giant Planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We generate theoretical albedo and reflection spectra for a full range of extrasolar giant planet (EGP) models, from Jovian to 51-Pegasi class objects. Our albedo modeling utilizes the latest atomic and molecular cross sections, a Mie theory treatment of extinction by condensates, a variety of particle size distributions, and an extension of the Feautrier radiative transfer method which allows for a general treatment of the scattering phase function. We find that due to qualitative similarities in the compositions and spectra of objects within each of four broad effective temperature ranges, it is natural to establish four representative EGP albedo classes: a ``Jovian'' class (T$_{\\rm eff} \\lesssim 150$ K; Class I) with tropospheric ammonia clouds, a ``water cloud'' class (T$_{\\rm eff} \\sim 250$ K; Class II) primarily affected by condensed H$_2$O, a ``clear'' class (T$_{\\rm eff} \\gtrsim 350$ K; Class III) which lacks clouds, and a high-temperature class (T$_{\\rm{eff}}$ $\\gtrsim$ 900 K; Class IV) for which alk...

Sudarsky, D; Pinto, P A; Sudarsky, David; Burrows, Adam; Pinto, Philip

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Reflection and Transmission at the Apparent Horizon during Gravitational Collapse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the wave-functionals describing the collapse of a self-gravitating dust ball in an exact quantization of the gravity-dust system. We show that ingoing (collapsing) dust shell modes outside the apparent horizon must necessarily be accompanied by outgoing modes inside the apparent horizon, whose amplitude is suppressed by the square root of the Boltzmann factor at the Hawking temperature. Likewise, ingoing modes in the interior must be accompanied by outgoing modes in the exterior, again with an amplitude suppressed by the same factor. A suitable superposition of the two solutions is necessary to conserve the dust probability flux across the apparent horizon, thus each region contains both ingoing and outgoing dust modes. If one restricts oneself to considering only the modes outside the apparent horizon then one should think of the apparent horizon as a partial reflector, the probability for a shell to reflect being given by the Boltzmann factor at the Hawking temperature determined by the mass contained within it. However, if one considers the entire wave function, the outgoing wave in the exterior is seen to be the transmission through the horizon of the interior outgoing wave that accompanies the collapsing shells. This transmission could allow information from the interior to be transferred to the exterior.

Cenalo Vaz; L. C. R. Wijewardhana

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

354

United Nations Population Information Network | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

United Nations Population Information Network United Nations Population Information Network Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: United Nations Population Information Network Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Focus Area: People and Policy Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.un.org/popin/ Cost: Free United Nations Population Information Network Screenshot References: United Nations Population Information Network[1] Logo: United Nations Population Information Network The Population Information Network (POPIN) strives to make international, regional and national population information, particularly information available from United Nations sources, easily available to the international community. "The Population Information Network (POPIN) was founded on 9 May 1979, by

355

Population, Economy and Energy Use’s Influence on Sulfur Emissions in the United States Since 1900  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper seeks to identify how changes in population, economic activity, and energy use have influenced sulfur emissions during this century. A linear model is presented which characterizes sulfur emissions as the product of these driving forces. The change in sulfur emissions is formulated as a function of changes in these trends. During this century, population growth and increasing economic activity have put upward pressure on sulfur emissions. The declining energy intensity of the economy and the transition from coal to less sulfur intensive fuels have reduced sulfur emissions. The net effect of all drivers has been moderate growth in sulfur emissions from 1900 to present. Since 1973, increased energy efficiency and the shift from an industrial to a commercially oriented economy have lowered the energy intensity of the economy. The increased use of low sulfur coal and reduced sulfur emissions from metal smelters have lowered the sulfur intensity of energy. These factors have combined to cause sulfur emissions to decline by 25%.

Kissock, J. K.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Winter Forecast Problems Associated with Light to Moderate Snow Events in the Mid-Atlantic States on 14 and 22 February 1986  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two cases of light and moderate snow events over the Washington, DC area are presented for 14 and 22 February 1986. These cases were selected since the upper-tropospheric and surface features were quite similar, yet significantly different ...

Jeffrey Homan; Louis W. Uccellini

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

The Stellar Populations of Seyfert 2 Nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a preliminary analysis of the stellar populations in the central parsecs of a sample of 22 Seyfert 2 galaxies, based on a careful separation of nebular emission and stellar light in high-spatial resolution HST-STIS spectra. 10% of the surveyed nuclei display stellar populations of intermediate age, 1-2 Gyr old, whereas the remaining targets appear to be evenly split between objects showing only very old stellar populations and nuclei requiring also an additional blue featureless component, which we characterise by means of very young, few-Myr-old stars. The small fraction of stellar population of intermediate age seems to argue against the presence of such a young component, however, since the short lifetime of O-stars would imply recurrent star-formation episodes and the build-up over the last 1-2 Gyr of a detectable intermediate-age population. Additionally, a correlation between the luminosity of such a blue component and the emission from highly-ionised species, together with the general absence of Wolf-Rayet features, further suggests that the featureless continuum arises from the central engine rather than from star-forming regions. We discuss our results in the framework of the unification paradigm and of models for star formation close to supermassive black holes.

Marc Sarzi; Joe Shields; Rick Pogge; Paul Martini

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

358

Plasma particle and energy reflection at a wall with an obliquely incident magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The particle and energy reflection coefficients are calculated for a plasma incident at a wall with an obliquely incident magnetic field. The salient result of these calculations is that the reflection coefficients can approach unity when the magnetic field is incident at grazing angles. This reflection of particles and energy will be an important process in determining the particle and energy balance in the edge plasma.

Knize, R.J.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Reflections on Reflexions: I. Light Echoes in Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the last ten years, observational evidences about a possible connection between Type Ia Supernovae (SNe) properties and the environment where they explode have been steadily growing. In this paper I discuss, from a theoretical point of view but with an observer's perspective, the usage of light echoes (LEs) to probe the CSM around SNe of Type Ia since, in principle, they give us a unique opportunity of getting a three-dimensional description of the SN environment. In turn, this can be used to check the often suggested association of some Ia's with dusty/star forming regions, which would point to a young population for the progenitors. After giving a brief introduction to the LE phenomenon in single scattering approximation, I derive analytical and numerical solutions for the optical light and colour curves for a few simple dust geometries. A fully 3D multiple scattering treatment has also been implemented in a Monte Carlo code, which I have used to investigate the effects of multiple scattering. In particu...

Patat, F

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Reflection Survey At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Measuring solar reflectance-Part I: Defining a metric that accurately...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain Title Measuring solar reflectance-Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain Publication Type...

362

Home, Home (Video) on the Range: Reflections on Small-Town Video Stores in 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

theory, and practices of video culture in the United States.Home, Home (Video) on the RangeReflections on Small-Town Video Stores in 2010 Daniel

Herbert, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

The reflective lens : the effects of video analysis on preservice teacher development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2004- 2005 PACT Teaching Event analysis. The Reflection taskof the PACT Teaching Event analysis also show the areas ofCorrelation analysis: PACT Teaching Event Task scores. As

Halter, Christopher P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

A Relationship between Reflectivity and Snow Rate for a High-Altitude S-Band Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important application of radar reflectivity measurements is their interpretation as precipitation intensity. Empirical relationships exist for converting microwave backscatter retrieved from precipitation particles (represented by an equivalent ...

Jonathan P. Wolfe; Jefferson R. Snider

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Soliton propagation, reflection, and transmission in an inhomogeneous plasma with trapped electrons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transmission and reflection of solitons from a semitransparent grid in an inhomogeneous plasma in the presence of trapped electrons is studied analytically. Conditions are obtained for the obliqueness of the propagation and the drift velocity of ions for the soliton transmission and reflection. Also, a transmission-reflection conservation law is derived. The contribution of trapped electrons to the solitons' propagation and their reflection and transmission is examined through energy, amplitude, and width of the solitons, in addition to the effect of temperature and drift of the ions.

Aziz, Farah; Malik, Hitendra K.; Stroth, Ulrich [Institut fuer Plasmaforschung, Universitaet Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Anatomy-Based Algorithms for Detecting Oral Cancer Using Reflectance and Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OBJECTIVES: We used reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy to noninvasively and quantitatively distinguish benign from dysplastic/malignant oral lesions. We designed diagnostic algorithms to account for differences in ...

McGee, Sasha

367

Reflection mass spectrometry technique for monitoring and controlling composition during molecular beam epitaxy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method for on-line accurate monitoring and precise control of molecular beam epitaxial growth of Groups III-III-V or Groups III-V-V layers in an advanced semiconductor device incorporates reflection mass spectrometry. The reflection mass spectrometry is responsive to intentional perturbations in molecular fluxes incident on a substrate by accurately measuring the molecular fluxes reflected from the substrate. The reflected flux is extremely sensitive to the state of the growing surface and the measurements obtained enable control of newly forming surfaces that are dynamically changing as a result of growth.

Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Tsao, J.Y.

1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Reflection mass spectrometry technique for monitoring and controlling composition during molecular beam epitaxy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for on-line accurate monitoring and precise control of molecular beam epitaxial growth of Groups III-III-V or Groups III-V-V layers in an advanced semiconductor device incorporates reflection mass spectrometry. The reflection mass spectrometry is responsive to intentional perturbations in molecular fluxes incident on a substrate by accurately measuring the molecular fluxes reflected from the substrate. The reflected flux is extremely sensitive to the state of the growing surface and the measurements obtained enable control of newly forming surfaces that are dynamically changing as a result of growth.

Brennan, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Hammons, B. Eugene (Tijeras, NM); Tsao, Jeffrey Y. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rye Patch Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Rye Patch Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown...

370

Home, Home (Video) on the Range: Reflections on Small-Town Video Stores in 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Home,Home (Video) on the Range Reflections on Small-Town VideoFields Journal no. 1 (2010) Home, Home (Video) on the Range

Herbert, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, we have developed an algorithm that successfully classifies normal breast tissue, fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and infiltrating ductal ...

Fitzmaurice, Maryann

372

Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted From Natural...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted From Natural Gas Cooking Burners Title Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted From Natural Gas Cooking Burners...

373

History & Reflections of Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

I thought it was important to relate how this project began. Jens Mahler, Mechanical Engineering Deputy Associate Director, recalls that during a discussion between him and Wally Decker, Wally suggested that he document the significant events and the organization of the Mechanical Engineering Department since 1952, i.e., write a history of Mechanical Engineering. Jens agreed that Wally should begin this effort. Upon learning of this, Dave Pehrson, Deputy Associate Director for Engineering, suggested that the History be expanded to include Electronics Engineering and that it be called A History of Engineering. Dave asked me to join Wally on this effort and, unfortunately, Wally died shortly after I started. In the first part of this History, I have attempted to capture the important contributions that Engineering has made to the Programs, since Engineering's primary mission is to provide ''support to the Laboratory Programs.'' In the later parts you will find views discussing the development and application of Engineering's technology base. While Engineering's direct programmatic support had first priority, Engineering had other responsibilities as well. Some of these were to hire and train a competent technical and leadership staff, to anticipate and develop engineering technologies for future use by the Programs, to provide support to institutional activities, to be the vehicle for internal technology transfer, to provide for the movement of personnel between Programs, to groom individuals to assume programmatic and institutional leadership positions, and to develop, operate, and maintain facilities. Engineering developed the reputation as ''the flywheel of the Laboratory.'' It was also known as willing to provide people for tasks broader than just primarily technical roles, such as membership on salary review committees, and members and chairs of the student policy committees and safety groups. This History is not a compilation of facts only but a reflection by many individuals of what they viewed as important contributions during their careers at the Laboratory. I thank them all for taking the time to write their inputs to this document. Finally, I want to acknowledge all the former and current members of Engineering: engineers, associates, coordinators, drafters and designers, technicians, administrators and clerical, who in their own way made Engineering what it is. For after all is said and done, Engineering's primary assets were and are its people.

Lafranchi, E

2002-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

374

Moderate Degree of Input Negative Entropy Flow and Decrease of Entropy in Astrophysics, Biology, Psychology and Social Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermodynamics have been applied to astronomy, biology, psychology, some social systems and so on. But, various evolutions from astronomy to biology and social systems cannot be only increase of entropy. When fluctuations are magnified due to internal interactions, the statistical independence and the second law of the thermodynamics are not hold. The existence of internal interactions is necessary condition of decrease of entropy in isolated system. We calculate quantitatively the entropy of plasma. Then we discuss the thermodynamics of biology, and obtain a mathematical expression on moderate degree of input negative entropy flow, which is a universal scientific law. Further, the thermodynamics of physiology and psychology, and the thought field are introduced. Qigong and various religious practices are related to these states of order, in which decrease of entropy is shown due to internal interactions of the isolated systems. Finally we discuss possible decrease of entropy in some social systems.

Yi-Fang Chang

2009-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

375

Reflections on Reflexions: I. Light Echoes in Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the last ten years, observational evidences about a possible connection between Type Ia Supernovae (SNe) properties and the environment where they explode have been steadily growing. In this paper I discuss, from a theoretical point of view but with an observer's perspective, the usage of light echoes (LEs) to probe the CSM around SNe of Type Ia since, in principle, they give us a unique opportunity of getting a three-dimensional description of the SN environment. In turn, this can be used to check the often suggested association of some Ia's with dusty/star forming regions, which would point to a young population for the progenitors. After giving a brief introduction to the LE phenomenon in single scattering approximation, I derive analytical and numerical solutions for the optical light and colour curves for a few simple dust geometries. A fully 3D multiple scattering treatment has also been implemented in a Monte Carlo code, which I have used to investigate the effects of multiple scattering. In particular, I have explored in detail the LE colour dependency from time and dust distribution, since this is a promising tool to determine the dust density and derive the effective presence of multiple scattering from the observed properties. Finally, again by means of Monte Carlo simulations, I have studied the effects of multiple scattering on the LE linear polarization, analyzing the dependencies from the dust parameters and geometry. Both the analytical formalism and MC codes described in this paper can be used for any LE for which the light curve of the central source is known.

F. Patat

2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

376

Reflection in membership equational logic, many-sorted equational logic, Horn logic with equality, and rewriting logic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We show that the generalized variant of formal systems where the underlying equational specifications are membership equational theories, and where the rules are conditional and can have equations, memberships and rewrites in the conditions is reflective. ... Keywords: Maude, Membership equational logic, Reflection, Reflective logics, Reflective programming languages, Rewriting logic, Universal theories

Manuel Clavel; José Meseguer; Miguel Palomino

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Energy implications of an aging population  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study provides various demographic, medical, and economic information relative to energy usage on a segment of the population, the elderly, which is growing in absolute numbers and relative population percentage. This growth is expected to continue well into the twenty-first century. The US aging population numbered 3.1 million in 1900, and by 1977 it had climbed to 23.5 million. It can be stated with reasonable certainty that this figure will rise to 31 million in the year 2000 and 43 million in the year 2020. These figures, corresponding to more than 10% of our population, are by no means insignificant. As our fossil-fuel reserves are being depleted and the cost of energy mounts, it becomes apparent that the elderly will become increasingly vulnerable to the energy crisis, primarily beause of their physical tendency to infirmity, their economic and social situation, and their susceptibility to psychological depression. This white paper concentrates on those aspects of aging and the nation's energy problem which are not usually related in our everyday consideration of these as separable problems. It seeks to identify the peculiar energy problems of the aged and to consider alternatives in the solution of these problems in light of modern technology.

Not Available

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Population Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Population Dynamics Delineated by Organochlorine Tracers R bluefin tuna (ABFT) are highly valued and heavily exploited, and critical uncertainties regarding. Hereweshowthatorganochlorinepesticidesandpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be used as tracers of bluefin tuna foraging grounds in the North Atlantic

Hilton, Eric J.

379

Ontology-driven, unsupervised instance population  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Semantic Web's need for machine understandable content has led researchers to attempt to automatically acquire such content from a number of sources, including the web. To date, such research has focused on ''document-driven'' systems that individually ... Keywords: Classification, Confidence assessment, Instance population, Ontology-driven, Semantic Web

Luke K. McDowell; Michael Cafarella

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Materials Performance in Extreme Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 20, 2010 ... Materials Solutions for the Nuclear Renaissance: Materials Performance ... moderated and cooled, beryllium-reflected nuclear research reactor with a ... and pinning site populations considered, in many theories, essential to ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Remote-sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment: impact of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Remote-sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment: impact of instrumental the potential impact of instrumental characteristics and environmental variability on shipboard remote-sensing above the sea surface by 8­18%, and remote-sensing reflectance by 12­24%. Variations in radio- metric

Siegel, David A.

382

Using Van Manen's model to assess levels of reflectivity among preservice physical education teachers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The intent of this study was two-fold. The first purpose was to apply Van Manen's model to specific strategies (i.e., written assignments) and supervisory practices (i.e., interviews) to examine levels of reflectivity demonstrated and if there were any changes in the reflectivity of student teachers throughout a student teaching period. The second purpose was to assess the applicability of Van Manen's model to a preservice physical education setting. Five physical education majors enrolled in a student teaching experience volunteered to participate. Five weekly web-based written assignments were selected and analyzed using Van Manen's model of reflection. In addition, two interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and subjected to thematic analysis techniques. Using Naturalistic Inquiry as a method of analysis suggests that utilizing supervisory approaches, written assignments, and reflective teaching can foster important changes in reflectivity levels which encourage reflective thinking in physical education student teachers. Increased levels of sophistication among the participants as the semester progressed were noted and may be attributed to a developmental effect similar to Fuller's Concerns Theory. The results also support Pultorak's (1993) assertion that students can increase reflective thinking when fostered and encouraged in preservice programs. This study combines available resources (i.e., technology, supervisors) with Van Manen's model to assess reflectivity levels in a physical education setting. Findings indicate that Van Manen's model can be used objectively in a physical education setting and can be utilized in applying a quantitative measure to qualitative responses.

Ballard, Kristy Kay

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Appearance Measurements in Industry and their Application in Light Reflection Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chosen to sim- ulate the paint appearance thanks to textures on GPU. Keywords: color, optics, reflection.1 Goniochromatic Paints The color of an opaque dielectric is typically mod- eled with Lambertian reflectance are produced by combining metallic platelets with colored particles. In a dry paint the platelets are oriented

Durikovic, Roman

384

"We've bin watching you": designing for reflection and social persuasion to promote sustainable lifestyles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BinCam is a social persuasive system to motivate reflection and behavioral change in the food waste and recycling habits of young adults. The system replaces an existing kitchen refuse bin and automatically logs disposed of items through digital images ... Keywords: behavioral change, persuasive, reflection, social networks, social persuasion, sustainable HCI, technology

Anja Thieme; Rob Comber; Julia Miebach; Jack Weeden; Nicole Kraemer; Shaun Lawson; Patrick Olivier

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

GOES Climatology and Analysis of Thunderstorms with Enhanced 3.9-?m Reflectivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By combining observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 3.9- and 10.7-?m channels, the reflected component of the 3.9-?m radiance can be isolated. In this paper, these 3.9-?m reflectivity measurements of ...

Daniel T. Lindsey; Donald W. Hillger; Louie Grasso; John A. Knaff; John F. Dostalek

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Blending real and virtual worlds using self-reflection and fiducials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an enhanced version of a portable out-of-the-box platform for semi-immersive interactive applications. The enhanced version combines stereoscopic visualization, marker-less user tracking, and multi-touch with self-reflection of users ... Keywords: fiducials, fish tank virtual reality, interactive virtual art, mixed reality, multi-touch, self-reflection

Martin Fischbach; Dennis Wiebusch; Marc Erich Latoschik; Gerd Bruder; Frank Steinicke

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Focusing of weak shock waves and the von Neumann paradox of oblique shock reflection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Focusing of weak shock waves and the von Neumann paradox of oblique shock reflection Esteban G of weak shock waves at small angles are considered: the focusing of curved fronts at a&es, the transition between regular and irregular reflection of oblique shock waves on rigid walls and the diffraction

Tabak, Esteban G.

388

Coaxial Line Reflection Model for Dielectric Measurements of Oil Shale as Functions of Frequency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The simulation model and equivalent circuit of coaxial line for dielectric measurements are described. The calculation of coaxial line reflection method, the expression of dielectric constant part and the imaginary part of the relative complex permittivity ... Keywords: coaxial line, dielectric, reflection coefficient, complex permittivity, resonance

Yu Qun; Zhang Shuang; Guo Xin

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

V-142: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute 2: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code V-142: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code April 25, 2013 - 12:14am Addthis PROBLEM: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code PLATFORM: Version(s): 7 Update 21; possibly other versions (1.7.0_21-b11) Java Server JRE is also affected. ABSTRACT: A vulnerability was reported in Oracle Java. REFERENCE LINKS: SecurityTracker Alert ID: 1028466 Oracle IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium DISCUSSION: A remote user can create a specially crafted Java application that, when loaded and approved by the target user, will trigger a flaw in the Reflection API to bypass the security sandbox. IMPACT: A remote user can create a Java file that, when loaded by the target user,

390

EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WASHINGTON WASHINGTON February 11, 1994 MEMORANDUM FOR THE HEADS OF ALL DEPARTMENTS AND AGENCIES SUBJECT: Executive Order on Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low- Income Populations Today I have issued an Executive Order on Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations. That order is designed to focus Federal attention on the environmental and human health conditions in minority communities and low-income communities with the goal of achieving environmental justice. That order is also intended to promote nondiscrimination in Federal programs substantially affecting human health and the environment, and to provide minority communities and low-income communities access to public

391

Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap to address those gaps, and (3) identify new bioinformatics tools that would be necessary to analyze and interpret population genetic data in a forensic context. The eight organisms that were studied are B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, Brucella spp., E. coli O157/H7, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and C. botulinum. Our study focused on the use of bacterial population genetics by forensic investigators to test hypotheses about the possible provenance of an agent that was used in a crime or act of terrorism. Just as human population genetics underpins the calculations of match probabilities for human DNA evidence, bacterial population genetics determines the level of support that microbial DNA evidence provides for or against certain well-defined hypotheses about the origins of an infecting strain. Our key findings are: (1) Bacterial population genetics is critical for answering certain types of questions in a probabilistic manner, akin (but not identical) to 'match probabilities' in DNA forensics. (2) A basic theoretical framework for calculating likelihood ratios or posterior probabilities for forensic hypotheses based on microbial genetic comparisons has been formulated. This 'inference-on-networks' framework has deep but simple connections to the population genetics of mtDNA and Y-STRs in human DNA forensics. (3) The 'phylogeographic' approach to identifying microbial sources is not an adequate basis for understanding bacterial population genetics in a forensic context, and has limited utility, even for generating 'leads' with respect to strain origin. (4) A collection of genotyped isolates obtained opportunistically from international locations augmented by phylogenetic representations of relatedness will not and enzootic outbreaks noted through international outbreak surveillance systems, and 'representative' genetic sequences from each outbreak. (5) Interpretation of genetic comparisons between an attack strain and reference strains requires a model for the network structure of maintenance foci, enzootic outbreaks, and human outbreaks of that disease, coupled with estimates of mutational rate constants. Validation of the model requires a set of sequences from exemplary outbreaks and laboratory data on mutation rates during animal passage. The necessary number of isolates in each validation set is determined by disease transmission network theory, and is based on the 'network diameter' of the outbreak. (6) The 8 bacteria in this study can be classified into 4 categories based on the complexity of the transmission network structure of their natural maintenance foci and their outbreaks, both enzootic and zoonotic. (7) For B. anthracis, Y. pestis, E. coli O157, and Brucella melitensis, and their primary natural animal hosts, most of the fundamental parameters needed for modeling genetic change within natural host or human transmission networks have been determined or can be estimated from existing field and laboratory studies. (8) For Burkholderia mallei, plausible approaches to transmission network models exist, but much of the fundamental parameterization does not. In addition, a validated high-resolution typing system for characterizing genetic change within outbreaks or foci has not yet been demonstrated, although a candidate system exists. (9) For Francisella tularensis, the increased complexity of the transmission network and unresolved questions about maintenance and transmission suggest that it will be more complex and difficult to develop useful models based on currently available data. (10) For Burkholderia pseudomallei and Clostridium botulinum, the transmission and maintenance networks involve complex soil communities and metapopulations about which very little is known. It is not clear that these pathogens can be brought into the in

Velsko, S P

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

392

Population Viability Analysis of Riverine Fishes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many utilities face conflkts between two goals: cost-efficient hydropower generation and protecting riverine fishes. Research to develop ecological simulation tools that can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to fish populations is vital to informed decision-making. In this paper, we describe our approach to population viability analysis of riverine fishes in general and Snake River white sturgeon in particular. We are finding that the individual-based modeling approach used in previous in-stream flow applications is well suited to addressing questions about the viability of species of concern for several reasons. Chief among these are: (1) the abiIity to represent the effects of individual variation in life history characteristics on predicted population viabili~, (2) the flexibili~ needed to quanti~ the ecological benefits of alternative flow management options by representing spatial and temporal variation in flow and temperaturty and (3) the flexibility needed to quantifi the ecological benefits of non-flow related manipulations (i.e., passage, screening and hatchery supplementation).

Bates, P.; Chandler, J.; Jager, H.I.; Lepla, K.; Van Winkle, W.

1999-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

393

FURTHER STUDIES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPOSURE TIME AND DEPTH OF DAMAGE OF MODERATE AND SEVERE CUTANEOUS BURNS  

SciTech Connect

To extend our earlier studies on the relationship between exposure time and depth of damage of moderate and severe burns, injuries were produced by each of six radiant exposures delivered during varying exposure times. The exposures investigated were: 5, 8, 10, 13, 16, and 20 calories per square centimeter. Within this range, as the radiant exposure increased, the exposure time for the production of maximum damage also increased. Injury from a given radiant exposure was less with exposure times either longer or shorter than some immediate time which led to the most severe injury. The relationship between steam bleb formation and decreased depth of injury from short exposure times is pointed out. When the superficial layers of the skin become so hot that vaporization of tissue fluid occurs, energy which might otherwise damage the deep layers is diverted by the conversion of water to steam. For radiant exposures between 8 cal/cm/sup 2/ and 20 cal/cm/sup 2/ delivered with a square pulse, it is possible to predict with fair accuracy the exposure time which will result in the deepest burn. (auth)

Payne, F.W.; Hinshaw, J.R.

1957-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

Interpretation of Strong Short-Term Central Perturbations in the Light Curves of Moderate-Magnification Microlensing Events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To improve the planet detection efficiency, current planetary microlensing experiments are focused on high-magnification events searching for planetary signals near the peak of lensing light curves. However, it is known that central perturbations can also be produced by binary companions and thus it is important to distinguish planetary signals from those induced by binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of microlensing events OGLE-2007-BLG-137/MOA-2007-BLG-091, OGLE-2007-BLG-355/MOA-2007-BLG-278, and MOA-2007-BLG-199/OGLE-2007-BLG-419, for all of which exhibit short-term perturbations near the peaks of the light curves. From detailed modeling of the light curves, we find that the perturbations of the events are caused by binary companions rather than planets. From close examination of the light curves combined with the underlying physical geometry of the lens system obtained from modeling, we find that the short time-scale caustic-crossing feature occurring at a low or a moderate base ...

Han, C; Kim, D; Udalski, A; Abe, F; Monard, L A B; McCormick, J; Szymanski, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Szewczyk, O; Wyrzykowski, L; Ulaczyk, K; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Fukui, A; Furusawa, K; Hearnshaw, J B; Itow, Y; Kamiya, K; Kilmartin, P M; Korpela, A; Lin, W; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Miyake, N; Muraki, Y; Nagaya, M; Ohnishi, K; Tokumura, T; Perrott, Y C; Rattenbury, N; Saito, To; Sako, T; Skuljan, L; Sullivan, D S; Sumi, T; Sweatman, W L; Tristram, P J; Yock, P C M; Allen, W; Christie, G W; DePoy, D L; Dong, S; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Lee, C -U; Natusch, T; Park, B -G; Pogge, R W; Albrow, M D; Allan, A; Batista, V; Beaulieu, J P; Bennett, D P; Brillant, S; Bode, M; Bramich, D M; Burgdorf, M; Caldwell, J A R; Calitz, H; Cassan, A; Corrales, E; Dieters, S; Prester, D D; Dominik, M; Donatowicz, J; Fouque, P; Greenhill, J; Hill, K; Hoffman, M; Horne, K; Jorgensen, U G; Kains, N; Kubas, D; Marquette, J B; Martin, R; Meintjes, P; Menzies, J; Pollard, K R; Sahu, K C; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I; Street, R; Tsapras, Y; Wambsganss, J; Williams, A; Zub, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Plasma waves reflection from a boundary with specular accommodative boundary conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present work the linearized problem of plasma wave reflection from a boundary of a half--space is solved analytically. Specular accommodative conditions of plasma wave reflection from plasma boundary are taken into consideration. Wave reflectance is found as function of the given parameters of the problem, and its dependence on the normal electron momentum accommodation coefficient is shown by the authors. The case of resonance when the frequency of self-consistent electric field oscillations is close to the proper (Langmuir) plasma oscillations frequency, namely, the case of long wave limit is analyzed. Refs. 17. Figs. 6.

N. V. Gritsienko; A. V. Latyshev; A. A. Yushkanov

2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

396

Durable silver mirror with ultra-violet thru far infra-red reflection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A durable highly reflective silver mirror characterized by high reflectance in a broad spectral range of about 300 nm in the UV to the far infrared (.about.10000 nm), as well as exceptional environmental durability. A high absorptivity metal underlayer is used which prevents the formation of a galvanic cell with a silver layer while increasing the reflectance of the silver layer. Environmentally durable overcoat layers are provided to enhance mechanical and chemical durability and protect the silver layer from corrosion and tarnishing, for use in a wide variety of surroundings or climates, including harsh or extreme environments.

Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

397

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1: February 7, 1: February 7, 2011 Population Density to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density on AddThis.com... Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density The density of the population in the U.S., measured as the number of people

398

Reflection Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area (Blackwell, Et Al.,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9) 9) Exploration Activity Details Location Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes "The seismic reflection profiles of the range front structures are difficult to interpret because of he steep dips and 3-d fault zone geometry, in the-classical paper by Okaya and Thompson (1985) the range-bounding fault is not imaged as they proposed. The reflection seismic studies are the most useful of the geophysical techniques also the most expensive. The reflection data are two-dimensional making structural interpretation complicated for the three-dimensional geometry of the basin so that the other structural studied have been critical in correctly interpreting the seismic profiles. There are many

399

Reflection Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Laney, 2005) Reflection Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Hot Sulphur Springs Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Seismic Imaging, Majer, Gritto and Daley. The project objective includes the development and application of active seismic methods for improved understanding of the subsurface structure, faults, fractures lithology, and fluid paths in geothermal reservoirs. While the objective of the work previous to FY2003 was concerned with the detection and location of faults and fractures based on an existing 3-D seismic data set collected at the

400

Assimilation of Reflectivity Data in a Convective-Scale, Cycled 3DVAR Framework with Hydrometeor Classification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of assimilating radar reflectivity and radial velocity data with an intermittent, cycled three-dimensional variational assimilation (3DVAR) system is explored using an idealized thunderstorm case and a real data case on 8 May 2003. A ...

Jidong Gao; David J. Stensrud

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Hemispherical Reflectance Variations of Vegetation Canopies and Implications for Global and Regional Energy Budget Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variations of spectral hemispherical reflectance (albedo) in vegetation canopies were studied as a function of solar zenith angle, leaf area index, led orientation distribution, and leaf and soil optical, properties. A three dimensional ...

D. S. Kimes; P. J. Sellers; W. W. Newcomb

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Inverse Transformation Optics and Reflection Analysis for Two-Dimensional Finite Embedded Coordinate Transformation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inverse transformation optics is introduced, and used to calculate the boundary reflection of a two-dimensional (2D) finite embedded coordinate transformation which is discontinuous at the boundary. For an electromagnetic excitation of particular polarization, many pairs of original medium (in a virtual space) and transformation function can give exactly the same anisotropic medium through a conventional procedure of transformation optics. Non-uniqueness of these pairs is then exploited for the analysis and calculation of the boundary reflection. The reflection at the boundary of the anisotropic transformation medium (associated with vacuum in the virtual space) is converted to the simple reflection between two isotropic media in a virtual space by a new transformation continuous at the boundary. A necessary condition for reflectionless boundary of finite embedded coordinate transformation is found as a special case. The theory is verified numerically with the finite element method.

Zhang, Pu; He, Sailing

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Advances in Measuring Solar Reflectance-or, Why That Roof isn't as Cool  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advances in Measuring Solar Reflectance-or, Why That Roof isn't as Cool Advances in Measuring Solar Reflectance-or, Why That Roof isn't as Cool as You Thought it Was Speaker(s): Ronnen Levinson Date: June 30, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: LBNL Bldg. 66 Auditorium Solar reflectance is often used to estimate the solar heat gain and rate the "coolness" of roofs and pavements. A solar reflectance property measured by two popular ASTM standard test methods (E903, C1549) can underestimate the peak solar heat gain of a spectrally selective "cool colored" surface by nearly 100 W m-2 because it assumes that sunlight contains an unrealistically high fraction of near-infrared (invisible) energy. Its use in building energy simulations can overestimate cool-roof annual energy savings by more than 20%. I define a new and simple solar

404

Coincident P and Sh reflections from basement rocks at Coso geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coincident P and Sh reflections from basement rocks at Coso geothermal Coincident P and Sh reflections from basement rocks at Coso geothermal field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Coincident P and Sh reflections from basement rocks at Coso geothermal field Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: In mid-1989 the authors designed and collected four seismic reflection/refraction profiles that addressed the crustal structure of the Coso geothermal field. The two main east-west and north-south profiles crossed at the southeasternmost base of Sugar Loaf Mountain. Both in-line and cross-line Vibroseis and explosion data were recorded on each of these approximately 12-mi lines. This was accomplished with the simultaneous operation of two 1024-channel sign bit recording systems while four

405

Reflection Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Reflection Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Lightning Dock Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes After reviewing bids from six firms, LDG contracted with Bird Geophysical Services ("Bird") to conduct a test to determine if relatively small, spring-assisted, drop weights could be used to successfully acquire deep reflections. This test showed that the contractor could produce usable data to depths of more than 1,500 ms two-way travel time. (For a given velocity model, this two-way travel time is equivalent to several kilometers of depth penetration.) Subsequently, LDG used Bird's services to acquire new traverses totaling about 27.6 km (17.2 mi.) along roads leading through the

406

Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This letter, from the Director of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Federal Activities, outlines EPA's position as to how the revised National Air Quality Standard should be reflected in NEPA evaluations of proposed actions.

407

Reflection of Barotropic Rossby Waves in Sheared Flow and Validity of the WKB Approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors discuss reflection of barotropic Rossby waves in an idealized framework with potential applications to tropical–extratropical and interhemispheric interactions. Meridional propagation of Rossby waves has often been studied using the ...

Samuel F. Potter; Thomas Spengler; Isaac M. Held

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Pearls of Wisdom : technology for intentional reflection and learning in constructionist cooperatives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At the core of the constructionist learning paradigm is the idea that people learn through design experiences. However, in most settings, learners rarely revisit their work to reflect on design and learning processes. The ...

Chapman, Robbin Nicole, 1958-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

A Comparison of Radar Reflectivity Estimates of Rainfall from Collocated Radars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radar reflectivity–based rainfall estimates from collocated radars are examined. The usual large storm-to-storm variations in radar bias and high correlation between radar estimates and rain gauge observations are found. For three storms in ...

Edward A. Brandes; J. Vivekanandan; James W. Wilson

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Climatologically Tuned Reflectivity-Rain Rate Relations and Links to Area-Time Integrals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relations between either the point- or beam-averaged effective reflectivity, Ze, and surface rain rate, R, are determined by a probability matching method similar to that of Calheiros and Zawadzki, and Rosenfeld. The cumulative density functions (...

David Atlas; Daniel Rosenfeld; David B. Wolff

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Three Methods to Determine Profiles of Reflectivity from Volumetric Radar Data to Correct Precipitation Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical variability of radar reflectivity reduces the reliability of precipitation estimation by radar, especially in complex orography. This important source of error can, at least partially, be corrected for, if the vertical profile of ...

Bertrand Vignal; Gianmario Galli; Jürg Joss; Urs Germann

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Spectral reflectance of the seagrasses: Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, Syringodium filiforme and five marine algae  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spectral reflectance of three Western Atlantic subtropical/tropical dominant benthic seagrasses (Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii and Syringodium filiforme) measured in the laboratory by UNIspec Spectral Analysis system over 400-1000 nm are ...

A. Thorhaug; A. D. Richardson; G. P. Berlyn

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Reflection of Nonlinear Baroclinic Rossby Waves and the Driving of Secondary Mean Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reflection of weakly nonlinear Rossby waves (RWs) from a vertical wall is examined analytically through perturbation methods, with the ?-Rossby number (?) as the small parameter. A uniformly valid solution up to O(?3) is constructed using ...

Federico Graef; Lorenz Magaard

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Evolution of Quasi-Two-Dimensional Squall Lines. Part I: Kinematic and Reflectivity Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Doppler radar observations that establish common patterns in the evolution of the reflectivity and flow structures of squall lines are described. A number of squall lines have been analyzed with unprecedented time resolution in order to identity ...

Erik N. Rasmussen; Steven A. Rutledge

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Radar Reflectivity–Derived Thunderstorm Parameters Applied to Storm Longevity Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to use airspace more efficiently during thunderstorm events, accurate storm longevity forecasts are needed. Relationships between 16 radar reflectivity–derived storm characteristics and storm ...

P. L. MacKeen; H. E. Brooks; K. L. Elmore

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Comparison of Daily Averaged Reflection, Transmission, and Absorption for Selected Radiative Flux Transfer Approximations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares accuracy for the daily averaged reflection, transmission, and absorption of solar flux derived from the delta-four-stream approximation and a few selected two-stream approximations. In the chosen variety of two-stream ...

Xun Zhu; Albert Arking

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Spectral properties and reflectance curves of the revealed volcanic rocks in Syria using radiometric measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research aimed at studying the spectral reflectance intensity of different exposed volcanic rocks in Syria, and drawing their curves by radiometer measurements. In order to reach this goal, we have studied different kinds of volcanic rocks related ...

M. Rukieh; A. M. Al-Kafri; A. W. Khalaf

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Star-covering properties: generalized $\\Psi$-spaces, countability conditions, reflection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate star-covering properties of $\\Psi$-like spaces. We show star-Lindel\\"ofness is reflected by open perfect mappings. In addition, we offer a new equivalence of CH.

Aiken, L P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Light Reflection from Water Waves: Suitable Setup for a Polarimetric Investigation under Controlled Laboratory Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reflection of sunlight from a wavy water surface, often referred to as sun glint, is a well-known phenomenon that presents challenges but also hitherto untapped opportunities in remote sensing based on satellite imagery. Despite being ...

Matteo Ottaviani; Knut Stamnes; Jeff Koskulics; Hans Eide; Steven R. Long; Wenying Su; Warren Wiscombe

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Wind Speed Effects on Sea Surface Emission and Reflection for the Along Track Scanning Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The emission and reflection properties of a rough sea surface are investigated, with particular emphasis on the wavelengths and viewing geometry relevant to the Along Track Scanning Radiometer. The authors start from Fresnel's equations for a ...

Philip D. Watts; Myles R. Allen; Timothy J. Nightingale

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

The Reflection of a Stationary Gravity Wave by a Viscous Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The backward reflection of a stationary gravity wave (GW) propagating toward the ground is examined in the linear viscous case and for large Reynolds numbers (Re). In this case, the stationary GW presents a critical level at the ground because ...

François Lott

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Radar Reflectivity-Ice Water Content Relationships for Use above the Melting Level in Hurricanes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regression equations linking radar reflectivity (Ze) and ice water content (IWC) were calculated from airborne radar and particle image data that were collected above the melting level in two hurricanes. The Ze ? IWC equation from the stratiform ...

Robert A. Black

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Rainfall Parameter Estimation from Dual-Radar Measurements Combining Reflectivity Profile and Path-integrated Attenuation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain rate estimation properties of multiparameter radar measurements combining radar reflectivity and microwave attenuations are studied through simulations using a two-year disdrometer dataset. In the first simulation, properties of “complete” ...

Toshiaki Kozu; Kenji Nakamura

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Reflectivity, Ice Scattering, and Lightning Characteristics of Hurricane Eyewalls and Rainbands. Part I: Quantitative Description  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Covering December 1997 through December 1998, 261 overpasses of 45 hurricanes by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite are used to document the observed radar reflectivity values, passive microwave ice scattering magnitudes, ...

Daniel J. Cecil; Edward J. Zipser; Stephen W. Nesbitt

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

A Field Study of Reflectivity and Z–R Relations Using Vertically Pointing Radars and Disdrometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations from a 16-month field study using two vertically pointing radars and a disdrometer at Wallops Island are analyzed to examine the consistency of the multi-instrument observations with respect to reflectivity and Z–R relations. The ...

Ali Tokay; Peter Hartmann; Alessandro Battaglia; Kenneth S. Gage; Wallace L. Clark; Christopher R. Williams

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

A Spatial Analysis of Radar Reflectivity Regions within Hurricane Charley (2004)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regions of 35-dBZ radar reflectivity returns are examined within a landfalling hurricane to determine whether these regions are composed of stratiform, convective, or transition-type precipitation. After calculating spatial attributes of the ...

Corene J. Matyas

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Wine-grape production trends reflect evolving consumer demand over 30 years  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

t Wine-grape production trends reflect evolving consumerregions. We examine the major trends in the California wine-Wine Institute 2007). This trend was kick-started in large

Volpe, Richard J. III; Green, Richard; Heien, Dale; Howitt, Richard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Deriving resource efficient designs using the REFLECT aspect-oriented approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the context of the REFLECT project[1] we have developed an aspect-oriented compilation and synthesis toolchain that aims at facilitating the mapping of applications described in high-level imperative programming languages, such as C, to heterogeneous ...

José G. F. Coutinho; Joăo M. P. Cardoso; Tiago Carvalho; Ricardo Nobre; Sujit Bhattacharya; Pedro C. Diniz; Liam Fitzpatrick; Razvan Nane

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Reflectivity, Rain Rate, and Kinetic Energy Flux Relationships Based on Raindrop Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationships between radar reflectivity factor Z, rainfall rate R, and rainfall kinetic energy flux E were analyzed based on a multiyear raindrop spectra dataset recorded by a Joss–Waldvogel disdrometer in the Goodwin Creek research ...

Matthias Steiner; James A. Smith

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

A Multichannel Cloud Pyranometer System for Airborne Measurement of Solar Spectral Reflectance by Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design and performance of a spectral radiometer system are described for airborne measurements of solar flux reflectance by clouds. The system consists of a pair of identical multichannel pyranometers: one installed on the top and the other ...

Shoji Asano; Masataka Shiobara; Yuji Nakanishi; Yukiharu Miyake

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Non-invasive detection of oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In vivo reflectance and fluorescence spectra were collected from patients with oral lesions, as well as healthy volunteers, in order to evaluate the potential of spectroscopy to serve as a non-invasive tool for the detection ...

McGee, Sasha Alanda

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Hail Detection Using S- and C-Band Radar Reflectivity Difference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In reflectivity fields observed with conventional radar networks, hailstorm identification is not easy. In the present paper, a hailstorm detection method using two single-wavelength radars located far from each other is discussed. The two radars,...

Laurent Féral; Henri Sauvageot; Serge Soula

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

A Variational Scheme for Retrieving Rainfall Rate and Hail Reflectivity Fraction from Polarization Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polarization radar offers the promise of much more accurate rainfall-rate R estimates than are possible from radar reflectivity factor Z alone, not only by better characterization of the drop size distribution, but also by more reliable ...

Robin J. Hogan

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Regional and Seasonal Variations of Surface Reflectance from Satellite Observations at 0.6 ?m  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global series of seasonal visible surface reflectance maps derived from NOAA-5 Scanning Radiometer observations is presented. Methods for isolating clear-sky observations from satellite data are evaluated and the magnitude of atmospheric ...

Elaine Matthews; William B. Rossow

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The Unit Symbol for the Logarithmic Scale of Radar Reflectivity Factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note argues that the proper symbol for the logarithmic unit of radar reflectivity factor is dBz. The basis for this contention lies in both customary engineering practice and the international standard for unit symbols.

Paul L. Smith

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Monitoring the Reflectivity Calibration of a Scanning Radar Using a Profiling Radar and a Disdrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a method of absolutely calibrating and routinely monitoring the reflectivity calibration from a scanning weather radar using a vertically profiling radar that has been absolutely calibrated using a collocated surface ...

Christopher R. Williams; Kenneth S. Gage; Wallace Clark; Paul Kucera

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Variograms of Radar Reflectivity to Describe the Spatial Continuity of Alpine Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors use variograms of radar reflectivity as a summary statistic to describe the spatial continuity of Alpine precipitation on mesogamma scales. First, how to obtain such variograms is discussed. Second, a set of typical variograms of ...

Urs Germann; Jürg Joss

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Observed Enhancement of Reflectivity and the Electric Field in Long-Lived Florida Anvils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study of two long-lived Florida anvils showed that reflectivity >20 dBZ increased in area, thickness, and sometimes magnitude at the midlevel well downstream of the convective cores. In these same regions electric fields maintained strengths >...

James E. Dye; John C. Willett

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

The Use of Cloud Reflectance Functions with Satellite Data for Surface Radiation Budget Estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of an overcast atmosphere above an ocean surface has been calculated as a function of wavelength using a discrete-ordinates radiative transfer model. This plane-parallel BRDF appears ...

Dan Lubin; Paul G. Weber

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Bidirectional Reflectance Round-Robin in Support of the Earth Observing System Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of diffuse reflectors are required to support calibration in the Earth Observing System (EOS) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. To ...

E. A. Early; P. Y. Barnes; B. C. Johnson; J. J. Butler; C. J. Bruegge; S. F. Biggar; P. R. Spyak; M. M. Pavlov

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

A system for optimizing interior daylight distribution using reflective Venetian blinds with independent blind angle control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An operational algorithm for blind angle control is developed to optimize the daylighting performance of a system of reflective Venetian blinds. Numerical modeling and experiment confirm that independent control of alternating ...

McGuire, Molly E

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Systematic Variation of Observed Radar Reflectivity–Rainfall Rate Relations in the Tropics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Global Validation Program provides a unique opportunity to compare radar datasets from different sites, because they are analyzed in a relatively uniform procedure. Monthly observed radar reflectivity–...

Eyal Amitai

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

MODIS Reflectance and Active Fire Data for Burn Mapping in Colombia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite-based strategies for burned area mapping may rely on two types of remotely sensed data: postfire reflectance images and active fire detection. This study uses both methods in a synergistic way. In particular, burned area mapping is ...

Silvia Merino-de-Miguel; Federico González-Alonso; Margarita Huesca; Dolors Armenteras; Carol Franco

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Application of the Lognormal Raindrop Distribution to Differential Reflectivity Radar Measurement (ZDR)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Use of the lognormal form of raindrop size distributions in simulations of differential reflectivity (ZDR) measurements is investigated. Using two remotely measured variables and an empirical relation, the three parameters of the lognormal ...

Graham Feingold; Zev Levin

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

The Effect of Reflecting Surfaces on the Vertical Structure and Variability of Stratospheric Planetary Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of an upper-stratospheric reflecting surface on the vertical structure of stratospheric planetary waves are considered. A diagnostic of the basic-state wave propagation characteristics, which is particularly useful for determining the ...

Nili Harnik; Richard S. Lindzen

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Estimation of Cloud Physical Parameters from Airborne Solar Spectral Reflectance Measurements for Stratocumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method is proposed to retrieve various cloud physical parameters of water clouds from the solar-flux reflectances at four wavelengths measured by using the airborne Multi-channel Cloud Pyranometer (MCP) system. The MCP system was designed ...

Shoji Asano; Masataka Shiobara; Akihiro Uchiyama

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Correction of Polarimetric Radar Reflectivity Measurements and Rainfall Estimates for Apparent Vertical Profile in Stratiform Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for correcting the vertical profile of reflectivity measurements and rainfall estimates (VPR) in plan position indicator (PPI) scans of polarimetric weather radars in the melting layer and the snow layer during stratiform rain is ...

John Kalogiros; Marios N. Anagnostou; Emmanouil N. Anagnostou; Mario Montopoli; Errico Picciotti; Frank S. Marzano

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

A Summary of Reflectivity Profiles from the First Year of TRMM Radar Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A preliminary climatology of reflectivity profiles derived from the first spaceborne precipitation radar (PR), which is on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, is described using the data from January 1998 to February ...

Dong-Bin Shin; Gerald R. North; Kenneth P. Bowman

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Arabian Horse Populations from Syria and other Countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humans and horses weaved together wonderful stories of adventure and generosity. As a part of human history and civilization, Arabian horses ignite imagination throughout the world. Populations of this breed exist in many countries. Here I explored different populations of Arabians representing Middle Eastern and Western populations. The main two aims of this study were to provide the genetic diversity description of Arabians from different origins and to examine the traditional classification system of the breed. A third aim was to tackle the distribution pattern of the genetic variability within the genome to show whether there are differences in relative variability of different types of markers. First, I analyzed the genetic structure of 537Arabian horses from seven populations by using microsatellites. The results consistently showed higher levels of diversity within the Middle Eastern populations compared to the Western populations. All American-Arabians showed differentiation from Middle Eastern populations. Second, I sequenced the whole mtDNA D-loop of 251 Arabian horses. The whole D-loop sequence was more informative than using just the HVR1. Native populations from the Middle East, such as Syrian, represented a hot spot of genetic diversity. Most importantly, there was no evidence that the Arabian horse breed has clear subdivisions depending on the traditional maternal based strain classification system. Third, I tested the heterozygosity distribution pattern along the genome of 22 Peruvian Paso horses using 232 microsatellites and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). The pattern of genetic diversity was completely different between these two markers where no correlation was found. Runs of homozygosity test of SNPs and associated microsatellites noticeably showed that all of associated microsatellites loci were homozygous in the matched case. The findings of this study will help in understanding the evolutionary history and developing breeding and conservation programs of horses. This study provided databases including parentage testing system and maternal lineages that will help to recover the Syrian Arabian population after the armed conflict started in Syria in 2011. The results here can be applied not only to horses, but also to other animal species with similar criteria.

Khanshour, Anas M

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Multilayer deposition and EUV reflectance characterization of 131 ? flight mirrors for AIA at LLNL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mo/Si multilayer coatings reflecting at 131 {angstrom} were deposited successfully on the AIA primary and secondary flight mirrors and on two coating witness Si wafers, on November 16, 2005, at LLNL. All coatings were characterized by means of EUV reflectance measurements at beamline 6.3.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron at LBNL, and were found to be well within specifications.

Soufli, R; Robinson, J C; Spiller, E; Baker, S L; Dollar, F J; Gullikson, E M

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

451

HEXOS—Humidity Exchange Over the Sea A Program for Research on Water-Vapor and Droplet Fluxes from Sea of Air at Moderate to High Wind Speeds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEXOS is an international program for the study of evaporation and spray-droplet flux from sea to air. The program includes measurements in the field at moderate-to-high wind speeds, wind-tunnel studies, instrument development, boundary-layer ...

Kristina B. Katsaros; Stuart D. Smith; Wiebe A. Oost

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Estimation procedures and error analysis for inferring the total plutonium (Pu) produced by a graphite-moderated reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphite isotope ratio method (GIRM) is a technique that uses measurements and computer models to estimate total plutonium (Pu) production in a graphite-moderated reactor. First, isotopic ratios of trace elements in extracted graphite samples from the target reactor are measured. Then, computer models of the reactor relate those ratios to Pu production. Because Pu is controlled under nonproliferation agreements, an estimate of total Pu production is often required, and a declaration of total Pu might need to be verified through GIRM. In some cases, reactor information (such as core dimensions, coolant details, and operating history) are so well documented that computer models can predict total Pu production without the need for measurements. However, in most cases, reactor information is imperfectly known, so a measurement and model-based method such as GIRM is essential. Here, we focus on GIRM’s estimation procedure and its associated uncertainty. We illustrate a simulation strategy for a specific reactor that estimates GIRM’s uncertainty and determines which inputs contribute most to GIRM’s uncertainty, including inputs to the computer models. These models include a ‘‘local’’ code that relates isotopic ratios to the local Pu production, and a ‘‘global’’ code that predicts the Pu production shape over the entire reactor. This predicted shape is included with other 3D basis functions to provide a ‘‘hybrid basis set’’ that is used to fit the local Pu production estimates. The fitted shape can then be integrated over the entire reactor to estimate total Pu production. This GIRM evaluation provides a good example of several techniques of uncertainty analysis and introduces new reasons to fit a function using basis functions in the evaluation of the impact of uncertainty in the true 3D shape.

Heasler, Patrick G.; Burr, Tom; Reid, Bruce D.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Bayne, Charles K.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Optical Reflection Spectroscopy of Thick Corrosion Layers on 304 Stainless Steel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Corrosion resistant structural materials of both iron and nickel based alloys are used in the electric power industry for the construction of the coolant loops of both conventional and nuclear power generating stations. These materials, in the presence of high temperature (e.g. 287 C), high pH (e.g. 10.0 {at} 20 C) water with dissolved hydrogen will oxidize and form corrosion films that are double metal oxides (or spinels) of the form AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}. This work describes optical reflectivity techniques that have been developed to study the growth of these films in situ. The optical technique uses a dual-beam specular reflection spectrometer to measure the spectrum of reflected light in small angle (i.e. < 15{sup o}) scatter. The reflection spectra are then calibrated using a set of corrosion coupons with corrosion films that are well known. Results are compared with models based on multilayer reflection and Mie scattering from a particle size distribution. Surface roughness is found to be the dominant cause of reduced reflection as the films grow.

R Castelli; P Persans; W Strohmayer; V Parkinson

2006-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

454

Absolute Calibration of Radar Reflectivity Using Redundancy of the Polarization Observations and Implied Constraints on Drop Shapes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major limitation of improved radar-based rainfall estimation is accurate calibration of radar reflectivity. In this paper, the authors fully automate a polarimetric method that uses the consistency between radar reflectivity, differential ...

Jonathan J. Gourley; Anthony J. Illingworth; Pierre Tabary

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

The Vertical Profile of Radar Reflectivity of Convective Cells: A Strong Indicator of Storm Intensity and Lightning Probability?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reflectivity data from Doppler radars are used to construct vertical profiles of radar reflectivity (VPRR) of convective cells in mesoscale convective systems (MCSS) in three different environmental regimes. The National Center for Atmospheric ...

Edward J. Zipser; Kurt R. Lutz

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Reflecting on the petro-hydraulic crisis: the political ecology of seawater desalination.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Recent advances in water purification technology, the combined pressures of population growth and climate change, depletion of traditional water sources, and rising cost of water,… (more)

Williams, Joe

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Variability of Population-Weighted Seasonal Heating Degree Days  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regional and national heating fuel demand is related to both weather and population density. This study analyzes the variability of population-weighted, seasonal heating degree days for the coterminous 48 states. A risk assessment of unusual ...

Nathaniel B. Guttman

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Ecosystem-specific selection pressures revealed through comparative population genomics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bacterial populations harbor vast genetic diversity that is continually shaped by abiotic and biotic selective pressures, as well as by neutral processes. Individuals coexisting in the same geographically defined population ...

Coleman, Maureen L.

459

Will China's Vehicle Population Grow Even Faster than Forecasted?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Daniel Sperling. 2011. “China’s Soaring Vehicle Population:the longer version, “China’s Soaring Vehicle Population:Vehicle Sales and Stock in China,” Energy Policy, 43: 17–29.

Wang, Yunshi; Teter, Jacob; Sperling, Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator

Bane, K L F; Tu, J J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Using Doppler spectra to separate hydrometeor populations and analyze ice precipitation in multilayered mixed-phase clouds  

SciTech Connect

Multimodality of cloud radar Doppler spectra is used to partition cloud particle phases and to separate distinct ice populations in the radar sample volume, thereby facilitating analysis of individual ice showers in multilayered mixed-phase clouds. A 35-GHz cloud radar located at Barrow, Alaska, during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment collected the Doppler spectra. Data from a pair of collocated depolarization lidars confirmed the presence of two liquid cloud layers reported in this study. Surprisingly, both of these cloud layers were embedded in ice precipitation yet maintained their liquid. Our spectral separation of the ice precipitation yielded two distinct ice populations: ice initiated within the two liquid cloud layers and ice precipitation formed in higher cloud layers. Comparisons of ice fall velocity versus radar reflectivity relationships derived for distinct showers reveal that a single relationship might not properly represent the ice showers during this period.

Rambukkange, Mahlon P.; Verlinde, J.; Eloranta, E. W.; Flynn, Connor J.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

462

How Do Recent Population Trends Matter to Climate Change?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. By ensuring couples are able to determine the size of their families, poverty and the depletion of natural change, as one of the root causes of greenhouse gas emissions, how population dynamics affect climate of total population size, research shows that changes in population composition (i.e. age, urban

Colorado at Boulder, University of

463

Identifying phylogeographic patterns and population history in Mediterranean rock ferns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Q-matrix plots of K=2 through K=5 for 53 sampled populations All populations N>15 -30000 -25000 -20000 -15000 -10000 -5000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 K L n P ( D ) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 D e l t a K Populations n>15 excluding Valencia -14600...

Hunt, Harriet

2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

464

Interactions of carbon and nitrogen metabolism with changing light intensity in natural populations and cultures of planktonic blue-green algae  

SciTech Connect

This study dealt with the factors contributing to the occurrence of blue-green algae in the plankton of lakes. Blue-green algal populations were examined in two different aquatic systems, moderately productive Lawrence Lake and hypereutrophic Wintergreen Lake, with regard to inorganic nitrogen source, light intensity and regime, and species of blue-green algae present. In order to understand the relationship between light and nitrogen source better among natural populations, representative species of blue-green algae, including isolates of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Anabaena flos-aquae, were grown in laboratory cultures under continuously high, variable, and continuously low light at intensities similar to those in the lakes.

Ward, A.K.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Imaging the Material Properties of Bone Specimens Using Reflection-Based Infrared Microspectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) is a widely used method for mapping the material properties of bone and other mineralized tissues, including mineralization, crystallinity, carbonate substitution, and collagen cross-linking. This technique is traditionally performed in a transmission-based geometry, which requires the preparation of plastic-embedded thin sections, limiting its functionality. Here, we theoretically and empirically demonstrate the development of reflection-based FTIRM as an alternative to the widely adopted transmission-based FTIRM, which reduces specimen preparation time and broadens the range of specimens that can be imaged. In this study, mature mouse femurs were plastic-embedded and longitudinal sections were cut at a thickness of 4 {micro}m for transmission-based FTIRM measurements. The remaining bone blocks were polished for specular reflectance-based FTIRM measurements on regions immediately adjacent to the transmission sections. Kramers-Kronig analysis of the reflectance data yielded the dielectric response from which the absorption coefficients were directly determined. The reflectance-derived absorbance was validated empirically using the transmission spectra from the thin sections. The spectral assignments for mineralization, carbonate substitution, and collagen cross-linking were indistinguishable in transmission and reflection geometries, while the stoichiometric/nonstoichiometric apatite crystallinity parameter shifted from 1032/1021 cm{sup -1} in transmission-based to 1035/1025 cm{sup -1} in reflection-based data. This theoretical demonstration and empirical validation of reflection-based FTIRM eliminates the need for thin sections of bone and more readily facilitates direct correlations with other methods such as nanoindentation and quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBSE) from the same specimen. It provides a unique framework for correlating bone's material and mechanical properties.

Acerbo A. S.; Carr, G.L.; Judex, S.; Miller, L.M.

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

466

Modeling the effect of reflection from metallic walls on spectroscopic measurements  

SciTech Connect

A modification of JET is presently being prepared to bring operational experience with ITER-like first wall (Be) and divertor (W) materials, geometry and plasma parameters. Reflectivity measurements of JET sample tiles have been performed and the data are used within a simplified model of the JET and ITER vessels to predict additional contributions to quantitative spectroscopic measurements. The most general method to characterize reflectivity is the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF). For extended sources however, such as bremsstrahlung and edge emission of fuel and intrinsic impurities, the results obtained in the modeling are almost as accurate if the total reflectivity with ideal Lambertian angular dependence is used. This is in contrast to the experience in other communities, such as optical design, lighting design, or rendering who deal mostly with pointlike light sources. This result is so far based on a very limited set of measurements and will be reassessed when more detailed BRDF measurements of JET tiles have been made. If it is true it offers the possibility of in situ monitoring of the reflectivity of selected parts of the wall during exposure to plasma operation, while remeasurement of the BRDF is performed during interventions. For a closed vessel structure such as ITER, it is important to consider multiple reflections. This makes it more important to represent the whole of the vessel reasonably accurately in the model, which on the other hand is easier to achieve than for the more complex internal structure of JET. In both cases the dominant contribution is from the first reflection, and a detailed model of the areas intersected by lines of sight of diagnostic interest is required.

Zastrow, K.-D. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Keatings, S. R.; O'Mullane, M. G. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ (United Kingdom); Marot, L. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Temmerman, G. de [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Basel, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

467

A comparison of genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium between 15 polymorphic dinucleotide repeat loci in two populations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Linkage disequilibrium has recently been used to map the diastrophic dysplasia gene in a Finnish sample. One advantage of this method is that the large pedigrees required by some other methods are unnecessary. Another advantage is that linkage disequilibrium mapping capitalizes on the cumulative history of recombination events, rather than those occurring within the sampled individuals. A potential limitation of linkage disequilibrium mapping is that linkage equilibrium is likely to prevail in all but the most isolated populations, e.g., those which have recently experienced founder effects or severe population bottlenecks. In order to test the method`s generality, we examined patterns of linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci within a known genetic map. Two populations were analyzed. The first population, Navajo Indians (N=45), is an isolate that experienced a severe bottleneck in the 1860`s. The second population, Maryland Caucasians (N=45), is cosmopolitan. We expected the Navajo sample to display more linkage disequilibrium than the Caucasian sample, and possibly that the Navajo disequilibrium pattern would reflect the genetic map. Linkage disequilibrium coefficients were estimated between pairs of alleles at different loci using maximum likelihood. The genetic isolate structure of Navajo Indians is confirmed by the DNA typings. Heterozygosity is lower than in the Caucasians, and fewer different alleles are observed. However, a relationship between genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium could be discerned in neither the Navajo nor the Maryland samples. Slightly more linkage disequilibrium was observed in the Navajos, but both data sets were characterized by very low disequilibrium levels. We tentatively conclude that linkage disequilibrium mapping with dinucleotide repeats will only be useful with close linkage between markers and diseases, even in very isolated populations.

Urbanek, M.; Goldman, D.; Long, J.C. [Lab. of Neurogenetics, Rockville, MD (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Measured energy savings from the application of reflective roofsin 2 small non-residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in two small (14.9 m{sup 2}) non-residential buildings during the summer of 2000. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. The roofs of the buildings were then painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original solar reflectivities of the roofs were about 26%; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72%. The monitored electricity savings were about 0.5kWh per day (33 Wh/m2 per day). The estimated annual savings are about 125kWh per year (8.4 kWh/m2); at a cost of $0.1/kWh, savings are about $0.86/m2 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote locations of these buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them a white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence, a reflective roof saves energy at no incremental cost.

Akbari, Hashem

2003-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

469

Measuring solar reflectance-Part I: Defining a metric that accurately  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

solar reflectance-Part I: Defining a metric that accurately solar reflectance-Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain Title Measuring solar reflectance-Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Levinson, Ronnen M., Hashem Akbari, and Paul Berdahl Journal Solar Energy Volume 84 Pagination 1717-1744 Keywords Heat Island, Methods & Protocols Abstract Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective "cool colored" surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland US latitudes, this metric RE891BN can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope 5:12 [23°]) by as much as 89 W m-2, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using RE891BN to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool roof net energy savings by as much as 23%.

470

Effect of PCC Joint Skew on Reflective Cracking in HMA Overlays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reflective cracking is a relatively premature distress that occurs in HMA materials overlaying cracked and jointed underlying pavements. The high concentration of stresses and strains in the vicinity of the discontinuity of the old pavement causes the cracks to reflect into the newly placed HMA overlay. While it is a common practice to use skewed transverse joints in rigid pavements to improve the latter's performance, the impact of such a practice on the cracking of a potential HMA overlay has not been examined so far. In this context, this study investigates the effect of using skewed transverse joints in rigid pavements on reflective cracking development in the HMA overlay. Advanced three-dimensional Finite Element models including viscoelastic material properties for the HMA overlay, 3D beam modeling of dowel bars, non-uniform tire-pavement contact stresses, friction interfaces, and infinite boundary elements were constructed for both normal and skewed transverse joints using ABAQUS v-6.11. The potential for reflective cracking was monitored through the fracture mechanics J-integral parameter. Results obtained show, among other things, that the practice of skewing transverse joints increases the potential for reflective cracking development in the asphalt concrete overlay.

Ziad G. Ghauch

2011-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

471

Design of semiconductor heterostructures with preset electron reflectance by inverse scattering techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the application of the inverse scattering method to the design of semiconductor heterostructures having a preset dependence of the (conduction) electrons' reflectance on the energy. The electron dynamics are described by either the effective mass Schr\\"odinger, or by the (variable mass) BenDaniel and Duke equations. The problem of phase (re)construction for the complex transmission and reflection coefficients is solved by a combination of Pad\\'e approximant techniques, obtaining reference solutions with simple analytic properties. Reflectance-preserving transformations allow bound state and reflection resonance management. The inverse scattering problem for the Schroedinger equation is solved using an algebraic approach due to Sabatier. This solution can be mapped unitarily onto a family of BenDaniel and Duke type equations. The boundary value problem for the nonlinear equation which determines the mapping is discussed in some detail. The chemical concentration profile of heterostructures whose self consistent potential yields the desired reflectance is solved completely in the case of Schroedinger dynamics and approximately for Ben-Daniel and Duke dynamics. The Appendix contains a brief digest of results from scattering and inverse scattering theory for the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation which are used in the paper.

Daniel Bessis; G. Andrei Mezincescu

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

472

The distribution of stellar population age in galactic bars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent analysis of stellar populations in barred galaxies have focused on the spatial distribution of stellar population ages and metallicities. However, barred galaxies are complex objects where dynamical instabilities play a leading role in shaping any spatial distribution. The age distribution of stellar populations should thus be analyzed from the two points of view of stellar population evolution and dynamical secular evolution. Chemodynamical simulations of single barred galaxies with simple but realistic star formation and feedback recipes are used to produce face-on mass-weighted maps of stellar population ages. Luminosity-weighted maps in V-band are also displayed after calibrating the simulation with mass-to-light ratios provided by a synthesis population model. It is shown that inside a stellar bar two persistent diametrically opposed regions display a mean age lower than the surrounding average. These two low-age regions are due to the accumulation of young stellar populations trapped on elliptica...

Wozniak, H

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Spectral Reflectance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory Precision Engineering Automated Production Technology Intelligent ... in the center of a light-tight room with ...

2010-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

474

Oak Ridge Reflects on 30 Years of Cleanup | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reflects on 30 Years of Cleanup Reflects on 30 Years of Cleanup Oak Ridge Reflects on 30 Years of Cleanup May 30, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Oak Ridge Office (ORO) of EM Deputy Manager Sue Cange, left to right, former ORO Manager Jim Hall, former ORO Manager Joe LaGrone, former ORO Manager Gerald Boyd, EM Senior Advisor Dave Huizenga and ORO EM Manager Mark Whitney take the stage after the showing of “30 Years in 30 Minutes.” Oak Ridge Office (ORO) of EM Deputy Manager Sue Cange, left to right, former ORO Manager Jim Hall, former ORO Manager Joe LaGrone, former ORO Manager Gerald Boyd, EM Senior Advisor Dave Huizenga and ORO EM Manager Mark Whitney take the stage after the showing of "30 Years in 30 Minutes." Displays at the event provide timelines and accomplishments of Oak Ridge’s EM program.

475

GAO Report Reflects Success Story for EM Sites | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GAO Report Reflects Success Story for EM Sites GAO Report Reflects Success Story for EM Sites GAO Report Reflects Success Story for EM Sites March 28, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Scrapers excavate the Crescent Junction disposal cell 25 feet below ground surface. Scrapers excavate the Crescent Junction disposal cell 25 feet below ground surface. In a report released earlier this year, the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) said it recognized progress on EM projects of $750 million or less and was shifting the focus of EM's high-risk designation more to major contracts and projects greater than $750 million. This progress is evident at several EM sites. In 2009, workers completed significant infrastructure construction at EM's Moab site at a cost of about $39.3 million, under the estimated budget of $40.7 million, and within schedule.

476

Observed Surface Reflectance Distributions in the Southern Great Plains During ALIVE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface Reflectance Distributions Surface Reflectance Distributions in the Southern Great Plains During ALIVE Kirk Knobelspiesse 1 , Brian Cairns 1 , Andrew Lacis 2 , Mikhail Alexandrov 2 , Barbara Carlson 2 and Beat Schmid 3 1 Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University 2 NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies 3 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory * Surface albedo can be measured from the ground with broadband instruments. * Albedo can be measured from space if the atmospheric effect is removed and many view geometries are available. The measured Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is angularly integrated to compute the albedo. * Studies of the former (Yang, 2006) and the latter (Liang et al. 2005; Wang et al. 2006) do not always agree.

477

Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (Deangelo, Et Al., 1999) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Deangelo, Et Al., 1999) Deangelo, Et Al., 1999) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (Deangelo, Et Al., 1999) Exploration Activity Details Location Rye Patch Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes A 3-D seismic survey was recorded over Rye Patch geothermal field in northwest Nevada by Subsurface Exploration Company (SECO) of Pasadena, California, in 1998 (Fig. 27). This 3-D seismic data acquisition was done under the auspices of a research effort d References M. DeAngelo, B.A. Hardage, J. L. Simmons Jr. (1999) Development Of Active Seismic Vector-Wavefield Imaging Technology For Geothermal Applications Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Reflection_Survey_At_Rye_Patch_Area_(Deangelo,_Et_Al.,_1999)&oldid=388047"

478

Working Toward a Tech Sector that Reflects America | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Working Toward a Tech Sector that Reflects America Working Toward a Tech Sector that Reflects America Working Toward a Tech Sector that Reflects America February 1, 2013 - 1:51pm Addthis Tech-ies mingled during a networking session after the White House Tech Inclusion Summit on January 31, 2013. (Photo credit: John Werner) Tech-ies mingled during a networking session after the White House Tech Inclusion Summit on January 31, 2013. (Photo credit: John Werner) Valerie Jarrett Senior Advisor to President Barack Obama Editor's Note: This blog was orginially published on whitehouse.gov Yesterday, I had the pleasure of speaking at the Technology Inclusion Summit, hosted by Chief Technology Officer Todd Park, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the Level Playing Field Institute. It was an amazing gathering of private and public partners who are united in their

479

Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (Laney, 2005) Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Rye Patch Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Seismic Imaging, Majer, Gritto and Daley. The project objective includes the development and application of active seismic methods for improved understanding of the subsurface structure, faults, fractures lithology, and fluid paths in geothermal reservoirs. While the objective of the work previous to FY2003 was concerned with the detection and location of faults and fractures based on an existing 3-D seismic data set collected at the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir, the current work was aimed at investigating how the presence of discrete models of fault and fracture zones can be

480

Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (Feighner, Et Al., 1999) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Feighner, Et Al., 1999) Feighner, Et Al., 1999) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (Feighner, Et Al., 1999) Exploration Activity Details Location Rye Patch Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Because the results of the VSP indicated apparent reflections, TGI proceeded with the collection of 3.0 square miles of 3-D surface seismic data over the Rye Patch reservoir. The data acquisition (which included the use of LBNL's three-component high temperature borehole geophone in well 44-28) was accomplished in August 1998. Initial processed results provided by the subcontractor Subsurface Exploration Co. (SECO) were delivered to TGI in December 1998. After the initial analysis of SECO's results, it was

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reflecting moderate population" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Near-infrared reflectance analysis by Gauss-Jordan linear algebra  

SciTech Connect

Near-infrared reflectance analysis is an analytical technique that uses the near-infrared diffuse reflectance of a sample at several discrete wavelengths to predict the concentration of one or more of the chemical species in that sample. However, because near-infrared bands from solid samples are both abundant and broad, the reflectance at a given wavelength usually contains contributions from several sample components, requiring extensive calculations on o